CHAPTER XII
ON KESI*

(1) Horse-trainer

0nce a trainer of horses, (by name) Kesi, came to where the Exalted One was. Having come he made obeisance to the Exalted One and took a seat at one side. To the horse-trainer Kesi so seated the Exalted One spake thus:

"Indeed, Kesi, you are a skilled' horse-trainer. Kesi, how do you then train a horse that is to be tamed?"

"Indeed, Lord, I train a horse that is to he trained by gentleness, I train by severity and I train both by gentleness and severity."

Then, Kesi, if the horse that is to be tamed does not yield to your training, either by gentleness, or severity, or both gentleness and severity, what do you do to him?

Then, Lord, if the horse does not yield to my training, either by gentleness or severity, or both gentleness and severity, Lord, I destroy him. What is the reason therefor? In order that it may not be a reproach unto the lineage of my teacher. Lord, the Exalted One is indeed

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1 An appropriate title for a horse-trainer-* Man with a mane.'

2 P.T.S. ed. Adyar MS. and Ceylon Ed. all read sa¤¤ato, welltrained.

142 The Numedcal Saying. [TEXT iii 11 2

the peerless trainer of humans to he tamed. Lord, how does the Exalted One train the human to be tamed?

"I also, Kesi, train the human that is to be tamed by gentleness, I train by severity and I train by both gentleness and severity. Kesi, this is how (it is done(,) by gentleness Thus is good done by the body, thus is the fruit of such good; thus is good done by words, thus is the fruit of such good and thus is good done by mind and thus is the fruit of such good: thus are the gods and thus men.

Kesi, this is how (it is done) by severity: Thus is bodily evil, thus is the fruit of bodily evil; thus is evil by words, thus is the fruit of evil by words; thus is evil by mind and thus is the fruit of evil by mind; thus is purgatory, thus is birth into animal life and thus is the world of the earth-bound.'*

Kesi, this is how (it is done) by both gentleness and severity . Thus is bodily evil and so forth.' "

Then, Lord, what does the Exalted On(, do to him if the, human to be tamed does not yield to-the training, either,by gentleness or by severity or by both gentleness and severity?

"Well, Kesi, if the human to be tamed does not yield either to gentleness or severity or both gentleness and severity, I destroy him."

"Surely, Lord, the Exalted One does not destroy life! "destroy him, Kesi." i

True it is, Kesi, the, Tathàgata does not destroy life, if the human to be tamed yield not to training by gentleness and so forth, as stated, the Tathàgata does not regard him as deserving of being told or admonished, neither do

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1 Petà ghost.

xii. [112] On Kesi 143

the wise holv ones regard him as deserving of being told or admonished. Of a truth, Kesi, it is death * in the discipline of the Noble One, when neither the Tathàgata nor the wise holy ones regard a man as one deserving of being told or admonished."

" Slain* indeed is be, Lord, by the Happy One, whom neither the Tathàgata nor the wise holy ones regard as worthy of being told or admonished.

0wonderful, Lord! 0 marvellous, Lord! (as above) . Lord, may the Exalted One accept me as a lay-disciple, who has taken Thee as Guide from this day forth as long as life lasts."

(2) The King's Thoroughbred*

Brethren, the king's goodly thoroughbred horse, when endowed with four qualities, becomes worthy of the king, a royal property,' and is reckoned as an asset' to the king. With what four With straightness, with speed, with patience and with docility.

Brethren, the king's goodly thoroughbred horse, when endowed with these four qualities, becomes worthy of him,,a r oyal property, and is reckoned as an asset to the king.

Likewise indeed, brethren, the brother who is endowed with four qualities becomes worthy of offerings and so

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1 Vadho h'eso.

2 P.T.S. Ed. Adyar MS.- So hi måna (yo) . bhante. Sugatàhato hoti-slain indeed is he, Lord, by the Happy One whom ... Coyloii text has suvadho. Some MSS. read suhato happiness .

3 Cf. iii, 94.

4 Ràjabhaggo.

5 Angam

144 The Numerical Sayings [TFXT ii, 114

forth. With what- four? With straightness, with speed, with patience and with docility.

Indeed, brethren, the brother who is endowed with these four qualities becomes worthy of offerings and so forth, the supreme field of merit to the world.

(3) The Thoroughbred (Horse and Man)

Brethren, there are to be found existing in the world these four (kinds of) goodly thoroughbred horses. What four?

Herein, brethren, a certain goodly thoroughbred horse, seeing the shadow of the goad, becomes moved and greatly agitated, thinking How then today, when the horsetrainer imposes a task on me, shall I behave towards him?'

