Aïguttara Nikàya
020. Mahavaggo

1. Sotànugatasuttaü Ý Learning the Teaching

020.01. Bhikkhus, if those hearing the Teaching were to practice it verbally, gather the meaning mentally and straighten the view they could expect four benefits. What four?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu learns the Teaching as discourses, verse and prose sections, ... re ... and series of questions and answers and becomes learned in that Teaching, He practices it verbally, mentally gathers the meaning and he straightens his view. He dies with confused mindfulness and is born with a certain retinue of gods. There he skillfully voices the Teaching, too. Mindfulness arises to him slowly and he quickly rises to the next higher state.

Bhikkhus, this is the first benefit for hearing the Teaching, practicing it verbally and mentally gathering the meaning and straightening the view.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu learns the Teaching as discourses, verse and prose sections, ... re ... and series of questions and answers and becomes learned in that Teaching, He practices it verbally, mentally gathers the meaning and he straightens his view. He dies with confused mindfulness and is born with a certain retinue of gods. There he does not voice the Teaching skillfully, becomes successful in teaching the heavenly gathering. Then he recalls isn't it in this Teaching and Discipline that I earlier led the holy life. Mindfulness arises to him slowly and he quickly rises to the next higher state.

Like a man clever in knowing the sound of drums, gone to the highway hears the sound of a drum and he does not doubt, whether it is the sound of a drum or not, but concludes it is the sound of a drum. In the same manner the bhikkhu learns the Teaching as discourses, verse and prose sections, ... re ... and series of questions and answers and becomes learned in that Teaching, He practices it verbally, mentally gathers the meaning and he straightens his view. He dies with confused mindfulness and is born with a certain retinue of gods. There he does not voice the Teaching skillfully, becomes successful in teaching the heavenly gathering. Then he recalls isn't it in this Teaching and Discipline that I earlier led the holy life. Mindfulness arises to him slowly and he quickly rises to the next higher state.

Bhikkhus, this is the second benefit for hearing the Teaching, practicing it verbally and mentally gathering the meaning and straightening the view.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu learns the Teaching as discourses, verse and prose sections, ... re ... and series of questions and answers and becomes learned in that Teaching, He practices it verbally, mentally gathers the meaning and he straightens his view. He dies with confused mindfulness and is born with a certain retinue of gods. There he voices the Teaching skillfully, but is not successful in teaching the heavenly gathering. Then he recalls isn't this the Discipline that I earlier led the holy life. Mindfulness arises to him slowly and he quickly rises to the next higher state.

Like a man clever in knowing the sound of conches, gone to the highway hears the sound of a conch and he does not doubt, whether it is the sound of a conch or not, but concludes it is the sound of a conch. In the same manner the bhikkhu learns the Teaching as discourses, verse and prose sections, ... re ... and series of questions and answers and becomes learned in that Teaching, He practices it verbally, mentally gathers the meaning and he straightens his view. He dies with confused mindfulness and is born with a certain retinue of gods. There he voices the Teaching skillfully, but is not successful in teaching the heavenly gathering. Then he recalls isn't this the Discipline that I earlier led the holy life. Mindfulness arises to him slowly and he quickly rises to the next higher state.

Bhikkhus, this is the third benefit for hearing the Teaching, practicing it verbally and mentally gathering the meaning and straightening the view.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu learns the Teaching as discourses, verse and prose sections, ... re ... and series of questions and answers and becomes learned in that Teaching, He practices it verbally, mentally gathers the meaning and he straightens his view. He dies with confused mindfulness and is born with a certain retinue of gods. There he voices the Teaching skillfully, is not successful in teaching the heavenly gathering. Yet a spontaneously arisen one recognizes another spontaneously arisen and asks sir, do you remember me? He says I remember you Mindfulness arises to him slowly and he quickly rises to the next higher state.

Like two friends who had played together in their childhood were to meet each other some day. Then he would ask, friend, do you remember meòhen he would ask, do you remember this and this, and he would say, yes friend I remember. In the same manner the bhikkhu learns the Teaching as discourses, verse and prose sections, ... re ... and series of questions and answers and becomes learned in that Teaching, He practices it verbally, mentally gathers the meaning and straightens his view. He dies with confused mindfulness and is born with a certain retinue of gods. There he voices the Teaching skillfully, is not successful in teaching the heavenly gathering. Yet a spontaneously arisen one recognizes another spontaneously arisen and asks sir, do you remember me? He says I remember you Mindfulness arises to him slowly and he quickly rises to the next higher state.

Bhikkhus, this is the fourth benefit for hearing the Teaching, practicing it verbally and mentally gathering the meaning and straightening the view.

Bhikkhus, these are the four benefits for hearing the Teaching, practicing it verbally and mentally gathering the meaning and straightening the view.

2. òhànasuttaü Ý The four instances to observe

020.02. Bhikkhus, these four, should be known in four instances. What four?

Bhikkhus, virtues should be known living together, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then.

Bhikkhus, purity should be known observing verbal activities, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then.

Bhikkhus, stability at difficult times should be tested, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then.

Bhikkhus, wisdom should be tested by conversing, that too for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then.

Bhikkhus, why was it said, virtues should be known living together, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then?

Here, bhikkhus, a person living with another person, would know this person for a long time was with broken, defective, spotted and inconsistent virtues. He would know this venerable one is not virtuous.

Here, bhikkhus, a person living with another person, would know this person for a long time with unbroken, non defective, not spotted and consistent virtues. He would know this venerable one is virtuous.

Bhikkhus, if it was said, virtues should be known living together, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then, it was said on account of this.

Bhikkhus, why was it said, purity should be known observing verbal activities, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person talking to another should be known thus. The venerable one says something to one person, to another he says something different, to the third something quite different and to many he says quite a different thing. This venerable one is with impure verbal activity.

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person talking to another should be known thus. The venerable one says something to one person, to another he says the same thing, to the third he says the same thing and to many he says that same thing. This venerable one is with pure verbal activity.

