CHAPTER XVIII
ON INTENTIONALS

(1) Individual Existence

BRETHREN, owing to the existence of body' and actions intentionally caused by body there arises inward* pleasure or pain. Brethren, owing to speech and actions caused by speech there arises inward pleasure or pain. Brethren, owing to mind and volitions caused by mind there arises inward pleasure or pain.

Either we ourselves plan.* those deeds determined by ignorance, whence arises our own inward pleasure or pain, or others plan those deeds determined by ignorance, conditioned by which arises our inward pleasure or pain.

Either those deeds are done intentionally or done unknowingly. Thus in two ways arises one's inward pleasure or pain: and so with speech and, actions arising owing to speech; and so with thought and actions arising owing to thought. So, brethren, either we plan and speak and think intentionally * or others plan, so that we speak or think

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1 Kàya-sàïcetana-hetu.

2 Ajjhattaü, `inward," personal'.

3 Abhisankharoti. [See S. ii, 40,65, 82.] In P. text ü 2 should begin with avijjàpaccayà và which ends [1.

4 Sampajàno.

206 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 158

unintentionally whence arises our inward pleasure orpain.

[Now, brethren, in all these six conditions ignorance is followed], but owing to the utter fading out and ceasing of it, those deeds exist not, conditioned by which arises inward pleasure or pain: that speech exists not, that thought exists not, that field * exists not, that basis* exists not, that sphere * of actions exists not, that occasion * exists not, conditioned by all of which inward pain and pleasure might arise.*

Brethren,* there are these four ways of getting individual existence. What four?

Brethren, there is a way of getting individual existence, in which one's own volition* has effect, not that of others. Secondly, that way in which another's volition has effect, not one's own. Thirdly, that in which both one's own volition and another's has effect. Fourthly, that in which neither one's own volition nor that of another has effect.

Verily, brethren, there are these four ways of getting individual existence."

When this was uttered the venerable Sàriputta spake thus to the Exalted One

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1 Kàiyo, `body'.

2 khetta

3 vatthuü

4 àyatanaü.

5 adhikaraõaü.

6 sukha-dukkhaü.

7 This is given in P> T> S> edition as a seperate descourse ù 172. So also in Adyar MS, Ceylon text differs. Cf. S. iii. 256: D. iii. 23.

8 Attasancetanà kamati, etc., `attention fixed on one's volition. This refers to khidda-.padosika devas (Cf. D. i, 19) who, whilst engaged in sport, come by death unawares, owing to starvation (Devas `starve', for want of dibbàhàra) . See n. to D. i, 32.

xviii. [172] On Intentionals 267

Pray, Lord, of what has been uttered by the Exalted One in brief may I know the meaning in detail? Herein, Lord, as to that way of getting individual existence wherein one's own volition, not another's, has effect,-decease from such existence occurs to such beings owing to their own volition.*

Herein, Lord, in getting whatever form of individual existence there is the volition of others and not of oneself taking effect,-decease from such existence occurs to them owing to the volition of others*

Herein, Lord, in getting whatever form of existence both one's own volition and that of others takes effect decease occurs from such existence owing both to one's own volition and that of others.*

Herein, Lord, in getting that form of existence wherein neither one's own volition nor that of others takes effect, from this what sort of devas should be understood? "

"Sàriputta, in this case the devas who have attained to the realm of neither-pereeption-nor-non-pereeption should be understood."

"Pray, Lord, what is the reason, what is the condition why certain beings, deceasing from that existence, become returners and come again to this existence*?'

Pray, Lord, what is the reason, what is the condition why certain beings deceasing from that existence become Non-returners and come not again to this existence?"

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1 Refer to foot-note 8 on p. 206.

2 This refers to manopadosika devas, who die owing to the envy of others.

3 This refers to `humans' chiefly.

4 Cf. A. i, 63. itivutt. 4: àgantàro (pl. àgantà) honti (punabbhavanü) itthattaü

208 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 160

Herein, Sàriputta, if a certain person's fetters of the lower (sensual) world are not broken, in this life itself he attains to and abides in the realm of neither-pereeption nor-non-pereeption. He longs for it, tastes and enters into the joy of it .Taking his stand thereon he applies himself to it, dwells incessantly on it and, without falling away from it, departs from this life and is reborn among the devas of the realm of neither-pereeption-nor-non-perception. Deceasing therefrom he returns and comes back to this existence.

