CHAPTER XIII
ON FEARS

(1) Fears (a)

BRETHREN, there are these four kinds of fear. What four? Fear of self-censure, fear of censure by others, fear of punishment and fear of rebirth in states of woe.

Brethren, what is fear of self-censure? Herein, brethren, a certain person thus considers `Were I indeed to commit misconduct by body, by word or by thought, how can I not morally blame myself for such act?' Thus frightened by self-censure, he eschews misconduct by body and promotes good conduct by body and so forth and leads a pure life. Brethren, this is said to be fear of self-censure (conscience).

Brethren, what is fear of censure by others? Herein, brethren, a certain person considers thus: 1 Were 1 indeed to commit misconduct by body, by word or by thought, how can others not morally blame me for such act?' Thus, frightened of censure by others, he eschews misconduct by body and the like, and promotes good conduct by body and so forth, and leads a pure life. Brethren, this is said to be fear of censure by others.'

-------------

1. These first two states are summed up in the word Itiri-ottappam.

xiii. [121] On Fears 155

Brethren, what is fear of punishment? Herein, brethren, a certain person sees a thief guilty of a crime being taken by the king* and subjected to various kinds of punishments such as: lashing with whips and canes, beating with split sticks," cutting off of arm or leg, both arms and logs, ear or nose, both ear and nose, ripping skull and applying a red-hot iron,' skimming the scalp [and applying gravel till it becomes white as a chank].4

Burning the inside of the mouth,* the body and the band. Flaying the skin off from throat to ankle, from neck to waist and from waist to ankle. Fixing the elbows and knees to iron piles and nailing them, and lighting fires around. Flaying the skin, flesh and veins with a sharp edge, tearing the body and smearing the wounds with salt water.

Fixing the body on the ground by laying it prostrate on one side and planting an iron rod through the ears on the ground, then whirling the body round. Crushing and softening the body like a bunch of straw.' Pouring boiling oil on the body; making it a prey to hungry dogs. Impaling it whilst alive and severing the head with a sword.

Then he considers thus: ` Were I to commit a similar crime, I should also be taken up by the king, who would

-----------------------

1 Cf. A. I. 1, and quoted at Milinda Païha, p. 197 (Trenckner's te.xt: Rhys Davids' trans. I, 276, and Gooneratne's trans. of A. I. The meaning of these terms of torture seems doubtful. (Things like these were done in the late Great War.)

2 Addha-dazõóa-'half sticks,' probably split down the middle to cause more pain.

3 Bilanga-thàlikam. R. D. trans. ` gruel-pot,' following the explanations of Hinati-Kumbura Thero.

4 Saükha-mundikam: R. D., The chank-erown.'

5 Ràhu-mukham: 'Rahu's mouth' (putting a lighted candle inside the mouth) .

156 The Numerical Sayings TEXT ii, 123

punish me in various ways such as the above, oven as an offending thief in consequence of a crime is apprehended by the king and punished in various ways, such as the above mentioned.' Thus frightened of punishment, he lives without stealing others' property.

Brethren, this is said to be the fear of punishment.

Brethren, what is the fear of states of woe Herein, brethren, a certain person considers thus: ` Verily, there is the bad result of misconduct by body, word and thought, in the world to come; were I to commit misconduct by body, word and thought, how should 1, on the dissolution of the body after death, be not reborn in a state of woe, suffering punishment and in the hells?

Thus frightened by the states of woe he eschews misconduct by body, word and thought and promotes good conduct by body, word and thought and leads a pure life.

Brethren, this is said to be fear of states of woe.

Verily, brethren, there are these four (kinds of) fear.

(2) Fears (b)

Brethren, there are these four kinds of fear that should be expected by the person who descends into water. What four? Fear of waves, fear of crocodiles, fear of whirlpools and fear of fierce fishes. Brethren, he wh descends into water should expect these four (kinds of) fear.

