CHAPTER XX
THE GREAT CHAPTER

(1) Blessings

BRETHREN, four blessings should be expected from listening to with the ear, constant recitation with the voice, careful consideration with the mind and penetration of the Norm through insight*. What four?

Herein, brethren, a brother masters the Norm consisting of the Suttas ... Vedalla.* He thus listens to, constantly recites, carefully ponders over and penetrates the Norm. When he dies bewildered*' in mind and is reborn in a certain assembly of devas, there the blissful ones recite to him the stanzas of the Norm. Brethren, the arising of mindfulness is slow, but such a being quickly achieves distinction therein.* Brethren, this is the first blessing that should be expected from listening to, constant recitation, careful consideration and penetration of the Norm through insight.

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1 Diññiyà. Comy. says `himself penetrates it by his wisdom both as regards sense and cause.'

2 See suppra, P. 8.

3 Comy. says `he is still a puthujjana' One dying without reaching the Paths is said to die with mindfulness not established. lp in(Itaines

4 Comy. `He becomes nibbàna-gàmin (bound for the goal) .'

240 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 186

Again, brethren, a brother masters the Norm consisting of the Suttas, etc. He thus listens to; [as above] and is reborn in an assembly of devas. There the blissful ones do not recite to him the stanzas of the Norm; but a brother possessed of psychic powers, who has mastered his mind, proclaims the Norm to the assembly of devas. Then this thought occurs to him (the former) This is indeed that Norm and Discipline, according to which I lived the holy life in my previous existence.' Brethren, slow is the arising of mindfulness. Yet that being quickly achieves distinction therein.

Brethren, just as a person skilled in the sounds of drums, having entered a road, hears the sound of a drum, and has no doubt or uncertainty as to whether it is the sound of a drum or not. Then he concludes that it is surely the sound of a drum. Just so, brethren, a brother masters the Norm consisting of the Suttas, etc. Then he listens to [as above]. Then indeed that being quickly achieves distinction therein. Brethren, this is the second blessing that should be expected from listening to, constant recitation, careful consideration and penetration of the Norm through insight.

Again, brethren, a brother masters the Norm consisting of the Suttas (and so forth) . There the blissful ones do not recite to him the stanzas of the Norm, nor does a brother possessed of psychic powers, who has mastered his mind, proclaim the Norm; but some son of a deva* proclaims the Norm to the assembly of devas. Then this thought occurs to him: `Whatever holy life I led in a former existence, this is indeed that same Norm and Discipline.'

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1 Comy. `such as Sanaükumàra or others.''

xx. [191] The Great Chapter 241

Brethren, slow is the arising of mindfulness. But indeed that being quickly attains distinction therein.

Brethren, just as a person skilled in the sounds of conch-trumpets, having entered a road, hears the sound of a conch-trumpet and has indeed no doubt or uncertainty as to whether it is the sound of a conch-trumpet or not. Then he concludes that it is certainly the sound of a conch-trumpet. Just so, brethren, a brother masters the Norm consisting of the Sutias ... Then he listens to [as above]. Then indeed that being quickly achieves distinction therein. Brethren, this is the third blessing that should be expected from listening to (the Norm) .

And again, brethren, a brother masters the Norm consisting of the, Suttas, etc., and is reborn ... There the blissful ones do not recite ... nor does a brother possessed of psychic powers, who has mastered his mind, preach the Norm, nor does a deva proclaim the Norm. But a being of apparitional rebirth reminds another of a similar rebirth thus: `Do you remember, Sir? Do you remember, Sir, when we in a former existence led the holy life?' Slow brethren, is the arising of mindfulness, but this being quickly achieves distinction therein.

Just as, brethren, two companions, who once played at mud-huts together,* at some time or other meet and one of them asks the other thus: " Friend, do you remember this, do you remember that?' And the other replies: `Friend, I do indeed remember; friend, I do indeed remember.' So also, brethren, a brother masters the Norm consisting of Suttas (and so forth) . Then indeed that being quickly achieves distinction therein. Brethren, this is the

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1 The child's game of `sand-castles'. Cf. S. N. iii, 188.

242 The Nuinerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 187

fourth blessing that should be expected from listening to, constant recitation, careful consideration and penetration of the Norm through insight.

Those four blessings, brethren, should be expected (as above) .

(2) Conduct, Integrity, Firmness and Wisdom

Brethren, these four things should be known with (the aid of) four other things What four?

Brethren, good conduct should be known, by living together and that only after a long time, and not by giving the matter a mere passing thought; by an attentive person, not by an inattentive person, and by a wise man and not by a fool. Brethren, a man's integrity should be known by his dealings and that only after a long time . (as before) ... fool ... Brethren, a man's firmness should be known in misfortunes and that only after a long time ... (as before) ... fool ... Brethren, a man's wisdom should be known by his conversation and that only after a long time ... (as before) ... fool. Brethren, good conduct should be known and that only after a long time and not by giving the matter a mere passing thought, and not by paying little heed to it. It needs a man of insight and not a fool.

Verily, it has been so said and why was it so said?

Herein, brethren, a person living together with another knows: `Verily, this venerable one for a long time

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1 Cf. Udàna, 65, where King Pasenadi asks the Master, `how is one to know an Arahant?'

xx. [192] The Great Chapter 243

was a breaker of moral practices, inconsistent, varied and blemished, not a doer of good and not of good behaviour this venerable one is sinful and is not of right conduct.'

Herein, brethren, a person living together with another person knows thus `Verily this venerable one has been practising the whole of the precepts, faultless, unvaried and unblemished, and he is a doer of good and of good behaviour; this venerable one is of good conduct and this venerable one is not a sinful person.'

Brethren, from. living together should be known good conduct, and that only after a long time (as before) . Verily, it has been so said and this is why it was so said.

Brethren, a man's integrity should be known by his dealings, and that only after a long time (as before) . Verily, it has been so said and why was it so said?

Herein, brethren, a person dealing with another person knows thus: `Verily this venerable one expresses one thing to one person, a different thing to two persons, another thing to three persons, and still another thing to many persons; he contradicts * his first speech by his later words. This venerable one is of impure words: this venerable one is not of pure words.'

Herein, brethren, a person dealing with another knows thus: `Verily, whenever this venerable one expresses one. thing to one person, so does he speak to two, three or many (persons) ; this venerable one does not contradict his first speech by his later words. This venerable one is of pure words, not of impure words.'

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1 Okkamati, falls away from.

244 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 188

Brethren, a man's integrity * should be known by his dealings and that only (as before) ... Verily it has been so said and this is why it was so said.

Brethren, a man's firmness should be known in his misfortunes, and that only after a long time (as before) . Verily it has been so said and why was it so said?

Herein, brethren, a certain one, being affected by the loss of relatives, of property, or the misfortune of sickness, considers thus: `Verily, thus-come-to-be * is living in the world . thus is being reborn as an individual. When there is living in the world and when there is being reborn as an individual, eight things of this world keep the world rolling on; the world also keeps eight things of this world rolling on, to wit: gain and loss, fame and disgrace, praise and blame, happiness and pain.'

