Suttanipàta

III MAHâVAGGA

1. Pabbajjàsutta.

405. I describe the going forth, how the wise one went forth,
I'll tell how he reflected and announced the going forth

406. .'The household life is full of troubles, it's the sphere of defilements'.
Going forth is like open space' seeing this I went forth.

407. Going forth in body, I refrained from doing demerit,
Giving up misconduct in words, led a pure life.

408. The enlightened one came to the mountains of Magadha in Ràjagaha
And went out to collect alms, complete with all noble marks

409. King Bimbisàra saw him, when standing on the top most storey of his palace.
Seeing his noble marks announced this:

410. ßGood sirs, listen. This one is handsome and pure,
Endowed with good conduct, does not look beyond a plough share.

411. Mindfully he turns his eyes down , is not of low caste,
end royal messengers to watch where the bhikkhu is going."

412. The royal messengers followed close behind
To learn where he was going, and where he dwelt.

413. With protected sense doors he went for alms in due order
Quickly collected the alms food, aware and mindfulness established

414. Collecting the alms food the sage left the town
Turned towards the Pàndava hills, that was where he lived.

415. The messengers followed him, seeing him go to his dwelling.
One of them came back to inform the king.

416. ßO! Great King, this one sits in front of the Pàndian mountains,
Like a tiger, a bull, or even like a lion among the hills."

417. The warrior hearing the words of the messenger,
Got into a suitable carriage and left towards the Pàndava hills.

418. He went in the carriage as far as he could go,
And getting down from it went on foot and reached him.

419. The king sat on a side and exchanged friendly greetings with him
And said this:

420. ßYou are young, in the first stage of youth
Looks quite handsome, and by birth seems to be a warrior.

421. You will look splendid on an elephant, with an army attending
Enjoy life I will give you wealth, tell us your birth too".

422. ßThe king of the state stretching from the side of the Himàlayas'
Is endowed with wealth and power, It is Kosala, my home..

423. From the lineage Sun and the Sàkya clan, I became a homeless
And have no sensual desires.

424. I saw the dangers in sensuality and appeasement in giving up
I go to strive, my mind is attached to it."
 

2. Padhànasutta- Striving.

425. For striving I came to the source of river Neranjarà
And concentrated unexhaustingly, to come to the end of the yoke

426 Namuci, came to me with compassionate words
ßYou are emaciated and discoloured, in the vicinity of death

427. You are more closer to death, than to life,
Good One live, life is great, living do merit.

428. Live the holy life, and do the fire sacrifice,
Accumulate much merit, what could be done by striving.

429. Striving is a difficult path, to attain something is difficult", Màra said these words and stood in the presence of the Enlightened One.

430. When this was said the Blessed One said thus to Màra: ßEvil relation of negligence, why did you come here.

431. I do not see any good in doing merit, those who see good in doing merit,
Value the domain of Death.

432. I have faith effort and wisdom to strive like this, Why should you ask me to live..

433. This air dries up even the water in the river, And when I strive why shouldn't my blood dry up.

434. When the blood dries up, bile and phelgm dries up When the flesh diminishes, the mind becomes pleasant And a lot of mindfulness, wisdom and concentration takes hold of me.

435. To him abiding thus attained to the highest feeling, When the mind does not desire sensuality, look at the purity of the person.

436. Sensuality is your first army, the second is aversion Third is hunger and thirst, the fourth is craving.

437. The fifth is sloth and torpor the sixth is fear, Seventh is doubts, besmearing and stubornness are the eighth

438. Gain, fame, honour obtained unrighteously Praising oneself and disparaging others--

439. Namuci, these are your armies attacking on the dark side, The not clever do not win them over, when these are won pleasàntness is gained.

440. We can partake of something to live, yet life is sham To me death in a battle is superior than to live defeated.

441. I will not give up, like some recluses and brahmins They do not know the path through which the trained go.

442. I see Màra and his armies marching forward for the fight, I go forward to meet them, do not stop me from my decision.

443. If this army of heavenly and human quality is too much for me1 I turn away wisely like turning away from an unripe fruit.

444. Taking control of thoughts and mindfulness well established, I will go from country to country training disciples at large.

445. Those doing the duties in my dispensation diligent to dispel, Reach the non-sensual sphere and do not grieve..

446. ßFor seven years he followed the Blessed One step by step Yet, did not get an opportunity from the enlightened mindful one.

447. Like a golden hued stone, like a floating huge bird Is there a small weakness, for our satisfaction.

448. Not finding that satisfaction, the bird fled from there. Like the crow not hurt by the stone let's leave alone Gotama."

449. That grief stricken one's violin fell off from his shoulder And the displeased demon vanished from there itself.
 

3. Subhàsitasutta
Well spoken words.

I heard thus.

At one time the Blessed One lived in the monastery offered by Anàthapindika in Jeta's grove in Sàvatthi. The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: ßO! Bhikkkus, words endowed with four factors become faultless good words not censured by the wise. What are the four. Here the bhikkhu speaks only suitable words, not the unsuitable. Speaks righteous words and not the unrighteous. Speaks pleasant words and not unpleasant words. Speaks the truth and not lies. Words endowed with these four factors become faultless, good words not censured by the wise. The Blessed One further said thus:

450. ßThe appeased said that speaking suitable words is noble, speaking righteous words is the second Speaking pleasant words is the third and speaking the truth is the fourth.

Then venerable Vangãsa got up from his seat, arranged the robe on one shoulder, clasping hands towards the Blessed One said, ßIt occurs to me venerable sir." The Blessed One said ßIf so explain Vangãsa" Then venerable Vangãsa explained it with meaningful verses in the presence of the Blessed One.

451. ß Always speak words that do not hurt yourself, So also do not hurt others, such are suitable words.

452. Speak pleasant words, over which you could rejoice, Speak words pleasantly without evil following them.

453. Truth is the deathless word, that is the ancient law, The appeased get established in the truth, essence and righteousness.

454. If the Enlightened One spoke words for appeasement and extinction And for the ending of unpleasantness, those are the most noble words."

4. Sundarãkabhàradvàjasutta
To the brahmin Sundarãkabhàradvàja

Thus I heard.

At one time the Blessed One lived on the bank of river Sundarãka. At that time the brahmin Sundarãka-bhàradvàja. was lighting the fire to do the fire sacrifice. He lighted the fire did the fire sacrifice and getting up from it, looked in the four directions thinking to whom shall I offer the sacrificial cake. Then he saw the Blessed One not far away, seated under a certain tree, well covered together with the head.

Taking the sacrificial cake in the left hand and the sacrificial water spout in the right hand he approached the Blessed One. The Blessed One hearing the foot steps of the brahmin disclosed his head.

Then it occured to the brahmin `this good sir is a shavelling' and deterred from his decision. Then again it occured to him;'there are shavellings who are brahmins, why shouldn't I approach and ask his birth'.

Then the brahmin approached the Blessed One and asked : ßGood sir, what is your clan" Then the Blessed One addressed the brahmin Sundarãkabhàradvàja in verses.

455. ßI am not a brahmin, nor a warrior's son, I am not of household stock, I learned the clans of ordinary ones thoroughly, and abide in the world thinking I am no-one.

456. Bearing the three robes, I go homeless, head shaved am cooled Cannot be soiled by humans, it's not suitable that the brahmin should ask about my clan."

457. ßOne may ask, whether you are a brahmin or not, You may say I am a brahmin and I may say I am not Is it wrong to say these three words with twentyfour letters".

458. ßWhy do sages, humans warriors and brahmins make offerings variously to gods I have learned the vedas thoroughly, and like to know the suitable time for the sacrifice for good results"..

459. ßIndeed, brahmin, our sacrifice becomes fruitful, that we see you who know the vedas Not seeing ones like you, we offer the sacrificial cake to others"

460. ßTherefore brahmin, you are the most suitable to approach and ask You are appeased, passionless, not trembling, and desireless"

461. ßGood Gotama, am bent on doing the sacrifice Advise me to do the sacrifice for good ressults". ßBrahmin, listen, I will tell you ß. Said the Blessed One.

462. ßDo not ask about the birth, ask about the conduct, fire arises in firewood In low clans too sages are born, thoroughbreds are born when restrained through shame..

463. Tamed by the truth, with the taming self possessed perfected and the holy life lived to the end At the correct moment make the offering to him,it will be fruitful to the brahmin desiring merit.

464. Those that give up sensuality and wander homeless, like the shuttle has one course of action At the correct moment make the offering to them, it will be fruitful to the brahmin desiring merit.

465. Those free of greed owing to well restrained sense doors, like the moon freed from the seizure of Ràhu At the correct moment make the offering to them, it will be fruitful to the brahmin desiring merit.

