Aïguttara Nikàya
017. âgàtavaggo. On hurtfulness

1. Pañhama Ý àghàtapañivinayasuttaü Ý First on repression of hurtfulness

017.01. Bhikkhus, these are five ways of repressing anger through which the bhikkhu should repress all arisen anger. What five?

Bhikkhus, when anger has arisen towards a certain person, loving kindness should be developed towards that person. Thus that anger should be repressed. When anger has arisen towards a certain person, compassion should be developed towards that person. Thus that anger should be repressed. When anger has arisen towards a certain person, equanimity should be developed towards that person. Thus that anger should be repressed. When anger has arisen towards a certain person, not thinking of him, forgetting him should be developed towards that person. Thus that anger should be repressed. When anger has arisen towards a certain person, the heridity of actions should be thought of that person- This good one is the owner of actions. He is the inheritor, origin, relation and refuge of actions. Whatever actions good or bad he does, will be his heritage. Thus that anger should be repressed. Bhikkhus, these are five ways of repressing anger through which the bhikkhu should repress all arisen anger.

2. Dutiya Ý àghàtapañivinayasuttaü Ý Second on repression of hurtfulness

017.02. Then venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus:

Friends, bhikkhus, these are five ways of repressing anger through which the bhikkhu should repress all arisen anger. what five?

Here, friends, a certain person is with impure bodily behaviour and pure verbal behaviour, hurtfulness towards such a person should also be repressed. A certain person is with impure verbal behaviour and pure bodily behaviour, hurtfulness towards such a person should also be repressed. A certain person is with impure bodily behaviour and impure verbal behaviour, from time to time he gains a rare purity, a brightness,. hurtfulness towards such a person should also be repressed. A certain person is with impure bodily behaviour and impure verbal behaviour, from time to time he does not gain a rare purity, a brightness,. hurtfulness towards such a person should also be repressed A certain person is with pure bodily behaviour and pure verbal behaviour, from time to time he gains a rare purity, a brightness,. hurtfulness towards such a person should also be repressed. Friends, how should the hurtfulness towards a person with impure bodily behaviour and pure verbal behaviour be repressed?

Friends, like a rag robe bhikkhu seeing a worn out cloth in the street would pull it with the left foot, spread it out with the right foot and tearing the essential would take it away. Friends it is like that person's impure bodily behaviour and pure verbal behaviour. At such time his impure bodily behaviour should not be thought of, his pure verbal behaviour should be thought of. In this manner hurtfulness towards this person should be repressed. Friends, how should the hurtfulness towards a person with impure verbal behaviour and pure bodily behaviour be repressed?

Friends, there is a pond covered with moss and water plants, a man comes to it overcome with thirst, faintish. He ascends and removing the moss and the water plants with his hands, drinks that water and goes away. Friends it is like that person's impure verbal behaviour and pure bodily behaviour. At such time his impure verbal behaviour should not be thought of, his pure bodily behaviour should be thought of. In this manner hurtfulness towards this person should be repressed. Friends, how should the hurtfulness towards a person with impure bodily behaviour and impure verbal behaviour and from time to time who gains a purity a brightness be repressed?

Friends, in the rut made by the hoof of cattle, there is a little water. Then a man tired and overcome by thirst comes and it occurs to him: What if I drink this little water in the cattle rut with my hands, or with a cup. If it is shaken or disturbed, it will not be drinkable. What if I go down on my fours, drink like cattle and go away. Then he goes down on his fours and drinks the water in the cattle rut and goes away. In the same manner friends, it is like that person with impure bodily behaviour, impure verbal behaviour, from time to time gaining a rare purity, a brightness. At such times his impure bodily behaviour should not be thought of, his impure verbal behaviour should not be thought of. The rare gain of purity and brightness that rises from time to time should be thought of òhe hurtfulness towards that person should be repressed in this manner ...

Friends, how should the hurtfulness towards a person with impure bodily behaviour and impure verbal behaviour and who from time to time does not gain a purity a brightness be repressed?

Friends, it is like a gravely sick man who has come on the highway. In front of him or behind his back a village is far away. He would not get suitable food, suitable medicine, a suitable attendant nor a village headman. A certain man seeing him on the highway. arouses compassion for him and out of compassion he attends on him- Oh! if this person gets the suitable food, medicine, a suitable attendant or even a village headman! What is the reason? May this person not fall to destruction here itself. Friends, a person like this too should be attended to, out of compassion- Oh! this good person should dispel bodily misbehaviour, develop bodily good beehaviour. Should dispel verbal misbehaviour, develop verbal good behaviour,. should dispel mental misbehaviour, develop mental good behaviour. What is the reason? May this good person after death not go to loss, to a bad state, be born in hell. The hurtfulness towards that person should be repressed in this manner ...