Bhikkhus, if it was said, purity should be known observing verbal activities, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then, it was said on account of this.

Bhikkhus, why was it said stability in difficult times should be tested, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person touched by the destruction of relations, destruction of wealth or assailed by an illness does not reflect:

For those living in the world with a gain of self, the eight visicitudes of the world roll on and the world rolls on the eight visicitudes of the world, such as gain and loss, defame and fame, blame and praise, pleasantness and unpleasantness. Touched by the loss of relations, wealth or by illness he grieves, wails, the heads droops and he comes to bewilderment of mind.

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person touched by the destruction of relations, destruction of wealth or assailed by an illness reflects:

For those living in the world with a gain of self, the eight visicitudes of the world roll on and the world rolls on the eight visicitudes of the world, such as gain and loss, defame and fame, blame and praise, pleasantness and unpleasantness. Touched by the loss of relations, wealth or by illness he does not grieve, does not wail, the head does not droop and he does not come to bewilderment of mind.

Bhikkhus, if it was said, stability in difficult times should be tested, for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then, it was said on account of this.

Bhikkhus, why was it said, wisdom should be tested by conversing, that too for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person conversing with a person would know: According to the manner this venerable one takes a devious path, expresses himself, deals with the current topic, this venerable one is not wise. What is the reason? The venerable one does not explain the deep meanings that are appeasing, exalted, clever, beyond logic and should be understood by the wise. It is not possible for him to express, point out, explain, and establish himself in short or in detail, the Teaching that he explains. This venerable one is not wise. Like a man standing on the bank of a pond, seeing a few fish in the water would think, according the manner the fish are moving and according to the waves that have arisen and the force of the waves there are only a few fish. In the same manner, according to the manner this venerable one takes a devious path, expresses himself, deals with the current topic, this venerable one is not wise. What is the reason? The venerable one does not explain the deep meanings that are appeasing, exalted, clever, beyond logic and should be understood by the wise. It is not possible for him to express, point out, explain, and establish himself in short or in detail, the Teaching that he explains. This venerable one is not wise.

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person conversing with a person would know: According to the manner this venerable one takes a devious path, expresses himself, deals with the current topic, this venerable one is wise. What is the reason? The venerable one explains the deep meanings that are appeasing, exalted, clever, beyond logic and should be understood by the wise. It is possible for him to express, point out, explain, and establish himself in short or in detail, the Teaching that he explains. This venerable one is wise. Like a man standing on the bank of a pond, seeing a lot of fish jumping in the water would think, according the manner the fish are moving and according to the waves that have arisen and the force of the waves there are a lot of fish. In the same manner, according to the manner this venerable one takes a devious path, expresses himself, deals with the current topic, this venerable one is wise. What is the reason? The venerable one explains the deep meanings that are appeasing, exalted, clever, beyond logic and should be understood by the wise. It is possible for him to express, point out, explain, and establish himself in short or in detail, the Teaching that he explains. This venerable one is wise.

Bhikkhus, if it was said, wisdom should be tested by conversing, that too for a long time, with wise consideration, not with a careless glance now and then, it was said on account of this.

Bhikkhus, these four, should be known in these four instances.

3. Bhaddiyasuttaü Ý To Bhaddiya

020.03. At one time The Blessed One was living in the gabled hall in the great forest in Vesali. The Licchavi Bhaddiya approached The Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said:

Venerable sir, I heard these words. The recluse Gotama is deceptive; he entices the disciples of other faiths. He knows the method to entice them Venerable sir those who say these words are they talking the fact rightfully or are they blaming The Blessed One without a reason?

Come Bhaddiya, do not go on filling your mind persistently with what you hear, do not go by tradition, do not guess, do not go on the grounds of authority, do not turn to logical thinking, do not follow the leader, do not go by the examination of reasons, do not stick to wrong views, don't go by this has to be so, don't go by the words of your teacher, the recluse. Bhaddiya, you, yourself should know- these thoughts are demerit, these thoughts are faulty, these thoughts are blamed by the wise, these thoughts undertaken and accomplished are not for welfare, they conduce to unpleasantness- Bhaddiya, then you should dispel them.

Bhaddiya, is the arising of greed to a person, for his welfare or not? Venerable sir, it is not for his welfare.

Bhaddiya, a greedy person with a mind obsessed with greed, destroys living things, takes the not given, goes to other's wives, tells lies, and arouses others to do the same does it conduce to unpleasantness for a long time. Yes, venerable sir.

Bhaddiya, is the arising of anger to a person, for his welfare or not? Venerable sir, it is not for his welfare.

Bhaddiya, an angry person with a mind obsessed with anger, destroys living things, takes the not given, goes to other's wives, tells lies, and arouses others to do the same does it conduce to unpleasantness for a long time. Yes, venerable sir.

Bhaddiya, is the arising of delusion to a person, for his welfare or not? Venerable sir, it is not for his welfare.

Bhaddiya, a deluded person with a mind obsessed with delusion, destroys living things, takes the not given, goes to other's wives, tells lies, and arouses others to do the same does it conduce to unpleasantness for a long time. Yes, venerable sir.

Bhaddiya, are these thoughts meritorious or demeritorious? Demeritorious. Venerable sir. Are they faulty or non faulty? Faulty. Venerable sir. Are they blamed or praised by the wise? Venerable sir, they are blamed by the wise. Udertaken and accomplished do they conduce to evil and unpleasantness or what is it? Venerable sir, undertaken and accomplished they conduce to evil and unpleasantness, it occurs to us thus.

Bhaddiya, as you yourself say, do not follow the leader, do not go by the examination of reasons, do not stick to wrong views, don't go by this has to be so, don't go by the words of your teacher, the recluse. Bhaddiya, you, yourself should know- these thoughts are demerit, these thoughts are faulty, these thoughts are blamed by the wise, these thoughts undertaken and accomplished are not for welfare, they conduce to unpleasantness- Bhaddiya, then you should dispel them. If it was said, it was said on account of this.