466. The unsoiled wander in the world for ever mindful giving up selfish thoughts, At the correct moment make the offering to them, it will be fruitful to the brahmin desiring merit.

467. Giving up sensuality, he wanders unsoiled, a knower of the end of birth and death, Extinguished like a deep cool pond, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

468. With equals equal, from unequals far removed, the Thus Gone One is of incomparable wisdom. Unsoiled in this or the other world, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

469. Not, crafty conceited or selfish and desireless owing to lack of greed, anger expelled is extinguished The brahmin who dispelled the stain of grief, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

470. Settlements abandomned, has no seizures anywhere, here or beyond, The sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

471. Concentrated crossed the floods, conscious of the highest view in the Teaching With desires destroyed holds the last body, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

472. The desires to be, together with rough speech, dispelled are not evident The Perfected One is released in every way, the sacrifical cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

473. All bonds gone is not measuring among the measuring, knows unpleasantness Together with the field and sphere, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

474. Not supported on desires, experiencing seclusion, heratics won over Has no intentions what so ever, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

475. Connections of the past and present completely destroyed there remains nothing.1 Appeased and released with the destruction of seizings, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One

476 Seeing bonds and the destruction of birth as one, he pulled out the sphere of greed remainderlessly. Pure, undefiled, stainless and flawless, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

477. The mind thoroughly concentrated in one point would not see any signs of a self, Desires dispelled, arrow pulled out, doubts dispelled, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One.

478. Seeing all things with clarity and bearing the last body does not have any delusion. The Great Man has attained highest Enlightenment, the sacrificial cake is suitable for the Thus Gone One."

479. ßMy sacrifice is indeed a true sacrifice that we have gained a perfect one like you to accept it. Let Brahmà be eye-witness, may the Blessed One accept the sacrificial cake."

480. ßLook! Food gained by reciting verses is not suitable for the Perfect One Enlightened Ones become mindful of the Teaching at the suitable moment

481. Offer those eatables and drinks to another perfected sage, Who has destroyed desires and overcome doubts, it becomes a field of merit to one desiring merit. .

482. It's gain we came to know the Blessed One and to whom gifts should be offered. We came in search of a suitable time for the sacrifice and came to great gain in your dispensation."

483. ßThe mind pure, all obduracy has disappeared Well released from sensuality, has driven out sloth

484. Knows the limits to be tamed and is clever in birth and death. The sage is well accomplished, it is to such a sacifice we came

485. We fall down with clasped hands and worship you Offering eatables and drinks, thus our gifts become fruitful."

486. ßGood sir, you are enlightened, suitable to accept the sacrifical cake, an incomparable field of merit A recipient for all the world, given to you is of much merit."

Then the brahmin Sundarãkabhàradvàja said thus to the Blessed One: ßGood Gotama, now I know. It seems as though something over turned was re-installed. Something closed was made manifest. As though the path was told to someone who had lost his way. It seems as though an oil lamp was lighted for those who have eyes to see forms in the dark. In various ways good Gotama has explained the Teaching. Now I take refuge in good Gotama, in the Teaching and the Community. May I gain the going forth and the higher ordination in your dispensation. The brahmin Sundarãkabhàradvàja gained the going forth and the higher ordination in the dispensation of the Blessed One. And soon after the higher ordination venerable Sundarãkabhàradvàja secluded and withdrawn from the crowd abode diligent to dispel. Soon after for whatever purpose sons of clansmen rightfully leave the household and go forth, that highest end of the holy life, he here and now realized by himself and abode. Then he knew, birth is destroyed, the holy life is lived to the end, what should be done is done, there is nothing more to wish for. Venerable Sundarãkabhàradvàja became one other perfected.
 

5. Màghasutta
The young man Màgha.

I heard thus. At one time the Blessed One lived in the Gijjha mountain peaks in Rajagaha. Then Magha the young man approached the Blessed One, exchanged friendly greetings sat on a side and said thus: "Good Gotama,  I am a benefactor, a liberal giver, one ready to do another's request. I earn by rightful means and with that earned rightfully, I give one, or two, or three, or four, or five, or six, or seven, or eight, or nine, or ten.  Or I give twenty, or thirty, or forty, or fifty, or a hundred, or I give many. Good Gotama, when I give and sacrifice thus do I accumulate much merit.

The Blessed One said,"Indeed young man you a benefactor, a liberal giver, one ready to do another's request, one who earn by rightful means and out of what you earn rightfully give one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, a hundred or you give many more by that you accumulate much merit."

Then the young man Màgha addressed the Blessed One in verse.

487. The young man Màgha said: ßI ask the liberal giver, the yellow robed homeless wanderer , I a householder, a benefactor, a liberal giver, ready to do another's request Desire merit giving eatables and drinks to others How should this sacrifice become pure."

488. The Blessed One said: ßMàgha, you a liberal benefactor of a houssehold desiring merit Give others eatables and drinks and please the recipient".

489. The young man Màgha said: ßO! Blessed One, I a liberal benefactor of household stock desire merit, And give eatables and drinks to recepients. May I know the recipients."

490. ßThey that wander in the world unsoiled, not possessing anything what so ever. Should be offered the sacrifice at the right time by the brahmin desiring merit.

491. Breaking all bonds and endearments some are tamed, released, desireless and not hungry They should be offered the sacrifice at the right time by the brahmin desiring merit.

492. Released from all bonds and endearments some are tamed, released, desireless and not hungry, They should be offered the sacrifice at the right time by the brahmin desiring merit.

493. Dispelling greed, hate and delusion, and desires destroyed some have lived the holy life to the end They should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time by the brahmin desiring merit.

494. The not crafty, not measuring, not greedy, not selfish and not hungry, Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time by the brahmin desiring merit.

495. Those not a prey to craving, cross the flood and wander selflessly. They should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring merit.

496. They that do not think greedily to be and not to be in this or the other world, Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring merit.

497. They that give up sensuality, wander homeless and have one single course of action like a shuttle Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring merit

498. Those free of greed, owing to controlled mental faculties, like the moon released from the seizure of Ràhu . Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring merit.

499. They by themselves quieted without greed and anger and would not return here Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring merit.

500. They that dispel birth and death remainderlessly, doubts and all duties too. Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring merit.

501. They that wander in the world being a light unto themselves, not having anything, released, Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring merit.

502. They that know, as it really is, `this is the last birth, there is no more birth, Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring merit.

503. Those perfected ones, mindfully attached to jhàna,attained enlightenment for the good of many, Should be offered the sacrifice, at the right time, by the brahmin desiring demerit."

504. ßIndeed my question was useful, the Blessed One told me the recipients You know the Teaching, and know recipients as they really are,"

505. The young man Màgha said: ßI am a liberal benefactor from a household, making sacrifices desiring merit Offering eatables and drinks to others, what should be the endowments of the giver."

506. The Blessed One said: ßMàgha, you, giver, while giving, should pervade the mind with pleasantness For the object, the recipient, and the offering, doing thus the fault is dispelled.

507. Free of greed, should check anger, the thought of loving kindness should be developed limitlessly, Night and day for ever mindful, pervade all directions with loving kindness".

508. ßWho cleans, releases and obstructs, and with what self goes to the world of Brahmà I do not know this, may it be told, the Blessed One is eye-witness, today I saw Brahmà." You, in truth is like Brahmà, how is one born in the effulgent Brahmà world."

509. The Blessed One said ß Making a sacrifice endowed with the three factors of a sacrifice and pleasing such recipients I say one is born in the world of Brahmà." When this was said the young man Màgha said thus to the Blessed One: ßNow I know good Gotama. It seems as though something over turned is re-installed. As something covered is made manifest, As the path was told to someone who had lost his way. It seems as though an oil lamp was lighted for those who have eyes to see forms in the darköow I take refuge in good Gotama, in the Teaching and the Community. May I be remembered as one who has taken refuge from today until life lasts.
 

6. Sabhiyasutta
To Sabhiya.

I heard thus.

At one time the Blessed One lived in the squirrels' sanctuary in the bamboo grove in Rajagaha. At that time a certain deity, who was an earlier blood relation of Sabhiya the wandering ascetic, pointed out to him a certain question and asked him to lead the holy life under him who could explain that question.

The wandering ascetic Sabhiya learning the question from the deity went to recluses and brahmins, to gatherings small and large, to teachers of gatherings, to famous founders of sects, and to those who were accepted as wise by many such as Puràna Kassapa, Makkhali Gosàla, Ajita Kesakambali, Pakudha Kaccàyana, Sa¤jaya Belaññhiputta and Niganñha Nàtaputta.

