CHAPTER XIX
ON THE WARRIOR

(1) The Warrior

BRETHREN, a warrior possessed of four qualities becomes worthy of the king, a royal property, and is reckoned as an asset to the king. What four?

Herein, brethren, a warrior is skilled in the knowledge of vantage-positions, shoots far, shoots as quick as lightning and pierces huge objects.* Verily, brethren, a warrior possessed of these four qualities becomes worthy of the king, a royal property, and is reckoned as an asset to the king.

Likewise a brother possessed of four qualities becomes worthy of offerings (and so forth) *, a supreme field of merit to the world. What four?

Brethren, herein, a brother is skilled in vantage-positions, shoots far, shoots as quick as lightning, and pierces huge objects. How does a brother becomes skilled in vantage-positions?*

Herein, a brother is of good conduct (and so forth) and observes the precepts of training. Verily, such a brother is skilled in vantage-positions.

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1 Pàdàletà=` destroyer'.

2 (As in the usual formula-àhuneyya, etc.)

3 T'hàna-kusalo.

222 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 171

Brethren, how does a brother become an archer who shoots far?

Herein, brethren, a brother sees things with the eye of insight as they really are, and regards them thus: `This indeed is not my body, feelings, perception, activities or consciousness. This I am not, and this is not my soul, whether all such body (and so forth) be past, present or future, subjective or objective, gross or subtle, low or high, far or near.' Verily, brethren, such a brother is like unto an archer who shoots far.

Brethren, how does a brother become an archer who shoots as quick as lightning? Herein, brethren, a brother knows as it really is: ` This is Ill, this is Ill's cause, this is Ill's Cessation and this is the Path leading to Ill's Cessation.' Verily, brethren, such a brother is one who shoots as quick as lightning.

Brethren, how does a brother become an archer who pierces huge objects? Herein, brethren, a brother pierces the huge mass of ignorance. Verily, brethren, such a brother is an archer who pierces huge objects.

Truly a brother who is possessed of these four qualities becomes worthy of offerings (and so forth) a supreme field of merit to the world.

(2) Surety*1

Brethren, there is no one in the whole world who may be assured against four things, be he recluse or bràhmin deva, Màra or Brahmà. What four things?

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1 Discussed at Eathàvatthu, ü 456 (on iddhi) .

xix. [183] On lhe Warrior 223

To prevent the ageing * of what must age, there is no one in the world, be he recluse, bràhmin, deva, Màra or Brahmà who can be assured.

To prevent the falling sick of what is sickly by nature to prevent the fading out of what must die; to prevent the ripening of the fruits of whatsoever sinful conditions, defiling conditions, such as lead down to rebirth, unhappy conditions that result in future birth, decay and death,against this there is no one in the world who may be assured, be he recluse, or bràhmin, deva, Màra or Brahmà.

Verily, brethren, there is no one in the world who may be assured against these four things.

(3) Vassakàra

Once the Exalted One dwelt in Squirrels' Feeding Ground in Bamboo Grove at Ràjagaha. Then Vassakàra*, the bràhmin chief minister of Magadha, came to the Exalted One. and said:

"Master Gotama, I say this, I am of this opinion whosoever tells what he has seen (saying) this I have seen,' there is no fault therein. Whosoever tells what he has heard, felt or known (saying) thus and thus have I heard, sensed and thought,' there is no fault therein."

"But I, bràhmin, say that one should not tell everything he has seen, heard, sensed or thought. Indeed, bràhmin, if in him who tells what he has seen, heard, sensed or thought sinful conditions increase and meritorious conditions

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1 P.T.S. text misprints mà jivi for mà jiri, lit, `May not the ageing (thing) grow old.

2 Cf. supra, p. 35. Majjh.iii 8 (for the same man) .

224 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 173

diminish, then I say that such a thing seen, heard, sensed or thought should not be told. But if in him who tells what he has seen, heard, sensed or thought sinful conditions decrease and meritorious conditions increase, I say such a thing seen, heard, sensed or thought should be told."

Then Vassakàra, the bràhmin, chief minister of Magadha, approved of and rejoiced at the words of the Exalted One, rose from his seat and departed thence.