Come Bhaddiya, do not go on filling your mind persistently with what you hear, do not go by tradition, do not guess, do not go on the grounds of authority, do not turn to logical thinking, do not follow the leader, do not go by the examination of reasons, do not stick to wrong views, don't go by this has to be so, don't go by the words of your teacher, the recluse. Bhaddiya, you, yourself should know- these thoughts are merit, these thoughts are not faulty, these thoughts are not blamed by the wise, these thoughts undertaken and accomplished are for welfare, they conduce to pleasantness- Bhaddiya, then you should grow them.

Bhaddiya, is the arising of non greed to a person, for his welfare or not? Venerable sir, it is for his welfare.

Bhaddiya, a not greedy person with a mind not obsessed with greed, does not destroy living things, does not take the not given, does not go to other's wives, does not tell lies, and does not arouse others to do the same. Does this conduce to pleasantness for a long time. Yes, venerable sir.

Bhaddiya, is the arising of non anger to a person, for his welfare or not? Venerable sir, it is for his welfare.

Bhaddiya, a not angry person with a mind not obsessed with anger, does not destroy living things, does not take the not given, does not go to other's wives, does not tell lies, and does not arouse others to do the same. Does this conduce to pleasantness for a long time. Yes, venerable sir.

Bhaddiya, is the arising of non delusion to a person, for his welfare or not? Venerable sir, it is for his welfare.

Bhaddiya, a not deluded person with a mind not obsessed with delusion, does not destroy living things, does not take the not given, does not go to other's wives, does not tell lies, and does not arouse others to do the same. Does it conduce to pleasantness for a long time. Yes, venerable sir.

Bhaddiya, are these thoughts meritorious or demeritorious? Meritorious. Venerable sir. Are they faulty or non faulty? Not faulty. Venerable sir. Are they blamed or praised by the wise? Venerable sir, they are praised by the wise. Udertaken and accomplished do they conduce to welfare and pleasantness or what is it? Venerable sir, undertaken and accomplished they conduce to pleasantness, it occurs to us thus.

Bhaddiya, as you yourself say, do not follow the leader, do not go by the examination of reasons, do not stick to wrong views, don't go by this has to be so, don't go by the words of your teacher, the recluse. Bhaddiya, you, yourself should know- these thoughts are merit, these thoughts are not faulty, these thoughts are praised by the wise, these thoughts undertaken and accomplished are for the welfare, they conduce to pleasantness- Bhaddiya, then you should grow them. If it was said, it was said on account of this.

Bhaddiya, the Great Men in the world discipline their disciples thus: Come good man dispel greed and abide. When you do so, activities by body, words and mind born of greed do not arise to you. Dispel anger and abide. When you do so, activities by body, words and mind born of anger do not arise to you. Dispel delusion and abide. When you do so, activities by body, words and mind born of delusion do not arise to you. Dispel imperiousness and abide. When you do so, activities by body, words and mind born of imperiousness do not arise to you.

Then the Licchavi Bhaddiya said thus to The Blessed One:

Venerable sir, I understand ... re ... remember me as a lay disciple who has taken refuge from today until life lasts.

Yet, Bhaddiya I would not say: Come Bhaddiya, be my disciple, I will be your Teacher.

Not so venerable sir.

Bhaddiya, if I said so, a certain recluse or Brahmin would untruthfully blame me. The recluse Gotama is deceptive, knows enticements and entices the disciples of other faiths.

Venerable sir, the enticement is good, the deception is good. Good if my loved ones, and blood relations be enticed and deceived by this enticement. It will be for their welfare and pleasantness for a long time. Good if all warriors be enticed and deceived by this enticement, it will be for their welfare and happiness for a long time. Good if all Brahmins be enticed and deceived by this enticement, it will be for their welfare and happiness for a long time. Good if all ordinary folk be enticed and deceived by this enticement, it will be for their welfare and happiness for a long time.

Bhaddiya, that is so. If all warriors be enticed and deceived by this enticement, it will be the dispelling of demerit and amassing of merit, for their welfare and happiness for a long time. If all Brahmins be enticed and deceived by this enticement, it will be the dispelling of demerit and amassing of merit, for their welfare and happiness for a long time. If all ordinary folk be enticed and deceived by this enticement, it will be the dispelling of demerit and amassing of merit, for their welfare and happiness for a long time. If all in the world together with gods, Màra, Brahma and the community of recluses and Brahmins be enticed and deceived by this enticement, it will be the dispelling of their demerit and amassing of merit, for their welfare and happiness for a long time.

Bhaddiya, evem if all these rich householders be enticed and deceived by this enticement, it will be the dispelling of demerit and amassing of merit, for their welfare and happiness for a long time even if thought. How much good will it do to humanity.

4. Sàpugãyasuttaü Ý In Sapugana

020.04 At one time venerable ânanda was living in a hamlet named Sapugana in the country of the Koliyas. Then many sons of the Koliyas approached venerable ânanda, worshipped and sat on a side. Venerable Anada said to them:

Vyaggapajjas, these four are factors for making effort for the purity of sentient beings, for overcoming grief and lament, unpleasantness and displeasure and for realization of extinction, this is declared by The Blessed One, who knows and sees, is worthy and rightfully enlightened. What four?

Making effort for the purity of virtues. Making effort for the purity of mind. Making effort for the purity of view, and Making effort for the purity of release.

Vyaggapajjas, what is making effort for purity of virtues?

Here, Vyaggapajjas, the bhikkhu becomes virtuous observing the restraints, this is the purity of virtuesòhis purity of virtues, if incomplete or if complete, it will be seen with satisfaction in that and other situation. Vyaggapajja, the interest, effort, unhindered exertion and mindfull awareness for it, is called the making effort for the purity of virtues.

Vyaggapajjas, what is making effort for purity of mind?

Here, Vyaggapajjas, the bhikkhu secluded from sensual desires, ... re ... abides in the fourth higher state of mind, this is the purity of mind. This purity of mind, if incomplete or if complete, it will be seen with satisfaction in that and other situation. Vyaggapajja, the interest, effort, unhindered exertion and mindfull awareness for it, is called the making effort for the purity of mind.