The wandering ascetic would approach them and ask the question, they not able to answer the question would express anger and displeasure. They would also cross question Sabhiya. Then it occured to Sabhiya, these recluses and brahmins, small and large gatherings teachers of gatherings, founders of sects such as Puràna Kassapa, Makkhali Gosàla, Ajita Kesakambala, Pakudha Kaccàayana, Sa¤jaya Belaññhiputta and Niganñha Nàtaputta when questioned could not reply and as a result expressed anger and displeasusre. They also in turn cross question me. What if I give up the holy life and partake of sensuality. Then it also occured to him the recluse Gotama too has a large crowd, is a teacher of gatherings, is a famous ford maker, what if I approach the recluse Gotama and ask this question.

Then it occured to him again these good recluses and brahmins old and decayed elders have led the holy life for a long time and yet when this question is asked being unable to reply express anger and displeassure, and cross question me in turn, how could the recluse Gotama answer this question. The recluse Gotama is young, and recently gone forth. Then it occured to him again, although young , recluses should not be despised. There are young recluses powerful and wise, what if I approach the recluse Gotama and ask this question. Then the wandering ascetic Sabhiya left on a tour to come to the presence of the Blessed One in the squirrels' sanctuary in the bamboo grove in Rajagaha and gradually approached the Blessed One, exchanaged friendly greetings sat on a side and said

510. ßI came with doubts and wavering, desiring to ask a question May my doubts be dispelled. by answering them according the Teaching, step by step."

511. The Blessed One said: ßSabhiya, you came from afar desiring to ask questions. I will put an end to your doubts. By answering your questions according the Teaching step by step..

512. Sabhiya, ask your questions as you wish I will put an end to your doubts step by step."

Then it occured to the wandering ascetic Sabhiya, it is wonderful, other recluses and brahmins did not give me even a chance to talk, the recluse Gotama gives me the concent to ask the questions, thoroughly pleased he asked the Blessed One:

513. ßAcquiring what is a bhikkhu made, what is self restrain, what is the taming How is enlightenment known, may these be explained."

514. The Blessed One said: ßSabhiya, by himself the path paved for extinction, dispelling doubts Giving up being and non being, and living the holy life until rebirth ends, he becomes a bhikkhu.

515. Mindful of equanimity for all the world, does not hurt anyone in the world, The recluse crosses over undisturbed, and not haughty, this is self restrain.

516. When his mental faculties are developed internally and externally for all the world, He piercingly sees this and the other world and abides in time,1 he is the tamed.

517. Discriminating all suitabilities in existences together with their arising and passing away Pure without defilements and blemish comes to the end of birth, that is enlightenment.

Then the wandering ascetic Sabhiya pleased hearing the words of the Blessed One asked a further question.

518." Acquiring what is a brahmin made,who is a recluse, doing what is a bather How is a Great Man known. May these be told."

519. Washed of all demerit, pure, well concentrated and established in truth, Considers all existences thoroughly and is not soiled by them, that is a brahmin.

520. The calmed one gives up merit and demerit, undefiled knows this and the other world, Overcoming birth and death becomes a recluse by that.

521. Cleaned of all demerit, internally, externally and in the world, Does not find suitability for heavenly or human birth, he is a bather.

522. Does nothing wrong in the world, breaks up all bonds with which are bound, Released is not soiled any where, by that he becomes a Great Man.

Then the wandering asccetic Sabhiya pleased hearing the words of the Blessed One asked a further question.

523. ßHow is the field won, clever in which way, how is one wise and how is the sage known May the Blessed One explain these to me"

524. The Blessed One said: ßDiscriminating all fields heavenly, human and divine, Released from the roots and bindings to all fields, Such are the winners of the field as the meaning shows.

525. Discriminating all treasures, heavenly, human and divine, Is released from the roots and bindings to all treasures Such are the clever as the meaning shows.

526. Discriminating both purities internal, external and pure wisdom, He overcomes the dark and white, such are wise as the meaning shows.

527. Knowing the genuine and the ingenuine Teaching Internally, externally and in the whole world, Becomes worthy of worship among gods and men, That one who goes beyond the bonds and net is the sage."

The wandering ascetic Sabhiya pleased with the words of the Blessed One asked a further question.

528. ßAcquiring what is perfection, how is that experience,how does one become full of effort, How does one become a thoroughbred, may this be told."

529. The Blessed One said: ßSabhiya, Whatever feelings there be to recluses or brahmins Dispel greed for all feelings, when he overcomes all feelings he's perfected.

530. Discriminating the diffused name and matter internally and externally as the cause of the illness,1 Released from all roots and bindings of the illness are those thorough in feelings as the meaning says.

531. Turning away from all demerit, with effort overcoming hellish unpleasantness, Becomes full of effort and endeavour, such are the steady as the meaning shows..

532. Be there deep cuts and bonds internally and externally and the roots of bonds, Released from all bonds, roots and bindings is the thoroughbred as the meaning says.

The wandering ascetic Sabhiya pleased with the words of the Blessed One asked a further question.

533. ßAcquiring what is health, what is nobility, what is good conduct, How does one become an ascetic, may the Blessed One tell me".

534. The Blessed One said: ßHearing and knowing all Teachings in the world faulty or faultless, Overcoming all doubts, released, not confused in any way, one.is said to be healthy.

535. Cutting up desires for settling, with knowledge, does not come to a womb again. Pullling out the threefold dirty perceptions,2 does not form a suitability, such is a Noble One.

536. Established in good conduct, is always clever knowing the Teaching, Released does not get soiled anywhere, has no aversion, that is good conduct.

537. What ever actions be, owing to the ripening of unpleasantness,3 above, below,across or in the middle, Thoroughly giving them up, so also craftiness, conceit, greed and anger, Puts an end to name and matter, he is the ascetic with right conduct.

Then the wandering ascetic Sabhiya pleased and agreeing with the words of the Blessed One got up from his seat, arranged the robe on one shoulder clasping hands towards the Blessed One eulogized him saying these verses.

538. ßO! Wise one, we have crossed the floods overcoming about sixty-three Doubts of recluses, perceptions of perceived settlements and distractions.4

539. You have gone to the end and gone beyond unpleasantness. You are worthy, all knowing, and I think has destroyed desires. You are resplendent, very wise and has ended my unpleasantness.

540. Whatever doubts I had , you dispelled them, I worship you sage, abiding in the sphere of sages. You are without unpleasàntness, a gentle relation of the sun.

541. Whatever doubts I had earlier, the wise one dispelled for me, You are indeed an all knowing sage without hindrances.

542. All your troubles are turned out and made useless. You are a result of the Truth, tamed, cooled and come to righteousness.

543. O! The best of men, great hero, all gods listen to your words On the two sides of the Nàrada mountain.

544. I worship you thoroughbred, you greatest of men, In the world of gods and men you have no comparison.

545. You are enlightened, you are Teacher, the sage who has overcome death.. You cut the latent tendencies and crossed, and cross the populace.

546. You have no more endearments, and your desires are destroyed. You are a lion who does not seize and has ended fears small and large.

547. Like the lotus not soiled by mud and water, you are not soiled in merit or demerit Hero, stretch your feet, Sabhiya worships the Teacher."

Then Sabhiya the wandering ascetic put his head down at the feet of the Blessed One and said: Now I know venerable sir, It seems as though something over turned is re-installed, something covered is made manifest. It seems as though the path is told to someone who has lost his way. Or it seems as though an oil lamp is lighted for the darkness, for those who have eyes to see forms. In various ways the Blessed One has explained the Teaching. Now I take refuge in the Blessed One, in the Teaching and the Community. May I gain the going forth and the higher ordination."

ßSabhiya, who ever of another faith earlier, would desire the going forth and the higher ordination in this dispensation should be under probation for four months. At the end of the four months, if the bhikkhus are satisfied, they would give the going forth and higher ordination, this is only to test the differences in the person.."

ßO! Venerable sir, if one of another faith earlier desiring the going forth and the higher ordination have to be under probation for four months, and at the end of the four months the satisfied bhikkhus would give the going forth and the higher ordination . I will be under probation for four years. At the end of four years let the bhikkhus be satisfied and give me the going forth and the higher ordination.."

The wandering ascetic Sabhiya obtained the going forth and the higher ordination in the dispensation of the Blessed One. Soon after the higher ordination venerable Sabhiya secluded and withdrawn from the crowd abode diligent for dispelling . Soon afterwards for whatever purpose sons of clansmen rightfully leave the household and go forth, that highest end of the holy life by himself realized abode. He knew birth is destroyed, the holy life is lived to the end, what should be done is done, there is nothing to wish more. Venerable Ssabhiya became one other perfected .

7. Selasutta
To Sela the Brahmin.

I heard thus.

