CHAPTER XVI
ON FACULTIE 8*

(1) Faculties

BRETHRFN, there are these four faculties. What four? The faculty of faith, the faculty of energy, the faculty of, mindftilness and the faculty of concentration. Verily, brethren, there are these four faculties.

(2) Powerg (a)

Brethren, there are these four powers. What four? The power of faith, the power of energy, the power of mindfulness and the power of concentration. Verily, brethren, there are these fonr powers.

(3) Powers (b)

Brethren, there are these four powers. What four? The power of wisdom, the power of energy, the power of faultlessness and the power of self-restraint.* Verily, brethren, there are these four powers.

1 Iindriyàni the directive forces or dynhmics'in five main ways (a) sense-function, (b) characterising mark, (c) ways of sense, (d) moral powers (as here) , (e) ` internal ' functioning.

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1 Read sangàha as in P.T.S. and Ceylon text, not sangaha (confering favours) whitch is out of place in this category.

184 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 142

(4) Powers

Brethren, there are these four powers. What four? The power of mindfulness, the power of concentration, the power of faultlessness and the power of self-restraint.* Verily, brethren, there are these four powers.

(5) Powers (d)

Brethren, there are these four powers. What four? The power of comprehension, the power of development, the power of faultlessness and the power of self-restraint.

Verily, brethren, there are these four powers.

(6) Incalculables* of the Cycle

Brethren, there are these four incalculables of the cycle,. What four?

Brethren, when the cycle is rolled up,' it is not easy to count (saying) so many years, so many hundreds of years, so many thousands of' years or so many hundreds of thousands of years.'

Brethren, when the cycle remains rolled up it is not easy to count (saying) so many years, so many hundreds of years, so many thousands of years or so many hundreds of thousands of years.'

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1 Read sangàha as in P.T.S. and Ceylon text, not sangaha.

2 Asankheyyàni.

3 Samvaññati. The idea is of a thing that coils and uncoils, periodically, as in the Hindu 'days and nights of Brahma'.

xvi. [157] On Faculties 185

Brethren, when the cycle unrolls* it is not easy to count (saying) : ` so many years, so many hundreds of years, so many thousands of years, or so many hundreds of thousands of years.'

Brethren, when the cycle stands unrolled, it is not easy to count (saying) ' so many years, so many hundreds of years, so many thousands of years, or so many hundreds of thousands of years.

Verily, brethren, there are these four incalculables of the cycle.

(7) Ailments

Brethren, there are these two ailments. What two? Bodily ailment and mental ailment.

Brethren, beings are (to be) seen who acknowledge themselves to be free from disease for a year, two years, three years, four years five years, ten years, twenty years, thirty years, forty years,, fifty. years, and even one hundred years. Brethren, these beings are rare in the world, who even for a moment ` acknowledge themselves to be free from mental ailment, except (in the case of) the intoxicant-freed (Arahants) .

Brethren, there are these four ailments in the recluse.

What four?

Brethren, herein he, being vexed and discontented with whatsoever* robes, alms-food, lodging, medicines and

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1 Vivaññati.

2 Muhuttam pi àrogyam. Cf. S., III, 1, where the Buddha says to the housefather Nakulapitar, 'to claim but a mouient's health would be sheer folly'

3 Itaritara.

186 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 143,

refreshments for the sick he may get, becomes greedy. Being greedy, vexed and displeased as to whatsoever robes, eto ... (as before) , he puts forth the evil desire to acquire respect and consideration ' and also to find gain, honours and fame. He applies and exerts himself and strives to acquire respect and consideration, and to find gain, honours and fame. Seeking popularity, he visits families, accepts a. seat, preaches the Norm and even represses the calls of nature. Verily, brethren, there are these four kinds of ailment in the recluse.

Therefore, brethren, you should thus train yourselves: ` Let us not be greedy, being vexed and displeased as to whatsoever robes, alms-food, dwelling, medicines and refreshments for the sick we may get; let us not put forth evil desire to acquire respect and consideration; let us not apply and exert ourselves and strive to acquire gains, honours and fame. Let us endure cold, heat, hunger, thirst, gad-flies, mosquitoes and the touch of wind and sun and creeping things; let us have patience towards unwelcome and abusive speech, ard towards any bodily sensation that arises which is painful, acute, sharp, disagreeable, unpleasant and destructive of life itself.' Brethren, thus should you therefore train yourselves.