Vyaggapajjas, what is making effort for purity of view?

Here, Vyaggapajjas, the bhikkhu knows as it really is this is unpleasant, ... re ... this is the path to the cessation of unpleasantness, this is the purity of view. This purity of view, if incomplete or if complete, it will be seen with satisfaction in that and other situation. Vyaggapajja, the interest, effort, unhindered exertion and mindfull awareness for it, is called the making effort for the purity of view.

Vyaggapajjas, what is making effort for purity of release?

Here, Vyaggapajjas, the noble disciple endowed with making effort for the purity of virtues, making effort for the purity of mind, making effort for the purity of view disenchants the mind from enchanting thoughts and releases the mind from thoughts that has to be released and experiences the right release. Viggapajjas to this is said the making effort for the purity of release. If the purity of release is incomplete or if complete, it will be seen with satisfaction in that and other situation. Vyaggapajjas, the interest, effort, unhindered exertion and mindfull awareness for it, is called the making effort for the purity of release.

Vyaggapajjas, these four are the factors of making pure effort for the purity of sentient beings, for overcoming grief and lament, unpleasantness and displeasure and for realization of extinction, this is declared, by The Blessed One, who knows and sees, is worthy and rightfully enlightened.

5. Vappasuttaü Ý To Vappa the Sakyan

020.05. At one time The Blessed One was living in Nigrodha's monastery in Kapilavatthu in the country of the Sakyas. Then Vappa the Sakya, the disciple of Niganta approached venerable Mahàmoggallàna, worshipped and sat on a side. Venerable Mahàmoggallàna said to him:

Vappa, there is some one bodily, verbally and mentally restrained, ignorance dispelled, knowledge arisen. Vappa, do you see in that attainment, unpleasant feelings from desires streaming, there after? Venerable sir, I see that attainment on account of which unpleasant feelings for desires stream here after, when there are results for earlier done demerit not yet finished. .

When this conversation was going on between venerable Mahàmoggallàna and Vappa the Sakyan, The Blessed One got up from his seclusion in the evening and approached the attendance hall and sat on the prepared seat and asked venerable Mahàmoggallàna:

Moggallàna, with what talk were you seated and what was the other talk?

Here, venerable sir, I said to Vappa the Sakyan. Vappa, there is some one bodily, verbally and mentally restrained, ignorance dispelled, knowledge arisen. Vappa, do you see in that attainment, unpleasant feelings from desires streaming there after?

Venerable sir, when this was said Vappa the Sakyan said to me. Venerable sir,I see that attainment on account of which unpleasant feelings for desires stream here after, when there are results for earlier done demerit not yet finished. .

When this conversation was going on between me and Vappa the Sakyan, The Blessed One arrived.

Then The Blessed One addressed Vappa the Sakyan the disciple of Niganta: Vappa, if you permit me to blame you, when blame is necessary and when you do not know the meaning of what I say, if you ask me further questions -Venerable sir, what is the meaning of these words, there will be a conversation on this.

Venerable sir, I give permission to blame me, when blame is necessary and I will ask The Blessed One what is the meaning of these words when I do not know its meaning. There should be a conversation on this.

Vappa, on account of some bodily activity, may arise desires, troubles and distress, to one abstaining from them desires, troubles and distress would not arise, he would not do new actions, earlier actions done, while feeling would be destroyed, here and now, causing to decay, not a matter of time, leading inwards, to be experienced by the wise.

Vappa, do you see that attainment on account of which unpleasant feelings for desires stream here after?

No, venerable sir.

Vappa, on account of some verbal activity may arise desires, troubles and distress, to one abstaining from them desires, troubles and distress would not arise, he would not do new actions, earlier actions done, while feeling would be destroyed, here and now, causing to decay, not a matter of time, leading inwards, to be experienced by the wise.

Vappa, do you see that attainment on account of which unpleasant feelings for desires stream here after?

No, venerable sir.

Vappa, on account of some mental activity may arise desires, troubles and distress, to one abstaining from them desires, troubles and distress would not arise, he would not do new actions, earlier actions done, while feeling would be destroyed, here and now, causing to decay, not a matter of time, leading inwards, to be experienced by the wise.

Vappa, do you see that attainment on account of which unpleasant feelings for desires stream here after?

No, venerable sir.

Vappa, on account of ignorance may arise desires, troubles and distress, when ignorance is dispelled, desires, troubles and distress would not arise, he would not do new actions, earlier actions done, while feeling would be destroyed, here and now, causing to decay, not a matter of time, leading inwards, to be experienced by the wise.

Vappa, do you see that attainment on account of which unpleasant feelings for desires stream here after?

No, venerable sir.

Vappa, a bhikkhu with a mind rightfully released is constantly in six abidings. Seeing a form he is not pleased nor displeased, abides with equanimity mindfull and aware ... re ... Hearing a sound ... re ... With a touch on the body, ... re ... and cognizing an idea he is not pleased nor displeased, abides with equanimity mindfull and aware. Feeling something that ends the body, he knows, this feeling ends my body. Feeling something that ends life, he knows, this feeling ends life. He knows before death all these feelings that are not pleasant, should be felt and cooled.

Vappa, on account of a stump there is a shadow, then a man comes with a hoe and basket, cuts the roots of the stump, pulls out all the roots small and large. He axes the stump, makes it into small pieces dries them in the sun and air and burns them and puts them into a fast flowing river or winnows them in the air. Vappa in the same manner the bhikkhu with a mind rightfully released is constantly in six abidings. Seeing a form he is not pleased nor displeased, abides with equanimity mindfull and aware ... re ... Hearing a sound ... re ... With a touch on the body, ... re ... and cognizing an idea he is not pleased nor displeased, abides with equanimity mindfull and aware. Feeling something that ends the body, he knows, this feeling ends my body. Feeling something that ends life, he knows, this feeling ends my life. He knows before death all these feelings that are not pleasant, should be felt and cooled.