Brethren, herein there is - such a goodly thoroughbred horse. Brethren,,this is the first (kind of) goodly thoroughbred horse that is to be found existing in the world.

And again, brethren, herein a certain goodly thoroughbred-horse, seeing the shadow of the goad, does not indeed become moved and greatly agitated, but when his coat is pricked becomes moved and greatly -agitated, thinking: ` How then today, when the horse-trainer imposes a task on me, shall 1 behave towards him? ' Brethren, there is herein such a goodly thoroughbred horse. Brethren, this is the second (kind of) goodly thoroughbred horse that is to he found existing in the world.

And again, brethren, herein a certain goodly thoroughbred horse, seeing the shadow of the goad does not indeed become moved and greatly agitated, nor when his coat is

xii. [113] On Kesi 145

pricked `: but when pierced to the flesh he becomes moved and greatly agitated, thinking: `How then today, when the horse-traiiler imposes a task on me, shall I behave towards him?'

Brethren, there is herein such a goodly thoroughbred horse. Brethren, this is the third (kind of) goodly thoroughbred horse that is to be found existing in the world.

And again, brethren, a certain goodly thoroughbred horse, seeing the shadow of the goad, when his coat is pricked and even when his flesh is pierced, does not become moved and greatly agitated, but when pierced through to the bone he becomes moved and greatly agitated, thinkirg: How then today, when the horse-trainer imposes a task on me, shall I behave towards him?'

Brethren, there is such a goodly thoroughbred horse. Brethren, this is the fourth (kind of) goodly thoroughbred horse, that is to be found existing in the world.

These brethren, are the four (kinds of) goodly thoroughbred horses to be found existing in the world.

Likewise, brethren, there are also to be found existing in the world these four goodly thoroughbreds among men.*

When, brethren, a certain goodly thoroughbred among men comes to hear that in a certain village or town a woman or a man is ailing or is dead, he thereby becomes moved and greatly agitated: being agitated he wisely endeavours, with mind well-applied he realises the highest truth and penetrates with (the eye of) insight. Just as, brethren, the goodly thoroughbred horse seeing the shadow

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1 Loma-vedha-viddho in P. T. S. ed. and Adyar MS., camma-vedhaviddho in Ceylon text.

2 Purisà-àjàniyo literally means 'human steeds'.

146 Phe Numerical Sayingg [TEXT ii, 115

of the goad becomes moved and greatly agitated, so, brethren, do 1 speak of this goodly thoroughbred among men in terms of this simile.

Brethren, there is herein, such a goodly thoroughbred among men. Verily, brethren, this is the first (kind of) thoroughbred among men to be seen existing in the world.

And again, brethren, suppose a certain goodly thoroughbred among men does not come to hear that in a certain village or town a woman or a man is ailing or is dead, but he himself sees a woman or a man either ailing or dead, he thus becomes moved and greatly agitated; being so agitated he wisely endeavours, with mind well applied he realises the highest truth and penetrates with the (eye of) insight. Just as, brethren, the goodly thoroughbred horse, when his coat is pierced, becomes moved and greatly agitated, so, brethren, do 1 speak of this goodly thoroughbred among men in this simile.

Brethren, there is herein! such a thoroughbred among men. Verily, brethren, this is the second (kind of) thoroughbred among men to be found existing in the world.

And again, brethren, suppose a certain goodly person does not come to hear, nor himself sees that in a certain village or town a woman or a man is ailing or is dead, but sees his own relative or kinsman is ailing or is dead, he thereby becomes moved and greatly agitated: being so agitated he realises the highest truth and penetrates with (the eye of) insight. Just as, brethren, the goodly thoroughbred horse when pierced through the flesh becomes moved and greatly agitated, so, brethren, do 1 speak of this thoroughbred among men in this simile.

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1 Idha=herein, in this connexion.

xii. [141] On Kesi 147

Brethren, there is herein such a thoroughbred among men. Verily, brethren, this is the third (kind of) thoroughbred among men to be seen existing in the world.

And again, brethren, suppose a certain goodly person does not of himself see or hear that in such and such a village or town a woman or a man, a relative or a kinsman is ailing or is dead, but is himself affected with a painful, acute, sharp, fierce, disagreeable, unpleasant and life-destroying bodily feeling. He thus becomes moved and greatly agitated: being so agitated he realises the highest truth and penetrates with (the eye of) insight. Just as, brethren, the goodly thoroughbred horse when pierced to the bone becomes moved and greatly agitated, so, brethren, do I speak of this goodly thoroughbred among men in this simile.