(8) Merit

Once the venerable Sàriputta addressed the brethren: " Friends, brothers! " Yes, friend," replied the brethren to the venerable Sàriputt. The venerable Sàriputta then

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1 An-avaïïa

xvi. [158 On Faculties 187

spake thus: Were any brother or sister to see in himself or herself four conditions, he or she should come to this conclusion: ` I am falling away from acts of merit. Such was declared by the Exalted One as falling away.' What four?

Growth * of lust, growth of ill-will, growth of ignorance, and (as a result of this) one fails to win the eye of insight, as to right or wrong conclusions.

Were any brother or sister to see in himself or herself these four conditions, he or she should come to the conclusion: ` I am falling away from acts of merit. Such was dclared by the Exalted One as falling away.'

Were any brother or sister to see four qualities in himself or herself, he or she should come to the conclusion: `I am not falling away from acts of merit. Such was declared by the Exalted One as not-falling away.' What four?

The wearing* down of lust, the wearing down of ill-will, the wearing down of ignorance, and (as a result of this) one wins the eye of insight as to right or wrong conclusions.

Were any brother or sister to see. these four conditions in himself or herself, he or she should come to the conclusion: ` I am not falling away from acts of merit. Such was declared by the Exalted One as not-falling away.'

(9) An Erring Sister

Once the, venerable ânanda dwelt at Kosambi in Ghosita Park. Then a certain sister thus accosted a certain man:

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1 Vepullataü.

2 Tanuttaü (as in the fetters) .

188 The Numerical Say [TEXT ii, 145

"Pray come, my good man, go to the Master ânanda and in my name salute Master ânanda's feet with your head (saying) Reverend Sir, a sick, afflicted, exceeding weak

sister of such and such name salutes Master ânanda's feet with her head. She also says Good indeed were it, reverend sir, if Master ânanda out of compassion would come to that sister's lodging.'

So the man answering: ` Yes, Madame,' to that sister went to the venerable â,nanda. Having come there he made obeisance to 'him and sat down at one side. So seated, that man said to the venerable ânanda:

"Reverend sir, a sick aftlicted and exceeding weak sister of such and such name salutes Master ânanda's feet, saying thus Good indeed, reverend sir, if Master ânanda should come to that sister's lodging.' " -

Then the venerable ânanda assented by silence.

Then the venerable ânanda robed himself and taking bowl and cloak went to the sister's dwelling. Now the sister saw the venerable ânanda coming at a distant. Seeing him she covered her head and laid herself down on the bed. So the venerable â,nanda came to the sister, and having come took the seat prepared for him. So seated the venerable knanda spake thus to that sister:

"Sister, this body is sprung from food, is dependent on food: food must be put away. Sister, this body is sprung from craving, is dependent on craving; craving must be put away. Sister, this body is sprung from pride, is dependent on pride; pride must be put away. Sister, this body is sprung from sexual union, sexual union is the

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1 Bhikkhuni-passayo (lit. shelter) .

2 Sà sisaü not sa-sisaü(she covered her head) .

xvi. On Faculties 189

bridge* (to rebirth) . The breaking-down of that bridge is declared by the Exalted One.

Sister, 'this body is sprung from food, is dependent on food, food must be put away'. So was it said; and why was it so said? Sister, herein a brother with proper reflection takes food, not for the sake of sport, enjoyment, adornment, or decoration, but to maintain body while life lasts, to satisfy hunger and as an aid to lead the holy life (saying)

`Thus do I get rid of old painful feelings and shall not beget new feelings. My livelihood shall be faultless and comfortable.' He thereafter, though dependent on bodily food, puts away food.

As to food, whatever was thus said, was said in this connexion.

Sister, ` this body is sprung from craving, is dependent on craving, this craving [for continued existence] must be put away '-thus indeed it was said; and why was it so said?

Sister, herein a brother comes to hear A brother of such and such a name having won emancipation of heart through insight, which follows upon the destruction of the intoxicants, himself in this very life having attained supreme knowledge abides therein.' He considers thus:

`When shall I also, having won emancipation of heart, thus abide therein?

Thereafter with the aid of craving does he eliminate craving. Sisteri as to craving, whatsoever was thus said, was said in this connexion.