But if, Sàriputta, a person's fetters of the lower (sensual) world are severed, in this life itself he enters into and abides in the realm of neither-pereeption-nor-non-pereeption. He longs for it ., . (as above down to) non-perception. Deceasing therefrom, he becomes a Non-returner and he comes not back to this existence.

Verily, Soriputta, this is the reason, this is the condition, why certain beings-(as above) come not back to this existence."

(2) The Analyses

Then the venerable Sàriputta addressed the brethren: "Brethren, my friends" The brethren also responded: "Yes, friend," to the venerable Sàriputta. The venerable Sàriputta spake thus:

Friends, within a fortnight of my ordination the analysis * of meaning was mastered by me specifically and literally.* In various ways have I explained, set forth,

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1 Attha-patisambhidà.

2 Odhiso bya¤janaso,

xviii. [174] On Intentionals 209

proclaimed, declared, established, exposed, analysed, and shown it forth. Were any one to entertain a doubt or uncertainty, let him question me. I shall satisfy him with my explanation, and there is here now present our Master, who is the Expert in our Norm."

[Repeat the above for analysis of reasons, analysis of definitions and analysis of intellect.]

(3) Eternalism (a) *

Then the venerable Mahàààkoññhita came to where the venerable Sàriputta was. Having come he exchanged with the venerable Sàriputta the compliments of civility and friendshi and took a seat at one side. So seated the venerable Mahàkoññhita, spoke thus to the venerable Sàriputta.

"Pray friend,,when the six organs of contact are annihilated without remainder, is there any thing else still left?"

"Ah, say not so, friend".

"Pray, friend, when the six organs of contact are annihilated without remainder, is there not. some thing still left?"

"Ah, say not so, friend."

"Pray, friend, when the six organs of contact are annihilated without remainder, is it the case that there both is and is not anything still left?

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1 Dhamma, nirutti and patibhàna-patisambhidàs.

2 The same doubts are expressed in S.iii,as to the existence after death of the Tathàgata, but the solution is left a mystery. The belief in aunihilation-or eternalism is a heresy.

210 The Numerical Sayings [T.EXT ii, 161

"Ah, say not so, friend."

"Pray, friend, when the six organs of contact are annihilated without remainder, is it the case that there neither is nor is not anything still left?

"Ah, say not so, friend."

"To my several questions thus put, friend, on each occasion you reply: "Ah say not so, friend.' Now what am I to understand in this? "

"Friend, he who says `when the six organs of contact are annihilated without remainder there is still something left' is obsessed with an illusion in holding such a view.'

[Repeat the same with regard to the other three statements.]

Friend, so long as there is a going to the six spheres of contact, so long is there a going to* illusion; and so long as there is a going to illusion, there is a going to the six spheres of contact. But, friend, when the six spheres of contact are annihilated without remainder, thereby comes the cessation of illusion and the calming down of illusion.

(4: ) * Eternalism (b)

Once the venerable ânanda came to where the venerable Mahàkotthita was. Having come ... he spake thus to the venerable Mahàkotthita:

[The rest is the same as in Discourse (3) above].

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1 Vàdaü appappa¤caü papa¤ceti as opposed to nippapa¤caü.

2 Gati,`way to,' `opening for'

3 This dialogue is intended to disabuse the mind of a brother who held the `eternalist' heresy. Comy.

4 This section is included in [174 in P. T. ed.

xviii. [175] On Intentionals 211

(5) Seeing things as they really are

Once, the venerable Upavàna came to where the venerable Sàriputta was ... and spoke thus to him.

"Pray, friend Sàriputta, does one make an end (of suffering) by knowledge?

"It is not so, friend."

"Pray friend, Sàriputta, does one make an end of it by (right) conduct?

