Aïguttara Nikàya
018. Upàsakavaggo Ý Lay disciples

1. Sàrajjasuttaü Ý Timidity

018.01. I heard thus: At one time The Blessed One was abiding in the monastery offered by Anàthapiõóika in Jeta's grove in Sàvatthi and The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus.

Bhikkhus, endowed with five things the lay disciples become timid. What five?

Destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sensual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicated and brewed drinks Bhikkhus, endowed with these five things the lay disciples become timid.

Bhikkhus, endowed with five things the lay disciples become confident. What five?

Abstaining, from destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicated and brewed drinks Bhikkhus, endowed with these five things the lay disciples become confident.

2. Visàradasuttaü Ý With confidence

018.02. Bhikkhus, endowed with five things the lay disciples become timid and live a household life. . What five?

Destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicated and brewed drinks Bhikkhus, endowed with these five things the lay disciples become timid and live a household life.

Bhikkhus, endowed with five things the lay disciples become confident and live a household life. What five?

Abstaining, from destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicated and brewed drinks Bhikkhus, endowed with these five things the lay disciples become confident and live a household life.

3. Nirayasuttaü Ý In hell

018.03. Bhikkhus, endowed with five things the lay disciple is in hell as though led and lain. What five?

Destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicated and brewed drinks Bhikkhus, endowed with these five things the lay disciple is in hell as though led and lain there.

Bhikkhus, endowed with five things the lay disciple is in heaven as though led and lain there. What five?

Abstaining, from destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicated and brewed drinks Bhikkhus, endowed with these five things the lay disciple is in heaven as though led and lain there.

4. Verasuttaü Ý Animosity

018.04. The householder Anàthapiõóika approached The Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side. The Blessed One said thus: Householder, without dispelling five fears and animosites, it is said he is unvirtuous and is born in hell. What five?

Destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicated and brewed drinks. Householder, without dispelling these five fears and animosites, it is said he is unvirtuous and is born in hell.

Householder, dispelling five fears and animosites, it is said he is virtuous and is born in heaven. What five?

Abstaining from destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicated and brewed drinks. Householder, dispelling these five fears and animosites, it is said he is virtuous and is born in heaven.

Householder, the destroyer of living things on account of that, here and nowóevelops fear and animosity and feels unpleasant and displeased. The one who abstains from destroying living things does not develop fear and animosity, here and now or here after. That fear and animosity is appeased in one who abstains from destroying living things.

Householder, the one who takes the not given, ... re ... . the one who misbehaves in sexual desires, ... re ... the one who tells lies, ... re ... . . and the one who takes intoxicating and brewed drinks, on account of that here and nowóevelops fear and animosity and feels unpleasant and displeased. The one who abstains from taking intoxicating and brewd drinks does not develop fear and animosity here and now or here after. That fear and animosity is appeased in one who abstains from intoxicating and brewed drinks.

He that destroys living things, tells lies, takes the not given,
Goes to others' wives and takes intoxicating and brewed drinks,
The foolish unvirtuous one without dispelling these five animosities,
After death will be born in hell.

Abstaining from destroying living things, telling lies, taking the not given,
Going to others' wives and taking intoxicating and brewed drinks,
The wise virtuous one dispels the five animosities,
And after death he will be born in heaven.

5. Caõóàlasuttaü Ý The outcaste

018.05. Endowed with five things the lay disciple becomes an outcaste of lay disciples, a stained lay disciple, a miserable lay disciple. What five?

Lacking in faith, unvirtuous, fond of festivals, takes for granted the auspicies, searches for outside gifts, and does the preliminary things for it. Endowed with these five things the lay disciple becomes an outcaste of lay disciples, a stained lay disciple, a miserable lay disciple.

Endowed with five things the lay disciple becomes a jewel of lay disciples, a lotus of lay disciples, and a lotus of lay disciples with a hundred petals. What five?

Has faith, is virtuous, is not fond of festivals, takes for granted the action not the auspicies, does not search for outside gifts, and does the preliminary things for it. Endowed with these five things the lay disciple becomes a jewel of lay disciples, a lotus of lay disciples and a lotus of lay disciples with a hundred petals.

6. Pãtisuttaü Ý Joy

018.06. òhen the householder Anàthapiõóika approached The Blessed One with about five hundred lay disciples, worshipped and sat on a side. Then Blessed One said:

Householder, you attend on the Community of bhikkhus with robes, morsel food, dwellings, requisites when ill. You should not be satisfied thinking, I attend on the Community of bhikkhus with robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites when ill. You should train to think why shouldn't I abide in joy, secluded from time to time?

When this was said, venerable Sàriputta said to The Blessed One: It is wonderful and surprising venerable sir, these are good words of The Blessed One- Householder, you attend on the Community of bhikkhus with robes, morsel food, dwellings, requisites when ill. You should not be satisfied thinking, I attend on the Community of bhikkhus with robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites when ill. You should train to think why shouldn't I abide in joy, secluded from time to time.