Friends, how should the hurtfulness towards a person with pure bodily behaviour and pure verbal behaviour and who from time to time gains a purity a brightness be repressed?

Friends, there is a pond with pure, clear water in a pleasant surrounding with several trees bordering it. Then a certain person comes tired and overcome by thirst. He descends into the pond, bathes, drinks water and ascending from the pond sits or lies under the shadow of the trees.

Friends, in the same manner this person's pure bodily behaviour and pure verbal behaviour and from time to time his gains of a purity, a brightnesses should be considered thus: At that time his pure bodily behaviour should be thought of, his pure verbal behaviour should be thought of and his gains of purity and brightness from tsime to time should be thought of. The hurtfulness towards that person should be repressed in this manner.

Friends, an entirely appeased person comes and appeases his mind. Friends, bhikkhus, these are five ways of repressing anger through which the bhikkhu should repress all arisen anger.

3. Sàkacchasuttaü Ý On conversing

017.03. òhen venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus:

Friends, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with five things is suitable to converse with co-associates in the holy life. What five?

Here, bhikkhus the bhikkhu is virtuous and explains whatever questions that arise on virtues. The bhikkhu is concentrated and explains whatever questions that arise on concentration. The bhikkhu is wise and explains whatever questions that arise on wisdom. The bhikkhu is released and explains whatever questions that arise on release. The bhikkhu is endowed with knowledge and vision of release and explains whatever questions that arise on knowledge and vision of release. Friends, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with these five things is suitable to converse with co-associates in the holy life.

 

4. Sàjãvasuttaü Ý Living together

017.04. òhen venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus:

Friends, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with five things is suitable to live with co-associates in the holy life. What five?

Here, bhikkhus the bhikkhu is virtuous and explains whatever questions that arise on virtues. The bhikkhu is concentrated and explains whatever questions that arise on concentration. The bhikkhu is wise and explains whatever questions that arise on wisdom. The bhikkhu is released and explains whatever questions that arise on release. The bhikkhu is endowed with knowledge and vision of release and explains whatever questions that arise on knowledge and vision of release. Friends, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with these five things is suitable to live with co-associates in the holy life.

5. Pa¤hapucchàsuttaü Ý Asking questions

017.05. Then venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus: Friends, whoever asks a quetion from another, asks it on account of one or the other of these five. What five?

A question is asked on account of stupidity and delusion. A question is asked with an evil desire. To betittle the other a question is asked. To know something a question is asked from another. Or else with this intention a question is asked from another- It is good if my question is answered correctly. If it is not correctly answered I will explain it. Friends, whoever asks a quetion from another, asks it on account of one or the other of these five. Friends, I ask a question with this intention. It is good if my question is answered correctly. If it is not correctly answered I will explain it.

6. Nirodhasuttaü Ý Cessation

017.06. òhen venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus ... re ...

Here, friends a bhikkhu endowed with virtues, concentration and wisdom, if he abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings, he here and now realizes worthiness, or else is born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food and abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings.

Then venerable Udayi said to venerable Sàriputta: Friend, Sàriputta, it is impossible, it could not happen that the bhikkhu be born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food and could abide, attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings.

For the second time ... re ... for the third time venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus ... re ...

Here, friends a bhikkhu endowed with virtues, concentration and wisdom, if he abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings, he here and now realizes worthiness, or else is born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food and abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings.

Up to the third time venerable Udayi said to venerable Sàriputta: Friend, Sàriputta, it is impossible, it could not happen that the bhikkhu be born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food and could abide attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings.

Then it occurred venerable Sàriputta up to the third time venerable Udayi has rejected me and no other bhikkhu appreciates it. What if I approach The Blessed One. Then venerable Sàriputta approached The Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side and addressed the bhikkhus: Here, friends a bhikkhu endowed with virtues, concentration and wisdom, if he abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings, he here and now realizes worthiness, or else is born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food and abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings.

