CHAPTER XXIII
ON GOOD CONDUCT

(1) Word

BRETHREN, there are these four kinds of misconduct by word. What four?

False speech, malicious words, harsh language and frivolous talk. Verily, brethren, these are the four. Brethren, there are these four kinds of good conduct by word. What four?

Truthful speech, benevolent words, gentle lanuage and words of wise counsel. Verily, brethren, these are the four.

(2 to 9) Conduct and Views (a to h)

Brethren, being endowed with four things, the unwise, sinful, ignorant man bears himself about a lifeless uprooted thing, becomes blameworthy, is censured by the wise and stores up much demerit. With what four?

Misconduct by deed, misconduct by word, misconduct by thought and false views. Brethren, being endowed with these four things the unwise ... stores up much demerit.

xxiii. Section 223] On Good Conduct 289

Brethren, being endowed with four things, the wise, righteous, sensible man fares about full of life and welle stablished, is praised by the wise and stores up much merit. With what four?

With good conduct by deed, by word, by thought and with right views.

[The same as Discourse (2) above with `ingratitude' and `gratitude' substituted for `false views' and `right views' respectively.]

... He is one who takes life, steals, is unchaste, lies ... He is one who abstains from taking life, from theft, unchastity and lying ...

.. . He is one who has false views, false resolve, false words, wrong action ... He is one who has right views, right resolve, right words, right action ...

... He is one who says he saw what he has not seen ... He is one who says he has not seen what he has not seen ...

... He is one who says he did not see what he has seen ... He is one, who says he saw what he hasseen ...

He is without faith, sinful, immodest, unconscientious ... He is full of faith, virtuous, modest,conscientious ...

He is without faith, sinful, indolent and ignorant ... He is full of faith, virtuous, energetic and wise.

290 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 230

Brethren, being endowed with these four things the wise, righteous, sensible man fares about full of life and well-established, is praised by the wise and stores up much merit.

(10) Poets*

Brethren, there are these four kinds of poets. What four?

The original poet, the poet who versifies what he has heard, the didactic poet and the improvisor.

(CHAPTER XXIII: ON GOOD CONDUCT ENDS)

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1 See note to Dialogues, I, p. 22.

2 Buddhaghosa âcariya thus explains. Cinta-kavi, `who composes after thought'. Suta-kavi-`who puts into verse what he has heard.' Attha-kavi~ who composes with one aim in view. Pañibhàõa-kavi `who, like the Elder Vangisa, composes his works extempore 1.

[Is this Section an addition of later date? It seems to have no connexion with this chapter.]