CHAPTER XXV
ON FEAR OF OFFENCE

(1) Causes of Disunion

Once, the Exalted One dwelt at Kosambi in Ghosita Park. Then the venerable ânanda came to the Exalted One ... To the venerable ânanda so seated the Exalted One spake thus:

ßHow now ânanda? Is that dispute settled?

ßLord, how can that dispute be settled? Lord, the venerable Anuruddha's co-resident, by name Bahiya,* is bent upon causing disunion in the Order in all manner of ways. Now the venerable Anuruddha does not think he should speak even one word.û*

ânanda, when did the venerable Anuruddha ever give rise to any disputes in the midst of the assembly? Is it not the case that, when disputes arise, you and Sàriputta and Moggallàna settle* them all? ânanda, a sinful brother seeing these four causes delights in causing disunion in the Order. What four?

1 At Kh, P. Comy. 115 he is called Bàhiko. For Bàhiya see Udàna i,10.

2 Comy. 'does not venture to reprimand him'.

3 Text Vo ju¤jati; but Comy. Voju¤jati=Anuju¤jati.

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Herein, ânanda, a sinful brother is immoral, wicked, unclean, of suspicious* behaviour; conceals his actions, is not a true recluse but pretends to be a recluse; is unchaste but pretends to be chaste, is putrid within, wet with the rain of lusts, a rubbish heap of impurity. To him this thought occurs: ` Now then, the brethren will know me as immoral and so forth ... and full of impurity. If united they will ruin me, but divided they will not ruin me.' ânanda, seeing this first result the sinful brother delights in causing disunion in the Order.

Again, ânanda, a sinful brother holds false views and clings to extreme (heretical) views. To him this thought occurs `Now the brethren will know me as one who holds. false views and clings to heretical views. United they will ruin me, but divided they will not ruin me.û,ânanda, seeing this second consequence the sinful brother delights in causing disunion in the Order.

Again, ânanda, a sinful brother is one who earns a wrong livelihood and gains his living by wrong means. To him this thought occurs: 'Now the brethren will know me as one who earns a wrong livelihood and gains a living by wrong means. United they will ruin me, but disunited they will not ruin me.' ânanda, seeing this third consequence the sinful brother delights in causing disunion in the Order.

Again, ânanda, a sinful brother is desirous of gain, honour and praise. To him this thought occurs: 'Now indeed the brethren will know me as one desirous of gain,

1 Sankassara. At Ud. Comy., p. 198 (Sinh. ed.) Dhammapàla Achariya so explains.

2 Comy. `Will turn me out from the keeping of the Sabbath (and Pàtimokkha) .'A similar incident is described in Udàna, V. 5.

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honour and praise. United they will ruin me, but disunited they will not ruin me.' ânanda, seeing this fourth result the sinful brother delights in causing disunion in the Order.

Verily, ânanda, seeing these four results a sinful brother delights in causing disunion in the Order.'

(2) Fear of 0ffence

Brethren, there are these four fears of offence. What four?

Just as, brethren, if the King's officers' were to seize an offending thief and produce him before the King (saying) `Your majesty, this is a thief who has offended thee. May your majesty inflict such punishment upon him as is desired.'

Then the King says to them: `Go ye, my men, and having tightly tied this man's hands to his back with a strong rope, having closely shaven him, having led him to the beat of a harsh-sounding drum from street to street and from road-junction to road-junction, and having taken him out of the southren gate of the city, cut his head off.'

Then, if the King's men, having done so, were to cut his head off, such a thought occurs to a person standing by: `Forsooth, friends, this fellow has committed an evil deed, contemptible and deserving of punishment by decapitation, inasmuch as the King's men having tightly tied ... cut off his head. Now, if 1 were he, I would not commit such a wicked deed, contemptible and deserving of decapitation.'

Do we not see cases of this in our daily life?

Cf. Sam. Nik., ii, 128.

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Just so, brethren, when an intense fear overtakes a brother or a sister as regards serious offences,* he or she must look for one of two courses-either not to fall into serious offence, if he be guiltless of such; or, if guilty, to make fit and proper amends for such offence.

Just as if, brethren, a man having put on a black cloth, with hair dishevelled and bearing a club* on his shoulder, should appear before a large body of people and say Sirs, 1 have committed a wicked deed, contemptible and punishable with clubs. `Sirs, I will do what your worships please.'