Venerable sir, when the noble disciple abides secluded in joy, five thoughts do not arise to him. At that time, unpleasantness and displeasure accompanied by sensual desires do not arise to him. At that time, pleasantness and pleasure accompanied by sensual desires do not arise to him. At that time, unpleasantness and displeasure accompanied by demerit do not arise to him. At that time, pleasantness and pleasure accompanied by demerit do not arise to him. At that time, unpleasantness and displeasure accompanied by merit do not arise to him. When the noble disciple abides secluded in joy, these five thoughts do not arise to him.

Good! Sàriputta, when the noble disciple abides secluded in joy, five thoughts do not arise to him. At that time, unpleasantness and displeasure accompanied by sensual desires do not arise to him. At that time, pleasantness and pleasure accompanied by sensual desires do not arise to him. At that time, unpleasantness and displeasure accompanied by demerit do not arise to him. At that time, pleasantness and pleasure accompanied by demerit do not arise to him. At that time, unpleasantness and displeasure accompanied by merit do not arise to him. When the noble disciple abides secluded in joy, these five thoughts do not arise to him.

7. Vaõijjàsuttaü Ý Trading

018.07. Bhikkhus, the disciple of The Blessed One should not trade in these five. What five?

Trading in swords, humans, flesh, intoxicants and poison. Bhikkhus, the disciple of The Blessed One should not trade in these five.

8. Ràjàsuttaü Ý The king

018.08. Bhikkhus, would a man who abstained from destroying living things, for that reason be sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done, what he liked for the reason of abstaining from destroying living things? No, venerable sir.

Good! Bhikkhus, I too have not seen or heard of a man who abstained from destroying living things, for that reason, sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked for the reason of abstaining from destroying living things. Yet when this evil action is brought to his notice: This man has killed a woman or man, for that reason would that man be taken by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked. Bhikkhus, have you seen or heard of such a thing? Yes, venerable sir. We have seen and heard such things and will hear of such things.

Bhikkhus, would a man who abstained from taking the not given, for that reason be sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done, what he liked for the reason of abstaining from taking the not given? No, venerable sir.

Good! Bhikkhus, I too have not seen or heard of a man who abstained from taking the not given, for that reason, sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked for the reason of abstaining from taking the not given. Yet when this evil action is brought to his notice: This man has taken the not given in the village or forest, with a thievish mind, for that reason would that man be taken by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked. Bhikkhus, have you seen or heard of such a thing? Yes, venerable sir. We have seen and heard of such things and will hear of such things.

Bhikkhus, would a man who abstained from sexual misbehaviour, for that reason be sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done, what he liked for the reason of abstaining from sexual misbehaviour? No, venerable sir.

Good! Bhikkhus, I too have not seen or heard of a man who abstained from sexual misbehaviour, for that reason, sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked for the reason of abstaining from sexual misbehaviour. Yet when this evil action is brought to his notice: This man misbehaves with others' wives and girls, for that reason would that man be taken by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked. Bhikkhus, have you seen or heard of such a thing? Yes, venerable sir. We have seen and heard of such things and will hear of such things.

Bhikkhus, would a man who abstained from telling lies, for that reason be sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done, what he liked for the reason of abstaining from telling lies? No, venerable sir.

Good! Bhikkhus, I too have not seen or heard of a man who abstained from telling lies, for that reason, sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked for the reason of abstaining from telling lies. Yet when this evil action is brought to his notice: This man has destroyed the essential of a householder or the son of a householder telling lies, for that reason would that man be taken by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked. Bhikkhus, have you seen or heard of such a thing? Yes, venerable sir. We have seen and heard of such things and will hear of such things.

Bhikkhus, would a man who abstained from taking intoxicating and brewed drinks, for that reason be sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done, what he liked for the reason of abstaining from taking intoxicating and brewed drinks? No, venerable sir.

Good! Bhikkhus, I too have not seen or heard of a man who abstained from taking intoxicating and brewed drinks, for that reason, sued by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked, for the reason of abstaining from taking intoxicating and brewed drinks. Yet when this evil action is brought to his notice: This man has killed a woman or man or has taken the not given with a thievish mind in the village and forest or has gone to others' wives or girls or has destroyed the essence of a householder or a householders son by telling lies, having taken intoxicating and brewed drinks, for that reason would that man be taken by the king, killed, bound, exiled or done what he liked. Bhikkhus, have you seen or heard of such a thing? Yes, venerable sir. We have seen and heard of such things and will hear of such things.