Likewise, brethren, here in this doctrine and discipline when a certain clansman wanders forth out of the home

------------

1 Duggati = `the way of woe.'

2 Cf. Majjima, I, 459, (Tr.0

xiii. [ 122] On Fears 157

into the homeless state, he should expect four (kinds of) fear. What four? Fear of waves, of crocodiles, of whirlpools and of fierce fishes.

Brethren, what is fear of waves? Herein, brethren, a certain clansman through faith wanders forth out of the home into the homeless state (and thinks thus) : I am a victim to birth, decay, death, grief, wailing, pain, distress and tribulation, and am overcome by pain. Good indeed if I could see the ending of this whole mass of pain.' His co-mates in the holy life then exhort and instruct him who has so gone forth as follows: 'Thus should you go forward, thus should you go backward, thus should you look forward, thus should you look backward, thus should you draw in or stretch out (your limbs) and thus should you bear robe, mantle and bowl.'

Then he thus considers: ` Indeed. when at home formerly we ourselves exhorted and instructed others, but now we are like unto our sons and grandsons, and they think we should be exhorted and instructed.' Thus angered and offended he altogether abandons the training and takes again to the layman's life.

Brethren, this brother frightened by the tear of waves is said to abandon the training and to take again to the layman's life. Indeed, brethren, fear of waves is a simile of the state of being pervaded by anger.

Brethren, this is said to be the fear of waves.

Brethren, what is the fear of crocodiles? Heroin, brethren, a certain clansman [as before]. His co-mates in the holy life then exhort and instruct him who has so gone forth as follows Thus should you eat and thus should

--------------

1 Correct text antamano to anattamano.

158 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 125

you not eat food solid or soft; thus should you taste and not taste; thus should you drink and not drink; you should eat proper and not improper food, solid or soft. You should taste what is proper and not what is improper; you should drink what is proper and not what is improper; you should drink at the right time and not at the wrong time. You should eat solid or soft food at the right time not the wrong time.'

Then he considers thus: ` When indeed we wore formerly in the home we ate what we wished, we tasted what we wished, we drank what we wished; what we wished not we did not eat, taste or drink; we ate, tasted and drank both what is proper and improper, also at the right time and after proper hours.

Whenever faithful householders during the day after proper hours do not offer delicious food hard or soft, he thinks that they are imposing (upon him) a prohibition against eating. So he abandons the training and falls back into the layman's life.

Brethren, thus a brother frightened of crocodiles is said to fall back into the layman's life, abandoning the training. Verily, brethren, the fear of crocodiles is a simile of gluttony. Brethren, this is said to be the fear of crocodiles.

Brethren, what is the fear of whirlpools?

Herein, brothren, a certain clansman owing to faith leaves the life. of home and wanders forth into the homeless state and thinks thus: ` I am a victim [as before].' Having thus gone forth, at dawn he dresses himself, and taking bowl and robe enters a town or a village, unguarded in body, word and thought, with attention unfixed and

xiii. [ 122] On Fears 159

senses uncontrolled. There he sees a householder or his son possessed of, and gratified by, the five pleasures of sense. Then he thinks thus:

We indeed formerly when at home were possessed of, and gratified by, the five pleasures of sense. We had the wealth of the family and could enjoy it and do acts of merit. Let me now forsake the training, go back to the layman's life, enjoy my possessions and do acts of merit.' He thus forsakes the training and falls back into the layman's life.

Brethren, thus a brother frightened by the fear of whirlpools is said to fall back to the layman's life. Verily, brethren, fear of whirlpools is a metaphor for the five pleasures of sense. This is said to be the fear of whirlpools.

Brethren, what is the fear of fierce fishes?

Herein, brethren, a certain clansman through faith leaves the family life and wanders forth into the homeless state and thinks thus I am a victim [as above]'........ with senses uncontrolled.

There he sees a woman not properly clad or covered, and lust fastens on his heart. So degraded by lust he forsakes the training and falls back into the layman's life.

Brethren, a brother frightened by the fear of fierce fishes is thus said to abandon the training and to fall back into the layman's life. Verily, brethren, fear of fierce fishes is a simile of woman. This is said to. be the fear of fierce fishes.

