CHAPTER XVII
ON PRACTICES'

(1) Practices (a)

BRETHREN, there are these four practices. What four? Painful practice resulting in sluggish intuition, painful practice resulting in quick intuition, pleasant practice resulting in sluggish intuition and pleasant practice resulting in quick intuition.

Verily, brethren, there are these four practices.

(2) Practices (b)

Brethren, there are these four practices. What four? [Repeat the same four as in Discourse (1) ]

Brethren, what is painful practice resulting in sluggish intuition?

Brethren, herein a certain man is by nature very lustful and always feels sharp physical and mental pain that is born of lust. He is also by nature very malicious and always feels physical and mental pain that is born of.

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1 Patipadà (here `ways of self-training to develop the higher powers'). Cf. D. iii, 106. (Cf Dham. Sang/ ü 176, `the four modes of progress ' and Mrs. Rhys Davids' note in her trans., p. 53.) here progress (patipadà) depends on the individual temperament.

194 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 150

ill-will. He is also by nature very infatuated and always feels physical and mental pain that is born of infatuation. In him these five controlling faculties show themselves in a dull form, namely: the controlling faculty of faith, of energy, of mindfulness, of concentration and of insight. Owing to the dullness*' of these five controlling faculties, he slowly attains Path concentration *' for the extinction of the intoxicants. Brethren, this is said to be painful practice resulting in sluggish intuition.

Brethren, what is painful practice resulting in quick intuition?

Herein, a certain man is by nature very lustful, who always feels (as above) ... born of ill-will and ignorance. To him these five controlling faculties show themselves in an excessive form, to wit: the controlling faculty of faith (as above down to-insight). Owing to the excess* of these five controlling faculties, he quickly attains to Path-concentration for the extinction of the intoxicants. This is said to be painful practice resulting in quick intuition.

Brethren, what is pleasant practice resulting in sluggish intuition?

Herein a certain man is by nature neither very lustful, nor always feels physical and mental pain born of lust. He is by nature neither very malicious and ignorant, nor always feels the physical and mental pain born of ill-will and ignorance. In him these five controlling faculties (named above) manifest themselves in a dull form. Owing.

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1 Mudåni pàtubhavanti.

2 Anantarika (sc. samàdhi) Immediately following state (of) Cf. Vis. Magg. 675.

3Adhimattatà. (Dham. Sang. 334.)

xvii. [163] On Practices 195

to the dullness of these five controlling faculties he slowly attains to Path-concentration for the extinction of the intoxicants. This is said to be pleasant practice resulting in sluggish intuition.

Brethren, what is pleasant practice resulting in quick intuition?

Herein a certain man is by nature neither very lustful nor (as above) ... ignorance. In him the five controlling faculties (named above) show themselves in an excessive form. Owing to the excess * of these five controlling faculties he quickly attains to Path-concentration for the extinction of the intoxicants. This is said to be pleasant practice resulting in quick intuition.

Verily, brethren, there are these four practices.

(3) Practices.

Brethren, there are these four practices. What four? [Repeat the same four as in the previous -Discourse.] Brethren, what is the pleasant practice resulting in sluggish intuition?

Herein if a brother dwells contemplating the corruptness of the body, the impurity of material food, not taking delight in all the things of the world and realising the transience of all component things, the consciousness of death becomes well fixed in his mind. He also dwells in the practice of these five powers of training, to wit: the power of faith, the power of shame, the power of (good) conscience* the power of energy and the power of insight.

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1 `Preponderance' is perhaps a better word.

2 Hiri-ottappa-bala.

196 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii,151

Then in him these five controlling faculties show themselves in a dull form, to wit: the controlling faculty of faith (as before). Owing to the dullness of these five controlling faculties he slowly attains to the immediately following state [Path-concentration] for the extinction of the intoxicants. Brethren, this is said to be painful practice resulting in sluggish intuition.

Brethren, what is painful practice resulting in quick intuition?

Brethren, herein if a brother dwells contemplating the corruptness of the body, the impurity of material food, not taking delight in all the things of the world and realising the transience of all component things, the consciousness of death becomes well, fixed in his mind. He also dwells in the practice of the five powers of training, to wit: the power of faith (as before). Then in him these five controlling faculties manifest themselves in an excessive form, to wit: the controlling faculty of faith (as above). Owing to the preponderance of these five controlling faculties of faith he quickly attains to the immediately following state [of Path-concentration] for the extinction of the intoxicants.

Brethren, this is said to be painful practice resulting in quick intuition.

Brethren, what is pleasant practice resulting in sluggish intuition?

Herein a brother, aloof from sensual desires and aloof from immoral states, with the initial and sustained application* (of mind) which is born of solitude, and full of rapture bliss,* having attained the First Rapture abides therein.