Brethren, there is herein such a goodly thoroughbred among men. Verily, brethren, this is the fourth (kind of) goodly thoroughbred among men to be found existing in the world.

Truly, brethren, these four (kinds of) goodly thoroughbreds among men are to be found existing in the world.

(4) Qualities of the Royal Elephant

Brethren, the royal elephant, when endowed with four qualities, becomes worthy of the king, is a royal property, and is reckoned as an asset to the king. With what four?

Brethren, herein the royal elephant is an attentive hearer, is a killer, is an endurer, and is a goer.

148 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 117

Brethren, how does the royal elephant become an attentive hearer?

Brethren, herein when the elephant-trainer imposes upon him a task, whether done before or not, the royal elephant, making that his object and applying his mind thereto, with thoughts collected, listens to it with ready ear. Thus indeed, brethren, the royal elephant becomes an attentive hearer.

Brethren, how does the royal elephant become a killer?

Brethren, herein the royal elephant having entered into battle kills elephants and elephant-riders, also horses and horse-riders, and destroys chariot-riders and foot-soldiers. Thus, brethren, does the royal elephant become a killer.

Brethren, how does the royal elephant become an endurer?

Brethren, herein the royal elephant having entered into battle endures * blows with spears, swords, arrows, and axes, also the sounds of drums, kettledrums, conches, tamtams and other kinds of din. Thus, brethren, the royal elephant becomes an endurer.

Brethren, how does the royal elephant become a goer?

Brethren, herein the royal elephant, when the elephant trainer sends him in a certain direction, whether he has gone before or not, quickly goes. Thus, brethren, does the royal elephant become a goer.

Verily, brethren, the royal elephant, when endowed with these four qualities becomes worthy of the king, is a royal property, and is reckoned as an asset to the king.

Even so, brethren, with four properties endowed, a brother becomes worshipful and so forth a boundless field of merit to the world. With what four?

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1 Of. Dhammapada-* The Elephant.' (Nàga,-Vagga) .

xii. [114] On Kesi 149

Herein, brethren, a brother, when the Norm-discipline set forth by the Tathàgata is preached, makes that his ohject, and applying his mind thereto listens to the Doctrine with all his heart, attentively, with ready ear. Thus, brethren, a brother is a hearer.

And how, brethren, is a brother a slayer? Herein, brethren, a brother does not welcome a vague lustful thought that has arisen: he rejects it, banishes it, makes an end of it, makes it cease to exist......... So also with regard to a vague thought of harming that has arisen, and any evil unprofitable state of mind that arises from time to time: he rejects it, banishes it, makes an end of it, makes it cease to exist. Even so, brethren, is a brother a slayer.

And how, brethren, is a brother an endurer? Herein, brethren, a brother is patient of cold, heat, hunger, thirst, the touch of flies, mosquitoes, wind and sun and creeping things; of abuse that oversteps the bounds of speech; of feelings that affect the body when they arise, painful, sharp, harsh, bitter, unpleasant, offensive pains that sap one's life- [all these] he endures. Thus, brethren, is a brother an endurer.

And how, brethren, is a brother a goer? Herein, brethren, a brother quickly goes thither-in directions where in this long long journey he has never gone before-to wit: to the calming of all the activities, to the leaving of all basis (for rebirth) , to the destruction of craving, to disgust, to cessation, to Nibbana. Thus, brethren, is a brother a goer.

So, brethren, with these four properties endowed, a brother is worshipful..... a boundless field of merit unsurpassed for the world.

150 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 118

(5) Four Things

Brethren, there are these four things.' What four? There is a thing, brethren, which is unpleasant to be done, and when done it leads to loss. There is a thing, brethren, which is unpleasant to be done, but when done it leads to gain. There is a thing, brethren, which is pleasant to be done but when done it leads to loss. And there is also a thing, brethren, which is pleasant to be done and when done leads to gain.

Among these, brethren, whatsoever thing is unpleasant to be done, which when done leads to loss, such a thing brethren, is in both ways regarded as not to be done.

Whatsoever thing is regarded as unpleasant to be done, on that ground it should be regarded as not to be done. Whatsoever thing when done leads to loss on that ground also it should be regarded as not to be done. This thing, brethren, is in both ways regarded as not to be done.

Among these, brethren, whatsoever thing is unpleasant to be done but when done loads to gain, from this thing, brethren, the fool and the wise man should be known, in point of manly strength, manly vigour and manly energy.

