CHAPTER XXVI
ON HIGHER KNOWLEDGE

(1) Higher Knowledge

BRETHREN, there are these four things. What four? Things to be known by higher knowledge, things to be rejected by higher knowledge, things to be developed by higher knowledge, and things to be realised by higher knowledge.

And what, brethren, are the things to be known by higher knowledge? The factors of the fivefold grasping.

And what, brethren, are the things to be rejected by higher knowledge? Ignorance and craving for existence.

And what, brethren, are the things to be developed by higher knowledge? Quietude and insight.

And what, brethren, are the things to be realised by higher knowledge? Wisdom and emancipation.

These, brethren, are the four things.

(2) Quests

Brethren, there are these four un-Ariyan quests. What four?

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Herein, brethren, a certain one, being himself subject to growing old, seeks after growing old; himself subject to disease, seeks after disease; himself subject to death, seeks after death; himself subject to the depravities, seeks after them. These are the four quests that are un-Ariyan.

Brethren, there are these four Ariyan quests. What four?

Herein, a certain one, himself subject to growing old and seeing loss therein, seeks for the imperishable, incomparable security of Nibbàna: himself subject to disease and seeing loss therein, he seeks for the wholly sane, incomparable security of Nibbàna: himself subject to death and seeing loss therein, he seeks after the deathless, incomparable security of Nibbàna himself subject to the depravities and seeing loss therein, he seeks the untainted, incomparable security of Nibbàna. These are the four Ariyan quests.

(3) Popularity

Brethren, there are these four grounds for popularity. What four? Liberality, kindly speech, helpful conduct and being on equal terms. These are the four.

(4) Instruction in Brief*2

Once the venerable Màlunkyaputta* came to the Exalted One ... and said:

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1 Of. Chapter 4. 2 (above) , where it is given in gàthàs.

2 Also at S. N. IV, 72.

3 Son of the bràhmin woman Màlunkiya. The name is often written Màlukiyà..

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ßGood were it, Lord, if the Exalted One declare to me the Norm in brief, so that, having heard the Norm from the Exalted One, I may abide alone, secluded, earnest, zealous and master of myself.û

Now herein, Màlunkyaputta, what is the use of my teaching young brothers, if (as in your case) when you are old, decrepit and aged, you ask the Accomplished One for instruction in brief?û *

ßLord, may the Exalted One declare to me the Norm in brief, may the Blessed One declare the Norm in brief. Good if I know the meaning of the Exalted One's word. Good indeed if I become an heir to the Exalted One's word.û

ßNow, Màlunkyaputta, there are these four grounds for the arising of craving, whence craving usually arises in the mind of a brother. What four? Craving arises in the mind of a brother owing to robes, alms-food and so forth, and owing to eternalist or annihilationist views. Verily, Màlunkyaputta, there are these four grounds for the arising of craving ...

But verily, Màlunkyaputta, whenever in a brother craving has been abandoned and cut off at the root like a palm tree with its base destroyed, rendered unable to sprout out again, then such a brother is said to have destroyed craving, broken the fetters, and by full understanding of false pride is said to have ended sorrow.û

Then the venerable Màlunkyaputta, thus exhorted by the Exalted One with this instruction, rose from his seat, made

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1 The Master said this (according to Comy) to depreciate the old thera and to encourage him. It is also said that in his youth he had neglected the detailed teaching and fallen back. Now he asks for a comprehensive view of it.

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obeisance, walked round the Exalted One by the right and departed thence.

Thereafter the venerable Màlunkyaputta, abiding alone, secluded, earnest, zealous and master of himself, even in a short time, having himself for himself in this life itself realised. it, dwelt in the incomparable perfection of the religious life, to win which clansmen duly wander forth from the home to the homeless life. Having conquered birth, led the holy life and done that which was to be done, he realised there was no more existence for him beyond this life.* Thus did the venerable Màlunkyaputta become yet another of the Arahants of the Exalted One.

(5) Prosperity

Brethren, whatever families attain to greatness in wealth, all of them do not last for long owing to four causes or one of four. Owing to what four?

They search not for what is lost; they repair not what is decayed; they are not restrained in food and drink; and they place in supreme control* either a sinful woman or man. Brethren, whatever families attain to greatness in wealth, indeed all of them do not last for long owing to these four causes or one of them.

Brethren, whatever families attain to greatness in wealth, all of them last for long owing to four causes or one of them. Owing to what four?