So he, being thus affected by the loss of relatives ... is distressed, wails, and weeps, beating his breast and becomes bewildered.

Herein, brethren, a certain one being affected by the loss of relatives ... considers thus; `Verily, thus-come-to-be is living in the world, thus-come-to-be is being reborn as an individual and (as before) he becomes bewildered.

Brethren, in his misfortunes should be, known a man's firmness (as before) ... Verily, it has been so said, and this is why it was so said.

Brethren, by a man's conversation should be known his wisdom, and that only after a long time (as before) ... Verily it has been so said, and why was it so said?

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1 Soceyyü.

2 Evaü-bhàto.

xx. [192] The Great Chapter 245

Herein, brethren, a person by conversing with (another) person knows thus: `Verily, this venerable one's approach to a question' is such, his line of thought is such, his treatment of questions' is such, that this venerable one must be poor in wisdom, this venerable one is not possessed of wisdom." What is the reason therefor?

This venerable one does not indeed utter a deep and beneficial saying which is according to truth, excellent, not to be grasped by mere logic, subtle and comprehensible only by the wise: whatsoever Norm this venerable one declares, he is unable, either in brief or in detail, to explain, set forth, disclose, establish, bring out, analyse and bring to the surface its true meaning. This venerable one is of poor wisdom, this venerable one is not possessed of wisdom.

Just as if a keen-sighted man standing on the bank of a lake sees a small fish rise up and thinks thus: `Such and such is the way of the rising of this fish.' Then judging by the size of the ripple (caused by it) he says `This fish is small; this fish is not big. So also, brethren, one man conversing with another knows thus: (as before down to) ... not possessed of wisdom.'

Herein, brethren, a person holding converse with (another) person knows thus: `According to this venerable one's way, of approaching a question, and judging by his line of thought, and his treatment of questions, this

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1 Ummaggo. Comy. pa¤th'ummaggo; supra text,,P,177. Comy. at Sn. A. 50 "says ummaggo pa¤tha pavuccati. The word means `a tunnel, an underhand way': then, `a devious course'. Here it seems to mean .patipadà.

2 Sinh. Comy. reads samudàhàro for the P. text's pa¤ha-samudàcàro.We might translate: `attitude towards.'

246 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 190

venerable one is of poor wisdom, is not possessed of wisdom.' What is the reason therefor?

Whenever this venerable one declares the Norm, he utters a deep and beneficial saying, which is according to truth* excellent, not to be grasped by mere logic, subtle and to be grasped only by the wise; and he is able, either in brief or in detail, to explain, set forth, declare, establish, bring out, analyse, and bring to the surface its true meaning. This venerable one is possessed of wisdom; he is not of poor wisdom.'

Just as if, brethren, a person with good eyes and standing on the bank of a lake sees a big fish rise up and thinks thus: `Judging by the way of rising of this fish and by the size of the ripple (caused by it) , this fish is not small so also, brethren, a person holding converse with (another) person knows thus: `Judging by this venerable one's way of approach to a question, by his line of thought and his treatment of questions he is poor in wisdom and not possessed of wisdom.' What is the reason therefor?

Whenever this venerable one declares the Norm, he utters a deep and beneficial saying which is according to truth * ... (as before) he is possessed of wisdom, this venerable one is not of poor wisdom.

Verily, brethren, a man's wisdom should be known by conversation, and that after a long time ... It has been so said, and this is why it was so said.

Verily, brethren, these four things should be known with (the aid of) these other four things.

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1 Comy. `not contrary to the teachings'.

xx. [193] The Great Chapter 247

(3) * The Trick of Glamour

Once the Exalted One dwelt at Vesàli, in the Gable-roofed Hall in Great Wood. Now Bhaddiya the Licchavi came to the Exalted One and addressed the Exalted One thus:

"Lord, I have heard this Gotama the recluse is a charmer and knows a trick of glamour, whereby he entices the followers of other sects.' Lord, they, who say these words are perhaps sayers of what has been said by the Exalted One, and do not misrepresent the Exalted One by saying something that is not (true) , and they explain it according to the truth of the Norm; so that no one who is of his doctrine and a sharer of his views would render himself liable to blame (by mis-stating what the Exalted One says) . Indeed, Lord, we ourselves desire not to misrepresent the Exalted One."

Come now, Bhaddiya, accept not on hearsay, nor by tradition, nor by what people say.* Accept not because it is in the scriptures,* by mere logic, nor by inference, nor by consideration of appearances, not because it accords with your view, nor [because you think it must be right] out of respect, with the thought `one must revere a recluse'. But, Bhaddiya, if at any time you know of yourself-' these are sinful conditions, these are wrongful, these are reproached by the wise and these, when

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1 Cf. A. iii. [65 [of Vol. 1] where similar advice is given to the Kàlàmas.

2 Iti-kiràya.

3 The Tipitaka were not yet in existence, but the word pitaka seems to have been in common use for Brahminical collections learned by heart, as well as for Buddhist ones.

248 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 191 248

accomplished and undertaken, conduce to loss and pain'--then, Bhaddiya, eschew them. Now as to this, what think you, Bhaddiya? When greed arises in the mind of a person, is it to his loss or not?

"To his loss, Lord."

"Does not this greedy person, overcome by avarice and with mind overpowered, kill living beings, steal, commit adultery and tell lies; also does he not urge others to do so to their loss and pain for a long time?

"It is so, Lord."

"What think you, Bhaddiya? When thoughts of ill-will and confusion of mind and vindictiveness * arise in the mind of a person, is it to his loss or not?

"To his loss, Lord."

"Bhaddiya, does this vindictive person, overcome by desire for vindictiveness, (as before said) instigate others to do so to their loss and pain for a long time?

"Yes, Lord."

"What think you, Bhaddiya? Are these conditions conducive to merit or demerit?

"To demerit, Lord."

"Are they wrongful or not?"

"Wrongful, Lord."

"Are they reproached or praised by the wise?"

"Reproached by the wise, Lord."

"When undertaken and accomplished, do they conduce to loss and pain or not? What think you?

"O Lord, when undertaken and accomplished they conduce to loss and pain-this is my opinion."

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1 Comy. says, speech marked by angry retort.'

xx. [193] The Great Chapter 249

"Of a truth, Bhaddiya, as to these my words `Come, Bhaddiya, accept not on hearsay (as before) ... eschew it'-this is why they were so said.

Come, now Bhaddiya, accept not on hearsay ... (as above) . But if at any time you know of yourself -`these conditions are meritorious, these are blameless, these are praised by the wise, and these when accomplished and undertaken are conducive to advantage and happiness -then, Bhaddiya, dwell you performing them. Now what think you, Bhaddiya? Do thoughts free from greed arising in the mind of a person tend to his advantage or not?" "

"To his advantage, Lord."

"If one who is free from greed and not overcome by avarice and who, his mind not being overpowered, neither kills living beings, nor steals, nor commits adultery, nor tells lies, nor instigates others therein, is it not to his advantage and happiness for a long time

"It is so, Lord."

"What think you, Bhaddiya? Do thoughts free from anger and ignorance and vindictiveness arise in the mind of a person to his advantage or disadvantage?

"To his advantage, Lord."