Then venerable Udayi said to venerable Sàriputta: Friend, Sàriputta, it is impossible, it could not happen that the bhikkhu be born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food, could abide attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings.

For the second time ... re ... for the third time venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus ... re ...

Here, friends a bhikkhu endowed with virtues, concentration and wisdom, if he abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings, he here and now realizes worthiness, or else is born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food and abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings.

Up to the third time venerable Udayi said to venerable Sàriputta: Friend, Sàriputta, it is impossible, it could not happen that the bhikkhu be born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food and he could abide attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings.

Then it occurred venerable Sàriputta even before The Blessed One venerable Udayi has rejected me up to the third time and no other bhikkhu appreciates it. I should keep silence and kept silent.

Then The Blessed One addressed venerable Udayi: Udayi, do you know mental beings? Venerable sir, I know immaterial perceptual gods. Udayi, what is the use of your foolish words. You think, I too should speak. Then The Blessed One addressed venerable ânanda: ânanda, there are those who worry the elders. Be on the look out! They show no compassion when worrying the elders.

Then The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus: Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu endowed with virtues, concentration and wisdom, if he abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings, he here and now realizes worthiness, or else is born a mental being with the gods who have gone beyond partaking material food and abides attaining to and rising from the cessation of perceptions and feelings. Having said that The Blessed One got up from his seat and went into the monastery.

Soon after The Blessed One had gone, venerable ânanda approached venerable Upavana and said: Here, friend, Upavana, the elder bhikkhus who have attained worthiness are worried. We are not free from that accusation . There is no surprise friend, Upàvana. to see The Blessed One addressing the bhikkhus on this, as to how venerable ones like Upavana should reply. We should be frightened on this. Then The Blessed One getting up from his seclusion in the evening. approached the attendance hall and sat on the prepared seat and addressed venerable Upavana:

Upavana, endowed with what things is an elder bhikkhu pleasing, agreeable, honourable and developed to the co-associates in the holy life?

Venerable sir, endowed with five things the elder bhikkhu becomes pleasing, agreeable, honourable and developed to the co-associates in the holy life. What five?

Here, venerable sir, the elder bhikkhu is virtuous, ... re ... restrained in the code of rules. Is learned ... re ... and penetratingly seeing have rectified his view. Endowed with good words is polite and could explain to others the deep meanings. He is a gainer for nothing, a quick and easy gainer of the four higher states of the mind, the pleasant abidings here and now. Having destroyed desires, ... re ... having realized abides. Venerable sir, endowed with these five things the elder bhikkhu becomes pleasing, agreeable, honourable and developed to the co-associates in the holy life.

Upavana, good! That you know them. The elder bhikkhu endowed with these five things becomes pleasing, agreeable, honourable and developed to the co-associates in the holy life. Upavana, if these five things are not evident in the elder bhikkhu the co-associates in the holy life should not venerate him, esteem him honour him, because of his grey hair and wrinkled skin. Upavana, if these five things are evident in the elder bhikkhu, then the co-associates in the holy life venerate him, esteem him and honour him.

7. Codanàsuttaü Ý Making accusations

017.07. Venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus: Friends, a bhikkhu desiring to accuse another should internally establish himself in these five things and then accuse another. What five?

I will talk at the right time not out of time. I will tell the truth not the untruth. I will talk politely, not roughly. I will tell the essential not the useless. I will talk with loving kindness not with anger. Friends, a bhikkhu desiring to accuse another should internally establish himself in these five things and then accuse another.

Friends, I see a certain person accused angrily at the inappropriate time. Accused untruthfully and angrily. Accused roughly with anger in the mind. Accused not for the welfare with an angryüind Accused angrily, without loving kindness.

Friends, to the bhikkhu accused not according to the Teaching non-remorse should be furnished in five ways. The venerable one was accused untimely, it is suitable for your non-remorse. The venerable one was accused untruthfully, it is suitable for your non-remorse. The venerable one was accused harshly, it is suitable for your non-remorse.

The venerable one was accused without essence, it is suitable for your non-remorse. The venerable one was accused without loving kindnss, it is suitable for your non-remorse. Friends, to the bhikkhu accused not according to the Teaching non-remorse should be furnished in these five ways.