Then Vappa the Sakyan the disciple of Niganta said to The Blessed One:

Venerable sir, like a man who wanted to prosper was to supply articles of trade and not prospering any more was only troubled. In the same manner, venerable sir, I expecting prosperity associated the Nigantas and got into trouble. Venerable sir, from today I give up this association with the Nigantas as putting it into a fast flowing river or blowing it with the wind.

I understand venerable sir, ... re ... remember me as a lay disciple who has taken refuge from today until life lasts.

6. Salhasuttaü Ý To Salha

020.06. At one time The Blessed One was living in the gabled hall in the Great Forest in Vesali. The Licchavis, Salha and Abhaya approached The Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said thus to The Blessed One:

Venerable sir, there are recluses and Brahmins who show the crossing of the flood with the two, the purity of virtues and disgust for asceticism. Venerable sir, what has The Blessed One to say about this?

Salha, I say that purity of virtues is a certain factor of recluseship. It is not possible for the recluses and Brahmins who talk of disgust for asceticism, see essence in disgust for asceticism, attached to disgust of asceticism, to cross the flood and it is not possible for recluses and Brahmins with impure bodily, verbal and mental activity to realize noble knowledge, vision and enlightnment.

Like a man desirous of crossing a river would take a sharp knife and enter the forest. In the forest seeing a huge, straight, young Sala shoot, he cuts the root and the top. Then he cleans the branches and twigs completely with a knife, chips it with a hatchet, marking it with a stencil and cleaning it with a stone ball puts it into the river. Salha, could he cross the river in it?

No, venerable sir.

What is the reason?

Venerable sir, that Sala shoot is externally well prepared, internally not prepared This should be expected from the Sala shoot, it will sink and that person will come to destruction. .

In the same manner Salha, it is not possible for the recluses and Brahmins who talk of disgust for asceticism, see essence in disgust for asceticism, attached to disgust of asceticism, to cross the flood and it is not possible for recluses and Brahmins with impure bodily, verbal and mental activity to realize noble knowledge, vision and enlightnment.

It is possible for the recluses and Brahmins who do not talk of disgust for asceticism, do not see essence in disgust for asceticism, not attached to disgust of asceticism, to cross the flood and it is possible for recluses and Brahmins with pure bodily, verbal and mental activity to realize noble knowledge, vision and enlightnment.

Like a man desirous of crossing a river would take a sharp knife and enter the forest. In the forest seeing a huge, straight, young Sala shoot, he would cut the root and the top. Then would clean the branches and twigs completely with a knife, chip it with a hatchet, marking it with a stencil, cleans it, with a stone ball and carving with a chisel would make a boat out of it. Then making an oar and rudder would put it into the river. Salha, could he cross the river in it?

Yes, venerable sir.

What is the reason?

Venerable sir, that Sala shoot is externally well prepared, internally well prepared A boat is made, an oar and rudder is built. This should be expected, it will not sink and that person will safely cross the flood ...

In the same manner Salha, it is possible for the recluses and Brahmins who do not talk of disgust for asceticism, do not see essence in disgust for asceticism, are not attached to disgust of asceticism, to cross the flood and it is possible for recluses and Brahmins with pure bodily, verbal and mental activity to realize noble knowledge, vision and enlightnment.

Like a soldier skilled at shooting in three instances, becomes royal property and royal by the sign. What three?

Shooting from a distance, shooting at the right moment and breaking down a huge mass.

Salha, like the soldier shooting from a distance, the noble disciple becomes rightfully concentrated. Salha this is right concentration. He sees with right insight as it really is, that all matter in the past, future or present, internal or external, rough or fine, unexalted or exalted, far or near is not mine, am not in it, it's not my self. That all feelings in the past, future or present, internal or external, rough or fine, unexalted or exalted, far or near are not mine, am not in them, they are not my self. That all perceptions in the past, future or present, internal or external, rough or fine, unexalted or exalted, far or near are not mine, am not in them, they are not my self. That all determinations in the past, future or present, internal or external, rough or fine, unexalted or exalted, far or near are not mine, am not in them, they are not my self. That all consciousness in the past, future or present, internal or external, rough or fine, unexalted or exalted, far or near are not mine, am not in them, they are not my self.

Salha, just as the soldier shoots at the right moment the noble disciple develops right view. This is his right view. he knows as it really is, this is unpleasant, this is the arising of unpleasantness, this is the cessation of unpleasantness and this is the path leading to the cessation of unpleasantness.

Salha, like a soldier that breaks up a huge mass in the same manner the noble disciple gets his rightful release breaking up a huge mass of ignorance.

7. Mallikadevisuttaü Ý To queen Mallika

020.07. At one time The Blessed One was living in the monastery offered by Anàthapiõóika in Jeta's grove in Sàvatthi. Then queen Mallika approached The Blessed One, worshipped, sat on side and said to The Blessed One.

Venerable sir, on account of what are some women ugly not well formed, evil to the sight, poor, with hardly any possessions impotent with no resources?

Venerable sir, on account of what are some women ugly not well formed, evil to the sight, rich with many possessions, potent with many resources?

Venerable sir, on account of what are some women beautiful, well formed, pleasant to the sight, poor with hardly any possessions and impotent with no resources?

Venerable sir, on account of what are some women beautiful, well formed, pleasant to the sight, rich with many possessions, potent with many resources?

Here, Mallika, a certain woman is angry, in an unsettled condition even when a little is said shows anger, aversion and displeasure. She does not give eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. She lives with jealousy measuring the gain, honour, reverence and fame gained by others. Disappearing from there she comes here and wherever she is born, she is ugly not well formed, evil to the sight, poor with hardly any possessions impotent with no resources.

Here, Mallika, a certain woman is angry, in an unsettled condition even when a little is said shows anger, aversion and displeasure. She gives eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. She lives without jealousy and measuring about the gain, honour, reverence and fame gained by others. Disappearing from there she comes here and wherever she is born, she is ugly not well formed, evil to the sight, very rich with many possessions potent and with resources.