"What think you, Bhaddiya? Are these thoughts meritorious or demeritorious?

"Meritorious, Lord?

"Are they wrongful or blameless?"

"Blameless, Lord."

"Are they condemned or praised by the wise?"

"Praised by the wise, Lord."

"When undertaken and accomplished, do they oonduce to advantage and happiness or not?" What is your opinion?"

250 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 193

"When undertaken and accomplished they do conduce to advantage and happiness-this is my opinion."

'Of a truth, Bhaddiya, as to what I said: `Come Bhaddiya, accept not on hearsay (repeat as above) ... this is why it was so said.

Now, Bhaddiya, some good and kind man in the world exhorts his pupil thus: `Come you, my dear man, dwell controlling (thoughts of) avarice. So dwelling you will not commit acts born of avarice, either by body, word or thought. Dwell controlling ill-will and ignorance, and so dwelling you will not commit acts born of ill-will and ignorance, either by body, word or thought."'

At these words, Bbaddiya the Licchavi exclaimed: `O marvellous, Lord! O wonderful, Lord! ... May the Exalted One accept me as a lay-disciple, who has taken Him as Guide from this day forth, as long as life endures."

"But, Bhaddiya, have I said thus: `Come you. Bhaddiya, become my disciple. I shall be your teacher?"

"Not so, Liord."

"Then, Bhaddiya, those recluses and brahmins, who wrongly reproach me with being a teacher and proclaimer of such views are false, empty liars,* when they say: `The recluse Gotama is a charmer and knows a trick of glamour,whereby He entices the followers of other sects.'"

"A lucky* thing indeed, O Lord-a fair find is this trick of glamour! Lord, would that my beloved blood-relations were enticed by this same trick of glamour! It would indeed conduce to their advantage and happiness for a long

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1 Maudlin sentimentalists of the present day may take exception to such plain speaking, calling it `uncharitable'. But the Master was not an `opportunist' out for popularity.

2 Read bhaddaku, for text's bhaddika.

xx [194] The Great Chapter 251

time! Lord, would that all the warrior clans were enticed by this same trick of glamour, it would indeed conduce to their advantage and happiness for a long time." [Repeat the same as to bràhmins and the lower castes.]

It is so, Bhaddiya! It is so Bhaddiya! If all the warrior clans, enticed by this trick of glamour, were to eschew sinful conditions, it would be to their advantage and happiness for a long time. [Repeat the same as to the bràhmins and the lower castes.]

Of a truth, Bhaddiya, if this world and the world of devas, Màras and Brahmàs, with the host of recluses and bràhmins, with devas and men, enticed by this same trick were to eschew sinful conditions and promote meritorious conditions, it would be to their advantage and happiness for a long time indeed!

Verily, Bhaddiya, if these two* great Sàla trees,* enticed by this same trick of glamour, were to eschew sinful conditions and produce meritorious conditions, it would indeed conduce to their advantage and happiness for a long time, if (of course) they could only think.* How much more then if they wore to become human!"

(4) Exertions to Purity

Once the venerable ânanda dwelt among the Koliyans in the Koliyan township named Sàpåga. Then many Koliyan

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1 P.T.S. text has ce, but Sin. text and B. Comy. read dve (two) . It seems that there were two sàla trees before the Master at the time.

2 C. Shorea robusta.

3 Sace ceteyyuü. (probablv 1 if they wore conscious') refers to doe S edition Punctuates wrongly.

252 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 195

townsmen of Sàpnåga came to where the venerable ânanda was.Having come and made obeisance to ânanda they took seats at one side. The venerable ânanda then addressed the Koliyan townsmen of Sàpåga so seated as follows:

"O ye Vyagghapajjas,*these four constituents of exertion to purity have been well proclaimed by Him who knows and sees, that Exalted One, Arahant, Buddha Supreme, for the purification of living beings, the transcending of grief and lamentation, the disappearance of pain of body and mind, the attainment of knowledge and the realisation of Nibbàna. What four?

The constituent of exertion to purity of conduct, of mind, of views and of emancipation. "O Vyagghapajjas, what is the constituent of exertion to purity in conduct?

Herein a brother is of righteous conduct and having undertaken the Precepts he practises them.

This, O Vyagghapajjas, is said to be purity of conduct `Any unfulfilled purity of conduct shall I fulfil, or if already fulfilled I shall safeguard it on such and such occasions.' Whatever resolution, striving, endeavour, exertion, effort, mindfulness and attention there be, this is said to be the constituent of the exertion to purity of conduct.

And what, O Vyagghapajjas, is the constituent of exertion to purity of mind?

Herein, a brother being aloof from sensual Pleasures as above attains to and abides in the Fourth Rapture.This is said to be purity of mind, thus: `Any unfulfilled purity of mind shall I fulfil, or if fulfilled I shall

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1 Vyagghapajja,' leopards' way' was another name for the Koliya eountry.

xx. [195] The Great Chapter 253

guard it on such and such occasions.' Whatever resolution [as before] ... purity in mind.

And what, O Vyagghapajjas, is the constituent of exertion to purity of views?

Herein, a brother knows as it really is, `This is Ill, this is lll's cause, this is Ill's ceasing and this the Path to Ill's ceasing.' This is said to be purity of views, thus: `Any unfulfilled purity in views ... on such and such occasions.' Whatever resolution (as before) ... Of views.

And what, Vyagghapajjas, is the constituent of exertion to purity of emancipation?

This same Ariyan disciple who is endowed with this constituent of exertion to purity of mind, of views and emancipation, divests his mind of lustful conditions and frees his mind of thoughts from which it should be freed. Having done so, he attains to the supreme emancipation. This, Vyagghapajjas, is said to be purity of emancipation, thus: `Any unfulfilled [as before] ... ' purity in emancipation.

Vefily, Vyagghapajjas, these four constituents of purity have been well proclaimed by Him who knows and sees, that Exalted Arahant, Buddha Supreme, for the purification of living beings, for the transcending of grief and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain of body and mind, for the attainment of knowledge and the realisation of Nibbana.

(5) The âsavas

Once the, Exalted One dwelt among the Sàkyans in Banyan-tree Park, at Kapilavatthu. Then, Vappa* the

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1 Vappa was a Sakyan King, and uncle of Prince Siddhattha. (comy.)

254 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 196

Sakyan, an adherent of the Niganthas, came to the venerable MahàMoggallàna and sat down ... To him said the venerable MahàMoggallàna:

"Vappa, if in this Norm and Discipline one can be restrained in deed, word and thought, having divested himself of ignorance and acquired knowledge,--Vappa, do you see any reason why the àsavas* causing painful feelings, should flow in upon such a person in future time?

"Sir, I see this reason, namely, that if a person has formerly committed sinful deeds, which have not yet borne fruit, that is the reason why the àsavas, causing painful feelings, should flow in upon such a person in future time."

Such was the talk which was left unfinished' between the venerable Mahàmoggallgna and Vappa, the Sakyan, an adherent of the Niganthas.