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1 Setu-ghàto. Cf. Aññhasalini, 219 (Setum hanati ti, setugàto) and Dh. Sang., 87. n. (.trans.) and A., i, 220. Navànaüi kammànaü setàgàto.

190 The Numerical Sayings [TEXTii, 146

Sister, `this body is sprung from pride, is dependent on pride: pride must be put away '. Thus what was so said was laid down with a reason. (The illustration is as before.)

Sister, ` this body is sprung from sexual union.' It was said by the Exalted One that sexual union is the bridge (to rebirth) which must be broken down."

Thereupon that sister rose from her bed, arranged her upper robe over one shoulder, put her head at the foot of the venerable ânanda and said thus to the venerable ânanda

"0 Sir,' a fault has been committed by me: even as a foolish, misguided and unskilful one, so I did thus. 0 Sir, may Master ânanda accept this confession of mine * as a restraint for the future."

Indeed, sister, a fault has overcome thee: even so, foolish, misguided, and unskilful one, thou didst thus. Yet, sister inasmuch as thou dost thus recognise thy fault as such and make amends for it, we do pardon thee. Indeed, sister, it marks a growth in the discipline of the Holy Ones for one to recognise a fault as such and make amends for it and attain to restraint in the future."

(10) The Buddha and the Norm

Brethren, when an Auspicious' One or His Discipline stands fast in the world, it is for the blessing and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for all mankind, and for the good, the profit and the happiness of devas and men.

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1 Cf. S. ii. 127. (Theformula of confession,Vin. i,315.)

2 Sugato

xvi. [160] On Faculties 191

Brethren, who is the Auspicious One? Brethren, here in the world is born an Accomplished' One, an Arahant fully awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, Happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a Guide to men to be tamed, the Teacher of devas and men. Brethren, this is the Auspicious One. Brethren, what is the Discipline of the Auspicious One? Brethren, He proclaims the Doctrine lovely in its origin, lovely in its progress, lovely in its consummation, both in the spirit and in the letter; the holy life* he makes known in all its fulness and in all its purity. Brethren, this is the Discipline of the Auspicious One.

Brethren, when an Auspicious One or His Discipline stands fast in the world, it is for the blessing and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for all mankind, and for the good, the benefit and happiness of devas and men.

The Decay of the Norm

Brethren, these four things lead to the decay and disappearance of the Norm. What four?

Brethren, here in the world the brethren recite ill-learnt discourses, and ill-arranged as to words and letters. Brethren, owing to ill-arrangement of words and letters the meaning also becomes hard to understand. This is the first thing that leads to the decay and disappearance of the Norm."

Again, the brethren become unruly, and being unruly in conduct they become impatient and disregard advice,

This is the second thing that leads to the decay and disappearance of the Norm.

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1 Tathàgato.

2 Brama-cariyaü.

3 Cf. A. ii, 10.

192 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 148

Again, whatsoever brethren are learned, well-versed in the Canon, the Doctrine, the Discipline and the Text, do not carefully teach others the discou rse. Owing to their fault, the discourses, being unprotected, are destroyed from the root. Brethren, this is the third thing that leads to the decay and disappearance of the Norm.

Again, brethren, tile elders among the brethren become wanton and lax in descending (to the worldly life) taking the lead, in respect of the secluded life shirking the burden: ' they do not put forth endeavour t o attain what they have not yet attained, and to realise what they have not yet realised; the later generations who come after them fall into dependence on views.* They also become wanton, lax, in descending (to the worldly life) taking the lead, but in respect of the secluded life shirking the burden (of it) they do not put forth endeavour to attain what they have not yet attained or to realise what they have not yet realised.

This, brethren, is the fourth thing that leads (as above) .

Preservation of the Norm

Brethren, there are these four things which lead to the preservation and not to the decay and disappearance of the Norm. What four? [Repeat the converse of the above.]

(CHAPTER XVI ON FACULTIES ENDS)

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1 Okkamane pubbangamà paviveke nikkhitta-dhura Cf. Majjh. i, 14,32 where the terms are interchanged as below to describe the earnest bhikkhu (in which case it would be better to translate nikkhitta-dhura: . as` chafing against restraint') .

2 Ditthànugatim àpajjati.