Friends, to the bhikkhu accusing not according to the Teaching remorse should be furnished in five ways. The venerable one accused untimely, it is suitable for your remorse. The venerable one accused untruthfully, it is suitable for your remorse. The venerable one accused harshly, it is suitable for your remorse. The venerable one accused without essence, it is suitable for your remorse. The venerable one accused without loving kindnss, it is suitable for your remorse. Friends, to the bhikkhu accusing not according to the Teaching remorse should be furnished in these five ways.

Friends, the bhikkhu accusing not according to the Teaching should arouse remorse in these five ways. What is the reason? He should think not to accuse other bhikkhus untruthfully.

Friends, I see a certain person accused at the appropriate time without anger, Accused truthfully without anger. Accused gently without anger. Accused for the welfare without anger. Accused with a mind of loving kindness.

Friends, to the bhikkhu accused according to the Teaching remorse should be furnished in five ways. The venerable one was accused timely, it is suitable for your remorse. The venerable one was accused truthfully, it is suitable for your remorse. The venerable one was accused gently, it is suitable for your remorse.

The venerable one was accused with an essence, it is suitable for your remorse. The venerable one was accused with loving kindness, it is suitable for your remorse. Friends, to the bhikkhu accused according to the Teaching remorse should be furnished in these five ways.

Friends, to the bhikkhu accusing according to the Teaching non-remorse should be furnished in five ways. The venerable one accused timely, it is suitable for your non-remorse. The venerable one accused truthfully, it is suitable for your non-remorse. The venerable one accused gently, it is suitable for your non-remorse. The venerable one accused in the essence, it is suitable for your non-remorse. The venerable one accused with loving kindnss, it is suitable for your non-remorse. Friends, to the bhikkhu accusing according to the Teaching non-remorse should be furnished in these five ways.

Friends, to the bhikkhu accusing according to the Teaching non-remorse should be furnished in these five ways. What is the reason? He should think to accuse other bhikkhus too, truthfully.

Friends, the accused person should be established in two things. In truth and non-aversion. Even if I accuse others at the appropriate time or inappropriate time, truthfully or untruthfully, gently or roughly, for his welfare or not for his welfare, with loving kindness or with anger. I too should be established in two things in truth and non-aversion. If I know these things are present in me and if I tell them I have those qualities and if they know those things are present in me. Or if I know those things are not present in me and I tell them, these things are not evident in me.

Sàriputta, even when you say thus, why does not a certain foolish man take advice?

Venerable sir, a certain person leaves home and becomes homeless for the sake of a living without faith, crafty, deceitful, cheating, puffed up, takative, with loose talk, with unprotected mental faculties, not knowing the right amount to partake, not engaged in wakefulness, without desires of recluseship, not honouring the precepts, given to abundance and lethargic, having given up seclusions and the main aim, is lazy and without effort, not mindful and aware, not concentrated with scattered mind, stupid with saliva dripping. Such people even when advised do not take advice quickly.

Venerable sir, as for those sons of clansmen who leave home and become homeless with faith, not crafty, not deceitful, not cheating, not puffed up, not takative, without loose talk, with protected mental faculties, knowing the right amount to partake, engaged in wakefulness, with desires of recluseship, honouring the precepts, not given to abundance and not lethargic, not giving up seclusions and the main aim, are with aroused effort, mindful and aware, concentrated with the mind in a single point, wise without saliva dripping. Such people when advised, take my advice quickly.

Sàriputta, those persons who leave home and become homeless for the sake of a living without faith, crafty, deceitful, cheating, puffed up, takative, with loose talk, with unprotected mental faculties, not knowing the right amount to partake, not engaged in wakefulness, without desires of recluseship, not honouring the precepts, given to abundance and lethargic, having given up seclusions and the main aim, are lazy and without effort, not mindful and aware, not concentrated with scattered mind, stupid with saliva dripping. Let them alone!

Sàriputta, as for those sons of clansmen who leave home and become homeless with faith, not crafty, not deceitful, not cheating, not puffed up, not takative, without loose talk, with protected mental faculties, knowing the right amount to partake, engaged in wakefulness, with desires of recluseship, honouring the precepts, not given to abundance and not lethargic, not giving up seclusions and the main aim, are with aroused effort, mindful and aware, concentrated with the mind in a single point, wise without saliva dripping. Sàriputta, they tell you: Sàriputta, advise the co-associates in the holy life, pull them out of the wrong teaching and establish them in the right Teaching. Sàriputta, you should train thus.