Now at the same time the Exalted One at eventide having risen from His solitude came to the service-hall. Having come, He sat down on the seat prepared for Him. So seated, the Exalted One said to the venerable MahàMoggallàna:

"What was the subject, Moggallàna, that you were seated here discussing, and what was the talk between you that has just been broken off?"

"Just now, Lord, I said this to Vappa the Sakyan, adherent of the Niganthas: `Vappa, if in this Norm and Discipline one be restrained in deed, word and thought, having divested himself of ignorance and acquired knowledge-Vappa, do you see any reason why the asavas,

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1 `Intoxicants.' See supra, [10.

2 Text assaveyyuüz or anvàssaveyyuü, i.e., anu-àsaveyyuü.

3 Vippakatà.

xx, [. 195] The Great Chapter 255

causing painful feelings, should flow in upon such a person in future time?

When this was said, Lord, Vappa, the Sakyan, adherent of the Nigaõñthas, said thus to me "Sir, I see such reason, (as above) . Such, Lord, was my talk with Vappa, the Sakyan, adherent of the Nigaõñhas, when the Exalted One approached.'

Then, the Exalted One said to Vappa:

"Now then, Vappa, if you were to permit me what is allowable and refuse me what should be refused, and if you misunderstand the meaning of what I say, you should at once question me thus: `Lord, how is this, and what is the meaning of this?' We might have a talk on this subject."

I will gladly permit the Exalted One what is allowable and refuse Him what should be refused. If I do not understand the meaning of anything uttered by the Exalted One, I shall at once question the Exalted One (saying) `Lord, how is this, and what is the meaning of this? Let this be (the mode of) our conversation on the matter."

"Well, what think you, Vappa? Whatever àsavas causing bodily pain and mental distress may arise owing to bodily action, there are no such àsavas for him who abstains, for he makes no new Kamma. He does not store up new Kamma, and he has extinguished old Kamma by experiencing it and by the visible destruction of it, which is immediate and open to all, leads to Nibbàna and may be realised individually by the wise. Now, Vappa, do you see any reason why the àsavas, causing painful feelings, should flow in upon such a person in future time?

"Indeed, I do not, Lord."

256 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii. 198

"Now what think you, Vappa? [Repeat the same as to `words,' `thoughts' and `ignorance']

"Thus, Vappa, by a brother well emancipated in mind six continual states * are attained. Seeing a form with the eye, he is neither pleased nor dejected, but dwells in equanimity, mindful and self-possessed. Hearing a sound with the ear, smelling an odour with the nose, tasting a savour with the tongue, feeling a contact with the body or conceiving a thought with the mind, he is neither pleased nor dejected, but dwells with equanimity, mindful and self possessed. Feeling a sensation*-that his bodily powers have reached their limit, he knows that it is so. Feeling a sensation that life has reached its limits, he knows that it is so. He knows that upon the dissolution of the body, when life becomes extinct, everything here (in this life) , all experiences that did not delight him, will grow cold.

"Just as, Vappa, a shadow is cast by a tree-trunk.; then if a man with hoe and basket cuts the tree at the root, having cut at the root digs round it a trench, and having so done pulls out the roots, the little roots and the fibres. Then suppose he breaks up the trunk into fragments having broken it up into fragments he splits it; having split it he reduces it to small pieces; having reduced to small pieces he dries it up with sun and air. Having dried it up with sun and air he burns it with fire; having burnt it with fire he reduces it to ashes, winnows it before a high wind or causes it to be carried away by the rapid torrent of a river. Then surely, Vappa, the shadow cast

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1 Cha satatà-vihàrà . Comy. explains as `six chronic states'. Cf. D.

iii, 250, nicca or nibaddha.

2 S. N., ii, 83.

3 Cf. S. N. ii, 88, for this often recurring simile.

xx. [196] The Great Chapter 257

by that tree is thus destroyed, like a palm-tree with its roots cut and base destroyed and rendered unable to sprout again.

Likewise, Vappa, by a brother well emancipated in mind six continual states are attained. Seeing a form with the eye ... (as above) ... cold."

When this was uttered, Vappa, the Sakyan, adherent of the Niganthas, said thus to the Exalted One:

"Just as, Lord, a person desirous of increase in wealth breeds horses as an article of trade,* but yet does not increase in wealth, and further becomes a partaker of fatigue and pain, just so, Lord, desirous of progress I associated with the foolish Niganthas but I myself have not attained to growth, and further I have become a sharer in fatigue and pain. So, Lord, from this day forth, whatever belief I had in the foolish Niganthas, I winnow it before the high wind or cause it to be carried down by the rapid torrent of a river.

O wonderful, Lord! O marvellous, Lord! ... Pray admit me as a lay-disciple, as one who has taken Thee as his Guide from this day forth as long as life endures."

(6) The Flood

Once the Exalted One dwelt at Vesàli, in Great Wood, at the Gable-roofed Hall. Then Sàëha, the Licchavi, and Abhaya, the Licchavi came to the Exalted One. Having

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1 Comv. so takes the words assa-pavõiyaü (but we might translate assa as `his') and says he may breed 500 horses and all fall sick and die in a day.

258 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 200

come they made obeisance to the Exalted One and sat down at one side, Sàëha, the Licchavi, said to the Exalted One:

There are, Lord, certain recluses and bràhmins who proclaim a crossing of the flood by means of two things purity of conduct and self-mortifing austerities.* Touching this matter, Lord, what does the Exalted One declare?

"Certainly, Sàëha, ã do declare purity of conduct to be a certain constituent part of a recluse. But, Sàëha. whatsoever recluses or bràhmins dwell in a belief in self-mortifing austerities taking it as real clinging thereto, it is impossible for such to cross the flood.

Whatsoever recluses or bràhmins, Sàëha, are of impure conduct in deed, word and thought, also in livelihood, it is impossible for them (to reach) the supreme insight of higher knowledge and enlightenment.

Just as if, Sàëha, a man desirous of crossing a river should enter a forest with a sharp axe. He there beholds a great Sàla tree, upright, young, straight-grown* He cuts it at the root; having cut it at the root he cuts off the end; having cut off the end he clears the branches and leaves that should be removed, and squares it roughly with the axe. Having so done he planes it with the adze;having planed with th adze,he smoothes with the chisel; having smoothed with the chisel he cleans it with pumice-stone; and having done so he brings it down to the river.

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1 Cf. D. iii, 40, where the Buddha discusses the subject. Comy. says believe in penance which tortures the body'.

2 Read akukkuka-jàtaü (of enormous height) . Text and Comy. (S.) read akukkuccaka jàtaü (which means `free from worry) . But Comy, on the word at S.iii, 141, has akkusa-jàtaüi. The word undoubtedly means `straight-grown `Ang. Comy. possibly misinterprets.Cf. -M. i, 233.

xx. [. 196] The Great Chapter 259

Now, Sàëha, what think you? Can that man cross the river?

"Indeed not, Lord."

"And why not?

"Lord, that Sàla tree is indeed well prepared on the outside, but the inside is not cleared.' One may expect then that the Sàla tree will sink and that man fall into misfortune and destruction.