At one time the Blessed One was touring the country of Anguttaràpa with a large community of bhikkhus, about one thousand two hundred and fifty and entered a hamlet named Aapana. The matted hair ascetic Keniya heard ßThe good recluse Gotama, son of the Sàkyas touring the country of Anguttaràpa with a large community of bhikkhus, about one thousand two hundred and fifty bhikkhus have come to the hamlet Aapana. Of him such fame has spread, he is blessed, all knowing, endowed with knowledge and conduct, is well gone, knower of the worlds, an incomparable tamer of those to be tamed, Teacher of gods and men, enlightened and blessed. He preaches to the world together with its gods Màras, Brahmàs, the community of recluses and brahmins and gods and men, that Teaching by himself known and realized. That Teaching is good at the beginning, in the middle and at the end, full of meaning even in the letter and it explains the complete and pure holy life. It is good to see such worthy ones."

Then the matted hair ascetic Keniya approached the Blessed One, exchanged friendly greetings and sat on a side. The Blessed One spoke to the matted hair ascetic according to the Teaching instructing, advising, inciting and making his heart light. The matted hair ascetic Keniya, instructed, advised, incited and made light hearted by the Blessed One said thus:"May the Blessed One accept tomorrow's meal from me together with the community of bhikkhus". When this was said the Blessed One said: ßO! Keniya, the community of bhikkhus is too large about one thousand two hundred and fifty, are the brahmins pleased about this For the second time Keniya said: ßO! Gotama, how ever much the community of bhikkhus , even if one thousand two hundred and fifty, the brahmins are pleased, may the Blessed One accept tomorrow's meal from me together with the community of bhikkhus." For the second time the Blessed Ome said:"O! keniya, the community of bhikkhus is too large about one thousand two hundred and fifty are the brahmins pleased about this."For the third time Keniya said: ßO! Gotama, how ever much the community of bhikkhus, even if, one thousand two hundred and fifty, the brahmins are pleased, may the Blessed One accept tomorrow's meal from me, together with the community of bhikkhus."

The Blessed One accepted in silence.

Then Keniya the matted hair ascetic knew that the Blessed One had accepted, got up from his seat, went to his hermitage and addressed his friends and blood relations: ßGood sirs, listen, I have invited the recluse Gotama for tomorrow's meal together with the community of bhikkhus, whatever work there is to be done, do them for me." They sccepted Keniya the matted hair ascetic's request and some of them dug furnaces, others axed fire-wood. Some washed vessels, placed water vessels and some arranged seats.

The matted hair ascetic Keniya himself arranged the circular hall At that time the brahmin Sela lived in Aapana perfect in the three vedas, learned in the rules and rites as officiating priest, learned in the phonology and etymology of words and the fivefold history in words and grammar, and learned in tracing the marks of a Great Man. And he taught these to three hundred young men orally.

At that time Keniya the matted hair ascetic was friendly with the brahmin Sela. And so the brahmin Sela accompanied by the three hundred young men was walking and wandering for exercise bent towards the hermitage of the matted hair ascetic. Then the brahmin Sela saw the matted hair ascetics at work in the hermitage of Keniya, some digging furnaces, others axing fire-wood, washing vessels, placing water vessels others arranging seats and Keniya the matted hair ascetic himself arranging the circular hall. And he said to Keniya ßWhat, good Keniya, will there be a woman brought here, or one given away, or will there be a great sacrifice, or is Seniya Bimbisàra the king of Magadha invited for tomorrow's meal together with his army." ßSela, to me there would not be, a woman brought nor given away, Seniya Bimbisàra the king of Magadha is not invited for tomorrow's meal together with the army, yet there is a great sacrifice for me:  the recluse Gotama son of the Sàkyas, who has gone forth from the Sàkya clan , touring the country of Anguttaràpa with a large community of bhikkhus has come to Aapana. Of him such fame has spread, he is blessed, worthy, all knowing, endowed with knowledge and conduct, well gone, knower of the worlds, the incomparable tamer of those to be tamed, teacher of gods and men, enlightened and blessed. I have invited him for tomorrow's meal together with the community of bhikkhus". ßDoes good Keniya say enlightened ß ßGood Sela, I say enlightened". ßDoes, good Keniya say enlightened" ßGood Sela, I say enlightened." Then it occured to the brahmin Sela, ß even the sound `Enlightened' is rare in the world . The sacred sayings hand down thirty two marks of a Great Man, endowed with which there are only two courses of action for the Great Man and not another. If he leads a household life he becomes a universal monarch, a righteous king who would rule the four quarters endowed with the seven jewels. The jewel of the wheel, the elephant, the horse, the gem, the jewel of the woman, the householder, and the advisor. He has more than a thousand sons all clever with heroic figures. Defeating foriegn armies, he would rule the country surrounded by the ocean without weapons and punishments. If he leaves the household and goes forth, becomes worthy, all knowing rolls the veil away from the world. Good Keniya, where does the Enlightened One, worthy and all knowing live now" Then Keniya the matted hair ascetic stretched out his right hand and said ßThere! In the green deep forest".

Then the brahmin Sela with the three hundred young men approached the Blessed One, while going he addressed the young men ßgood sirs, come with little noise raising one foot after the other , Blessed Ones are far from noise and live alone like lions. While I am talking with the recluse Gotama, do not arouse conversations among yourselves and enter when our conversation ends."

Then the brahmin Sela approached the Blessed One, exchanged friendly greetings sat on a side, and examined the thirty two marks of a Great Man. He saw most of the marks of a Great Man, except two. He had doubts as to whether the peudendum was encased and whether the tongue was large enough to cover the face. Then it occured to the Blessed One, this brahmin Sela saw most of the marks of a Great Man except two, he has doubts, as to whether the pudendum is encased and the tongue is large enough to cover the face. Then the Blessed One performed a psychic exercise so that the brahmin Sela could see the Blessed One's pudendum encased and the large tongue. The Blessed One pulled out his tongue and with it touched both ear lobes, nostrils and the whole forehead, and covered up the whole face with it.

Then it occured to the brahmin Ssla, indeed the recluse Gotama is endowed with all the thirty two marks of a Great Man, yet we do not know whether he is enlightened. I have heard it said by learned aged brahmins, that Great Men when praised disclose what they are, whether they are worthy and enlightened What if I eulogize the recluse Gotama with meaningful verses and so he eulogized the Blessed One saying these verses.

548. ßO! Blessed One, you are handsome, has pleasing looks is well born and is lovely to look at, You have a golden hue, and strong white teeth..

549. To the well born, there are marks All the marks of a Great Man are evident on your body.

550. You have pleasant eyes a beautiful mouth, a straight and majestic body In the midst of the community you shine like the sun.

551. The bhikkhu with good looks is like a statue of gold What is the use of your recluseship when so handsome.

552. You should be a universal monarch, the leading charioteer Winning the four quarters, should be the monarch of Jambudvãpa.

553. Should have warrior subordinate kings attached to you, O! Gotama, king of kings, win over the humans and rule".

554. The Blessed One said: ßSela, I am the righteous king, incomparable, Righteously I turn the wheel, not ever to be stopped." . .

555. The brahmin Sela said: ß Acknowledges complete Knowledge, and is the righteous incomparable king And Gotama says that he will turn the wheel righteously

556. Who are the good one's generals, the disciples who would follow the Teacher, For the wheel of the Teaching to roll on, who would roll it afterwards."

557. The Blessed One said: ßSela, this incomparable wheel of righteousness rolled on by me, Sariputta, born sfter the Thus Gone One will roll it afterwards.

558. Brahmin, realzing, what should be realized, developing what should be developed. I have dispelled what should be dispelled, therefore I'm enlightened."

559. The brahkmin Sela said: ßO! Brahmin, dispel my doubts, and release me, The presence of an enlightened one is always rare.

560. That which is rare in the world has appeared. The all enlightened one, the incomparable surgeon.

561. Become Mahà Brahmà have destroyed the army of Death, Winning over, all enemies, abide happily without fear."

562. ßGood sirs listen to what the wise one says, The surgeon, the great hero, roars in the forest like a lion

563. Become Mahà Brahmà have destroyed the army of Death Seeing him who would not be pleased except those with low birth

564. Those who wish, follow me, and the others could go Now I go forth in the noble wise one's dispensation.."

565. ßIf you, sir, like the dispensation of the all enlightened one, We too will go forth in the noble wise one's dispensation." .

566. ßO! Blessed One, these three hundred brahmins with clasped hands, Beg for the going forth in your dispensation."

567. The Blessed One said: ßSsela, the holy life is well proclaimed, is here and now and not a matter of time, Here the not deluded go forth and train diligently"

The brahmin Sela together with his following obtained the going forth and the higher ordination in the dispensation of the Blessed One.