"It is not so, friend."

"Pray, friend Sàriputta,. does one make an end by both knowledge and right conduct?

"It is not so, friend".

"Pray,, friend Sàriputta, does one make an end of it save by both knowledge and'right conduct

It is not so, friend."

"Now then, friend Sàriputta, when questioned,`Pray friend, does one make an end of suffering about by knowledge?' you say: `It is not so, friend' [Repeat the rest.] Then in what way, friend, does one make an end of it?

"Friend, were any one to destroy suffering through knowledge, he would be destroying suffering, but he would still retain attachment to continued existence.

"Friend, were any one, to destroy suffering through right conduct, he would be destroying suffering, but still retaining attachment to continued existence.

"Friend, were any one to destroy suffering through knowledge and right conduct, he would be destroying suffering,. but still retaining attachment to continued existence,.

212 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 164

"Friend, were any one to destroy suffering except through both knowledge and right conduct, then the worldling would be destroying suffering. But, friend, the worldling lacks both knowledge and right conduct.

Forsooth, friend, he who is bereft of right conduct knows not and sees not things as they really are, and he who is endowed with right conduct knows and sees things as they really are. He who knows and sees things as they really are makes an end of suffering."

(6) The Models

Brethren, the faithful brother rightly aspiring should aspire thus`May I become like unto Sàriputta and Moggallàna." Brethren, this is the standard, this is the measure of the brethren who are my disciples, namely Sàriputta and Moggallàna.

Brethren, the faithful sister rightly aspiring should aspire thus `May I become like unto the sisters Khemà and Uppalavannà." Brethren, this is the standard, this is the measure of the sisters who are my disciples, namely the sisters Khemà and Uppalavanà.

Brethren, the faithful male lay devotee rightly aspiring should aspire thus `May I become like unto the householder Citta and Hatthaka-âëavaka?" Brethren, this is the standard, this is the measure of male devotees who are my disciples, namely the householder Citta and Hatthaka âëavaka.

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1 Cf. A. i, 88 S. ii, 236. See the lists of agga's at A. i, 24. The first volume of Manoratha-påravi (Buddagosa's Commentary on Anguttara) gives lives of these persons.

XVIII. [177] On Intentionals 213

Brethren, the faithful woman'devotee rightly aspiring should aspire thus: "May I become like unto the devoted women Khujjuttarà and Veëukaõñakiyà, the mother of Nanda." Brethren, this is the standard, this is the measure of my devoted women who are my disciples, namely, Khujjuttarà and Veëukaõñakiyà, the mother of Nanda."

(7) The Elements

Once the venerable Ràhula came to the Exalted One and sat down at one side. To the venerable Ràhula so seated the Exalted One spake thus:

Ràhula, there are two earth-elements,*to wit . the personal earth-element and the external earth-element. This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my soul thus should one see as it really is, with the eye of insight. So seeing it as it really is, a brother turns away from the earth-element and frees the mind from attachment to it.

[Repeat the same for `the fluid-element,' `the element of heat' and `the vibratory element'.]

Verily, Ràhula whenever a brother sees in these four elements* that there is nothing of `self' or `selfishness' then is he called `a brother who has cut off craving, loosed

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1 Pathavi-dhàtu, here ajjhattika and bàhira are contrasted. The `inward' earth-element is that collection of physical particles appropriated for the time being by an individual and he erroneously thinks those are his own life. `Seeing things as they really are he would observe that electrons fly through ceaselessly.

2 Text nàttani yaü is wrong. Read n'attaniyaü (selfishness) .

214 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 165

the fetter, and by a perfect, full understanding of the pride of self* has made an end of suffering'.

(8) Annihilation of Personality

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

Herein, brethren, a brother attains to and abides in a certain peaceful emancipation of the heart. `He ponders over the annihilation of personality, and in him who thus ponders the heart * leaps not up,* it is not calmed, is not established, is not set free at the thought of annihilation of the personality.* Verily, brethren, such a brother should not expect the annihilation of his personality.