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1 Vitakka-vicàra.

2 Jhàna.

xvii. [163] On Practices 197

Owing to the suppression of initial and sustained application (and so forth) , and having attained the Second Rapture he abides therein.

After the transcending of rapture and passionlessness he dwells indifferent (and so forth) , and having attained the Third Rapture he abides therein.

Owing to the putting away of pleasure and pain and the previous passing away of joy and grief, aloof alike from pain and pleasure and with the purity of mindfultiess born of equanimity, he attains the Fourth Rapture and abides therein. He also dwells in the practice of the above named five powers of training. In him the five controlling faculties above named become manifest in a dull form. Owing to the dullness of these five controlling faculties he slowly attains to the immediately following state (of Pathconcentration) for the extinction of the intoxicants. This is said to be pleasant practice resulting in sluggish intuition.

Brethren, what is pleasant practice resulting in quick intuition?

Brethren, a brother aloof from sensual pleasures ... (as above). In him the five controlling faculties above named manifest themselves in an excessive form.' Owing to the preponderance of those five controlling faculties he quickly attains the immediately following state (of Path concentration) for the extinction of the intoxicants. This is said to be pleasant practice resulting in quick intuition.

Verily, brethren, there are these four practices.

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1 The process is the same. but the result quicker.

198 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii 152

(4) Practices (d)

Brethren, there are these four practices. What four? The practice of non-endurance, of endurance, of self-control and of tranquillity.

Brethren, what is the practice of non-endurance Herein a certain person curses in return him who curses, annoys in return him who annoys, and strikes in return him who strikes. This is said to be the practice of non-endurance.

Brethren, what is the practice of endurance?' Brethren, herein a certain person curses not in return him who curses, annoys not in return him who annoys, and strikes not in return him who strikes. This is said to he the practice of endurance.

Brethren, what is the practice of self-control? ' Brethren, a brother seeing a form with the eye, hearing a sound with the ear and so forth, is not entranced with the outward signs or the details thereof, because in him who dwells without controlling the faculties of sight, hearing and so forth, the sinful conditions of greed and ill-will arise he practises the subjugation of them and guards the faculties of sight, hearing and so forth, and attains the subjugation of the faculties of sight, hearing and so forth. Brethren, this is said to be the practice of self-control.

Brethren, what is the practice of tranquillity'?' Brethren, herein a brother yields not to sensual thoughts that arise,

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1 akkhamà.

2 khamà.

3 damà.

4 sami.

xvii. ü 165] On Practices 199

eliminates, dispels, assuages, abolishes and causes them to perish. [Repeat the same as to thoughts of ill-will and cruel thoughts.] He yields not to sinful conditions that,arise, eliminates, dispels, assuages, abolishes, and causes thein to perish. This is said to be the practice of tranquillity.

Verily, brethren, there are these four practices.

(5) Practices (e)

Brethren, there are these four practices. What four? [Repeat the same four as in the previous -Discourse.] Brethren, what is the practice of non-endurance?

Herein, brethren, a certain person does not wish to endure cold, heat, hunger, thirst, gad-flies, mosquitoes, and the touch of wind, sunshine and creeping things, and has no patience towards unwelcome and abusive words or towards any bodily feeling that arises, which is painful, acute, sharp, bitter, disagreeable, unpleasant, and destructive of life itself. This is said to be the practice of non-endurance.

Brethren, what is the practice of endurance [This is the opposite of the above.]

Brethren, what is the practice of self-control [Reoeat the same as in -Discourse (4).]

Brethren, what is the practice of tranquillity? [Repeat the same as in Discourse (4).]

Verily, there are these four practices.

(6) Practices

Brethren, there are these four practices. What four? [Repeat the same as in Discourses (1) , (2) , (3).]

200 The Nuinerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 154

Herein, brethren, whatsoever practice is painful and results in sluggish intuition, this practice is in both ways said to be low. * Whatsoever practice is painful is said to be low on this account. Whatsoever practice results in sluggish intuition, on this account also is said to be low. Brethren, this practice is thus said to be low in both ways.

Herein, brethren, whatsoever practice is painful and results in quick intuition, this practice is said to be low owing to its painfulness.

Herein, brethren, whatsoever practice is pleasant and results in sluggish intuition, this practice is said to be low owing to its sluggishness.

Herein, brethren, whatsoever practice is pleasant and results in quick intuition, this practice is said to be excellent in both ways. Whatsoever practice is pleasant is said to be excellent on this account; whatsoever practice results in quick intuition is said to be excellent on this account also. Brethren, this practice is said to be excellent in both ways.