In sooth, brethren, these are the four (kinds of) fear, which certain clansman, who, through faith in this doctrine and discipline, wander forth from the life of home to the homeless life, should expect.

160 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT iii @ 126

(3) The Raptures (a)

There are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

Herein, brethren, a certain person abstaining from sensual desires and from sinful acts enters on and remains in the First Rapture,! wherein there is ecstasy and serenity resulting from seclusion. He longs for it, tastes and enters into the joy of it, he takes his stand thereon, applies applies himself to it, dwells incessantly on it, and without falling away from it departs from this life and is reborn among the Brahma-Kàyika Devas." ' Brethren, the span of lifetime of the Brahma-Kflyika Devas is an aeon.

There, if a worldling, he lives as long as life lasts, and having spent the whole span of life of such Devas, passes on either to purgatory, animal life, or the state of ghosts.

But the disciples of the Exalted One indeed live therein as long as life lasts, and having spent the whole span of life of such Devas, in that state itself pass away to Nibbàna."

Verily, brethren, this is the difference, this is the distinction, and this is the peculiarity of the learned Ariyan disciple and the ignorant worldling. This is their quality and nature.

And again, brethren, herein a certain person, freeing the wind from reflection and investigation and having it concentrated, retaining the joy consequent on the tranquillity

---------------

1 Jhàna. These four jànas are frequently described in the Canon. Cf. D, ii, 69-` ecstatic tranees.'

2 Brahma-Kàyika devà, råpa-devas who have the Brahma-body,

3 Perfection in jhàna way make a person anàgàmi, non -returner. The question is discussed at (Points of Cotroversy, p. 278) Kathà vatthu, XIII, 7. But this delight in jhàna is not an essential of perf ection,

xiii. [ 123] On Fears 161

of mind enters on and abides in the Second Rapture, which is freed alike from reflection and investigation. He longs for it, tastes and enters into the joy of it, he takes his stand thereon, applies himself to it, dwells incessantly on it, and without falling away from it, departs from this life and is reborn among the Abhassara Devas.

Brethren, the span of life-time of the Abhassara Devas is two aeons. There if a worldling he lives as long as life lasts, and having spent the whole span of life of such Devas passes on either to purgatory, to animal life or to the states of the ghosts.

The disciples of the Exalted One indeed live therein as long as life lasts, and having spent the whole span of life of such Devas in that state itself pass away to Nibbana.

Verily, brethren, this is the difference, this is the distinction and this is the peculiarity of the learned Arian disciple and the ignorant worldling. This is their quality and nature.

And again, brethren, a certain person dwells in joy,, passionlessness and equanimity, and thoughtful and conscious, enjoys felicity of body. The holy ones declare this thoughtful person dwelling at ease in equanimity to have entered on the Third Rapture. He longs for it, tastes and enters into the joy of it, he takes his stand thereon, applies himself to it, dwells incessantly on it, and without falling away from it departs from this life and is reborn among the Subhakiõha Devas.* The life-span of the Subhakiõha gods is four aeons. There if a worldling he lives as long as life lasts, and having spent the whole life-span of such Devas,

----------------

1 Devas with radiant bodies.

2 Devas of lustrous bodies.

162 The Numerical Sayings [T.EXT ii, 128

passes on either to purgatory, to animal life or to the state of the ghosts.

The disciples of the Exalted One indeed live therein as long as life lasts and having spent the whole span of life of such Devas in that state itself pass away to Nibbana.

Verily, brethren, this the difference, this is the distinction and this the peculiarity of the learned Ariyan disciple and the ignorant worldling. This is their quality and nature.

And again, brethren, a certain person, divesting himself of pleasure and pain and primarily freeing himself from happiness and sorrow arrives at and remains in the Fourth Raptur- a state of mind indifferent alike to all emotion. He longs for it, tastes and enters into the joy of it, he takes his stand thereon, applies himself to it, dwells incessantly on it and without falling away from it departs from this life and is reborn among the Vehapphala gods.*

Brethren, the life-span of the Vehapphala Devas is five hundred aeons. There if a worldling he lives as long as life lasts, and having spent the whole span of life of such Devas, passes on either to purgatory, to animal life, or the state of the ghosts. The disciples of the Exalted One........... to Nibbana.