(11) Jànussoni

Once Jànussoni, the bràhmin, came to the Exalted One and said:

" Master Gotama, I say this, I am of this opinion: There is indeed no one who, being subject to death, fears not and trembles not at death?

"Nay! bràhmin, there is one who, being subject to death, fears and trembles at death. Also there is one who, subject to death, fears not and trembles not at death.

Brahmin, who is he that being subject to death fears and trembles at death?

Herein, bràhmin, a certain one has not rid himself of clinging to sensual desires nor dispelled desire, affection, thirst, burning and craving; he is then stricken by a certain dire disease. To him thus stricken by a dire disease this thought occurs `Pleasant sensual enjoyments will now indeed forsake me, and I shall have to forsake pleasant sensual enjoyments.' Thus he mourns, is troubled, wails and weeps, beating his breast, and so becomes bewildered. Verily, brahmin, this is he who, being subject to death, fears and trembles at death.

XIX. 184] On the Warrior 225

Again, bràhmin, herein a certain one has done no good and meritorious deeds, nor protected those who are in fear, but has done sinful acts, cruelties and wrongs. This man is stricken by a certain dire disease. To him thus stricken by a dire disease this thought occurs` Alas! I have done no good and meritorious deeds, nor protected those who are in fear, but have done sinful acts, cruelties and wrongs, My friend, whatsoever may be the fate of those who have done no good and meritorious deeds, nor protected those who are in fear, and have done sinful acts, cruelties and wrongs, I shall hereafter go to that state.' Thus he mourns, is troubled, wails and weeps, beating his breast and so becomes bewildered. Verily, bràhmin, this is he who, being subject to death, fears and trembles at death.

Again, bràhmin, a certain one is wavering and doubting and has not attained to perfection in the Norm; he is then stricken by a certain dire disease. To him so stricken this thought occurs: `Alas! I have been wavering and doubting and did not attain to perfection in the Norm.' Thus he mourns, is troubled, wails and weeps, beating his breast and so becomes bewildered. Verily, bràhmin, this is he who, being subject to death, fears and trembles at death.

In truth, bràhmin, those four persons, being subject to death, fear and tremble at death.

But who, bràhmin, is the one that, being subject to death, does not fear nor tremble at death?

[Repeat the opposite of what was said above of the same four,persons.]

1 Cf. itivutt. 24,, 25-akata-bhiru-ttàno (bhiru-ttàna a refuge for the timid) .

29

226 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii 176

"Wonderful, Master Gotama! ... may venerable Gotama accept me as a lay disciple, who has taken refuge in Him from this day henceforth as long as life shall last."

(5) Standard Truths

Once the Exalted One dwelt at Ràjagaha on Vulture's Peak hill At that time also there dwelt in the Wanderers' 'Park on the banks of Sappini' many wel1 known wanderers,* namely Annabhàra, Varadhara, Sakuludàyi and other well known wanderers.

Then at eventide the Exalted One, rising from His solitude, came to the Wanderers' Park on the banks of Sappini. Now at that time among these wanderers of other views, as they sat together in assembly, this conversation arose: " The standard * truths are these. The standard truths are these."

Just then the Exalted One came to where the wanderers were. Having so come He sat down on the seat prepared for Him. So seated the Exalted One spake thus to the wanderers:

"On what talk, wanderers, are ye here and now engaged us ye sit together, and what talk between you have I interrupted?"

"Herein, Master Gotama, among us seated together in this assembly this talk arose: ` The standard truths are these. The standard truths are these."'

1 A river flowing near Ràjagaha, supra, 29. S. i, 153.

2 Paribbàjakà=in Greek,` peripatetics'.

3 lit.` bràhmin truths'.

xix. ü 185] On the Warrior 227

[The Lord replied]"0, wanderers, there are these four standard truths, which I myself have fully known, realised and declared. What four?

Herein, wanderers, the bràhmin says thus: All life is inviolable.*" The bràhmin who says thus speaks truth, not falsehood. Therefore he does not boast that he is a recluse, he does not boast that he is a bràhmin, he does not boast: `I am a better man; there is none like unto me; I am inferior to none.' Moreover, fully knowing the truth thereof he has practised mercy and compassion towards all living beings.