Then Keniya, the matted hair ascetic at the end of that night prepared plenty of nourishing eatables and drinks in his hermitage and informed the Blessed One: ßIt is time venerable sir, the food is ready."

The Blessed One putting on robes in the morning , taking bowl and robes approached the matted hair ascetic's hermitage and sat on the prepared seats together with the community of bhikkhus. Then Keniya, the matted hair ascetic with his own hands served and satisfied the community of bhikkhus headed by the Enlightened One with the nourishing eatables and drinks. When the Blessed One had finished partaking the meal, and had put the bowl away, Keniya took a low seat, sat on a side and the Blessed One addressed the thanks giving with these verses.

568. ßOf sacrifices the fire sacrifice is the chief, the vedic hymn Sàvitti is the foremost of hymns, The king is chief for humans, to rivers the ocean is important

569. To the constellation the moon is chief, to give warmth the Sun is chief, To those desiring merit the Community of bhikkhus is the chief."

The Blessed One doing the thanks giving with these verses, got up from his seat and went away. Then venerable Sela and his following, alone, withdrawn from the crowd and secluded abode diligently for dispelling. Before long, for whatever purpose sons of clansmen rightly go forth from a household, that highest end of the holy life, he here and now knew, realized and abode. He knew'birth is desstroyed, the holy life is lived to the end, what should be done is done, there is nothing more to wish `, Venerable Sela became an arahant and also his following became arahants. Then venerable Sela approached the Blessed One together with his following. Arranging the robe on one shoulder, clasping hands towards the

Blessed One addressed the Blessed One in verses. 570. ßWise One, this is the eighth day, after we took your refuge. In seven nights we are tamed in your dispensation.

571. You are enlightened, Teacher, the sage who has overcome Death, You crossed, with destroyed dormant tendencies and crosses over this populace.

572. Endearments overcome have destroyed desires, Is like a lion without seizures fears big and small overcome.

573. Here stand the three hundred bhikkhus with clasped hands Hero, stretch out your feet, Great Men worship the Teacher.

8. Sallasutta.
The Arrow.

574. The lives of mortals here is without an aim and without knowledge,

It is short, full of troubles accompanied with unpleasantness.

575. There is no remedy through which the born do not die,

Even when decayed this happens to mortals.

576. For ripe fruits, there is a fall, or the fear of a fall,

Likewise for the born mortal, there is constant fear of death.

577. All clay pots made by the potter get destroyed at the end

Likewise the life of mortals get destroyed in the end..

578. Children and the aged, fools and the wise,

All go under the sway of death, all are overcome by death.

579. To those going to the other world withdrawn by death

There is no protection from father to the son, nor from a relation to a relation.

580. Even when relations look on, crying at large,

One by one the mortals are lead away, as the butcher the cattle..

581. Thus the world is afflicted by death and decay,

The wise knowing this nature of the world, do not grieve.

582. Not knowing the path of arrival or depature,

Not seeing either end, crying is useless.

583. Whst is the use of wailing, pull it out,

It only destroys the self, reflect on this wisely

584. The mind is not appeased crying and weeping,

By doing it a lot of unpleasantness arises and destroys the body.

585. When one hurts oneself, he becomes thin and discoloured.

That wailing is useless, by it the dead are not protected.

586. Humans who do not dispel unpleasantaness, feel much of it,

They die bewailing, under the spell of grief.

587. Look at others too, on their death beds, how they go according to their actions.

In the face of death are like fish out of water.

588. What ever is thought, does not come true.

Such is change, that is the nature of the world.

589. Even if a human lives a hundred years or more,

His circle of friends change and he gives up his life here.

590. Therefore listen to the words of the noble ones and train to give up wailing,

Seeing the dead, think, `I will not see them again.'

591. Fire is put out with the help of water, likewise the clever wise human,

Pushes aside arisen grief, like air that carries away a tuft of cotton wool.

592. Wailings and distasteful thoughts are one's own,

Those desiring pleasantness should pull out one's own arrow.

593. The arrow withdrawn, unsoiled and appeased in mind,

Overcoming all grief, is extinguished.

8. Vàseññhasutta.
-To the young man Vàsettha.

Thus I heard.

At one time the Blessed One lived in the forest of Icchànakala in the village Icchànakala. At that time

many well known brahmin householders lived in Icchànakala, such as the brahmins Chanki, Tàrukkha,

Pokkharasàti, Jànussoni, Todeyya and other well known brahmin householders.

To the two young brahmins Vàseññha and Bhàradvàja while walking and wandering for exeercise ñhis

dispute arose ß Friend, how does one become a brahmin". The young man bhàradvàja said : ßIf some one

is unsoiled and undisturbed by birth on both the mother's and father's side as far back as seven generations

he becomes a brahmin. Young Vàseññha said : ßIf some one becomes virtuous and endowed with

good conduct, he becomes a brahmin". Neither of them could convince the other on this dispute, and young Vàseññha addressed the young man Bhàradvàja ßFriend, Bhàradvàja, there is the recluse Gotama the son of the Sàkyas, gone forth from the Sàkya clan, his fame is spread in this manner. He is

worthy, all knowing, endowed with knowledge and conduct, well gone, knower of the worlds, incomparable tamer of those to be tamed, Teacher of gods and men, enlightened and blessed, let us approach him and ask this question, and as he explains it, let us both accept it. Young Bhàradvàja agreed

to the young man Vàseññha's suggestion. Then the two young men approached the Blessed One, exchanged friendly greetings, sat on a side and the young man Vàseññha addressed the Blessed One in verses.

594 The two of us accept and acknowledge that we are learned in the three Vedas,

I was taught by Pokkharasàti, and this young man by Tàrukkha

595. We both can recite the three Vedas completely,

In explaining the meanings of words and grammar, we are like our teachers.

596. O! Gotama, we have a dispute on birth,. Bhàradvàja says ßby birth is a brahmin"

And I say ßby action" This is our dispute wise one.

597. Each of us could not convince the other

We came to ask about it from the well known all enlightned one

598. When the moon has gone beyond waning, people encounter it with clasped hands,

Likewise Gotama is worshipful with clasped hands by the world.

599. The world is enlightened, we ask Gotama, does one become a brahmin by birth or else by actions

We do not know this, enlighten us so that we may know the brahmin."

600. The Blessed One said:

ßVaseññha I will tell you step by step how it happens,

The classification of living things in this and other births

601. Look at the grass and trees, although they are not aware,

This and the other has attributes peculiar to their births

.

602. So also insects, grass hoppers and ants

This and the other has attributes peculiar to their births..

603. Look at the animals small and large

This and the other has attributes peculiar to their births.

604. Look at the serpents with long backs going on their bellies,

This and the other has attributes peculiar to their births.

605. Look at the fish too, who find food in the water.

This and the other has attributes peculiar to their births.

606. Look at the birds flying through the air.

This and the other has attributes peculiar to their births.

607. Although at the birth of these, there are various attributes

In humans various attributes are not evident at birth.

608. They are not in the hair, head, ears or eyes

Not in the mouth, nose, lips or eye-lashes

609. Not in the neck, flanks stomach or back,

Not in the buttocks, chest, puedendum, and not in the sexual intercourse.

610. Not in the hands, feet, fingers or nails, nor in the knees and calves,

Not in the hue or voice are there attributes by which to know their birth.

611. In the individual bodies of humans, these are not evident,

They are designated by the activites of humans.

612. Among humans whoever makes a livelihood by looking after cattle,

Vàseññha, he is a farmer, not a brahmin.

613. Among humans whoever makes a livelihood doing a craft,

Vàseññha, he is a craftsman, not a brahmin

614. Among humans whoever makes a livelihood by trading,

Vàseññha , he is a merchant, not a brahmin.

615. Among humans whoever makes a livelihood working for others,

Vàseññha, he is a workman, not a brahmin.

616. Among humans whoever makes a livelihood out of what is not given,

Vàseññha, he is a robber, not a brahmin.

617. Among humans whoever makes a livelihood serving the king,

Vàseññha, he is a soldier, not a brahmin.

618. Among humans whoever makes a livelihood by advising the king,

Vàseññha, he is the adviser, not a brahmin..

619. Among humans whoever makes a livelihood enjoying the wealth of the village and country,

Vssdeññhs, he is the king, not a brahmin.

620. One born of a brahmin woman's womb is not a brahmin, by address, he is sir, he has defilements,

When he has no defilements and no seizings, I call him a brahmin.

621. When all bonds are cut, if one is not worried,

Bonds cut and unyoked, I call him a brahmin.

622. Cutting the straps of interest and the present fetters,

When the obstacles removed, is enlightened, I call him a brahmin..

623. If one endures scoldings and floggings without an angry mind,

Develops patience and a lot of it, I call him a brahmin.