Just as, brethren, if a person were to lay hold of a branch of a tree with his hand daubed with bird-lime,* his hand clings to it, and is caught and fixed; just so, brethren, a certain brother attains to and abides in a certain peaceful emancipation of the heart. He ponders over the annihilation of personality, and in him who thus ponders ... (as before down to) personality.

Herein, brethren, a brother attains ... heart. He ponders over the annihilation of personality, and in him who thus ponders the heart leaps up, is calmed, is

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1 Sammà mànàbhisamayà.

2 Ceto-vimutti.

3Cittaü,.

4 Nappakkhandati.

5 Sakkàyo.

6 It is best to read lepa-gatena. Cf. 8. V. 148 for lasa-gatena. [Text and Adyar MS.]

xviii. [178] On Intentionals 215

established, is set free at the thought of annihilation of the personality. Verily, brethren, such a brother may expect the annihilation of his personality. Just as, brethren, if a person were to lay hold of a branch with a clean hand, his hand does not cling to, and is not caught by and fixed on it,

likewise brethren ... (as above to) ... personality.

Herein, brethren, a brother attains to ... (as above) ... heart. He ponders over the dispersion of ignorance, and in him who thus ponders the heart leaps not up, is not calmed, is not established, is not set free at the thought of the dispersion of ignorance. Verily, brethren, such a brother should not expect the dispersion of his ignorance. Just as, brethren, if a person were to close up the entrance and open out the exits of a dirty pool many years old and a heavy shower of rain * does not fall, brethren, he need not expect a breach of the dyke * of the dirty pool; even so, brethren, a brother attains to ... (as above) ... ignorance.

Herein, brethren, a brother attains to a certain peaceful emancipation of heart and abides therein. He ponders over the dispersion of ignorance: in him who thus ponders his heart leaps up, is calmed, is established, is set free at the thought of the dispersion of ignorance. Verily, brethren, such a brother should expect the dispersion of ignorance. Just as, brethren, if a person were to open out the entrances and to close up the exits of a dirty pool many years old, and a heavy shower of rain were to fall, brethren, he must then expect a, breach of the dyke of the dirty pool; so also,

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1 Devo lit. `the sky-god does not send down heavy rain'.

2 âli-ppabhedo.

216 The Numerical Sayings [T.EXT ii, 167

brethren, a brother attains to... (as above down to) ... dispersion of ignorance.

Verily, brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(9) Extinction of Rebirth

Once the venerable ânanda came to the venerable Sàriputta and said:

"Friend Sàriputta, pray what is the reason, what is the cause why certain beings here in this very life do not attain to. complete extinction of rebirth?`--"

"Friend ânanda, herein beings do not know, as it really is, `this is perception' leading to falling away; this is perception connected with duration; this is perception connected with the distinctive attainment [of concentration], and this is perception sharing the quality of penetration'. Verily, friend ânanda, this is the reason, this is the cause why certain beings here in this very life do not attain to complete extinction of rebirth.

"Friend Sàriputta, pray what is the reason, what is the cause why certain beings here in this life itself attain to complete extinction of rebirth."

"Friend ânanda, herein a being knows as it really is: This is perception leading to falling away; this is pereeption connected with duration; this is perception connected with the distinctive attainment [of concentration], and this is perception sharing the quality of penetration.' Verily,

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1 Parinibbàyati.

2 Hànabhàgiyà-, thiti-, visesa-, and nibbheda-sa¤¤àirt(i. [Cf. D. iii, 272-3, 274, 277] or `decline,' maintenance,' distinction,' penetration'

xviii. [180] On Intentionals 217

friend ânanda, this is the reason, this is the cause why a certain being here in this very life attains to complete extinction of rebirth."