8. Sãlasuttaü Ý On virtues

017.08. Venerable Sàriputta addressed the bhikkhus: Friends, the unvirtuous, with virtues destroyed, destroy the supportive condition for right concentration. When right concentration is not present, the supportive condition for knowledge and vision of things as they really are, get destroyed When knowledge and vision of things as they really are, is not present, the supportive condition for giving up and disenchantment, gets destroyed. When giving up and dischantment is not present, the supportive condition for knowledge and vision of release, gets destroyed. Friends it is like a tree devoid of branches and foliage. Its shoots do not grow completely, neither do its bark, sap wood and essence grow completely. Friends, in the same manner the unvirtuous, with virtues destroyed, destroy the supportive condition for right concentration. When right concentration is not present, the supportive condition for knowledge and vision of things as they really are, get destroyed When knowledge and vision of things as they really are, is not present, the supportive condition for giving up and disenchantment, gets destroyed. When giving up and dischantment is not present, the supportive condition for knowledge and vision of release, gets destroyed.

Friends, the virtuous one, with his endowment of virtues is supported for right concentration. When right concentration is present, the supportive condition for knowledge and vision of things as they really are, gets supported. When knowledge and vision of things as they really are, is present, the supportive condition for giving up and disenchantment, gets supported. When giving up and dischantment is present, the supportive condition for knowledge and vision of release, gets supported. Friends it is like a tree endowed with branches and foliage. Its shoots grow to completion, its bark, sap wood and essence grow to completion. Friends, in the same manner the virtuous one with his endowment of virtues is supported for right concentration. When right concentration is present, the supportive condition for knowledge and vision of things as they really are, get supported When knowledge and vision of things as they really are, is present, the supportive condition for giving up and disenchantment, gets supported. When giving up and dischantment is present, the supportive condition for knowledge and vision of release, gets supported.

9. Khippanisantisuttaü Ý Quick observation

017.09. Venerable ânanda approached venerable Sàriputta, exchanged friendly greetings, sat on a side and said:

Friend, Sàriputta, how does the bhikkhu become a quick observer of meritorious things, thoroughly grasping a lot of them and not forget them.

Venerable ânanda is learned. Could venerable ânanda himself explain this?

Then, friend Sàriputta, listen carefully and attend!

Here, friend, Sàriputta the bhikkhu becomes clever in meanings, clever in the Teaching, clever in words, clever in roots and clever in the past and the future. Friend, with this much the bhikkhu becomes a quick observer of meritorious things, thoroughly grasping a lot of them does not forget them.

Friend, it is wonderful and surprising. These are good words of venerable ânanda. We will remember venerable ânanda as endowed with these five things. Venerable ânanda is clever in meanings, clever in the Teaching, clever in words, clever in roots and clever in the past and the future.

10. Bhaddajisuttaü Ý Venerable Bhaddaji

017.10. At one time venerable ânanda was living in Ghosita's monastery in Kosambi. Then venerable Bhaddaji approached venerable ânanda exchanged friendly greetings, sat on a side and venerable ânanda said thus:

Friend, Bhaddaji, of sights what is the foremost, of sounds what is the foremost, of pleasantnesses what is the foremost, of perceptions what is the foremost and of the states of being what is the foremost?

Friend, there is brahma the overlord who is not overcome who pervades the directions and is the authority. If someone sees that brahma, that is the foremost sight. Friends, there are gods emitting streaks of light like lightening from their bodies. Overcome and drenched in pleasantness one day or other, they utter a solemn utterance: Ah! this is pleasant! This is pleasant! If someone hears that sound, that is the foremost of sounds. Friends, there are gods who are drenched in happiness and they abide appeased in the heaven of happiness. This is the foremost happiness. Friend, there are gods who abide in the sphere, where there is nothing. That is the foremost of perceptions. Friend, there are gods in the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. That is the foremost state of being [1]. Does venerable Bhaddaji aggree with this explanation as the general populace does?

Venerable ânanda is learned, let venerable ânanda explain. Friend, Bhaddaji, then listen and attend carefully: Friend, when looking on, without an interval, desires get destroyed. That is the foremost sight. When listening without an interval, desires get destroyed. That is the foremost hearing. When pleasantness is without an interval, desires get destroyed. That is the foremost pleasantness. When the perception is without an interval, desires get destroyed. That is the foremost perception. When being [1] is without an interval, desires get destroyed. That is the foremost being.

Notes. 1. Being `bhavànaü': This is maintaining the mind in a single position, without any intrusions of good or evil.