9. Gihisuttaü Ý The laity

018.09. òhe householder Anàthapiõóika with about five hundred lay disciples approached The Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side. Then The Blessed One addressed venerable Sàriputta: The laity wearing white clothes, if they abide self controlled guarding their activities controlled in the five precepts and gain for nothing, quickly and easily the four higher states of the mind, the pleasant abidings here and now, could themselves predict: I will not be born in hell, in the animal kingdom, in the sphere of ghosts. I will not go to loss, I have entered the stream of the Teaching, I'm sure of enlightenment.

Controlled in which five precepts is there a guarding of activities?

Here, Sàriputta, the noble disciple abstains from, destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexual desires, telling lies and taking intoxicating and brewed drinks.

Controlled in these five precepts there is a guarding of activities.

What are the four higher states of the mind, the pleasant abidings here and now gained for nothing, quickly and easily?

Here, Sàriputta, the noble disciple is endowed with unwavering faith in The Blessed One: That Blessed One is worthy, rightfully enlightened, endowed with knowledge and conduct well gone, knower of the worlds, the incomparable tamer of those to be tamed, teacher of gods and men, enlightened and blessed. This is the first higher state of mind, the pleasant abiding here and now, for the purity and cleanliness of the impure defiled mind.

Again, Sàriputta, the noble disciple is endowed with unwavering faith in the Teaching: The Teaching of The Blessed One is well declared, here and now, it is not a matter of time, inviting to inspection, leading inwards, to be realized by the wise by themselves. This is the second higher state of mind, the pleasant abiding here and now, for the purity and cleanliness of the impure, defiled mind.

Again, Sàriputta, the noble disciple is endowed with unwavering faith in the Community of bhikkhus: The disciples of The Blessed One have come to the good path, straight path, the wise path and the path of mutual understanding. They are the four pairs of eight Great Men, who are venerable, suitable for hospitality and gifts and to be revered with clasped hands, the incomparable field of merit for the world. This is the third higher state of mind, the pleasant abiding here and now, for the purity and cleanliness of the impure defiled mind.

Again, Sàriputta, the noble disciple is endowed with virtues desired by the noble ones. Virtues, that are not broken, not defective, not spotted, consistent, praised by the wise as leading to freedom, not to corruption and conducive to concentration. This is the fourth higher state of mind, the pleasant abiding here and now, for the purity and cleanliness of the impure defiled mind He becomes a quick and easy gainer a gainer for nothing of the four higher states of the mind, the pleasant abidings here and now.

Sàriputta: The laity wearing white clothes, if they abide self controlled guarding their activities, controlled in the five precepts, gaining for nothing, quickly and easily the four higher states of the mind, the pleasant abidings here and now, could predict: I will not be born in hell, in the animal kingdom, in the sphere of ghosts. I will not go to loss, I have entered the stream of the Teaching, I'm sure of enlightenment.

Knowing the noble teaching and fearing hell,
The wise avoid demerit, not hurting living things knowingly,
Not telling lies, nor touching others' belongings
Happy with one's wife not delighting in others' wives
Avoiding intoxicants that delude the mind,
Recalling the good Teaching, they think discursively about it.
With a non angry mind they develop heavenly bliss
Giving gifts with careful attention, they acquire merit.
The first gifts given to the appeased bring good results.
Sàriputta, I will tell about the appeased. Listen!
Of the dark and white things carried away by Rohinie,
There are cattle that are spotted, beautiful and dove coloured.
Of them the young tamed ones are the best.
They are powerful, can bear the load and have speed.
Their colour does not matter, the load is given to them.
In the same manner those born human, wherever they are born
As warriors, Brahmins, ordinary or outcastes
Of them the tamed, gentle are the best
Righteous, virtuous, truthful and shameful,
Having dispelled birth and death and done the duties of the holy life
Unyoked from the load are without desires.
Gone beyond all things are extinguished without desires.
Gifts given in that field are full of results.
The foolish not learned attend outside this field.
They that attend on the appeased, wise,
Get their roots of faith well established in the well gone one.
They are either born in heaven, or in a high clan here
And those wise gradually reach extinction.

10. Gavesãsuttaü Ý Gavesi the lay disciple

018.10. At one time The Blessed One was touring the country of Kosala with a large Community of bhikkhus. On the way seeing a certain Sala forest the Blessd One deviating from the path entered that Sala forest and reaching a certain place smiled.

It occurred to venerable ânanda: What is the reason that The Blessed One should smile?

Without a reason Thus gone Ones do not smile. Then venerable ânanda said to The Blessed One; - Venerable sir, what is the reason for The Blessed One to smile. Thus Gone Ones do not smile without a reason?