Brethren, the fool does not think` This thing, though in a way unpleasant to be done, nevertheless when done leads to gain,' and he does not do it. Such, a thing left undone leads to his loss. But, brethren, the wise man considers thus `This thing, though unpleasant to be done, nevertheless when done leads to gain.' He does such a thing. Such a thing when done leads to his gain.

1 Thànàni is literally,` places' or `things,' hence stations, `occasions' (not a deed but a possibility of Karma) .

xii. [116] On Kesi 151

Among these, brethren, whatsoever thing is pleasant to be done, but when done leads to loss, from this thing, brethren, the fool and the wise man should be known, in point of manly strength, manly vigour and manly energy.

Brethren, the fool does not think: ` This thing though pleasant to be done nevertheless when done leads to loss.' He does it. Such a thing when done leads to loss.

The wise man however thinks thus: ` This thing though pleasant to be done nevertheless when done leads to loss.' He does not do it. Such a thing left undone leads to gain.

Among these, brethren, whatsoever thing is pleasant to be done and when done leads to gain, such a thing, brethren, is to be regarded in both ways as worthy to be done: because such a thing is pleasant to be done, on this ground it is regarded as fit to be done; and, because such a thing when done leads to gain, on this ground also it is to be regarded as fit to be done. Such a thing therefore, brethren, is regarded in both ways as fit to be done.

Verily, brethren, there are these four things.

(6) Earnestness*

Brethren, earnestness should be shown in four things In what four?

Brethren, renounce misconduct of body, develop good conduct in body; therein delay not. . Brethren, renounce misconduct of speech, develop good conduct in speech, therein delay not. Brethren, renounce misconduct of thoughts, develop good conduct in thoughts, therein delay

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1 Appamàdo (non-sloth).

152 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 120

not. Whatsoever brother has renounced misconduct of body, speech and thoughts, and has developed good conduct in body, speech and thoughts, and has renounced false views and developed right views, has no fear about his future lot after death.*

(7) Earnestness and Mindfulness

Brethren, in four ways should earnestness, mindfulness and guard of thoughts be promoted by* oneself. What four?

May my mind not be defiled by lustful thoughts '; thus should earnestness, mindfulness and guard of thoughts be promoted by oneself. ` May my mind not be defiled by hateful thoughts thus should earnestness, mindfulness, and guard of thoughts be promoted by oneself. ` May my mind not be defiled by delusive thoughts': thus should earnestness, mindfulness and guard of thoughts be promoted by oneself. ` May my mind not be crushed by intoxicating thoughts,' thus should earnestness, mindfulness and guard of thoughts be promoted by oneself.

Whatsoever brother owing to absence of lust has not defiled his mind with lustful thoughts, and owing to absence of hate has not defiled his mind with hateful thoughts, and owing to absence of delusion has not defiled his mind with delusive thoughts, and owing to absence of intoxication has not crushed his mind with intoxicating thoughts, neither fears, trembles, shivers or is terrified, nor is he misled by the words of the ascetics."

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1 Or about death.

2 Atta-råpena (atta-bhvo) - `one's own personal'.

3 Samana-vacanena-the Samanas are here heretics or non-Buddhists but the word is generally used in an honourable sense.

xii. [118) On Kesi 153

(8) Holy Places

Brethren, these four places should be seen by the faithful clansman and they should rouse his emotion. What four? Brethren, here the Accomplished One was born: thus this place when seen should rouse emotion in the faithful clansman. Brethren, here the Accomplished One won supreme Enlightenment.thus this place when seen should rouse emotion in the faithful clansman. Brethren, here the Accomplished One set rolling the Supreme Wheel of Righteousness: thus this plate when seen should arouse emotion in the faithful clansman. Brethren, here the Accomplished One passed away without leaving any remaining cause of rebirth: thus this place When seen should rouse ciuotion in the faithful clansman.

Verily, brethren, these four places wheia seen by the faithful clanswa-n should rouse emotion in him.

(9) Fears (a)

Brethren, there are four (causes of) fear. What four? Fear of birth, fear of decay, fear of disease and fear of death. These indeed, brethren, are four (causes of) fear.

(10) Fears (b)

Brethren, there are these four (causes of) fear. What four? Fear of fire, fear of water, fear of the king and fear of the thief. These, brethren, are four (causes of) fear.

(CHAPTER XII: ON KESI ENDS)

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1 Cf. Mahà-parinibbàna Sutta, D, ii.

2 Thathàgata.