624. Not angry, austere, virtuous not haughty

With taming he bears the last body, I call him a brahmin.

625. Like water that does not stay on the lotus leaf, the mustard seed that slips from the tip of the arrow,

When not soiled in sensuality, I call him a brahmin.

626. He understands unpleasantness, having diminished the self view here itself.

When the load abandoned is unyoked, I call him a brahmin.

627. With deep wisdom becomes clever in the path and non-path,

When attained to the highest truth, I call him a brahmin.

628. Not soiled by householders or by those gone forth,

When he becomes homeless with few desires, I call him a brahmin.

629. Giving up punishing living things infirm or firm,

When he does not kill or hurt anyone, I call him a brahmin.

630. Among enemies without enmity, among those hurting the self, extinguished,

When among the seizing without a seizing, I call him a brahmin.

631. Like mustard seeds on the tip of a sword, if his greed and hate,

Measuring and malice fall away, I call him a brahmin.

632. Instructs without harsh words, bringing out the truth

When he does not curse anybody, I call him a brahmin.

633. Long or short, small or large, agreeable or disagreeable,

When he does not take anything not given, I call him a brahmin.

634. Is without desires for this world and the next,

When without desires is unyoked, I call him a brahmin.

635. When he has no roosting places, knowing what should and should not be done,

And has taken a dive in the deathless, I call him a brahmin..

636 Overcoming both bonds of merit and demerit

Pure, without grief, and unattached, I call him a brahmin.

637. Like the extremely pure moon undisturbed and without stains,

When the interest `to be' is destroyed, I call him a brahkmin.

638. Overcoming this difficult path of deluded existence, crossses over and concentrates,

Fearless, doubts overcome, is extinguished without seizings, I call him a brahmin.

639. Giving up sensuality, one goes forth as a homeless

When his sensuous thoughts are destroyed, I call him a brahmin.

640. Giving up craving, one goes forth as a homeless.

When his greedy thoughts are destroyed, I call him a brahmin.

641. Giving up the human yoke, overcomes the heavenly yoke,

When he is unyoked from all yokings, I call him a brahmin.

642. Giving up attachment and aversion is cooled and without seizings,

When the hero wins over the whole world, I call him a brahmin.

643. Seeing the fading of beings and also their arising

Is unsoiled, well gone and enlightened, I call him a brahmin.

644. His movements1 are not known by gods heavenly musicians or humans,

When desires destroyed, he becomes worthy, I call him a brahmin.

645. Has no defiling things in the past, afterwards or in the middle,

Undefiled, when not seizing , I call him a brahmin.

646. The noble bull, the heroic great sage, the fearless winner,

The bather, the enlightened one, I call him a brahmin.

647. Knowing earlier births, and seeing heavenly and hellish existences,

Comes to the destruction of birth, I call him a brahmin.

648. The usual way of the world is to be planned about name and clan

Accumulated and co-incidently meeting, it gets planned at the right time.

649. Ignorantly entangled in views for a long time,

The not knowing tell us, that by birth a brahmin is born.

650. By birth a brahmin is not born, by birth a non-brahmin is not born,

By actions a brahmin is born, by actions a non-brahmin is born..

651. By actions a farmer is born, by actions a craftsman is born,

By sctions a merchant is born, by actions a workman is born..

652. By actions a robber is born, by actions a soldier too,

By actions an adviser is born, by actions a king too.

653. Thus the wise see action as it really is,

Seeing it dependently arising become clever in the results of actions.

654. By actions the world rolls on, by actions the populace roll on,

Beings bound to actions, go on, like the linch pin of the wheel.

655. By austerites, leading the holy life, restraint and taming,

By these a brahmin is born, that is the most noble brahmin.

656. Endowed with the three knowledges, appeased and rebirth destroyed

Vàseññha know it as recognizing Brahmà and Sakha.

When this was said the two young men Vàseññha and Bhàradvàja said thus to the Blessed One: ßNow we know good Gotama. It seems as though something overturned is re-installed, something covered is made manifest, As though the path is told to someone who has lost his way. It seems as though an oil lamp was

lighted for the dark, for those who have eyes to see forms. In various ways good Gotama has explained the

Teaching. Now I take refuge in good Gotama, in the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus.. Good

Gotama, remember us as disciples who have taken refuge from today until life lasts.
 

10. Kokàliyasutta.
To the bhikkhu Kokàliya

I heard thus.

At one time the Blessed One lived in the monastery offered by Anàthapindika in Jeta's grove in Sàvatthi.

Then the bhikkhu Kokàliya approached the Blessed One worshipped, sat on a side and said thus to the

Blessed One:"Venerable sir, Sàriputta and Moggallàna are with evil desires, overcome by evil desires."

When this was said the Blessed One said:"Kokàliya, do not say that, have faith in Sàriputta and Moggallàna, they are well behaved. For the second time the bhikkhu Kokàliya said thus to the Blessed:One

ßVenerable sir, to the Blessed One they may be reliable and trustworthy, yet they are with evil desires, are

overcome by evil desires" For the second time the Blessed One said:"Kokàliya, do not say that, have faith

in Sàriputta and Moggallàna, they are well behaved." For the third time the bhikkhu Kokàliya said:

ßVenerable sir, to the Blessed One they may be reliable and trustworthy, yet they are with evil desires, are

overcome by evil desires." For the third time the Blessed One said: ßKokàliya, do not say that, have faith

in Sàriputta and Moggallàna, they are well behaved."

Then the bhikkkhu Kokàliya got up from his seat, worshipped the Blessed , circumbulated the Blessed

One and went away. Soon after that, all over bhikkhu Kokàliya's body there arose small blisters the size of

coming seeds. Next they became the size of green grams and next the size of chick peas. Then they became the size of jujubi fruits. And later the size of myrobolan fruits. From that they became the size of beluwa

fruits. Later they came to be like ripe beluwa fruits, burst and pus and blood oozed. The bhikkhu Kokàliya

became very ill on account of it and died and was born in the Paduma hell for bearing illwill in the mind for Sàriputta and Moggallàna.

Then Brahmà Sahampati when the night was waning illuminated the whole of Jeta's grove with a resplendent light approached the Blessed One, worshipped ,stood on a side, and said: ßVenerable sir, bhikkhu Kokàliya died and is born in the Paduma hell for bearing illwill in the mind for Sàriputta and

Moggallàna, saying that Brahmà Sahampati worshipped, and circumbulated the Blessed One and vanished from there.

The Blessed One at the end of that night, addressed the bhikkhus, ßBhikkhus, last night Brahmà Sahampati when the night was waning illuminated the whole of Jeta's grove with a resplendent light

approached me worshipped and circumbulated me, then he stood on a side and said: ßVenerable sir, bhikkhu Kokàliya died and is born in the Paduma hell for bearing illwill in the mind for Sàriputta and

Moggallàna. Saying this he worshipped me, circumbulated me and vanished"

Then a certain bhikkhu asked the Blessed One:"Venerable sir, how long is the life span in the Paduma hell." The Blessed One said: ßBhikkhu, the life span in the Paduma hell is very long, it is not easy to say

it's so many years, or so many hundred years, or so many thousand years, or so many hundred thousand years." The bhikkhu said, ßVenerable sir, is it possisble to give a comparison." The Blessed One said

it's possible. A man has a load of sesame which is twenty measures by the Kosala measure. After every hundred years a man pulls out a sesame seed from the load and throws it. Doing this the load of sesame

finishes in no time but not the span of the Abbuda hell. Twenty such Abbuda hell spans make one Nirabbuda. hell span. Twenty such nirabbuda hell spans make one Ababa hell span. Twenty such Ababa

hell spans make one Ahaha hell span. Twenty Ahaha hell spans make one Añañà hell spanòwenty Añañà

hell spans make one Kumudu hell span. Twenty Kumudu hell spans make one Sogandhika hell span. Twenty Sogandhika hell spans make one Uppalaka hell span. Twenty Uppalaka hell spans make one

Pundarikà hell spans. And twenty Pundarikà hell spans make one Paduma hell span. It is in such a hell

that the bhikkhu Kokàliya is born for bearing illwill for Sàriputta and Moggallàna. Then the Blessed

One further said these verses:

657. ßTo one born a dagger is born in the mouth,

The fool cuts himself speaking foolishly.

658. Praising the blameworthy, and blaming the praiseworthy one accumulates demerit.

With that demerit he does not experience pleasantness.

659. Losing all wealth together with oneself by gsmbling is enough bad luck,

To bear illwill in the mind for those gone the righteous path is worse bad luck.

660. Blaming noble ones, bring birth in a hundred thousand Nirabbuda hells

And thirty six and five Abbuda hells, this for demeritorious intentions of word and mind. .