Then this thought occurs to a person standing close by: Forsooth, friends, this fellow has committed a wicked deed ... ... inasmuch as he, having put on a black cloth, with hair dishevelled and bearing a club on his shoulder, appears before a large body of people and makes confession (as above) . Surely, if 1 were he, I would not commit such a wicked deed ... ' In like manner brethren, whenever an intense sense of fear overtakes a brother or a sister as regards the secondary offences,' it is to be expected that he or she, (as before) ... ... * Again, just as if a man should don black clothes, dishevel his hair and put a knapsack* on his shoulder, come to a large body

1 Paràdikà offences merited expulsion from the Order.

2 Comy 'a murderous club.'

3 Sanghàdisesa.

4 Fathàdhamma.

5Assaputaü. Ace. to Comv. a form of degrading punishment by striking the head ` with a bundle of hot ash!' Both here and at D.N. i, 98, such an explanation is fanciful, and the etymology is wrong. See Poli Dict. s.v. where it is shown to mean a knapsack, aüsa-putant. The Burmese MSS. not understanding, and following Comy. read bhasma-putanü, 'ash-bag'.

In Section1 we have mosallaü (based on musalaü) 'clubbable'; but in Section2 there is no such implication. The idea to be conveyed is that in

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of people and say: ßSirs, (as before) ... Just so, wenever an intense sense of fear overtakes a brother or a sister as regards the commission of the minor offences,' (as before) .

Just as if, brethren, a person having put on a black cloth with hair dishevelled appear before a large body of people and say (as before) ... Just so, brethren,whenever an intense sense of fear overtakes a brother or a sister as regards the commission of trivial*' offences, he or she must look for one of two courses-either not to offend at all, if not already guilty, or if guilty, to make fit and proper amends for such offence.'

ßVerily, brethren, there are these four fears of offence.û

(3) The holy Life

Brethren, this holy life is lived for the benefit of the training, for the higher wisdom, for the sake of the reality of emancipation and for the mastery of mindfulness.

Brethren, what is the benefit of the training?

Herein, brethren, the lesser practices have been ordained by me for disciples with a view to gladden the hearts of

the first instance the offence should be severely dealt with; in the second instance, that the offence may be dropped like a bag from the shoulder.- [ED.]

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1 There are ninety-two Pacittiya (`to be expiated') offences requiring confession and absolution. Sanghàdisesà were thirteen offences only less serious than Pàràjikà, and required suspension and penance, but not expulsion from the Order.

2 Pàtidesaniya were four offences which required only confession pointing out') .

3 Thus the offences were grave, secondary, minor and trivial. All these may be read in Vinaya Piñaka.

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the faithless and to confirm the faithful. Brethren, inasmuch as the lesser practices have been ordained by me for this purpose, so a brother becomes one who fulfils the whole training, consistent, unblemished, unvaried, and, having undertaken the rules of the training, keeps them.

Again, brethren, the practices leading to the highest purity of life have been ordained by me for disciples for the proper and entire ending of sorrow. Brethren, inasmuch as the practices have been ordained by me for this purpose so a brother becomes one who fulfils the whole of the training ... This is the benefit of the training.

Brethren, what is the higher wisdom?

Herein, brethren, the Norm* has been proclaimed by me to the disciples for the proper and entire ending of sorrow. Inasmuch as, brethren, the Norm has been so ordained by me, a brother sees the Norm with the eye of wisdom. Verily, brethren, this is the higher wisdom.

Brethren, what is the reality of emancipation?

Herein, brethren, the Norm was proclaimed by me to the disciples for the entire and complete ending of sorrow. Inasmuch as the Norm has been so ordained by me (as above) ... a brother has attained to the realisation of the Norm through emancipation.

Verily, brethren, this is the reality of emancipation.