Again, wanderers, the bràhmin says thus: ` All sensual delights are transitory, painful and subject to the law of change.' The bràhmin * who says thus speaks truth and not falsehood. Therefore he does not boast..... (as above) . Moreover, fully knowing the truth thereof, he has practised aversion, dispassion and cessation of sense-delights.

Again, wanderers, the bràhmin says thus: ` All forms of existence are transitory, painful and subject to the law of change.' The bràhmin who knows this speaks truth and not falsehood. Therefore he does not boast ... (as above) . Moreover, fully knowing the truth thereof he has practised aversion, dispassion and cessation of all forms of existence.

Again, wanderers. the bràhmin says thus: `I am not associated with anything, and therein for me there is no attachment to anything.' The bràhmin who says thus speaks truth and not falsehood. Therefore ... (as above) .

1 The P. T.S.. edition has avijà, clearly wrong, for avajjhà, of Adyar MS. and Ceylon text.

2 `Brqhmin'here =` Arahant'.

3 N'àhaü kvaci kassaci ki兀canaü tasmiü na ca mama kvaci katthaci ki勺anaü n'atthi ti (kvaci for text's kvacani) lit. 'I aim not anywhere a part of anything.' [Cf. Udàna Comy. (Sin. 75) and netti, 62, which explains ki勺anaü as ràga-dosa-moha.]

228 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 177

Moreover, fully perceiving the truth, he has practised the habit of not possessing anything.

Verily, wanderers, these four standard truth,,; I have myself fully known, realised and made known."

(6) The World

Once a certain brother came to where.the Exalted One was, sat down at one side, and said thus:

"Lord, by whom is the world* led?* By whom is the world. pulled* along? Under whose sway arisen doth it go on *?

"Excellent ` excellent!, brother! Apt is thy penetration, * apt thy wit. A proper question, brother! So thou dost ask me: ;Lord, by whom is the world led? By whom is the world pulled along? Under whose sway arisen doth it go on?

" do, Lord "

"Indeed, brother, the world is led by mind, ' is pulled along by mind, under mind's sway arisen doth it go on."

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1 Lolo means `a being' as well as` the outer world'.

2 Niyyati.

3 Parikissati.

4 Vasaü gacchati.

5 Ummaggo(penitration) =pa中a (ace.to Buddhagh.) . Cf. Sn. A.50 (often on a devious path or wrong view) . See S. V. 171 for a similar reply of the Buddha, where the question is one Bhadda,bhikkuni, and the word bhaddaka is a pun on his name. He says to him:

Sàdhu, àvuso Bhadda, bhaddaka, kho te àvuso ummaggo, bhaddacam patibhànam-'Well done, friend Welcome, welcome indeed is your wit, welcome is your penetration.'

6 Cf. S. ii, 39. A. iv, 186: Dhp., i. manopubbangamà dhammà etc. (The keynote of Buddhist thought) .

XIX. 186] On the Warrior 229

"Excellent indeed, Lord! said that brother and approved and rejoiced at the word of the Exalted One. Then he asked a further question of the Exalted One: "Lord, [there is the saying] ` learned and well versed in the Norm.' Pray, Lord, in what respect is one learned and well versed in the Norm?

"Excellent! Excellent, brother ` Apt is thy penetration, apt thy wit. A proper question, brother ` So thou askest me this: [Repeat the question.]

" I do, Lord! "

" Indeed ' brother, numerous are the teachings declared by me, thus: sermons in prose, sermons in verse and prose, exposition, songs, solemn sayings, my own utterances, stories of (former) births, talks about the supernormal, discourses long and short of diverse nature.' But, even if a brother were to know the meaning and the text of a single stanza of four lines and has reached the complete righteousness of the Norm, 'he deserves to be called learned and well versed."

"Excellent indeed, Lord!1 " said that brother and approved and rejoiced at the word of the Exalted One. Then he asked a further question of Him: " Lord, one is said to be learned and of penetrating wisdom. Pray, Lord, in what respect is one learned and of penetrating wisdom? "

"Excellent! Excellent, brother! Apt is thy penetration [as above]."

