CHAPTER XXIV
ON DEEDS'

(1) Dark and Bright (a)

BRETHREN, there are these four (kinds of) deeds,* which I myself have realised from personal experience and made known. What four?

Brethren, there is a dark deed with a dark result.* There is a bright deed with a bright result. There is a dark and bright deed with a dark and bright result. There is also a deed that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright,, which leads to the cessation of deeds.*

Verily, brethren, there are these four (kinds of) deeds,which I have myself realised from personal experience and made known.

(2) -Dark and Bright (b)

Brethren, there are these four (kinds of) deeds, which I have myself realised from personal experience and made

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1 Kamma: perhaps it is better to retain the Pàli word.

2 Comy., i.e. kàlakaü, the ten demeritorious deeds, leading to rebirth in apàyas. See D. N. iii, 230.

3 The latter is the indifferent action of the Arahant, which has no result to himself, because it is freed from the pairs of opposites (lobha-dosa-moha.)

292 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 231

known. What four? [Repeat the same four as in Discourse (1) above.]

Brethren, what is the dark deed with a dark result?

Herein, brethren, a certain one stores up bodily action accompanied by malevolence, vocal action and work of mind accompanied by malevolence. Having so stored up action, he is reborn into a world full of malevolence. Being so born, he meets with painful contacts. Having met with painful contacts, he feels exceedingly painful feelings, such as the creatures in purgatory feel. Brethren, this is said to be the dark deed.with the dark result.

Brethren, what is the bright deed with the bright result?

Herein, brethren [repeat the converse of the above] ... . Such as the Subhakiõha devas feel. Brethren, this is said to be the bright deed with the bright result.

Brethren what is the dark and bright deed with the dark and bright result?

Herein, brethren, a certain one stores up bodily action through both malevolence and kindness, vocal action and work of thought ... Having met with both painful and pleasant contacts, he feels feelings which are beset and mixed with both pain and pleasure, such as human beings, certain of the devas and certain beings in the states of woe feel.* Brethren, this is said to be the dark and bright deed with the dark and bright result.

Brethren, what is the deed that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright, which leads to the cessation of deeds?

Herein, brethren, whatsoever dark deed with dark result there be, accompanied by the will to abandon such deed

1 E.g., abodes of petas, which oscillate between two worlds.

xxiv. Section 232] On Deeds 293

whatsoever bright deed with bright result there be, accompanied by the will to abandon such deed; whatsoever dark and bright deed with dark and bright result there be, accompanied by the will to abandon such deed: this, brethren, is said to be the deed that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright, which leads to the cessation of deed.*

Verily, brethren, there are these four kinds of deeds which I myself have realised from personal experience and made known.

(3) Inefectiveness of Deed ©

Once Sikha (the top-knot) Moggallàna, a bràhmin, came to the Exalted One ... and said thus to Him:

"Master Gotama, yesterday or the day before yesterday Soõakàyana' (dog-fancier) , a youth, came to where I was. Having come he told me thus: ` Gotama the recluse doclares the ineffectiveness * of all deeds. In sooth he who so declares thereby declares the annihilation of the world."

" Indeed, bràhmin, I am not aware of having even seen the youth Soõakàyana; much less do I know of such talk.

Bràhmin, there are these four kinds of deed, which I myself have realised from personal experience and made known. What four?

[Repeat the same as in -Discourse (2) above.]

1 [Comy. Here the Path-will leading to release from the Round is to be understood. This conduces to destruction of kamma.]

2 He was a pupil of Sikha Moggallàna. Comy.

3 Futility of Kamma'-the theory of Makkhali Gosà1a. Cf. A. i, 286; D. i, 53.

4 Loko is both satta a living being and also the outer world.

294 The Numerical Sayings [TENT ii, 233

(4) Dark and Bright (d)

Brethren, there are these four kinds of deed which I myself ... made known. What four? [Repeat the same four as above.]

Brethren, what is the dark deed with a dark result?Herein a certain one takes life, steals and so forth. This is said to be the dark deed with a dark result.

Brethren, what is the bright deed with bright result? Brethren, herein a certain one abstains from so doing. This is said to be the bright deed with bright result.

Brethren, what is the dark and bright deed with a.dark and bright result? Brethren, herein a certain (one) stores up, through both ill-will and kindness, action by deed, by word and by thought [continue as in -Discourse (2) above.]

Brethren, what is the deed that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright and which leads to the cessation of deeds? Brethren, herein whatsoever dark deed with dark result there be, if there be also the will to eliminate it [continue as in -Discourse (2) above,] ...

Verily, brethren, there are these four kinds of deed, which I myself have realised from personal experience and made known.

(5) *Dark and Bright (e)

Brethren, these four kinds of deed [The same four as above].

1 This Discourse appears as a separate Sutta in the Sinhalese Edition of the Text and I adopt if with the consequent alteration of the numbering.

xxiv. Section 235] On Deeds 295

Brethren, what is the dark deed with a black result?