ânanda, in the past, in this place there was a prosperous and populated city. The Blessed One Kassapa, worthy and rightfully enlightened abode relying on that city. There was a lay disciple named, Gavesi incomplete in virtues, to The Blessed One Kassapa, worthy and rightfully enlightened. The lay disciple Gavesi was advising about five hundred other lay disciples, who were also incomplete in virtues. Then it occurred to Gavesi the lay disciple: I have been of much help to these five hundred lay disciples. Of them I am the foremost. I am incomplete in my virtues, so also these five hundred lay disciples. We are on equal grounds, there is no super quality in me; how could I be superior.

ânanda, then the lay disciple Gavesi approached the five hundred lay disciples and said: Friends, from today know me as complete in my virtues.

Then it occurred to those five hundred lay disciples: Our master Gavesi has been of great help to us, advising us. He is going to be complete in virtues. Why shouldn't we. Then the five hundred lay disciples approached the lay disciple Gavesi and said: Master Gavesi, from today these five hundred lay disciples will be complete in virtues. Then it occurred to Gavesi the lay disciple: I have been of much help to these five hundred lay disciples. Of them I am the foremost. I am complete in my virtues, so also these five hundred lay disciples. We are on equal grounds, there is no super quality in me; how could I be superior.

ânanda, then the lay disciple Gavesi approached the five hundred lay disciples and said: Friends, from today I will give up low behaviour and sexual intercourse.

Then it occurred to those five hundred lay disciples: Our master Gavesi has been of great help to us, advising us. He will give up low behaviour and sexual intercourse. Why shouldn't we. Then the five hundred lay disciples approached the lay disciple Gavesi and said: Master Gavesi, from today these five hundred lay disciples will give up low behaviour and sexual intercourse. Then it occurred to Gavesi the lay disciple: I have been of much help to these five hundred lay disciples. Of them I am the foremost. I am complete in my virtues, so also these five hundred lay disciples. I lead a holy life away from low sexual intercourse. These five hundred lay disciples too lead a holy life away from low sexual intercourse. We are on equal grounds, there is no super quality in me; how could I be superior.

ânanda, then the lay disciple Gavesi approached the five hundred lay disciples and said: Friends, from today I will abide on one meal, refraining from food at night and untimely hours.

Then it occurred to those five hundred lay disciples: Our master Gavesi has been of great help to us, advising us. He is going to abide on one meal per day refraining from food at night and untimely hours. Why shouldn't we. Then the five hundred lay disciples approached the lay disciple Gavesi and said: Master Gavesi, from today these five hundred lay disciples will abide on one meal per day refraining from food at night and untimely hours. Then it occurred to Gavesi the lay disciple: I have been of much help to these five hundred lay disciples. Of them I am the foremost. I am complete in my virtues, so also these five hundred lay disciples. I lead a holy life away from low sexual intercourse, so too these five hundred lay disciples. I abide on one meal per day refraining from food at night and untimely hours. We are on equal grounds, there is no super quality in me; how could I be superior.

ânanda, then the lay disciple Gavesi approached The Blessed One Kassapa, worthy and rightfully enlightened and said: Venerable sir, may I gain the going forth and the higher ordination in the presence of The Blessed One. Then ânanda, the lay disciple Gavesi gained the going forth and the higher ordination in the presence of The Blessed One Kassapa, worthy and rightfully enlightened. Soon after his higher ordination, withdrawn from the crowd and secluded abiding with aroused effort to dispel, he attained the noble aim for which sons of clansmen rightfully leave the household and become homeless.

He here and now knowing realized the end of the holy life and abode. He thoroughly knew birth is destroyed, the holy life is lived to the end, what should be done is done, there is nothing to wish. ânanda, Gavesi became one of the arahants.

Then, ânanda, to those five hundred lay disciples it occurred: Our master Gavesi has been of great help to us, advising us. He has shaved head and beard, wearing yellow robes has gone forth and become homeless Why shouldn't we. Then the five hundred lay disciples approached The Blessed One Kassapa, worthy and rightfully enlightened and said: Venerable sir, may we gain the going forth and the higher ordination in the presence of The Blessed One. Then ânanda, the five hundred lay disciples gained the going forth and the higher ordination in the presence of The Blessed One Kassapa, worthy and rightfully enlightened.

Then, ânanda, to the bhikkhu Gavesi it occurred: I am a gainer for nothing, a quick and easy gainer of the pleasantness of release. Oh! these five hundred bhikkhus too should be gainers for nothing, quick and easy gainers of the pleasantness of release. Then ânanda, those five hundred bhikkhus, withdrawn from the crowd and secluded, abiding with aroused effort to dispel, attained the noble aim for which sons of clansmen rightfully leave the household and become homeless.

They here and now knowing realized the end of the holy life and abode. They thoroughly knew birth is destroyed, the holy life is lived to the end, what should be done is done, there is nothing to wish.

Thus ânanda, those five hundred bhikkhus headed by the bhikkhu Gavesi realized the noble release by putting forth effort. ânanda, you should train thus: We should realize noble release, by putting forth more and more exalted effort.