CHAPTER XIV
ON PERSONS

(1) The Fetters

BRETHREN, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

Brethren, herein a certain person has destroyed neither the fetters belonging to the sensual world,* nor the fetters causing a second existence,* nor the fetters causing rebirth.* Also, brethren, herein a certain person has destroyed the fetters belonging to the sensual world, but has not destroyed the fetters causing a second existence, nor the fetters causing rebirth.

Also, brethren, herein a certain person has destroyed both the fetters belonging to the sensual world and the fetters causing a second existence, but has not destroyed the fetters causing rebirth.

Also, brethren, herein a certain person has destroyed the fetters belonging to the sensual world, and the fetters causing a second existence and also the fetters causing rebirth.

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\1 Oram-bhàgiyàni (of kàma-bhava) .

2 Uppatti-patilàbhikàni.

3 Bhava-patilàbhikàni.

xiv. [131] On Persons 171

Now, brethren, in what person are the fetters belonging to the sensual world not destroyed, nor yet the fetters causing a second existence and the fetters causing rebirth?

It is in the `Once-returner for in him, brethren, the fetters belonging to the sensual world are not destroyed nor the fetters causing a second existence nor the fetters causing rebirth.

Brethren, in what person are the fetters belonging to the sensual world destroyed, but not the fetters causing a second existence nor the fetters causing rebirth?

In the one who is called `gone up-stream' or `one to the highest devas * Indeed, brethren, in this person the fetters belonging to the sensual world are destroyed, but not the fetters causing a second existence, nor the fetters causing rebirth.

Brethren, in what person are the fetters belonging to the sensual world and the fetters causing a second existence destroyed, but not the fetters causing rebirth?

In the one who passes away (to Nibbana) midway in his term of heaven,-life.* Brethren, in this person the fetters belonging to the sensual world and the fetters causing a second existence are destroed, but not the fetters causing rebirth (generally) .

Brethren, in what person are the fetters belonging to the sensual world and the fetters causing a second existence and also the fetters causing rebirth all destroyed?

1 Sakadàgamin.

2 Uddharg-sota-gàmin, akaniññha-gàmin. Cf. S. V. 237, Pugg. P. i, 46], Compendium, p. 142.

3 Antarà-parinibbàyin, S. V. 237, atha païicannanm orambhàgiyànam.yanant saïyojanàmnibbdyi parikkhàya antaràparinibbàyi hoti, i.e., his faults are so few that they

require only a term of heaven life, not an earth life, for their eradication (i.e he has not destroyed desire for life in the

172 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 135

In the Arahant. In this one, brethren, the fetters belonging to the sensual world and the fetters causing a second existence and also the fetters causing rebirth (generally) are all destroyed.

Verily, brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(2) Understanding (a)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

He who understands* rightly but slowly; he who understands quickly but not rightly; he who understands both quickly and rightly; and he who understands neither quickly nor rightly. These four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(3) Understanding (b)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

He who has quick understanding*, he who grasps a point when it is explained *, he who has to be

formless (aråpa) worlds. Whereas, in the highest stage, he who becomes Arahant destroys these faults (desire for råpàråpa-birth,pride, distraction, ignorance) , on earth and is reborn no more.

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1 Pugg. P. IV, 6.,

2 Patibhàna-here in its philosophical sense of `intelligence'. (Cf. Compendium, 379 n.) but in its popular sense it means 'fluency of speech,' `rhetoric' (not fitting in this context) .

3 Ugghañitaïïu is the person who fully grasps the meaning as soon as the-Norm is declared.-

4 Vipacitaïïu is he who fully grasps the meaning when explained n detail.

xiv. [136] On Persons 173

instructed *, and he whose highest attainment is only the word' (of the text and not the sense) .

Verily, brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(4) Present exertion and former deeds*

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

He who lives on the fruit of his (present) exertion, and not on the fruit of his former deeds; he who lives on the fruit of his former deeds and not on the fruit of his exertion; he who lives both on the fruit of his exertion and on the fruit of his former deeds; and he who lives neither on the fruit of his exertion nor on the fruit of his former deeds.

Verily, brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world.

(5) Sinful and Sinless

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

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1 ðeyyo he fully grasps in due order, owing to pointing out,questioning,enlightened reflection and assosiating with, following and honouring virtuous friends.

2 Padaparamo is the person who, though he learns much, bears much in- mind and reads much, does not fully grasp the meaning of the Norm, i.e., he may be word-perfect but unintelligent.

3 Cf. Pugg. P. IV, 18.

4 Cf. Pugg. P. IV, 4,

174 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 136

The sinful one, the somewhat sinful one, the slightly sinful one and the sinless one.

Brethren, who is the sinful one? Herein, brethren, a certain one commits sinful acts by body, sinful acts by word and sinful acts by thought. This brethren, is the sinful person.*

Brethren, who is the somewhat sinful one? Herein, brethren, a certain person commits sinful acts by body, by word and by thought in abundance, and a few deeds that are not sinful. Brethren, this is the somewhat sinful one.' Brethren, who is the slightly sinful one? Herein, brethren, a certain one commits a few sinful acts, by body, by word and by thought, and many deeds in abundance which are not sinful. This, brethren, is the slightly sinful one.*

Brethren, who is the sinless one? Herein, brethren, a certain one commits acts by body, by word and by thought, which are not sinful. This, brethren, is the sinless one.*

Verily, brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world.