Verily, brethren, this is the difference, this is,the distinction and this the peculiarity of the learned Ariyan disciple and the ignorant worldling. This is their quality and nature.

(4) The Raptures (b)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

-----------------------

1 The Devas of the tenth Brahma-loka who have bodies of finest ether.

xiii. [ 124] On Fears . 163

Heroin, brethren, a certain person abstaining from sensual pleasures (as above) enters on and abides in the First Rapture. Then indeed he thinks here there is form, feeling, perception, conformations, consciousness and he perceives them as transitory, painful, subject to disease; as an imposthume, a dart, suffering, illness; and as something alien, subject to decay, empty and soulless. Upon the dissolution of the body, after death, he is reborn among the Suddhàvasa * Devas. Brethren, this kind of rebirth is not shared by the worldlings.

[Similarly, with regard to the Second, Third, and Fourth Raptures, the person who enters them is reborn in the Suddhàvasa abodes.]

Verily, brethren, these four persons are to be seen existing in the world.

(5) Sublime States (a)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

Herein, brethren, a certain person dwells pervading one direction with thoughts of loving kindness, similarly the second direction, the third, and also the fourth direction thus above, below, around and everywhere, in all manner of ways, he dwells pervading the world, including all beings, with thoughts of loving-kindness, to a great, extensive and immeasurable degree, free from anger and ill-will. He longs for it, tastes and enters into the joy of it, he takes his stand thereon, applies himself to it, dwells

---------------

1 Those of the Pure Abodes.

164 The, Numerical Sayings [TBXT ii, 129

incessantly on it, and without falling away from it departs from this life and is reborn among the Brahma-Kàyika Devas. The life-span of the Brahma-Kàyika Devas is an aeon.

There if a worldling he lives as long as life lasts, and having spent the whole span of life of such Devas passes on either to purgatory, to animal life or to the state of the ghosts. But the disciples of the Exalted One live there as long as life lasts, and having spent the whole span of life of such Devas, in that state itself pass away to Nibbana.

Verily, brethren, this is the difference, this is the distinction and this the peculiarity of the learned Ariyan disciple and the ignorant worldling. This is their quality and nature.

And again, brethren, herein a certain person dwells pervading one direction with thoughts of compassion, with thoughts of sympathy and with thoughts of equanimity; likewise in the second direction, and the third and also in the fourth direction: so above, below, around and everywhere, in all manner of ways, he dwells pervading the world, including all sentient beings, with thoughts of compassion, with thoughts of sympathy and with thoughts of equanimity, in a great, extensive and immeasurable degree, free from anger and ill-will. He longs for it and enters into the joy of it, he takes his stand thercen, applies himself to it, dwells incessantly on it and without falling away from it departs from this life and is reborn among the Abhassara, Subhakiõha and Vehapphala Devas respectively.

Verily, brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

iiii. [126] On Fear 165

(6) Sublime States (b)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

Herein, brethren, a certain person dwells pervading one direction [and so forth as in Discourse (5) up to ` anger and ill-will '.] Then indeed he thinks: ` Here there is form, feeling, perception, conformations and consciousness he perceives them as transitory [and so forth as in Discourse (4) up to ` soul-less '.] Upon the dissolution of the body after death he is reborn among the Suddhavasa Devas. Brethren, this kind of rebirth is not shared by the worldlings. [Similarly as regards ` compassion,' ` sympathy and `equanimity,' the person who meditates thereon is reborn in the Suddhàvàsa abodes, etc.]

Verily, brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(7) Efulqence.*

Brethren, upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supremo, there are manifest four wonderful and extraordinary signs. What four?

Brethren, when a Bodhisattva departing from his existonce in Tusita* heaven enters the mother s womb, mindful and self-possessed, a boundless, superb effulgence, surpassing the divine glory of the devas becomes manifest in the world, including the devas, Màras, Brahmas and mankind, consistlng of recluses and brahmins.