Likewise, Sàëha, whatsoever recluses and bràhniins dwell believing in self-mortifying asceticism, regarding it as essential and clinging to it, it is impossible for them to cross the flood. Whatsoever recluses and bràhmins, Sàëha, are of impure conduct in deed, word and thought, and livelihood, it is impossible for them to reach the supreme .insight of higher knowledge and enlightenment. Whatsoever recluses and bràhmins, Sàëha, dwell without belief in self-mortifying asceticism, without regarding it as essential and without clinging to it, it is possible for such to cross the flood. Whatsoever recluses and bràhmins, Sàëha are of pure conduct in deed, word, thought and livelihood, it is possible for them also to reach the supreme insight of. higher knowledge and enlightenment.

Just as, Sàëha, if a man desirous of crossing a river should enter a forest with a sharp axe,-and there see a great Sàla tree (as before) ... and having planed it with the adze, he takes up a chisel and clears out from the inside what should be removed; then having hollowed out the inside and srnoothed it with pumice-stone he makes a boat of it. Then having made a boat he fits it with oar and rudder; and having so fitted it he brings it down to

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1 Comy. apanita-sàrà `with the pith not hollowed out.`

260 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 201 the river. What think you Sàëha. Can that man cross the river?

"Yes, Lord."

"What is the reason therefor?"

"Indeed, Lord, that Sàëha tree is both beautifully prepared on the outside, and, as the inside also is hollowed out, it is made into a boat with oar and rudder complete. So one may expect that the boat will not sink and that the man also will go across in safety."

Likewise also, Salha, whatsoever recluses and bràhmins dwell not ... (as above) ... it is possible for them to cross the flood. Whatsoever recluses and bràhmins are of pure conduct in deed, word and thought, also in livelihood, it is possible for them to reach the supreme insight of higher knowledge and enlightenment.'

Just as, Sàëha, if a warrior excels in many feats of archery, then in three things he becomes worthy of the king, a royal property, and is reckoned an asset to the king. With what three? As a far-shooter, a lightning-shooter and a piercer of large bodies.

Just as, Sàëha, a warrior is a far-shooter, so also the Ariyan disciple is endowed with right concentration. Of all forms whatsoever, past, present or future, subjective or objective, gross or subtle, low or high, and near or far, he says `this is not mine, this am not I, this is not the soul of me.' Thus, Sàëha, the Ariyan disciple endowed with

1 Comy. adds, `the tree-trunk is the atta-bhàvo (personality) , the river is samsàra's stream, the man desirous of crossing is the yogàvacara, the practiser of yoga; planing the outside is the restraint of the six doors of sense; the hollowing out of the trunk is self-

purification; fitting oar and rudder is energy in body and mind."

xx, [197] The Great Chapter 261

right concentration sees, as it really is, with the eye of right insight.

Whatsoever sensation, whatsoever perception, whatsoever predispositions and whatsoever consciousness there be, whether past, present or future ... of all such sonsations, perceptions, predispositions or consciousness he says,'This is not mine; this am I not; this is not the soul of me.' Thus he sees a thing as it really is, with the eye of right insight.

Just as, Sàëha, a warrior is a lightning-shooter, so also the Ariyan disciple endowed with right views knows, as it really is, `This is Ill, this is Ill's Cause, this is the cessation of Ill and this is the Path leading to the cessation of Ill.'

Just as, Sàëha, a warrior is a piercer of large bodies, so also the Ariyan disciple is endowed with right emancipation. Now, Sàëha, the Ariyan disciple who is endowed with right emancipation becomes a piercer of the huge mass of ignorance."

(7) Queen Mallikà

On a certain occasion the Exalted One was dwelling at Sàvatihi in Jeta Grove at Anàthapindika's Park. Then Queen Mallikà* came to the Exalted One, made obeisance to the Exalted One, sat down at one side, and so seated at one side addressed the Exalted One thus:

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1 Queen Mallikà was wife of King Pasenadi of Kosala, originally a poor flower-girl, who by virtue of a gift of cake to the Buddha became Queen that very day. Cf. Udàna, V.i.

262 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii. 203

"Pray, Lord, what is the cause, what is the reason, whereby in this world a certain woman is of bad cornplexion, ill built, of mean appearance, and is poor, destitute of grain, wealth and retinue?"

"Pray, Lord, what is the cause, what is the reason whereby a certain woman is of bad complexion, ill built, of mean appearance, but is rich and possessed of great wealth and retinue?"

"Pray, Lord, what is the cause, what is the reason, whereby a certain woman is endowed with beautiful cornplexion, fair to behold, lovely and exceedingly flower-like in appearance, but is poor and destitute of grain, wealth and retinue?"

Yet again, Lord, what is the cause, what is the reason, whereby a certain woman is endowed with beautiful complexion, fair to behold, lovely and exceedingly flower-like in appearance, and is also rich and possessed of great wealth and retinue?

Here (in this world) , Mallikà, a woman is given to anger and is vexatious. When a trifling thing is said she becomes angry, quivers, gets troubled and becomes obdurate, also shows hatred, ill-will and displeasure. To a recluse or bràhmin she gives not food, or drink, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scent, toilet-perfume, couches, lodging or lights. Moreover she is envious and arrogant*, jealous and hateful and bears malice towards others for their gains, fame, honour reverence, homage, and worship. So passing away from this life she comes back to this (human) existence, and whenever she is so reborn she is of bad complexion,

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1 Issamànikà in P.T.S. Edition, arrogant'. Màni in the Sinh.text and comy `minded'.

xx. [197] The, Great Chapter 263

ill built, of mean appearance, and is also poor, destitute of grain, wealth and retinue.

Here (in this world) , Mallikà, a woman is given to anger (as before) ... and displeasure. But to a recluse or a bràhmin she gives food lights; and is neither envious nor arrogant, jealous and hateful. She bears no malice towards others for their gains, fame, honour, reverence, homage and worship. Passing away from that life she comes back to this (human) existence, and whenever she is so reborn she is of bad complexion, ill built, of mean appearance; but she is rich and possessed of great wealth, property and retinue.

Here (in this world) , Mallikà, a woman is not given to anger (as before) ... displeasure. But to a recluse or bràhmin she gives neither food, nor drinks, ete ... .Also she is envious, arrogant ... worship. Passing away from that life she comes back to this (human) existence, and whenever she. is so reborn she is of beautiful complexion, fair to behold, lovely and exceedingly flower-like in appearance; but she is poor and destitute of grain and wealth and retinue.

Here (in this world) , Mallikà, a woman is not given to anger displeasure. And also to a recluse or a bràhmin she gives food, drinks ... She is moreover neither envious, arrogant ... Passing away from that life she comes back to this (human) existence, and whenever she is so reborn she is of beautiful complexion, fair to behold, lovely and exceedingly flower-like in appearance. Moreover she is rich and possessed of great wealth, property and retinue.

Verily, Mallikà, this is the cause, this is the reason, why a woman [and so fortlt as above].

264 The NIumerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 205

When this was uttered Queen Mallikà spake thus to the Exalted One:

"Surely, O Lord, because in another existence I was given to anger ... (as before) ... am at present of bad complexion, ill built, of mean appearanee. I Surely, Lord `because in another existence I had given to recluses and bràhniins food I am at present possessed of great wealth and property. Surely, Lord, because in another existence I was not envious ... I am now endowed with retinue.