Herein, brother, a brother has heard "This is Ill' and recognises its meaning in all details: ` This is Ill's cause',and recognises its meaning in all details this is Ill's cessation,' and recognises its meaning in all details: ` this

1 The navangas of Buddha-sasana. Of. Majjh. i, 133.

230 The ivumerical Sayings [TFXT ii, 179

is the Path leading to the cessation of Ill and recognises its meaning in all details. Verily, brother, such an one is learned and of penetrating wisdom."

"Excellent, indeed, Lord! " said that brother and approved and rejoiced at the word of the Exalted One. then he asked a further question of Him: "Lord, one is said to be a sage and of great wisdom. Pray, Lord, in what respect is one a sage and of great wisdom?

"Excellent! Excellent, brother ` Apt is thy penetration [as above].

Herein, brother, a sage and a person of great wisdom thinks neither of injury to himself,* nor injury to others, nor injury to both; but always thinks of only his own good, the good of others, the good of both and the good of the whole world. Verily, brother, this is a sage and a person of great wisdom."

(7) Vassakàra

Once, the Exalted One dwelt at the Squirrels' FeedingGround in Bamboo Grove near Ràjagaha. Now, Vassakàra, the bràhmin, chief minister of Magadha, came to where the Exalted One was ... sat down at one side, and said thus: " Pray, Master Gotama, does a wicked man know a wicked man (so as to say) ` this is a wicked man?"

"Indeed, bràhmin, it is impossible that a wicked man should know a wicked man (so as to say) : `this is a wicked man."'

1 Atta-byàbàdha.

2 Bhavaü,=,puggalo,,puriso, but more polite.

XIX. ü 187] On the Warrior 231

"Master Gotama, does a wicked man know a good man (so as to say) : `This is a good man?

"Indeed, bràhmin, it is impossible that a wicked man should know a good man (so as to say) : ` this is a good man.'"

"Then, Master Gotama, does a good man know a good man (so as to say) : ` this is a good man?"

"Verily, bràhmin, there appears a possibility that a good man should know a good man (so as to say) : `this is a good man.'

"Master Gotama, does a good man know a wicked man (so as to say) : ` this is a wicked man.'"

"Indeed, bràhmin, there appears a possibility that a good man should know a wicked man (so as to say) : ` this is a wicked man."'

"0 wonderful, Master Gotama! 0 marvellous Master Gotama! This has been well said by Master Gotama [repeat]. Now, Master Gotama, on a certain occasion, the followers of Todeyya, the bràhmin, spoke in reproach (saying) "This King Eleyya is a fool, for, having great faith in the recluse Ràmaputta, he shows him such excessive obedience, such as devotion, reverence, respectful salutation, and due observance. Moreover, these attendants of King Eleyya are also fools, namely; Yamaka, Moggala, Ugga, Nàvindaki, Gandhabba, and Aggivessa; for, having faith in the recluse Ràmaputta, they also show him such excessive obedience, to wit: devotion, reverence, respectful salutation and due observance. *

Now, thus and thus does this bràhmin Todeyya teach."

1 Abhivàdanaü, paccuññhànaü, a大alikammaü. and sàmici-kammaü.

232 The Numerical Saysings [TEXT ii, 180

[The Buddha said] " What think you, good friend? Is King Eleyya a wise man and pre-eminent among those who do great 'deeds, make great pronouncements, and master

deep meanings'?

"So it is, Lord. King Eleyya is a wise man and preeminent among those who do great deeds, make great pronouncements and master deep meanings."

"Then, my good friend, it is because the recluse Ràmaputta is wiser than the wise King Eleyya and more pre-eminent among those who do great deeds, make great pronouncements and master deep meanings, that King Eleyya having a great faith in the recluse Ràmaputta shows him such excessive obedience, to wit: devotion, reverence, respectful salutation, and due observance.

Now, good friend, what think you? Are the attendants of King Eleyya, namely, Yamaka, Moggalla, Ugga, Nàvindaki, Gandhabba and Aggivessa, wise and pre-eminent among those who do great deeds, make great pronouncements and master deep meanings?

Yes, indeed, Master Gotama, such are the attendants of King Eleyya."