661. Telling lies and disowning one's words saying `I did not say' become the same afterwards

These are low actions of humans, done for the sake of others.

662. Offending the undefiled, pure and unblemished, the fool collects demerit,

Like throwing fine sand against the wind.

663. A greedy one belittling another is without faith, greedy, not grateful,

Selfishly engaged in slandering others.

664. Doing demerit with the mouth talk falsely about noble ones,

Saying destroyers of life, doers of difficult things

Of low humans they are the worst, not to talk much, they are here and now in hell.

665. For one's own detriment dust is thrown against the wind, the evil doer blaming the appeased,

And doing much more demerit, fall into hell for a long time.

666. By actions nobody is destroyed, that action comes gaining mastery,

That foolish evil doer encounters himself in unpleasantness in the next world.

667. Fallen to the hell of iron spikes encounters sharp edges and iron stakes

And there are iron balls completed, the `food suitable for the place'.

668. Those who speak do not speak pleasànt words, do not run fast to seek shelter,

They always stretch themselves on embers and enter a blaze like fire.

669. Taken away from the blaze are hammered down with iron hammers,

Like the blind going in the dark, it spreads like great earth.

670. Then they enter boiling molten cauldrons shining like fire.

There they are cooked long, as though living with fire.

671. Then how does it come to the evil doer with a mixture of pus and blood,

Whatever is wished for an enemy, with that trouble he is touched.

672. Like worms and maggots that live in the water, how is the evil doer cooked

Without a bank to swim to, are guarded on all sides.

673. They enter the forest of sharp swords with the body pierced,

Taken by the tongue with a hook are worried shaken about.

674. In the hell Vetarani, sharp and rough edges are encountered

The evil, doing demerit fall to it.

675. When crying they are eaten by dogs and powerful birds of prey,

And chased to attack, by dogs, foxes, vultures and crows.

676. The mode of conduct here is low, it's like the conduct of the evil doers,

Therefore for the rest of their lives evil doers should not be negligent.

677. Calculations of the sesame load done by the wise about the span of life in the Paduma hell,

Will be five innumerable periods and the other twelve hundred innumerable periods.

678. The hellish unpleasantness explained here, has to be experienced for a long time

Therefore constantly protect the word and the mind behaving well, conducting well.
 

11. Nàlakasutta- To Nalaka

679. Retinue of the thirty gods of Sakka and the retinue of gods of Inda, the happy ones, are rejoicing.

Waving clothes are very much over joyed, the sage Asita saw in his seclusion during the day.

680. Seeing the gods rejoicing much , he reflected it in his mind and said:

ßO! Gods, why are you pleased so much, for what reason do you wave clothes.

681. It's like when the gods won defeating the demi gods in the fight between the gods and demi gods,

Then, there was not such hair standing on end, seeing what wonderful thing are the gods rejoicing.

682. Whistling, singing, playing musical instruments, clamping symbols they dance,

I ask you, who live on the top of mount Meru , O! Sirs, dispel my doubts about this quickly"

683. ßThat incomparable noble gem aspiring enlightenment, is born for the good of humanity,

In the village of the Sakyas, in the state of Lumbini, we rejoice because of that.

684. The most noble of all beings, the chief man, the man bull, and noble one for the whole populace,

Wields the wheel in the forest of sages like the powerful lion that subdues the wild animals roaring."

685. Hearing that sound he quickly turned away, and entered the then palace of Suddhodana.

There he sat and said thus to the Sakyas:"Where is the prince, I too like to see him."

686. At that time the prince shining like gold, was like cleverly completed and brought out of the furnace.

Very much conceited about the beauty and incomparable hue, the Sakyas showed the son to Asita.

687. Seeing the prince shining like a pea-cock, like the pure moon shining in the sky,

Like the resplendent sun released from the clouds was very much pleased.

688. Gods held umbrellas in space, with various boughs and thousandfold rims

Golden sticks moved the whisks, yet those who held whisks and umbrellas were not seen.

689. The sage Kanhasiri saw his birth like gold that comes from the golden hued seat,

Holding the white parasol on the top, he accepted the prince with a pleasant mind.. .

690. Accepting the small one of the Sakyas became inquisitive about the marks of a Great Man.

And pleased he announced ßThe two footed one is noble, there is no compare."

691. Then thinking of his own course of action, displeased, tears rolled down

The Sakyas seeing the sage not speaking but crying asked: ßIs there danger to our prince."

692. Seeing the displeased Sakyas the sage said: ßI see no danger to the prince,

In the future too there will not be any danger, he will not live in the household, he has noble thoughts.

693. This prince will realize hightest enlightenment, with noble purity will see the wheel of the Teaching

Will roll it, out of compassion for the populace at large, under him the holy life will spread widely.

694. Very little of my life span is left now, and my death will be a danger to me,

I would not be able to hear the sweet Teaching, therefore was hurt, troubled and grief stricken.

695. Giving much happiness to the Sakyas, he went to the inner city and led the holy life.

With much compassion for his nephew instilled interest for the sweet Teaching. .

696. ßWhen the word `enlightened' is heard from an outsider, the enlightened one wanders according the

Teaching,

Go to him and question about his faith and lead the holy life under the Blessed One".

697 Advised by him out of compassion in a friendly mannerño realize highest enlightenment in the future

Nàlaka, the accumulation of merit lived a life of probation expecting the winner.

698. Hearing the sound that the winner is rolling the noble wheel of the Teaching,

Went and saw the pleasant sage.and gave him Asita's message.

End of the Story.

699. Knowing these words from Asita, as I heard them,

I ask them from Gotama, who has gone beyond all things.

700. Sage, by a homeless, wandering for alms,

What is the moral perfection that should be attained.

701. The Blessed One said:

ßYou will be given the moral perfection done and attained with difficulty.

Now I tell you, develop firm restraint.

702. In the village develop equanimity, when reviled and when worshipped

Protect the mind from anger be appeased and not haughty.

703. The mind reaches highs and lows1 like flames in the forest

Women seduce sages, do not be seduced by them.

704. Away from sexuality, give up sensual thoughts for this and the other world

Not averse and not passionately devoted to those infirm and firm.2

705. `As I am so are they, as they are so am I'

Comparing oneself with others should not strike or kill.

706. Giving up desires and greed in which the ordinary one is soiled

Wisely fall to the method to end this bad luck.3

707. With empty stomach measured food, few desires and not distressed

Desires satisfied, without desires is extinguished.

708. Gone the alms round in due order approach the end of the forest

At the root of a tree the sage should make a seat

709. The steady one attained to jhàna enjoys at the end of the forest,

Concentrates at the root of a tree to please the self.

710. At the end of the night approach the out skirts of the village,

without taking pleasure wander for food in the village.

711. The sage come to the village does not rush to families

When collecting food does not utter words.

712. `Obtaining something thinks it's good, not obtaining thinks it's clever.

In either case it's the same, like descending a tree.

713. Wandering with bowl in hand, not dumb looks like dumb

Not hostile to small gifts, does not scorn the giver.

714. The method of going beyond is explained by the sage,

One does not cross twice, the release experienced is not once.4

715. To the bhikkhu who has cut the streams there's no clinging,

The one who has dispelled what should and should not be done has no troubles.

716. The Blessed One said:

ßThe moral perfection is explained to you be like a razor blade,

Push the palate with the tongue and restrain the belly

717. Have a non-sticking mind and do not think much,

With the cessation of the smell of raw flesh,1 without clinging lead the holy life to the end.

718. Train on one seat to do the work of a mendicant

Moral perfection is personal, it is said, enjoy it alone.2

719. Hearing words from the ten directions, the wise become silent, concentrated and give up sensuality

And affectionately develop much faith and shame.

720. Know the holes, fissures and crevices in the rivers

Small streams go making much noise, great expances of water go silently.

721. That which is not full is noisy, the complete are appeased.

The fool is like a half full pot, the wise are as though deeply filled..

722. If a recluse says much that is full of meanings,

Knowing he teaches, and knowing he says much.

723. He that knows the real meaning, does not say much

He is the sage with moral perfection , he has become a sage.
 

12. Dvayatànupassanà Sutta
-Twofold Reflections

I heard thus.

At one time the Blessed One was living in Sàvatti in the Pubba Monastery, the palace of Migàra's mother. That full moon night, the Blessed One was seated in the open attended by the Community of bhikkhus. The Blessed One observed the silent community of bhikkhus and addressed them.: "bhikkhus, if somebody were to ask you, 'O! bhikkhus, why should you listen to these noble teachings leading to enlightenment, you should reply thus: 'It is to know the twofold teaching as it really is' . How is it twofold: One reflection is, this is unpleasant and this its arising. The other reflection is, This is the cessation of unpleasantness and this the path leading to the cessation of unpleasantness. To a bhikkhu reflecting diligently to dispel, in this twofold manner two fruits could be expected; either knowledge here and now, or non-returning when substratum expires. and the Blessed One further said:

724. Those who do not know unpleasantness, its arising,

How all unpleasantness is destroyed and the path to end all unpleasantness...