Brethren what is the mastery of mindfulness? (Saying) `Thus shall I fulfil the unfulfilled lesser practices, and the fulfilled lesser practices shall I now safeguard with wisdom' -so personal mindfulness is well established. `Thus shall I fulfil the unfulfilled practices leading to the highest purity of life, and the fulfilled practices leading to the highest

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1 Dhammà-Catusacca-dhammà, `the Four Truths'

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purity of life shall I now safeguard with wisdom,--so is personal mindfulness well-established. `Thus shall I see with the eye of wisdom the Norm that has not been so seen, and the Norm seen with the eye of wisdom shall I now safeguard with wisdom'-so personal mindfulness is well established. `Thus shall I realise through emancipation the unattained Norm, and the Norm attained through emancipation shall I now safeguard with wisdom,'-so personal mindfulness is well established. Verily, brethren, this is the mastery of mindfulness.

Brethren, this holy life is lived for the benefit of the training, for the higher wisdom, for the sake of the reality of emancipation and for the mastery of mindfulness. Whatsoever has been thus spoken, this is the reason why it was so spoken.

(4) Postures

Brethren, there are these four postures. What four?

The posture of the peta (ghost) , the posture of the sensual person, the lion-like posture and the posture of the Accomplished One.

Brethren, what is the posture of the peta?

Brethren, usually the petas lie down supine.* This is said to be the posture of the petas.

Brethren, what is the posture of the sensual person?

As a rule the sensual person lies down on his left side.

This is said to be the posture of the sensual person.*

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1 Comy, says `because they have little flesh and blood.'

2 The reason for this is not explained. The word means `one who lives at his ease.'

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Brethren, what is the lion-like posture?

The lion, king of beasts, lies down on his right side, having placed one leg on another and inserted his tail between the thighs. When he awakes, he raises the upper part of the body and looks round at the lower part of the body. Then, brethren, if he sees any part of the body displaced or out of order,*' the lion, king of beasts, is displeased at it. But if, brethren, the lion, king of beasts, does not see any part of the body displaced or out of order, then he is pleased at it. Brethren, this is said to be the lion-like posture.

Brethren, what is the posture of the'Accomplished One?

Herein, brethren, a brother aloof from sensual pleasures (i.e., sitting with body erect and breathing in and out regularly) attains to and abides in the Fourth Rapture. This is said to be the posture of the Accomplished One.

Verily, brethren, there are these four postures.

(5) Monuments*

Brethren, there are these four persons worthy of a monument. What four?

The Accomplished One, the Arahant, the Supremely Enlightened, is worthy of a monument, a Pacceka Buddha is so worthy, a disciple of the Accomplished One is so worthy, likewise a universal monarch. Verily, brethren, these four persons are worthy of a monument.

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I Comy. 'saying to himself, ßthis is not a dignified posture for such as you.û

2 C.f. Mahàpar. Sutta (Digh. ii, 143) where the reasons are given, viz., ' to awaken feelings of faith and reverence, which will ensure rebirth in the heaven world'.

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(6) Wisdom

Brethren, these four things lead to the growth of wisdom. What four? Association with good men, listening to the Norm, wise reflection and practice of the complete righteousness of the Norm.

Verily, brethren, these four things lead to the growth of wisdom.

(7) Service

Brethren, there are these four things, which are of great service to a human being. What four? [Repeat the same four as in Discourse (6) .]

(8) Un-Ariyan Practices*

Brethren, there are these four un-Ariyan practices. What four? Declaring as seen what was not seen; declaring as heard what was not heard; declaring as sensed what was not sensed; and declaring as imagined what was not imagined.

Verily, brethren, there are these four un-Ariyan practices.

(9) Ariyan Practices

Brethren, there are these four Ariyan practices. What four? (The opposite of the above.)

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1 This Discourse is given as part of Discourse (6) in P.T.S. edition.

2 Cf. D.N. iii, 232.

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(10) Un-Ariyan Practices

Brethren, there are these four un-Ariyan practices. What four? (The same as (8) in reverse order.)

(11) Ariyan Practices. (a)

Brethren, there are these four Ariyan practices. What four? (The same as (9) in reverse order.)

(12) Ariyan Practices* (b)

Brethren, there are also these four Ariyan practices.* What Four?

He who has seen says he has seen; he who has heard says he has heard; he who has sensed says he has sensed and he who has imagined says he has imagined. Verily, brethren, there are these four Ariyan practices.

(CHAPTER XXV: ON FEAR OF OFFENCE ENDS)

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1 This Discourse is omitted from the P.T.S. Edition.

2 These are like the qualifications of a Tathàgata, e.g., `as He says, so He does; as He does, so He says; therefore is He called Tathàgata.'