Here, Mallika, a certain woman is not angry, is in a settled condition even when much is said does not show anger, aversion and displeasure. She does not give eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. She lives with jealousy measuring the gain, honour, reverence and fame gained by others. Disappearing from there she comes here and wherever she is born, she is beautiful, well formed, pleasant to the sight, poor with hardly any possessions impotent with no resources.

Here, Mallika, a certain woman is not angry, is in a settled condition even when much is said does not show anger, aversion and displeasure. She gives eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. She lives without jealousy not measuring the gain, honour, reverence and fame gained by others. Disappearing from there she comes here and wherever she is born, she is pleasant to the sight well formed, rich with many possessions potent with many resources.

Mallika this is the reason for some women to be ugly, not well formed, evil to the sight, poor, with hardly any possessions impotent with no resources.

For some women to be ugly not well formed, evil to the sight, rich with many possessions and potent with many resources.

For some women to be beautiful, well formed, pleasant to the sight, poor with hardly any possessions and impotent with no resources.

For some women to be beautiful, well formed, pleasant to the sight, rich with many possessions, potent with many resources.

When this was said queen Mallika said to The Blessed One:

Venerable sir, in a previous birth if I had been angry, in an unsettled condition even when a little was said had shown anger, aversion and displeasure, now I would have been ugly, and not well formed, evil to the sight. In a previous birth as I have given eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins, now I am very rich and have many resources As I was without jealousy and measuring for the gain, honour, reverence and fame gained by others, now am very powerful and potent.

Venerable sir, in the palace there are ladies of warrior clan, Brahmin clan and householder clan I will give them the superior place. From today I will not be angry, in an unsettled condition even when a lot is said I will not show anger, aversion and displeasure. I will give eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. I will not be jealous and measuring the gain, honour, reverence and fame gained by others.

Venerable sir, now I understand. Remember me as a female lay disciple who has taken refuge from today until life lasts.

8. Attaõtapasuttaü Ý Torturing the self

020.08. Bhikkhus, these four persons are evident in the world. What four?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person falls to the method of torturing the self. Another falls to the method of torturing others. Another person falls to the method of torturing the self and others And yet another person falls to the method of neither torturing the self nor others. He is here and now satisfied, extinguished, cooled, experiences a pleasantness like Brahma and abides,

Bhikkhus, who is the person that falls to the method of torturing the self? .

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person goes without clothes, licks the hand without manners, does not enter a house, does not wait, does not accept, what is brought, what is specially prepared or an invitation. Does not accept from the mouth of a pot, a vessel, over a goat, over a stick, over a broom, from where two are eating, from a woman bearing child, from woman giving suck, from a woman gone with a man, from a soiled woman, from a place where she is supported. or from a place where flies abound. Does not accept fish, meat, intoxicating and brewed drinks. Is supported with one morsel in one house, two morsels in two houses, ... re ... with seven morsels in seven houses. Is supported on what is given by one, by two, ... re ... by seven. Is supportd on what is brought by one, by two ... re ... by seven. He abides on these arranged meals for two weeks. Then he is supported on vegetables, millets, raw rice, dark rice, broken rice, red rice powder, foam of boiling rice, flour of oil seeds, grass, cow dung, forest roots, leaves and fruits or whatever is picked.

He wears clothes made of hemp, garments of coarse cloth interwoven with hemp, miserable garments, garments made of the bark of trees, antelope hide, strips of antelope hide, strips of wood and owls' wings, garments made of grass, blankets made of head hair and blankets made of horses' tail. He engages in pulling out hair of head and beard, keeps standing rejecting seats, spends the time squatting, pricks the body with thorns and sleeps on a bed of thorns. Ascends into water up to three times by the evening. Thus he gives the body various kinds of torture. Bhikkhus, this person falls to the method of torturing the self.

Bhikkhus, which person tortures others?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person is cruel, a slaughterer of lambs, pigs, birds, animals,and destroyer of fish, a robber, a highwayman, a keeper of a prison or he does some other kind of cruel activity. Bhikkhus, this person tortures others.

Bhikkhus, which person tortures himself and others?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person is either a head anointed warrior king or a Brahmin householder. He builds a new hall to the east of the city, shaves head and beard and wearing a rough skin garment anoints ghee on himself and pricking the horn of a deer on his back` enters the new hall with the queen consort and the advisory Brahmin. In the enclosure he lies down on a prepared greenery. Then the king drinks the milk out of one of the nipples of a young healthy cow. The queen drinks from another nipple and from the third the advisory Brahmin drinks. Milk from the fourth nipple is burnt in the sacrificial fire. The rest is left for the calf. Then he says, kill this amount of bulls, this amount of young calves, this amount of young cows, this amount of goats, this amount of lambs, this amount of horses, for the sacrifice. Cut this amount of trees for the sacrificial posts, clean this amount of shrubs for easy movement. The servants, messengers and workmen do their activities crying with tearful faces. Bhikkhus, such a person tortures himself and others.

Bhikkhus, which person falls to the method of neither torturing the self nor others, is here and now satisfied, extinguished, cooled, experiences a plesantness like Brahma and abides?

Here, bhikkhus, the Thus Gone One worthy and rightfully enlightened endowed with knowledge and conduct, well gone, knower of the worlds, the incomparable tamer of those to be tamed, Teacher of gods and men, enlightened and blessed is born in the world. He declares the Teaching to the world together with gods, Màra, Brahma and the community of recluses and Brahmins by himself known and realized. That Teaching is good at the beginning, in the middle and at the end, full of meaning even in the letters and words and declaring the complete and pure holy life. A householder or the son of a householder, born to a certain family hears that Teaching and gains faith.

Then he reflects, life in the household is troublesome, it is full of impurities, going forth is like open space. It is not easy to lead the holy life complete and pure, while living in a household. What if I shave head and beard wear yellow clothes and go forth. In the meantime he gives up a small mass of wealth or a great mass of wealth, a small circle of relations or a large circle of relations and shaving head and beard and wearing yellow clothes he goes forth and becomes homeless.