(6) Morality, Concentration and Insight (a) *

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

Herein, brethren, a certain one is neither a fulfiller of the moral practices, nor a fulfiller of concentration, nor a fulfiller of insight. Herein, brethren, a certain person is a

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1 This is the ignorant worldling.

2 This is the worldling who does good now and again.

3 This includes the `Stream-winner,' the 'Once-returner,'and the `Noii-returner'

4 This refers to the intoxicant-freed Arahant.

5 Cf. Pugg. P. IV, 15.

xiv. [137] On Persons 175

fulfiller of the moral practices, but is a fulfiller neither of concentration nor of insight. Herein, brethren, a certain person is a fulfiller of both the moral practices and of concentration, but is not a fulfiller of insight. Herein, brethren, a certain person is a fulfiller of the moral practices, a fulfiller of concentration and also a fulfiller of insight.*

(7) Morality, Concentration and Insight (b)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

Herein a certain person is neither a fosterer and master of the moral practices, nor a fosterer and master of concentration, nor a fosterer and master of insight. Also, brethren, herein a certain person is a fosterer and master of the moral practices, but is neither a fosterer and master of concentration, nor of insight. Also, brethren, a certain person is a fosterer and master of both the moral practices and of concentration, but he is not a fosterer and master of insight. Also, brethren, a certain person is a fosterer and master of the moral practices, of concentration and of insight.

Verily, brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(8) Subdued and Unsubdued

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

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1 The first person is the ordinary worldling The second is the sukka-vipassaka-sotàpanna and sakadàgàmin. The third is the anàgàmin. And the fourth is the intoxicant-freed Arahant.

176 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 137

He who is subdued in body* but unsubdued in mind; he who is unsubdued in body but subdued in mind; he who is unsubdued in both body and mind; and he who is subdued both in body and in mind.

Brethren, who is the one that is subdued in body, but unsubdued in mind?

Herein, brethren, a certain person resorts to a solitary dwelling in the forest; there he indulges in sensual thouglits, he indulges in thoughts of ill-will and he indulges in cruel thoughts. Verily, brethren, this person is subdued in body, but unsubdued in mind.

Brethren, who is the one that has body unsubdued but mind subdued?

Herein, brethren, a certain one resorts not to a solitary dwelling in the forest, but he dwells on thoughts of renunciation, he dwells on thoughts of benevolence and on thoughts of kindness. Verily, brethren, this one is unsubdued in body but subdued in mind.

Brethren, who is the one that has an unsubdued body and also an unsubdued mind?

Herein, brethren, a certain one resorts not to a solitary dwelling in the forest but indulges in sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill-will and thoughts of cruelty. Verily, brethren, this one is unsubdued both in body and in mind.*

Brethren, who is the ono that is subdued both in body and in mind?

Herein a certain one resorts to a solitary dwelling in the forest and also dwells on thou hts of renunciation

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1 Nikaññha-kàyo-outwardly he is disciplined, but his mind is not so.

2 He does nor oven profess to be a samaõa.

xiv. [139] On Persons 177

benevolence and kindness.* Verily, brethren, this is the one who is subdued both in body and in mind.

Brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(9) Preachers*

Brethren, there are these four preachers of the Norm.What four?

Herein, brethren, a certain preacher of the Norm speaks but little, and that irrelevant the assembly is also unskilful in judging what is irrelevant or otherwise. Brethren, such a preacher is reckoned as a preacher of the Norm among such an assembly.

Herein, brethren, a certain preacher of the Norm speaks but little and that irrelevant; the assembly is also skilful in judging what is relevant or not. Brethren, such a preacher is reckoned as a preacher of the Norm among such an assembly.

Herein, brethren, a certain preacher of the Norm speaks at length and what is irrelevant the assembly is also unskilful in judging what is relevant or not. Brethren, such a preacher is reckoned as a preacher of the Norm among such an assembly.

Herein, brethren, a certain preacher of the Norm speaks at length and what is relevant the assembly is also skilful in judging what is relevant or not. Brethren, such a

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1 This is the true samana.

2 Cf. Pugg. Païï7i. IV, 7.

3 Asahitam-'disconnected,'` off the point'.

178 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 138

preacher is reckoned as a preacher of the Norm among such an assembly.

Verily, brethren, there are these four (kinds of) preachers of the Norm.

(10) Speakers

Brethren, there are these four (kinds of) speakers. What four?

Brethren, there is a speaker who is at a loss* in respect of the meaning but not of the letter. Brethren, there is a speaker who is at a loss in respect of the letter, but not of the meaning. Brethren there is a speaker who is at a loss in respect of both the letter and the meaning. Brethren, there is (also) a speaker who is at a loss neither in respect of the meaning nor of the letter. Verily, brethren, there are these four kinds of speakers.

But, brethren, that a brother, who is endowed with the four branches of logical analysis,' should come to grief in respect of the meaning and of the letter-such a thing is impossible* and cannot be.

(CHAPTER XIV: ON PERSONS ENDS)

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1 Pariyàdànam gacchati--generally in the meaning of 'coming to an end - using up: loss'-(i.e. he is a failure either in the spirit or in the letter of a thing, or in both) .

2 Pañisambhidà.

3Aññànaü, anavakàsa-literally,` out of place and impossible'.