" Then, my good friend, the recluse Ràmaputta is wiser than the wise attendants of King Eleyya, and pre-eminent among those who do great deeds, make great pronouncements and master deep meanings. That is why the attendants of King Eleyya, having great faith in the recluse Ràmaputta, show him such excessive obedience and so forth."

"0 wonderful Master Gotama! 0 marvellous, Master Gotama! Well said is it by Master Gotama, to wit:

1 Alam-attha-dasataro.

xix. [188] On the Warrior 233

Indeed, bràhmin, it is impossible that a wicked man should know a wicked man (so as to say) this is a wicked man. Also bràhrnin, it is impossible that a wicked man should know a good man (so as to say) This is a good man." Indeed, bràhmin there appears a possibility that a good man. should know a good man (so as to say) This is a good man." Also, bràhmin, there appears a possibility that a good man should know a wicked man (so as to say) this is a wicked man.Well! Master Gotama, we must take leave of Thee. We have much to do. We are busy folk."

"Well, bràhmin, do what you think proper and seasonable."

Then the brahmin Vassakara, chief minister of Magadha, was pleased at and approved of the words of the Exalted One, and rose from his seat and departed thence.

(8) Upaka

Once the Exalted One dwelt on Vulture's Peak in Ràjagaha. Then Upaka,* the son,of Mandikà, came to the Exalted One, sat down at one side, and spake thus to Him:

"Lord, I sav this, I am of this opinion: 'whoso sets going abusive slander and in doing so cannot make good his case in every point ' and fails to make it good thereby becomes blameworthy and censurable."'

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1 The polite formula of dismissal, yassa dàni kàlam ma中asi.

2 Upaka was a disciple of Devadatta (the schismatic) and he came with a view to induce the Buddha to speak ill of Devadatta, and thus to accuse Him then and there.

3 Na uppàdeti

234 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 182

"Upaka, if a person sets going abusive slander and in doing so cannot make good his case in every point. and fails to make good, he thereby becomes blameworthy and censurable. But you yourself, Upaka, do this and thereby become blameworthy and censurable."

"0 Lord, it is just as if one were to bind with a strong noose the neck of a man just as he puts up*his head [from the water], even so, Lord, just as I put up my head the Exalted One caught me in the strong noose of controversy"

In truth, Upaka, I have declared this is wrongful, and therein without limit are the words, without limit are the letters and without limit is the teaching of the Accomplished One, to this effect: 'This is sin: this sin should be -----eschewed.' Thus was it declared by me, Upaka herein without limit is the teaching of the Accomplished One to this effect `Thus this sin should be eschewed.'

In truth, Upaka, I have declared this to be good ... This is good, also this good should be practised.' ' Thus was it declared by me, Upaka (as above) ."

Then Upaka, the son of Mandikà, rejoiced at and approved of the words of the Exalted One and rose from his seat, made obeisance to Him by the right * and came to the King of Magadha, Ajàtasattu, the son of Vedehi.Having so come, he related all the talk he had had with the Exalted One. Whereupon the king of Magadha,Ajàtasattu, the son of Vedehi, became angry and displeased and said to Upaka, the son of Mandikà:

"A pest is this fellow! A sharp-tongued youngster! 4 A gossiper! A reckless fellow! To think that he should

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1 Ummujjamànakaü ('poppin up',) .

2 Bhàvetabbaü (to be practiced) .

3 Padakkhiõaü katvà.

4 Loõa-kàraka-dàrako. Loõa is 'salt,' sharp, cutting (speech) .

xix. [189] On the Warrior 235

presume to assail that Exalted One, the Arahant, Buddha Supreme! Away with you, Upaka! Let me see you no more!"

(9) Realizables

Brethren, there are these four things to be realised. What four?

Brethren, there are things to be realised by the mind-body.' There are things that should be realised by memory.. There are things that should be realised by the (divine) eye. There are things that should be realised by insight.

Brethren, what are the things that should be realised by the mind-body? The eightfold deliverance is to be realised by the mind-body.

Brethren, what are the things that should be realised by memory? One's former states of existence should be realised by memory.

Brethren, what are the things that should be realised by the (divine) eye? The birth and death of living beings should be realised by the (divine) eye.