(10) Arguments

Once the Exalted One dwelt at ânanda Shrine' in the city called Bhoga. Then the Exalted One said to the brethren: "0, brethrenl" "Yea, Lord," responded the brethren to the Exalted One. The Exalted One spake thus:

Brethren, these four great topics *(of argument) I shall proclaim. Give ear and ponder over them. I shall speak." Yea, Lord," the brethren responded to the Exalted One. The Exalted One spake thus:

"Brethren, what are the four great topics (of argument) ? Herein, brethren, if a brother says Friend, thus have I heard in the presence of the Exalted One and learnt in His presence; this is the doctrine, this is the discipline and this is the message of the Master,'-brethren, such a brother should neither be applauded nor set aside. Without either applauding or setting him aside, when they have well learnt the words and the letters they should put them side by side with the Discourses and compare them with the Rules of Discipline; and if they do not fall in with the Discourses

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1 Cetiya.

Mahà-padese-`great occasions'. (a) To hear the Dhamma at first-hand, (b) frorn an order of brethren, (c) from some elders, (d) from an elder. The mahà-padesa are sutta (Discourses) , sutta-anuloma, (in agreement with Discourses) , àcariyavàda (traditional teaching) and attano-mati (individual opinion) .

218 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, l68

or agree with the Rules of Discipline, then it should be concluded: `For sure, this is not the word of the Exalted One, the Worthy One, the Buddha Supreme. This has been ill learnt by this brother.' In such case, brethren, reject it.

Again, brethren, herein a brother may say,`Friend, thus have I heard in the presence of the Exalted One ... (as above) discipline: and if they fall in with the Discourses and agree with the Rules of Discipline, then it should be concluded `For sure, this is the word of the Exalted One, the Worthy One, the Buddha Supreme. This has been well learnt by this brother?' Brethren, this is the first great topic of arguments. Do ye bear it in mind.

Again, brethren, herein if a brother says thus: `In such and such a residence dwells an Order of brethren with elders and leaders* thus have I heard and learnt in their presence (as before) `then, if they do not fall in with the Discourses or agree with the Rules of Discipline,then (ye may conclude,) `this is not the word of the Exalted One ... it has been ill learnt by the brethren.' Therefore, brethren, reject it.

Again, brethren, in this connexion if a brother says thus: In such and such a residence dwells (as before) ... if they fall in with the Discourses and agree with the Rules of Discipline, then (ye may conclude) `this is the word of the Exalted One it has been well learnt by the brethren.' Brethren, this is the second great topic of argument. Do ye bear it in mind.

Again, brethren, if a brother says thus: "In such and such a residence dwells an Order of the brethren, well

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1 Sangho, sa-thero, sa-àmokkho.

180] On Intentionals 219

versed and learned in the Canon,* the Discourses, the Rules of Discipline, also in the Summaries. This have I heard or learnt in the presence of such elders: this is the doctrine.' Then (as before) if they do not fall in with the Discourses or agree with the Rules of Discipline (ye are to conclude) `this is not the word of the Exalted One It has been ill learnt by those elders.' Therefore, brethren, do ye reject it.

Again, brethren, if a brother says thus: `In such and such (the same as before) doctrine, and if they fall in with the Discourses and agree with the Rules of Discipline (then ye are to conclude) `this is the word of the Exalted one ... It has been well learnt by those elders.'Brethren, this is the third great topic of argument; do ye bear it in mind.

Again, brethren, herein if a brother says In such and such a residence there dwells a certain elderly brother, who is well versed and learned in the Canon, the Discourses, the Rules of Discipline and the Summaries. Thus have I heard and learnt in his presence (as before) ... and if they do not fall in with the Discourses or agree with the Rules of Discipline (then ye are to conclude) `this is not the word of the Exalted One... it has been ill learnt by that elder'. Therefore, brethren, do ye reject it.

And lastly, brethren, if a brother says thus: `In such and such a residence there dwells an elderly brother (as before) . Thus and thus have I heard and learned in his presence (as before) , and if they fall in with the Discourses and agree with the Rules of Discipline then it should be concluded: `This is the word of the Exalted One, the

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1 Agatàgaài, dhamma-dharà, vinaya-dharà, mitika-dharà.

220 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 170

Worthy One, the Buddha Supreme. It has been well learnt by that elder.' Brethren, this is' the fourth great topic of argument. Do ye bear it in mind.

Verily, brethren, these are the four great topics of argument"

(CHAPTER XVIII ON INTFNTIONALS ENDS)