Gone forth thus he trains in the precepts, abstains from destroying living things, gives up punishing, throwing away weapons, ashamed and with aroused compassion, he abides with compassion for all living things. Giving up taking the not given, likes the given and becomes pure not stealing. Giving up the unholy life, he leads a holy life abstaining from low sexual intercourse. Giving up telling lies, he tells the real and the truth and becomes trustworthy in the world. Giving up slandering, does not tell there, what he has heard here, to split these. Does not tell here, what he had heard there, to split those. Thus speaks to join the broken and make firm those joined. Fond of unity, talks words for unity. Giving up rough words talks politely and pleasantly, words that go straight into the heart. Words accepted by all the populace. Giving up frivolous talk, he talks at the right time, the truth, the meaningful, the Teaching and the Discipline, limited, appropriate words that could be treasured.

He refrains from destroying seed plants and vegetable plants. Refraining from food at night takes one meal a day. Refrains from dancing, music and musical shows. Refrains from decorating the self with flowers, scents, ointments. Gives up high and stately beds. Refrains from accepting gold, silver and money. Does not accept raw grains, raw flesh, women, girls, slaves women or men, goats and sheep, cocks and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses and mares. Does not accept fields or lands. Abstains from conveying messages, buying and selling, dealing matters unfairly in measuring and weighing. Does not take bribes, cheat or do insincere things. Does not cut kill or bind and does not collect morsel food violently and in roguish ways.

Satisfied with robes for the body and morsel food for the stomach, wherever he goes, he goes with all his things. Like a bird that flies away, in the same manner satisfied with robes and morsel food he goes with all his things. Endowd with these virtues of the noble ones he experiences internal happiness without faults.

Seeing a form does not take the sign or detail, to one abiding with the faculty of the eye uncontrolled, covetous unpleasant demeritorious thoughts would stream, he falls to the method of controlling the faculty of the eye. Hearing a sound, ... re ... Smelling a scent, ... re ... Tasting, ... re ... Experiencing a touch, ... re ... Cognizing an idea, does not take the sign or detail, to one abiding with the faculty of the mind uncontrolled, covetous unpleasant demeritorious thoughts would stream, he falls to the method of controlling the faculty of the mind. Endowed with this control of the mental faculties, not touched by them he experiences an internal pleasantness.

Approaching and receding, looking on and about, he becomes mindfull and aware. Bending and stretching limbs, wearing the three robes and taking the bowl he becomes mindfull and aware. Enjoying, drinking, eating and tasting he becomes mindfull and aware. Urinating and excreting he becomes mindfull and aware.

Endowed with this mass of virtues of noble ones, control of the mental faculties of noble ones, this mindfull awareness of the noble ones he abides in a secluded dwelling. A forest, the root of a tree, a mountain grotto, a cemetery, a forest jungle, open space or a heap of straw. After the meal is over, returning from the alms round he sits in a cross legged position, keeping the body straight and mindfulness established in front of him. He abides dispelling covetoussness in the mind and cleans it from stains of coveting. Dispelling anger he abides with a mind free of anger. developing compassion to all living things he purifies the mind of anger. Mindfull and aware to dispel sloth and torpor he abides with the perception of light and cleans the mind from sloth and torpor. Dispelling restlessness and worry he abides with a mind internally appeased. Dispelling doubts abides putting an end to doubts about meritorious things that should be done and not done.

Dispelling these five hindrances and mindfullly making the finner defilements weak, secluded from sensual thoughts, ... re ... abides in the fourth higher state of mind.

The mind thus concentrated, made pure, freed from blemish, made workable and immoveable he directs for the destruction of desires. He knows as it really is, this is unpleasant, ... re ... this is the path leading to the cessation of unpleasantness. He knows as it really is, these are desires, this is the arising of desires, ... re ... this is the path leading to the cessation of desires. Knowing and seeing thus his mind seeks release from sensual desires, desires to be and desires on account of ignorance and knowledge arises of his release. He knows birth is destroyed, the holy life is lived to the end, what should be done is done, there is nothing more to wish.

Bhikkhus, this person falls to the method of neither torturing the self nor others, is here and now satisfied, extinguished, cooled, and abides experiencing a plesantness like Brahma.

Bhikkhus, these four persons are evident in the world.

9. Taõhasuttaü Ý Craving

020.09. Bhikkhus, I will tell you about craving, the ensnarer. who moves, envelops and diffuses the world clinging, smothering, over growing, entangling and swelling like an entangled ball of thread or like course grass grown thick, not turning away from decrease, evil states, hell and round of existences. Listen to it and attend carefully.

Bhikkhus, how does craving, the ensnarer move, envelop, diffuse the world, cling, smother, over grow like an entangled ball of thread or like course grass grown thick?

Bhikkhus, there are eighteen haunts of craving on account of the internal and eighteen haunts of craving on account of the external.

Bhikkhus. what are the eighteen haunts of craving on account of the internal?

Bhikkhus, when conscious I be, it occurs, am here, am thus, am another, am good, am eternal, am tranquil, am tranquil here, am tranquil thus, am tranquil in another way, further am tranquil, further am tranquil here, further am tranquil thus, further am tranquil in another way, I will be, I will be here, I will be thus, I will be another.

Bhikkhus, these are the eighteen haunts of craving on account of the internal. .

Bhikkhus. what are the eighteen haunts of craving on account of the external?

Bhikkhus, when conscious by this I be, it occurs by this am here, by this am thus, by this am another, by this am good, by this am eternal, by this am tranquil, by this am tranquil here, by this am tranquil thus, by this am tranquil in another way, by this am further tranquil, by this am further tranquil here, by this am further tranquil thus, by this am further tranquil in another way, by this I will be, by this I will be here, by this I will be thus, by this I will be another.

Bhikkhus, these are the eighteen haunts of craving on account of the external.

Bhikkhus, these are the eighteen haunts of craving on account of the internal and eighteen haunts of craving on account of the external. These are the thirty six haunts of craving. Thirty six haunts of craving of the past, of the future and the present. There are one hundred eight haunts of craving altogether.