1 The Happy Heaven.

166 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 131

Wherever the limitless, profound, blinding darkness reigns in the space between the constellations and the light of the mighty and majestic sun and moon does not reach, therein a boundless superb effulgence surpassing the divine glory of the devas becomes manifest. When sentient beings come into existence therein, by that light they recognise one another (saying) Friends, here indeed are other beings reborn.'

Brethren, this is the first wonderful and extraordinary sign, which becomes manifest upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme.

And again, brethren, when the Bodhisattva, mindful and self-possessed, issues forth from his mother's womb, a boundless superb effulgence, etc. [as above to reborn].

Brethren, this is the second wonderful and extraordinary sign, which becomes manifest upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme.

And again, brethren, when the Accomplished One attains the supreme, incomparable Enlightenment, a boundless superb effulgence ... [as before to reborn].

Brethren, this is the third wonderful and extraordinary sign, which becomes manifest upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme.

And again, brethren, when the Accomplished One sets rolling the Supreme Wheel of the Norm a boundless superb effulgence ... is reborn.

Brethren, this the fourth wonderful and extraordinary sign, which becomes manifest upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme.

xiii. [ 128] On Fears 167

(8) Wonderful Phenomena

Brethren, upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme, four wonderful and extraordinary phenomena become manifest. What four?

Brethren, mankind clings to, delights in and is excited by lust.' Where the Norm tending to aversion is proclaimed by the Accomplished One, they give ear and listen to it and apply their minds to understand.

Brethren, this is the first wonderful and extraordinary phenomenon, which becomes manifest upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme.

Brethren, mankind clings tol delights in and is excited by vanity.' When the Norm (as before) ... to understand. This is the second wonderful and extraordinary phenomenon which becomes manifest upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme,

Brethren, mankind clings to, delights in and is affected by excitement." When the Norm tending to quietude is proclaimed by the Accomplished One, they then give ear and listen to it and apply their minds to understand.

Brethren this is the third wonderful and extraordinary phenomenon, wbich becomes manifest upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme.

Brethren, mankind is overcome by, and blinded by and sunk* in ignorance. When the Norm which leads to the dispelling of ignorance is proclaimed by an Accomplished

----------------

1 âlayàràma. C. Vin., ii, 4 (attached to things to which one clings) .'

2 Màndràma.

3Anupasamdràma.

4 Pariyonaddhà-literally,` gvergrown with a growth.'

168 The Numerical Sayins [TEXT ii, 132

One they give ear and listen to it and apply their minds to understa to understand.

Brethren, this is the fourth ... a Perfect Buddha Supreme.

Brethren, upon the appearance of an Accomplished One, a Perfect Buddha Supreme, these four wonderful and extraordinary phenomena become manifest.

(9) ânanda's Qualitieg

Brethren, there are these four wonderful and extraordinary qualities in ânanda. What four? Whenever, brethren, an assembly of the brethren approach with intent to see ânanda, by seeing him they become pleased. Then, when ânanda preaches the Norm, by the preaching also they become pleased. Moreover, brethren, the assembly is till unsatisfied when ânanda becomes silent. [Repeat the same as to sisters, laymen and laywomen.]

Verily, brethren, there are these four wonderful and extraordinary qualities in &nanda.

(10) A Universal Monarch's qualities

Brethren, there are these four wonderful and extraordinary qualities in a universal monarch. What four?

Whenever., brethren, an assembly of warrior princes approaches with intent to see the universal monarch, on seeing him they become pleased. Then indeed the universal monarch speaks. By his speech also they become pleased. Brethren, the assembly of princes is still unsatisfied

xiii. [131] On Fears 169

when the universal monarch becomes silent. [Repeat the same as to assemblies of brethmins, householders and recluses.]

Verily, brethren, there are these four wonderful and extraordinary qualities in a universal monarch.

Likewise, brethren, there are the same four wonderful and extraordinar qualities in ânanda.

(CHAPTER XIII. ON FEARS ENDS)

s