Herein, brethren, a certain (person) is one who kills his mother, or his father, kills an Arahant; is one who with evil intent draws blood from an Accomplished One or brings about schism in the Order. Brethren, this is said to be dark deed with a dark result.

Brethren, what is the bright deed with a bright result?

Herein, brethren, a certain (one) abstains from killing, theft and so forth ... from frivolous talk, is free from covetousness and ill-will, and holds right views. Brethren, this is said to be the bright deed with a bright result.

Brethren, what is the dark and bright deed with a dark and bright result?

[Repeat the same as in Discourse (4) above to the end.]

(6) Dark and Bright

Brethren, these four kinds of deed ... [The same four as above, and the detailed explanation is the same as in -Discourse (2) but continue the fourth deed as follows: ]

Brethren, what is the deed that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright and which leads to the cessation of deed?

Right Views and so forth ... right concentration.

Brethren, this is said to be the deed that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright and which leads to the cessation of deed.

Verily, brethren, those four kinds of deed have I myself realised from personal experience and made known.

296 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 237

(7) Dark and Bright (g)

[Repeat the same as in the above Discourse (6) as to the first three kinds of Deed and continue thus.]

Brethren, what is the deed that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright, and which leads to the cessation of deed?

The Factor of Enlightenment * regarding mindfulness, regarding the search for truth, regarding energy, regarding joy, regarding serenity, regarding rapture and the Factor of Enlightenment regarding equanimity.

Verily, brethren, these four kinds of deed have, I myself realised from personal experience and made known.

(8) Lures to Hell and Heaven (a)

Brethren, he who is possessed of four things is reborn in purgatory, even as a load is laid, down. What four.?

Wrongful bodily action, wrongful action by word, and by thought, and wrongful views. Verily brethren, he who is so possessed of these four things is reborn in purgatory even as a load is laid down.

Brethren, he who is possessed of four things is reborn in heaven even as a load is laid down. What four?

Faultless bodily action, faultless action by word, by thought, and faultless views. Verily, brethren, he who is so possessed of these four things is reborn in heaven, even as a load is laid down.

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1 Satisambhojjhanga, etc.

xxiv. Section 239] On Deeds 297

(9) Lures to Hell and Heaven (b)

Brethren, whose is possessed of four things is reborn in purgatory ... What four?

Bodily action due to malevolence, action by word due to malevolence, action by thought due to malevolence and wrong views due to malevolence. Verily, brethren, whoso is possessed of these four things is reborn in purgatory even as a load is laid down.

Brethren, whoso is possessed of four things is reborn in heaven ... With what four?

Bodily action due to benevolence, action by word due to benevolence, action by thought due to benevolence and right views due to benevolence. Verily, brethren, whoso is possessed of these four things is reborn in heaven, even as a load is laid down.

(10) The Recluse

Brethren, herein* only is the recluse, herein only is the second recluse, herein only is the third recluse and herein only is the fourth recluse. Void of recluses are other systems. Therefore, brethren, do ye utter this supreme lion's roar.

And who brethren, is the recluse?

Herein, a brother having broken three fetters is become a Stream-winner, who is not liable to fall away and is

1 Comy. Idha=i masmiü sàsane, in this Norm and Discipline. Cf. Mahàparinibbana Suttanta, D. N. ii, 150. Commented on Vibhanga,p. 244: Paramattha-jotikà! ii, 161, and Sammoha-vinodani. [Those onthe Four Paths are meant.]

298 The Numerical Sayings [TFXT ii, 238

ssured of the final oal of Supreme Enlightenment.

Brethren, this is the recluse.

Brethren, who is the second recluse?

Herein, a brother, having already broken three fetters and worn down lust, ill-will and ignorance, becomes a Once-returner, and having come back once only to this world makes an end of Ill. Brethren, this is the second recluse.

Brethren, who is the third recluse?

Herein, a brother, having broken the five downward drawing fetters,* is apparitionally reborn (in a heaven) and not falling away from that realm, even there he passes away to Nibbana. Brethren, this is the third recluse.

Brethren, who is the fourth recluse?

Herein, brethren, a brother, having destroyed the àsavas, who is àsava-freed, emancipated in mind and heart ... in this very life, having realised by personal experience, attains and abides in the holy life. Brethren, this is the fourth recluse.

Verily, brethren, herein only is the recluse; herein only is the second recluse; herein only is the third recluse, and herein only is the fourth recluse. Void of recluses are the systems of other teachers. Wherefore, brethren, do ye utter this supreme lion's roar.*

(11) Blessings

From relying on a good man four blessings should be expected. What four?

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1 Pa¤ca orambhàgiyàni sa¤yojàni.

2 But some of our,` brethren"raise the jackal's howl-that there are Arahauts even in other systems.

xxiv. Section 240] On Deeds 299

One grows in the Ariyan conduct, one grows in the Ariyan concentration, in the Ariyan wisdom, and in the Ariyan emancipation.

From relying on a good man these four blessings may be expected.

(CHAPTER XXIV ON DEEDS ENDS)