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1 Nàparaü itthatàyà ti. The usual formula of the Arahant's state. Comy. gives as first-meaning `there is no further function to realise the Truths, to eliminate the intoxicants, etc.' Cf. K. S. II, 17, 22;II, 20 etc.: S. III, 20. At D. Att. 226. Buddhaghosa explains: `there is no other existence after this.' The stanzas of this Thera are to be found at Theragàthà (trans. 308).

2 Comy. `Such as treasurer (or housekeeper) .'

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They search for what is lost; they repair what is decayed, they are restrained in food and drink, and they place in supreme control a virtuous woman or man. Brethren, whatever families attain to greatness in wealth, all of them last for long owing to these four causes or one of them.

(6) Thoroughbreds (a)

`Brethren, the king's goodly thoroughbred steed, when endowed with four qualities, becomes worthy of the king, a royal property, and comes to be reckoned as an asset to the king. With what four?

Herein, brethren, the king's goodly thoroughbred steed has beautiful colour, strength, speed, and good proportions. Verily, brethren, the king's goodly thoroughbred steed ... is reckoned as an asset to the king.

Likewise, brethren, the brother, who is endowed with four things, becomes worthy of offerings ... a field of merit for the world.

What four? Herein, brethren, a brother is endowed with beautiful colour, strength, speed and good proportions.

Brethren, how is a brother endowed with beautiful colour? Herein, brethren, a brother is virtuous and so forth ... and keeps the precepts.Thus is a brother endowed with beautiful colour.

Brethren, how is a brother endowed with strength? Herein, a brother abides strenuous in abstaining from sinful conditions and in acquiring virtuous conditions persevering,, energetic, and not giving up the burden

Cf. A. IIIl, 94, and Section 112 above also A. IIIl, 95=Section7.

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in goodly things.* Verily, brethren, thus a brother is endowed with strength.

And how is a brother endowed with speed? Herein, a brother knows as it really is `This is Ill, this is the cause of Ill, this is the ceasing of Il1 and this is the way to the ceasing of Ill.' Verily, brethren, thus a brother is endowed with speed.

And how is a brother endowed with goodly proportions? Herein, a brother is one who receives robes, alms of food, lodging, refreshments and requisites for medicine. Verily, brethren, a brother is thus endowed with good proportions.

Verily, brethren, a brother endowed with these four things becomes worthy of offerings and ... a supreme field of merit * for the world.

(7) Thoroughbreds (b)

[This -Discourse is the same as Section 6 except as to the third quality, which is as follows

Brethren, how is a brother endowed with speed?

Herein, brethren, a brother having eliminated the intoxicants and so forth ... having attained abides therein. Verily, brethren, a brother is thus endowed with speed.

(8) Powers

Brethren, there are these four powers. What four? The power of energy, mindfulness, insight and wisdom. Verily, brethren, there are these four powers.

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1 Nikkhitta-dhuro, i.e., `not shifting his responsibilities,' ` unwearied in well-doing'.

2 The meaning of this phrase `field of merit' is twofold: (a) offerings to the Order of Arahants bring great reward to the donor;

(b) the Order is a storehouse of blessing for the world.

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(9) Forest-dwelling

Brethren, it is improper for a brother given to four things to resort to remote dwellings in a forest. What four?

Lustful thoughts, thoughts of ill-will, cruel thoughts, and if he be of weak insight, stupid and have a slippery tongue.* A brother given to these four things should not resort to remote dwellings in a forest.

But, brethren, it is proper for a brother given to four things to resort to remote dwellings in a forest. What four? Thoughts of renunciation, of kindness, of love, and if he be not stupid and have not a slippery tongue,

Verily, brethren, a brother given to these four things may well resort to remote dwellings in a forest.

(10) The Wicked and the Righteous

Brethren, the foolish, unskilful and wicked person, being endowed with four things, bears himself about a lifeless, uprooted thing, becomes blameworthy, is censured by the wise and stores up much demerit. With what four?

Wrongful bodily action, wrongful speech, wrongful thoughts and wrongful views.

Verily, brethren, being endowed with these four things,

the foolish ... stores up much demerit.

Brethren, being endowed with four things, the wise, skilful, and righteous person fares about full of life and well established, becomes praiseworthy, is commanded by the wise and stores up much merit. With what four?

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1 Eëamugo literally means: ßdribbling at the mouth with spittleû Þsuch men have no control of saliva (i.e., the àpodhàttu of emotion) .

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Faultless bodily action, faultless speech, faultless thoughts and faultless views.

Verily, brethren, so endowed the wise, skilful and righteous one ... is commanded by the wise and stores up much merit.

(CHAPTFR XXVI: ON HIGHER KINOWLEDGE, ENDS)