725 Through release of mind or release through wisdom,

It is impossible they should come to the end, but to birth and decay..

726. They that know unpleasantness, its arising,

How unpleasantness is destroyed, and the path to end unpleasantness....

727. Endowed with release of mind or release through wisdom,

Do come to the end and not for birth and decay.

"If asked is there another method, to reflect rightfully in a twofold way, there is, would be the reply, and it would be asked how; "' Whatever unpleasantness experienced is on account of endearments (1). This is one reflection. With the remainderless cessation of all endearments, unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection To a bhikkhu reflecting in this ......re... .. the Blessed One further said thus.

728. "In the diffused world unpleasantness arises on account of endearments,

The fool making endearments goes to unpleasantness again and again.

Knowing it as the birth and growth of unpleasantness, people should

not make endearments"

"If asked is there another method, to reflect rightfully in a twofold way, there is, would be the reply, and it would be asked how, "Whatever unpleasantness experienced is on account of ignorance. This is one reflection. With the remainderless cessation of ignorance unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To a bhikkhu reflecting in this .......re...". the Blessed One further said thus:

729. "It is a characteristic of the ignorant to proceed from birth to death, Born here and there again and again.

730. Ignorance is the great delusion on account of which is a steady and long attachment, Those who know do not come for birth again and again.

"If asked is there .........re.......' would be asked how. '"Whatever unpleasantness experienced is on account of determinations (2). This is one one reflection . With the remainderless cessation of determinations, unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To a bhikkhu reflecting in this ....re..".. the Blessed One further said thus:

731 "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from determinations,

With the cessation of determinations, there is no arising of unpleasantness.

732. 'Unpleasantness springs from determinations', knowing this danger,

Destroy it with the perception of appeasing all determinations (3).

This is the destruction of unpleasantness, knowing it as it really is.

733. The wise attain right view and perfect knowledge

Going beyond the yoke of Death, do not come for rebirth."

"If asked is there .......re..'.... would be asked how. "'Whatever unpleasantness experienced is on account of consciousness. This is one reflection . With the remainderless cessation of consciousness, unpleasant- ness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this ....re..." ..... the Blessed One further said thus:

734. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from consciousness (4)

With the cessation of consciousness, there is no unpleasantness.

735. 'Unpleasantness springs from consciousness' knowing this danger

The bhikkhu appeases consciousness, and is for ever extinguished."

"If asked is there ......re...... ' would be asked how. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced is on account of contact. This is one re- flection. With the remainderless cessation of contact, unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this .....re..." The Blessed One further said thus:

736. "Those overcome by contact, wandering in the stream of being,

Fallen to the wrong path are far removed from the destruction of bonds.

737. Those who know contact thoroughly, and attached to appeasement,

They are the ones who thoroughly know contact, and are extinguished.

"'If asked is there ....re.....would be asked how. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from feelings. (5) This is one reflection. With the remainderless cessation of feelings unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflection in this ...re....." The Blessed One further said thus:

738. "Whatever is felt, internally or externally,

As pleasant, unpleasant or even neither unpleasant nor pleasant,....

739. Knows all this as 'unpleasant' deceitful, decaying things,

While feeling sees them fade and there and there becomes dispassionate

The bhikkhu with destroyed feelings is for ever extinguished."

"'If asked is there ....re.... would be asked how. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from craving. This is one reflection. With the remainderless cessation of craving unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this ...re..... " The Blessed One further said thus:

740. "Craving is man's mate to tarry long in existences,

Born here and then there and never going beyond that.

741. Craving is the arouser of unpleasantness, knowing this danger,

The bhikkhu leads the holy life mindfully to give up craving and seizing.

"'If asked is there ....re.... would be asked how. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from seizing. This is one reflection. With the remainderless cessation of seizings, unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this .... re...." The Blessed One further said

742. "On account of seizing is being, become, goes to unpleasantness.:

To the born there is death, this is the arising of unpleasantness.

743. Therefore the wise rightly knowing the destruction of seizings,

Thoroughly know destruction of birth and do not come to be born again."

"'If asked is there ..... re.......would be asked how. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from initiations. This is one reflection. With the remainderless cessation of initiations, unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this...re..." The Blessed One further said:

744. Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from initiations,

With the cessation of initiations unpleasantness is not experienced

745. Unpleasantness comes after initiation, knowing this danger

Giving up all initiations are released there from.

746. The bhikkhu with appeased mind, the craving 'to be' uprooted ,

Birth and transmigration ended, has no rebirth".

"If asked is there....re..... would be asked how. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from supports. This is one reflection. With the remainderless cessation of supports, unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this ....re..." The Blessed One further said:

747 "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from supports, (4)

With the cessation of supports unpleasantness is not experienced.

748. Unpleasantness springs from supports, knowing this danger,

Learns all supports thoroughly and is not supported on them.

749. Thoroughly knowing the healthy state; the destruction of desires,

The Perfected One is not reckoned in the Teaching that stands discrimination."

"If asked is there ...re.... would be asked how. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from wavering. This is one reflection. With the remainderless cessation of wavering, unpleasantness is not experienced. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this ...re...." The Blessed One further said:

750. "Whatever unpleasantness experienced springs from wavering,

With the cessation of wavering, unpleasantness is not experienced.

751. Unpleasantness springs from wavering, knowing this danger,

Give up distractions and uproot determinations

Desireless and not seizing the bhikkhu leads the holy life mindfully.

"If asked is there ....re..... would be asked how. "To the supported comes a change, This is one reflection. To the not supported there is no change. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this ...re......" The Blessed One further said thus.

752. The unsupported do not change, the supported are seized,

Born here and there they do not go beyond transmigrating.

753. There's fear in supports, knowing this danger,

Not supported and not seizing, the bhikkhu leads the holy life mindfully."

"If asked is there ...re..... would be asked how. "Out of material, immateriality is more peaceful. This is one reflection. Of immaterial cessation is more peaceful. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this ...re...." The Blessed One further said thus:

754. "Beings with form, and formless beings,

Do not know cessation and come for re- birth.

755. Those that know matter thoroughly, get established in the immaterial

Those that find release in cessation, go beyond the domains of Death."

"If asked is there...re..... would be asked how. "O! bhikkhus, to gods and men, Màras, and the community of recluses and Brahmins 'this world is true ' is established. That, by the noble ones is verily seen with right wisdom as ïot true' . This is one reflection.. Whatever is established as false by gods and men, Màras and the community of recluses and Brahmins, is thoroughly seen as it really is with right wisdom as the truth by the Noble Ones. This is the second reflection. To the bhikkhu reflecting in this .....re...." The Blessed One further said:

756. "Look at gods and men measuring the self without a self,

Taking name and matter for granted, think 'this is true'

757. In whatever is thought, there is a change,

That is the lie there, the deluded thing in brief.

758. The non-deluded thing is extinction, that the Noble Ones knew as true,

They have realized the truth and are extinguished for ever.

"If asked is there...re.... would be asked how.. "O! bhikkhus, to gods and men, Màras, and the community of recluses and Brahmins it is established that this world is pleasant, and that by the Noble Ones is verily seen with right wisdom as unpleasant. This is one reflection. Whatever established as un- pleasant by gods and men, Màras, and community of recluses and Brahmins, is thoroughly seen as it really is with right wisdom as pleasant by the Noble Ones. This is the second reflection. To a bhikkhu reflecting in this ...re....." The Blessed One further said:

759. All forms sounds, tastes, smells, touches and ideas,

Are agreeable and pleasant as long as they are present.

760. To gods and men they are pleasant, while they are present,

When these cease it is unpleasant to them .

761. The breaking up of the self is seen as pleasant by the Noble Ones,

This is completely opposite to what is seen by the whole world.

762. What others said was pleasant, is unpleasant said the Noble Ones,

What others said was unpleasant, the Noble Ones knew as pleasant.

The Teaching is very difficult to understand, the fools are confused over it.

763. Those hemmed in darkness do not see,

To the mindful it is open as seeing a light,

Those not clever in the Teaching , do not see it right under the eye

764. Those going with the stream , overcome with the greed 'to be',

Within the reach of Death, find it difficult to realize this Teaching.

765. Other than the Noble Ones, who else would value enlightenment,

Which they knowing rightly extinguish without desires.

The Blessed One said thus, and those bhikkhus delighted in the words of the Blessed One. When the Blessed One gave this discourse about sixty bhikkhus released their minds from desires without holdings.