Verily, brethren, there are these four practices.

(7) Practices (g)

Once the venerable Sàriputta came to where the venerahie Mahàmoggallàna was. Having come to him..... he sat down at one side and said, "Friend Moggallàna, there are these four practices. What four? " [Repeat the same four as in (6).]

"By exercising which of these four practices, friend, did you win freedom of mind from the four intoxicants, without further leaving to rebirth?

xvii. [169] 0n Practices 201

"Friend Sàriputta, there are these four practices [repeat them]. Of these four, whatsoever practice is painful and results in quick intuition-by the exercise of that did I win freedom of mind from the intoxicants, without further cleaving (to rebirth)."

(8) Practices (h)

[In this section Mahàmoggallàna goes to Sàriputta and asks the same question. Sàriputta replies that he followed the pleasant practice resulting in quick intuition, by completing which I won," etc.]

(9) The Ariyans

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

Herein, brethren, a certain person in this life itself becomes ' one who attains perfection (Nibbana) with a remnant of Kamma to work out'*

Herein, brethren, a certain person upon the dissolution of the body becomes ` one who attains perfection with a remnant of Kamma to work out'.

Herein, brethren, a certain person in this life itself becomes ` one who attains perfection with no remnant of Kamma to work out.

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1 Sa-sankhàra-parinibbàyi hoti.

2 A-sankhàra-parinibbàyi hoti. Cf. note to Kindred Sayings, ii, 57. Parinibbàyatii is not used only of the utter passing, away in the last life, but also has the meaning of 'perfect well-being (Cf. the usual terms avasesa and anvasesa -parinibbàna and anupàdisesa-nibbàna)

Here the andàgàmin is referred to.

202 The numerical Sayings TEXT ii, 156

Herein, brethren, a certain person upon the dissolution of the body becomes ` one who attains perfection with no remnant of Kamma to work out'.

Brethren, who is the first of these four?

Herein, a brother dwells contemplating ... (continue as in Discourse* to ` insight',)

In him these five faculties manifest themselves in excess and so forth. Owing to the excess of these five controlling faculties in this life itself he becomes `one who attains perfection with a remnant of Kamma to work out'.

Brethren, who is the second of these four? [Repeat the same with the diference that for ` overmuch' and ` excess' must be read ` dull' and ` dullness'.]

Brethren, who is the third of these four?

Herein, brethren, a brother aloof from sensual pleasures [continue down to 1 excess' in -Discourse (3).] Owing to the preponderance of these five controlling faculties, in this life itself he becomes ` one who attains perfection with no remnant of Kamma to work out'.

Brethren, who is the fourth of these four?

Herein, brethren, a brother..... [contintte as in previous para: substituting ` dull ' and `dullness ' for `excessive' and` preponderance'.]

Verily, brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world.

(10) Arahantihip

Once the venerable ânanda dwelt at Kosambi in Ghosita Park. Then the venerable ânanda addressed. the brethren

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1 The ` normal way': one works up to the Truth by definite exertion in this life.

xvii. [170] On Practices 203

thus: 'Brethren! Friends!' The brethren responded: Yes, friend!' to the venerable ânanda, who spake thus:

"Friends, whatsoever brother or sister declares in my presence his or her attainment to Arahantship, all such should be possessed of four qualities, or at least of one of them. What four?

Friends, herein a brother develops insight preceded by concentration. To him who so develops insight ... there arises the Path.* He practises, increases and develops that Path. In him who practises, increases and develops that Path the Fetters become abolished and the tendencies*vanish.

Again, friends, a brother develops concentration preceded by insight. To him who so develops concentration there arises the Path.*' He practises, increases and develops that Path. In him who practises, increases and develops that Path the Fetters become abolished and the tendencies vanish.

Again, friends, a brother develops concentration and. insight coupled together; to him who develops concentration and insight there arises the Path. He practises increases and develops that Path. To him who practises, increases and develops that Path -the Fetters become abolished and the tendencies vanish.

And again, friends, a brother has his 'Mind freed from the defilements of concentration and insight. This, friends, is the time when the mind is established, well placed,

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1The 1 normal way'. One works up to the Truth by definite exertion in this life.

2 Anusayà. There are seven of these 'tendencies'

3 Here one ` works up' his faculties after the Truth has dawned on him, owing to past merit.

204 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 157

concentrated and tranquillised. To him the Path arises. He practises, increases and develops that Path. To him who so practises, increases and develops that Path the Fetters become abolished and the tendencies vanish.

Verily,, friends, whatsoever brother or sister declares in my presence his or her attainment of Arahantship, all such should be possessed of these four qualities or at least of one of them.

(CHAPTFR XVII ON PRACTICES ENDS)