Of a truth, Lord in this royal family there are maids of princely birth, of brààhmin birth and also of the gentry over whom I hold supremacy. Lord, from this day henceforth I shall not give myself to anger and shall be free from vexatiousness. Even when much is said I shall not become angry, nor quiver, nor get troubled and become obdurate. Moreover I shall not show hatred ill-will and displeasure. To recluses and bràhmins I shall (continue to) give food ... Also I shall not be envious, arrogant, jealous, and hateful and shall not bear malice towards others for their gains, fame, honour, reverence, homage and worship.

Wonderful, O Lord! Marvellous, O Lord! Pray accept me as a woman lay-disciple who has taken Thee as guide from this day henceforth as long as life endures."

8) Chastisement*

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

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1 Queen Mallikà was not of prepossessing appearance, but how naively frank and different from our present-day society ladies!

2 Cf. P. P. 56--61; M. N. i, 343; D-. N. i, 227.

xx. [198] The Great Chapter 265

Herein, brethren, a certain one is given to tormenting and mortifying himself. Another torments and mortifies others. Yet another one torments and mortifies both himself and others, while another one torments and mortifies neither himself nor yet others. Through not doing so in this very life, being without craving, quenched and become cool, he experiences happiness and himself dwells in the highest state.

And how, brethren, is one given to self-torment and mortification?

Herein a certain one goes naked,* is one of loose habits, licks his hands, receives not what is offered; when invited by the words come in, Sir' or stay, Sir,' accepts not what is brought or prepared for his sake, also accepts not on invitation. He accepts not from a pot's mouth, the brim of a pan, nor from across the threshold, nor through window-bars, nor where the pounding is done, nor when two are eating, nor from a pregnant woman, nor from a woman giving suck, nor from a woman in intercourse with a man, nor at a public place, nor where there is a dog waiting or a swarm of flies. He accepts neither fish nor flesh, drinks neither liquor nor spirits, nor sour gruel.

Or he is an one-house-almsman, an one-mouthful-eater ... or a seven-house-almsman and a seven-mouthful-eater. He subsists on food from one vessel, two vessels seven vessels. He eats once a day, once in two days, once in seven days. In this manner he takes food once in a half-month and observes the rule of feeding himself by rules or at regular intervals.

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1 The Buddha in Majjhima i, describes in detail how He Hiraself practised all these methodes and found them vain.

266 The Numerical S ayings [TEXT ii, 207

Or he is an eater of pot-herbs, an eater of amu rice, an eater of wild rice, an cater of raw rice, water-herbs, paddy busk-powder, scum of boiling rice, ground sesamum, grass and dung, and sustains himself on wild roots, leaves and fallen fruits. He wears hempen cloth and cloth interwoven, wears coarse cloth thrown away from corpses, wears refuse-rags, wears tree-bark, or cloth made of antelope's hide, of shreds of antelope's hide, cloth made of shavings of wood, a shirt of human hair, of horse-hair and owl's wings.

Or he is a hair and beard-puller and usually practises that habit, stands erect, rejects all seats, is a squatter on the heels, and practises exertion whilst squatting, lies on a bed of thorns, on a spiked couch, and immerses himself in water thrice a day. In this manner he lives tormenting and inflicting manifold tortures on the body.

Verily, brethren, this is the person who is given to self-torment and self-mortification.

Brethren, who is the one that torments and mortifies others?

Herein, brethren, a certain one is a butcher of sheep and pigs, a bird-catcher, a deer-stalker, a huntsman, a fisher, a robber, an executioner, a jailer, or else a doer of any other cruel deeds. Verily, brethren, this is the person who torments and mortifies others.

Brethren, who is the one that is given both to self-torture and self-mortification and does the same also to others?

Herein, brethren, a certain one is either an anointed warrior or a wealthy bràhmin. Having caused a new temple to be built on the eastern side of the city, having shaved off hair and beard, put on a rough skin,* rubbed his body with

xx. [198] The Great Chapter 267

ghee and oil, and scraped his back with a deer-horn, he enters the temple accompanied by his consort and domestic chaplain. There he sleeps on the bare grassy ground. If a certain cow with a calf of similar colour has milk, the king maintains himself on the first udder, the consort on the second, the domestic chaplain on the third udder, and the milk of the fourth udder they pour as a sacrifice to the fire, and on the rest of the milk the calf is fed.

Then he says thus`Slaughter just so many bulls for the purpose of sacrifice, slaughter just so many heifers for the sacrifice, just so many rams for the sacrifice and just so many horses for the sacrifice. Fell so many trees for sacrificial posts, cut so much grass for the sacrifice.' Then whatsoever servants, messengers or labourers he has, they also, being afraid of blows and frightened, with tearful faces weeping set to work. Verily, brethren, this is the one who is given to self-torture and mortification both of self and others.

Brethren, who is the one that is neither given to torturing and mortifying himself nor doing so to others, one who abstains from so doing in this very life, being free from craving, quenched and become cool, experiences happiness and himself dwells in the highest state?

Herein, brethren, an Accomplished One is born in the world, an Exalted One, a Supremely Enlightened One, Perfect in knowledge and conduct, an Auspicious One, Knower of the worlds, an Incomparable One, Teacher of devas and men, an Awakened One, a Blessed One. Having realised it for Himself, He declares the nature of the world, together with its devas, Màras, Bràhmins and mankind consisting of recluses and bràhmins, with devas and men. He

268 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 208

proclaims the Norm, lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle, and lovely in its end, both in the spirit and in the letter, and sets forth the pure and holy life fulfilled in its entirety. Then a householder or son of a householder listens to the Norm and is reborn in a certain family. Hearing the Norm he acquires confidence in the Accomplished One.

He, being endowed with such confidence reflects thus:

`The household life is oppressive and a sphere of defilement. The life of a recluse is in the open air. It is not easy for those yet living the family life to lead the holy life in its entire fulness and in its entire purity, like unto a polished conch-shell. What if I shave off hair and beard, don the yellow robe and wander forth from the home to the homeless?' Then at some future time giving up his property, whether small or great, and giving up a circle of relations whether small or great, he shaves off hair and beard, dons the yellow robe and wanders forth from the home to the homeless.

Thus having wandered forth and leading a well trained life, he gives up killing and abstains from taking life; and having laid down stick and sword, being quiet and showing kindness, he dwells compassionate and full of solicitude for the welfare of all beings and creatures. Having given up thieving, he abstains from taking what is not given. Taking only what is given and expecting only what is given, he dwells without stealing in purity.

Having given up unchastity he becomes chaste, keeps aloof and abstains from the sexual act-the village-way.

Havimg given up lying, he abstains from falsehood, and being truthful, firm, reliable and trustworthy, utters not

XX. [198] The Great Ohapter 269

words offensive to the world. Having given up malicious speech, he abstains from slander. Hearing something said here he says it not there, to cause dissension among some. Not having heard something here he says it not there, to cause dissension among others. Thus he reconciles those that are at variance and confirms those who are friendly. Delighting in concord, finding pleasure in concord and seeing joy in concord, he utters words only tending to bring about harmony.

