CHAPTER XXI
ON MEN
*

(1) The Wicked Man and the Good Man (a)

ßBRETHREN, I shall explain to you the wicked man, the very wicked man, the good man and the very good man. Give ear and bear in mind what I say. I shall speak.û

ßYea, Lord,û those brethren responded to the Exalted One. The Exalted One spake thus:

ßBrethren, who is the wicked man? Brethren, herein a certain person is one who kills, who steals, who is unchaste, who lies, and drinks intoxicants. This, brethren, is said to be the wicked man.

Brethren, who is the very wicked man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is one who kills, steals and so forth. He also instigates others to do the same. This, brethren, is said to be the very wicked man.

Brethren, who is the good man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is one who abstains from killing, stealing and so forth. This, brethren, is said to be the good man.

Brethren, who is the exceedingly good man? Herein, brethren, a certain person himself abstains from killing,

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1 Purisà. The whole is found at Puggala P. IV, 1 (of Abhidhamma Pitaka) .

280 The Numerical Saying [TEXT ii, 218

stealing and so forth, and also instigates others to abstain from doing so. This, brethren, is said to be the very good man.

(2) The Wicked Man and the Good Man* (b)

Brethren, I shall explain to you the wicked man, the very wicked man, the good man and the very good man. Give ear and bear it well in mind. I shall speak.

Brethren, who is the wicked man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is without faith, is shameless, reckless, ignorant, indolent, scatter-brained, and is of little wisdom. This, brethren, is said to be the wicked man.

Brethren, who is the exceedingly wicked man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is himself without faith, is shameless and so forth, and also instigates others to be without faith, to be shameless and so forth (as above) . This brethren, is the very wicked man.

Brethren, who is the good man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is full of faith, is modest, conscientious, very learned, energetic, mindful and wise. This, brethren, is said to be the good man.

Brethren, who is the very good man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is himself endowed with faith and also instigates others to be so. He is himself modest and instigates others to be modest; he is himself conscientious and also instigates others to be so. He is himself very learned and also instigates others to become so. He is himself energetic and also instigates others to become so. He is himself mindful and instigates others to become so.

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1 Lit. `who is more wicked than the wicked'.

xii. 203] On Men 281

Himself endowed with wisdom, He instigates others to become endowed with wisdom this is said to be Brethren,the very good man.

(3) The Wicked Man and the Good Man ©

Brethren, I shall explain to you (as before) .

Brethren, who is the wicked man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is one who kills, steals, is unchaste, lies, indulges in malicious speech, harsh words and frivolous talk. Brethren, this is said to be the wicked man.

Brethren, who is the very wicked man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is himself one who kills and also instigates others to kill and so forth (as above) . Brethren, this is said to be the very wicked man.

Brethren, who is the good man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is one who abstains from killing and so forth (as above) . This, brethren, is said to be the good man. Brethren, who is the very good man? Herein, brethren,a certain person is himself one who abstains from killing and also instigates others to do so (as above) . Brethren, this is said to be the very good man.

(4) The Wicked Man and the Good Man (d)

Brethren, I shall explain to you (as above) .

Brethren, who is the wicked man? Herein,brethren, a certain person is one who kills and so forth, and indulges in frivolous talk, is full of covetousness and ill-will, and is

282 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 220

also one who holds false views. Brethren, this is said to be the wicked man.

Brethren, who is the very wicked man? Brethren, a certain person is one who himself kills, steals and so forth, and also instigates others to kill, steal and so forth, is himself covetous and also instigates others to be so, is himself given to ill-will and instigates others to harbour ill-will, and himself holds false views and also instigates others to have false views. Brethren, this is said to be the very wicked man.

Brethren, who is the good man? [The converse of the above.]

Brethren, who is the very good man? [The converse of the above.]

(5) The Wicked Man and the Good Man (e)

Brethren, I shall explain to you (as before) ...

Brethren, who is the wicked man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is a man of wrong views, wrong aspirations, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong aims, wrong mindfulness and wrong concentration. Brethren, this is said to be the wicked man.

Brethren, who is the very wicked man? Brethren, a certain person is one who himself holds wrong views and also instigates others to have them (as above) .

Brethren, who is the good man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is one who holds right views (as above) .

Brethren, who is the very good man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is himself one who holds right views and

xxi. [206] On Men 283

also instigates others to have right views and so forth (as above) .

(6) The Wicked Man and the Good Man (f)

Brethren, I shall explain to you (as before) .

Brethren, who is the wicked man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is one who holds false views and so forth is one who has perverted knowledge and perverted emancipation.* Brethren, this is said to be the wicked man.

Brethren, who is the very wicked man? Herein, brethren, a certain person is one who himself holds false views and instigates others to hold them and so forth. He is himself one who possesses perverted knowledge and is himself one who has won perverted emancipation. Also he instigates others to do the like. This is said to be the very wicked man.

Brethren, who is the good man? [The converse of the above.]

Brethren, who is the very good man [The converse of the above.]

(7) The Sinful and the Virtuous (a) *

Brethren, I shall explain to you the sinful man, the exceedingly sinful man, the man of goodly nature and the man of exceeding goodly nature. Listen [as above].

Brethren, who is the sinful man?

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1 i.e., he thinks he is an Arahant, etc., when he is not.

2 Repeated at Puggala P., iv, 2. Pàpo and kalyàna (`lovely') .

284 The Numerica Sayings [TEXT ii, 224

[This Section is the as 204, with the addition of `holding wrong views' and ` holding right views'.]

(8) The Sinful and the Virtuous (b)

[This &ction is the same as the last in its first paragraph and [206.]

(9) Of Evil and Goodly Nature (a)

Brethren, I shall explain to you the man of evil nature, the man of exceedingly evil nature, the man of goodly nature and the man of exceedingly goodly nature.

[Repeat the same as in Discourse (7) above.]

(10) Of Evil and Goodly Nature (b)

Brethren, I shall explain to you the man of evil nature, the man of exceedingly evil nature, the man of goodly nature and the man of exceedingly goodly nature.

[Repeat the same as in Discourse (8) above.]

(CHAPTER XXI ON MEN ENDS)