Brethren, what are the things that should be realised by insight? The extinction of the intoxicants should be realised by insight.

Verily, brethren, these four things are to be realised.

(10) The Order of Brethren

Once the Exalted One dwelt at Sàvatthi in Eastern Park at the pavilion of Migàra's mother. Now at that time on a

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1 Kàyena means nàma-kàyena here; literally, 'mental' compound or faculties [i.e., vedanà, sa中à, sankhàrà, vi中àõa.]

236 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 183

certain sabbath day the Exalted One was seated surrounded by the Order of brethren. Then the Exalted One, scanning the Order of brethren, who were keeping perfect silence,' addressed them thus:

Brethren, this assembly is without idle words and free from idle talk. Brethren, this assembly is pure and established in the Reality. Such an Order of brethren, such an assembly as this is hard to find in the world. Such an Order of brethren, such an assembly as this is worthy of offerings, hospitality, gifts, respectful salutation as unto the supreme field of merit to the world. To such an Order of brethren, to such an assembly as this even a little that is given becomes great, and much that is given becomes still greater. Brethren, such an Order of brethren, such an assembly as this is well worth a journey of countless stages,*, even if one had to carry his food in a bag to do it.' Just such an Order of brethren is this.

Brethren, there are some brethren in this Order who dwell having reached deva consciousness. Brethren, there are some brethren in this Order who dwell having reached Brahma consciousness, have won the Imperturbable,* have won the Noble State.

Brethren, who is the brother that has reached deva consciousness? Herein a brother, aloof from sensual delights (and so forth) , having attained to the First Rapture, or the Second or the Third or the Fourth Rapture abides therein.

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1 Expressed by repeating tuõhi-bhàtaü. [Buddhaghosa commenting on a similar passage at Param, Jot. iii, 503 says `in whatever direction one looked, there was perfect (ativa) silence',]

2 Alaü yojana-gaõanàni gantuü.

3 Cf. D. i, 117.putaüsena pi (lit. even with a bag on one's back) .

4 Aneja.

xix. [190] On the Warrior 237

Verily, brethren, this is the brother who has attained to deva consciousness.

Brethren, who is the brother that has attained to Brahmaconsciousness?* Herein, a brother dwells diffusing one quarter with thoughts of loving kindness, compassion, sympathy and equanimity; likewise the second quarter, likewise the third quarter, likewise the fourth quarter. So above, below, around, everywhere, and in all respects thus diffusing the whole world, and with a heart full of loving-kindness (and so forth) , developed, grown great, measureless, benevolent and kindly, so he dwells.

Verily, brethren, this is the brother that has reached Brahma consciousness.

Brethren, who is the brother that has reached the Imperturbable? Brethren, herein a brother, having gone utterly beyond all perception of form and without thinking, about* the perception of opposition' and unmindful of the idea of diversity, attains to and abides in the sphere of unbounded space.* Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of unbounded space he attains to and abides in the sphere of infinity of consciousness. Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of infinity of consciousness, he attains to and abides in the sphere of nothingness. Having in all respects gone beyond the sphere of nothingness he attains to and abides in the sphere of neither-pereeption-nor-

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1 i.e., by the practice of the brahma-vihàras (or highest abodes) here described.

2 Atthagama is in the Adyar and Ceylon MSS. but omitted in P.T.S. Edition.

3 Patigha is not 'anger' here (which would be quite irrelevant) , it means ` feeling of recursion,' and here denotes the consciousness of `otherness' or 'opposition' which makes selfishness possible. [Ed.]

4 Ananto àkàso ti (lit thinking 'boundless is space'") (So infra.)

238 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 184

non-perception. Verily, brethren, this brother has attained to the Imperturbable.

Brethren, who is the brother that has attained to the Noble State?* Brethren, herein a brother knows as they really are This is Ill this is Ill's cause; this is Ill's cessation; and this is the Path leading to Ill's cessation*

Verily, brethren, this brother has attained to the Noble State."

(CHAPTER XIX: ON THE WARRI0R ENDS)

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1 i.e. realisation of the Four Ariyan Truths. This is the real `Ariyan' disciple. the other stages are attainable even by those of other schools. See Sàma中a-phala Discourse. D.N.