Having given up rough speech he abstains from harsh words. Whatsoever words are gentle, pleasant to the ear, amiable, reaching the heart, urbane,* agreeable to the multitude and pleasing to the many, he utters only such words. Having given up frivolous talk, he abstains from frivolous words. He speaks in season, speaks the truth, speaks sense, speaks according to the Norm and speaks according to the rules of the Discipline. He utters words worthy of remembrance, at the proper time, full of wise counsel, discriminating and profitable.

He abstains from injury to seeds and vegetation,* accepts one meal a day, refrains from food at night and at untimely hours, abstains from dancing, singing, music and witnessing shows, abstains from high and broad beds, abstains from accepting gold and silver, from receiving raw grain, from accepting raw flesh, from accepting women and girls, from accepting male and female slaves, from accepting goats and sheep, from accepting fowl and pigs, from accepting elephants, cattle, horses and mares, from accepting fields and gardens; from sending

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1 Pori from pura `a city' -hence literally `urbane

2 bãja-gàma-bhåta-gama, literally `seed-groups and growth-groups'.

270 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 210

and going on messages, from buying and selling, from cheating with false weights, spurious metals and fraudulent measures, from bribery, fraud and cheating, and abstains from maiming, killing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder and dacoity.

Protecting his body with the robe and satisfying his hunger with the alms-food, he is contented; wherever he may go forth, he takes (those requisites only) along with him. Just as a bird having wings, wherever it flies, goes with only the weight of its wings,* so also a brother, protecting his body with the robe and satisfying his hunger with alms-food, wherever he goes, he goes with only bowl and robe. Possessed of this noble group of righteous conduct he experiences within himself the happiness of blamelessness.

Seeing a form with the eye he is not entranced by the general appearance or the details thereof; because sinful thoughts of avarice and ill-will may overtake him who, dwells with the sense of sight uncontrolled, he regulates his life, guards the sense of sight and attains to restraint of the sense of sight.

Hearing a sound with the ear, smelling an odour with the nose, tasting a savour with the tongue and having conceived a thought with the mind, he is not entranced by the general qualities or the details thereof ... Possessed of the noble restraint of the senses he experiences unimpaired happiness.

Whether he comes forward or goes backward, whether he looks forward or backward, whether he draws in or stretches out (his limbs) , whether he dons tinder-robe or

I ie.,`carrying its wings with it'.

xx. [198] The Great Chapter 271

takes up bowl and mantle, whether he eats, drinks, chews or reposes or obeys the calls of nature-he is aware of what he is about. In going, standing, sitting, sleeping, watching, talking or keeping silent he knows what he is doing.

Endowed with this noble group of righteous conduct, endowed with this noble restraint of the senses, endowed with this noble mindfulness and self-collectedness [possessed of this noble happiness] he resorts to a solitary dwelling, a forest, a foot of a tree, a rock, a cave, a mountain, a cavern, a cemetery, a jungle, the open air or a heap of straw.

After his meal, having returned from the alms-round, he sits down cross-legged, with body erect and mindfulness well set. Having cast out covetousness from his mind, he dwells with mind freed from(covetousness and cleanses the mind therefrom. Having cast out hatred, he dwells with mind freed from hatred, and being compassionate and full of solicitude for all living beings and creatures he cleanses his mind from hatred. Having cast out stolidity and drowsiness, he dwells freed from these and conscious of insight, mindful and self-possessed, he cleanses the mind of stolidity and drowsiness. Having cast out flurry, he dwells well balanced (in mind) and with mind calmed he cleanses the mind of flurry, Having cast out doubt he dwells having overcome doubt, and being free from doubt he cleanses the mind from doubt as to meritorious conditions.

Having cast out these five hindrances and weakened the depravities of the mind by the aid of insight and aloof from sensual delights ... he enters on

272 The Numerical Sayings [TEXTii, 211

and abides in the First, Second, Third and Fourth Raptures.*

Thus with mind calmed, cleansed, purified, free from blemish and defilement, supple, wieldy, stable and immovable, he directs his thought towards knowledge of the destruction of the àsavas. He knows as it really is: This is Ill this is the Path leading to the cessation of Ill.' He knows These are the intoxicants, this is the cause of the àsavas ... this is the Path leading to the cessation of the àsavas.' He who thus knows emancipates his mind from the àsava of continued existence and from the àsava of ignorance. This becomes the knowledge of emancipation to him who is freed, and he knows, death is destroyed, the holy life is led, done is that which had to be done, there is no more life in these conditions.' *

Verily, brethren, this is the one who is neither given to self-torment and self-chastisement, nor is he one who torments others and chastises others. Thus not indulging in either of these ways, in this very life he is free from craving, quenched, appeased, experiences happiness and himself abides in the highest state.

Verily, brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(9) Craving

Brethren, I shall explain unto you craving which is ensnaring, running on (like a stream) , diffused, and clinging,

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1 Described above.

2 I.e., saüsàra is finished.

xx. [199] The Great Chapter 273

whereby this world is smothered, enveloped, tangled* like a ball of thread, covered with blight, woven like a grassrope, and transcends not the round of rebirths, the way of Dam. woe and suffering.' Listen and bear it well in mind, and I shall speak."

"Yea, Lord!" the brethren then responded to the Exalted One. The Exalted One spake thus:

Brethren, what is craving which is ensnaring ... (as above) ... woe and suffering?

Verily, brethren, there are these eighteen thoughts of craving to grasp the personal,* and eighteen thoughts of craving to grasp the external.

What are the eighteen thoughts of craving for grasping the personal?'

Brethren, at the arising of the thought `I am', comes also the thought `such am I,' `thus am I,' and `other am I,' or `I am eternal,' `I am perishable,' `if I be,' `if I be such and such,' `if I be even so,' `if I be unlike others,' `may I be,' `may I be such and such,' `may I be even so,' `may I be unlike others,' `shall I be,' `shall I be such and such,' `shall I be even so and shall I be unlike othergs?"'

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1 Cf. S. i, 107. S. ii, 92. S. iv, 158 [the reading guëa-guõthika jàto is perhaps better than that of text and Comy., viz. guõtika-jàto. Cf J· P.T.S., 1919, p. 49. Dham.. San. [ltrans. Dr. C. A. R. D.'s] 278 for visattika.

2 Comy. compares the process to a perpetually revolving mill worked by bulls.

3 Comy. `the fivefold inner personality.'

4 Enlarged and explained in Vibhanga, p. 392, P.T.S.

5 Comy. thus: -`Asmi' means `the desire which owing to craving, pride and false views says, `I am these five groups taken together.'

6 i.e., as soon as one posits the theory of self, arise the assertion of it as a fact, then conditions arising from that, then the wish to be such; then doubts about it-each in a threefold formula.

274 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 212

These are the eighteen thoughts of craving to grasp the personal.

Now what are the eighteen thoughts of craving to grasp the external?