Bhikkhus, this is craving, the ensnarer who moves, envelops, diffuses the world, clings, smothers, over grows like an entangled ball of thread or like course grass grown thick not turning away from decrease, evil states, hell and round of existences.

10. Pemasuttaü Ý On love

020.10. Bhikkhus, these four are arisings. What four?

The arising of love from love, the arising of hate from love, the arising of love from hate and the arising of hate from hate.

Bhikkhus, how is the arising of love from love?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person is pleasant, appealing to the senses and loveable to another. Others too behave towards that object in the same manner It occurs to him: This person pleasant, appealing to the senses and loved by me, is also loved by others. He arouses love for them. Bhikkhus, thus love arises from love.

Bhikkhus, how is the arising of hate from love?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person is pleasant, appealing to the senses and loveable to another. Others do not behave towards that object in the same manner It occurs to him: This person pleasant, appealing to the senses and loved by me, is not loved by others. He arouses hate for them. Bhikkhus, thus hate arises from love.

Bhikkhus, how is the arising of love from hate?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person is not pleasant, not appealing to the senses and not loveable to another. Others too behave towards that object in the same manner It occurs to him: This person unpleasant, not appealing to the senses and not loved by me, is also not loved by others. He arouses love for them. Bhikkhus, thus love arises from hate.

Bhikkhus, how is the arising of hate from hate?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person is not pleasant, not appealing to the senses and not loveable to another. Others do not behave towards that object in the same manner It occurs to him: This person unpleasant, not appealing to the senses and not loved by me, is loved by others. He arouses hate for them. Bhikkhus, thus hate arises from hate.

Bhikkhus, these are the four arisings from love.

Bhikkhus, at a time the bhikkhu is secluded from sensual thoughts, ... re ... abides in the first higher state of mind the arising of love from love, the arising of hate from love, the arising of love from hate and the arising of hate from hate, is not to him.

Bhikkhus, at a time the bhikkhu overcoming thoughts and discursive thoughts, ... re ... abides in the second higher state of mind the arising of love from love, the arising of hate from love, the arising of love from hate and the arising of hate from hate, is not to him.

Bhikkhus, at a time the bhikkhu destroying desires, releases the mind from desires, and released through wisdom having realized abides here and now, the arising of love from love, is pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not rise again. The arising of hate from love, is pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not rise again. The arising of love from hate is pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not rise again. The arising of hate from hate, is pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not rise again.

Bhikkhus, to this is said the bhikkhu neither draws towards him, nor pushes away, does not make fragrant perfumes does not go up in flames, and does not get consumed completely.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu draw towards him?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu sees matter as self, or a material self, or in self matter, or in matter self. Sees feelings as self, or a feeling self, or in self feelings, or in a feeling self. Sees perceptions as self, or a perceiving self, or in self perceptions, or in a perception self Sees determinations as self, or a determining self, or in self determinations, or in determinations a self. Sees consciousness as self, or a conscious self, or in self consciousness, or in consciousness self.

Bhikkhus, thus the bhikkhu draws towards him. .

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu not draw towards him?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu does not see matter as self, or a material self, or in self matter, or in matter self. Does not see feelings as self, or a feeling self, or in self feelings, or in a feeling self. Does not see perceptions as self, or a perceiving self, or in self perceptions, or in a perception self Does not see determinations as self, or a determining self, or in self determinations, or in determinations a self. Does not see consciousness as self, or a conscious self, or in self, consciousness, or in consciousness a self.

Bhikkhus, thus the bhikkhu does not draw towards him. .

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu push away?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu reviles when reviled, makes somebody angry when aroused to anger, quarrels with those who quarrel.

Bhikkhus, thus the bhikkhu pushes away.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu not push away?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu does not revile when reviled, does not make somebody angry when aroused to anger, does not quarrel with those who quarrel.

Bhikkhus, thus the bhikkhu does not push away.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu make fragrance?

Bhikkhus, when conscious I be, it occurs, am here, am thus, am another, am good, am eternal, am tranquil, am tranquil here, am tranquil thus, am tranquil in another way, further am tranquil, further am tranquil here, further am tranquil thus, further am tranquil in another way, I will be, I will be here, I will be thus, I will be another.

Bhikkhus, thus the bhikkhu makes fragrance.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu not make fragrance?

Bhikkhus, when not conscious I be, it does not occur, am here, am thus, am another, am good, am eternal, am tranquil, am tranquil here, am tranquil thus, am tranquil in another way, further am tranquil, further am tranquil here, further am tranquil thus, further am tranquil in another way, I will be, I will be here, I will be thus, I will be another.

Bhikkhus, thus the bhikkhu does not make fragrance.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu get consumed in flames?

Bhikkhus, when conscious by this I be, it occurs by this am here, by this am thus, by this am another, by this am good, by this am eternal, by this am tranquil, by this am tranquil here, by this am tranquil thus, by this am tranquil in another way, by this am further tranquil, by this am further tranquil here, by this am further tranquil thus, by this am further tranquil in another way, by this I will be, by this I will be here, by this I will be thus, by this I will be another.

Thus the bhikkhu gets consumed in flames.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu not get consumed in flames?

Bhikkhus, when not conscious by this I be, it does not occur by this am here, by this am thus, by this am another, by this am good, by this am eternal, by this am tranquil, by this am tranquil here, by this am tranquil thus, by this am tranquil in another way, by this am further tranquil, by this am further tranquil here, by this am further tranquil thus, by this am further tranquil in another way, by this I will be, by this I w ill be here, by this I will be thus, by this I will be another.

Thus the bhikkhu does not get consumed in flames.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu not get completely consumed in flames?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu's conceit `I be' is not dispelled, not pulled out with the roots, not made a palm stump, not made a thing that would not rise again.

Thus the bhikkhu does not get completely consumed in flames.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu get completely consumed in flames?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu's conceit `I be' is dispelled, pulled out with the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not rise again.

Thus the bhikkhu gets completely consumed in flames.