Brethren, at the arising of the thought By reason (of this form, etc.) I am (the five groups) , these thoughts come to be (namely) : By reason (of this form, etc.) I am such and such: By reason (of this form, etc.) I am even so. By reason (of this form, etc.) I am unlike others. By reason (of this form, etc.) I am eternal. By reason (of this form, etc.) I am perishable. By reason (of this form, etc.) if I be. By reason (of this form, etc.) if I be such and such.By reason (of this form, etc.) if I be even so. By reason (of this form, etc.) if I be unlike others. By reason (of this form, etc.) may I be. By reason (of this form, etc.) may I be such and such. By reason (of this Form, etc.) may I be even so. By reason (of this form, etc.) may I be unlike others.'

These are the eighteen thoughts of craving to grasp the external.

Thus there are eighteen thoughts of craving to grasp the personal and eighteen thoughts of craving to grasp the external. Brethren, these are said to be the thirty-six thoughts of craving. Thus such thirty-six past thoughts of craving, thirty-six present thoughts of craving and thirty-six future thoughts of craving become one hundred and eight thoughts of craving.

Verily, brethren, this is craving which is ensnaring, running on (like a stream) , diffused, and clinging, whereby this world is smothered, enveloped, tangled like a ball of thread, covered with blight, woven like a grass-rope,

xx. [200] The Great Chapter 275 and transcends no t the round of rebirths, the way of pain, woe and suffering."

(10) Afection and Ill-Will

Brethren, there are these four conditions that are produced. What four?

From affection arises affection, from affection arises ill will, from ill-will arises affection, and from ill-will arises ill-will.

Brethren, how does affection arise from affection?

Herein, brethren, one person is pleasing, agreeable and charming to another person, and others treat him in a pleasant, agreeable and charming manner. Then he thinks thus `Whatsoever person is pleasing, agreeable and charming to me, others treat him in a pleasant, agreeable and charming manner.' Thus he begets affection towards them. Brethren, thus from affection arises affection.

Brother, how does ill-will arise from affection?

Herein, brethren, a person is pleasing, agreeable and charming to another person, but others treat the latter in an unpleasant disagreeable and unkind manner. The former then thinks: `Whatsoever person is pleasing, agreeable and charming to me, others treat him in an unpleasant, disagreeable and unkind manner.' Thus he begets ill-will towards them. Brethren, thus from affection arises ill-will.

Brethren, how does affection arise from ill-will?

Brethren, herein a person is,unpleasant, disagreeable and unkind to another person, and others treat the latter in an unpleasant, disagreeable and unkind manner. The former

276 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 214

then thinks thus: `Whatsoever person is unpleasant, disagreeable and unkind to me, others treat him in an unpleasant, disagreeable and unkind manner.' Thus he begets affection towards them. Brethren, thus from ill will arises affection.

Brethren, how does ill-will arise from ill-will?

Herein, brethren, a person is unpleasant, disagreeable and displeasing to (another) person, and others treat the latter in a pleasant, agreeable and affectionate manner. The former then thinks thus: `Whatsoever person indeed is unpleasant, disagreeable and displeasing to me, others are pleasing, agreeable and affectionate towards him.' He thus begets ill-will towards them. Thus, brethren, from ill-will arises ill-will. Verily, brethren, there are these four conditions that are produced.

Now, brethren, during whatsoever time a brother aloof from sensual pleasures ... enters into and abides in the First Rapture, and whatsoever affection arises from affection, during such time such affection does not arise in him; and whatsoever ill-will arises from affection during such time, such ill-will does not arise in him; and whatsoever affection arises from ill-will, during such time such affection does not arise in him; and whatsoever ill-will arises from ill-will during such time such ill-will does not arise in him.

[Repveat the same as to the Second, Third and Fourth Rapture.]

Brethren, during whatsoever time a brother having removed the àsavas, being freed from them, with mind and heart emancipated, having himself in this life realised them with the higher insight, dwells therein, and whatsoever

xx. [200] The Great Chapter 277

affection arises from affection, ill-will, from affection, affection from ill~will and ill-will from ill-will, he has removed all that, pulled it up by the roots like a palm tree with its base destroyed and rendered it unable to sprout again or come into existence. Brethren, such a brother is said not to reject,* not to repeat.* He does not smoulder, does not burst into flame, does not brood over things.'

Brethren, how does a brother gather to himself? Herein, brethren, a brother regards the body as the self, the self as having bodily form, the bodily form as being in the self and the self as being in the bodily form. [Repeat the same as to feeling, perception, predispositions and consciousness.] Verily, brethren, thus a brother gathers to himself.

Brethren, how does a brother not gather to himself? [Repeat the converse of the above.]

Brethren, how does a brother repel? Herein, brethren, a brother, abuses in. turn him who abuses, annoys in turn him who annoys and beats in turn him who beats. Brethren, thus a brother repels.

Brethren, how does a brother not repel? [Repeat the converse of the above.]

Brethren, how does a brother smoulder? `Brethren, when this thought occurs: `I am the five groups,' these thoughts come to be (namely) : `By reason (of this form, etc.) I am such and such. By reason (of this form, etc.) I am even so. By reason (of this form, etc.) I am unlike others By reason (of this form, etc.) I am eternal. By

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1 [The terms used are with reference to forming a self by attraction and repulsion.] Cf.S.N.iii, 819, `esseneti' `draws to himself'.'

2 Comy. `does not reject a person because of his views,' and `does not quarrel with him because he is of contrary belief' .

3 Comy. and Sinh. MSS. read na apajjhàyati for P.T.S. text na pajjhàyati.

4 Brooding over all these igoistic thoughts, like embers ready to burst into flaüe when fanned the wind of passion.

278 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 216

reason (of this form, etc.) I am perishable. By reason (of this form, etc.) if I be. By reason (of this form, etc.) if I be such and such. By reason (of this form, etc.) if I be even so. By reason (of this form, etc.) if I be unlike others. By reason (of this form, etc.) may I be. By

reason (of this form, etc.) may I be such and such. By reason (of this form, etc.) may I be even so. By reason (of this form, etc.) may I be unlike others.' [as in Sutta (g) above.] Verily, brethren, thus a brother smoulders.

Brethren, how does a brother not smoulder? [Repeat the converse of the above.]

Brethren, how does a brother burst into flame. Brethren, when this thought occurs: By reason (of this form, etc.) ... unlike others [as in Sutta (9) above].

Brethren, how does a brother not burst into flame? [Repeat the converse of the above.]

Brethren, how does a brother brood *?

Herein, brethren, a brother has not removed the pride of self nor pulled it up by the roots, like a palm-tree with its base destroyed and rendered unable to sprout again or come into existence* Brethren, thus a brother broods.

Brethren, how does a brother not brood? [Repeat the converse of the above.]

(CIIAPTER XX: THE GREAT CHAPTER*' ENDS)

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1 Comy. `owing to pride of self he does not brood'.

2 This.paragraph is omitted in P. T. 8. edition, but is included in Sinh. MSS.

3 The whole chapter may well be explained by the Commentator's phrase `Saüsàra is like the oil-mill constantly revolving or a smouldering fire'. Compare the striking Parable of the Ant-hill which smoulders night and day-is this body. What is done in the day is pondered and pondered at night. What is pondered at night is carried into effect by day. It moulders at night and bursts into flame by day."