CHAPTER X
ON TITANS*

(1) Titans and Gods

There are to be found existing in the world these four persons. What four?

The Titan with a retinue of Titans, the Titan With a retinue of gods, the god with a retinue of Titans and the god with a retinue of gods.

Brethren, who is the Titan with a retinue of Titans? Herein, brethren, a certain person is of evil conduct and wicked behaviour and his associates also are of evil conduct and wicked behaviour. This indeed, brethren, is the person called the Titan with a retinue of Titans.

Brethren, who is the Titan with a retinue of gods? Herein, brethren, a certain person is of evil conduct and wicked behaviour and his associates are well-conducted and of virtuous behaviour. This indeed, brethren, is 'the person called the Titan with a retinue of gods.

Brethren, who is the god with a retinue of Titans? Herein, brethren, a certain person is well-conducted and.of virtuous behaviour, but his associates are of evil conduct

------

1 Asuras.. Cf. suvra, 17, 53. Ràhu is one of their leaders. ` Fallen angels' (of Christianity) : Titans' or deposed gods of the Greek mythology.

x. [92] On Titans* 123

and wicked behaviour. This indeed, brethren, is the person called the god with a retinue of Titans.

Brethren, who is the person called the god with a retinue of gods? Herein brethren, a certain person is well-conducted and of virtuous behaviour, and his associates are also well-conducted and of virtuous behaviour. This indeed, brethren, is the person called the god with a retinue of gods. Verily, brethren, there are to be found existing in the world these four persons.

(2) Peace and Insight (a)

Brethren, there are to be found existing in the world these four persons. What four?

Brethern, herein a certain person has attained to inwad peace of mind, but has not won realisation through insight into all conditions.

Brethren, herein another person has won realisation through insight into all conditions, but has not attained to inward peace of mind.

Brothern, here in a certain person has neither attained to inward peace of mind nor won realisation through insight into all conditions.

These four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(3) Peace and Insight (b)

Brethren, there are to be found existing in the world these four persons. What four?

124 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 93

[Repeat as in previous discourse and continue thus:]

Among them, brethren, whatsoever person has attained to inward peace of mind, but has not won complete realisation through insight into all conditions, such a person, brethren, being established in inward peace of mind, but who has not won complete realisation through insight into all conditions-such a person, brethren, being established in inward peace of mind should apply himself towards acquiring complete realisation through insight into all conditions. Thus he afterwards becomes the possessor of inward peace of mind as well as complete realisation through insight into all conditions.

Among them, brethren, whatsoever person has won complete realisation through insight into all conditions, but has not attained to inward peace of mind, such a person, brethren, being established in the complete realisation through insight into all conditions, should apply himself towards acquiring inward peace of mind. Thus he afterwards becomes possessor both of complete realisation through insight into all conditions and of inward peaceof mind.

Among them, brethren, whatsoever person has not attained to inward peace of mind, nor won complete realisation through insight into all conditions-such aperson, brethren, should set going an intense resolution, aim, endeavour, exertion, effort, mindfulness and intelligence, for the purpose of performing these meritorious deeds.

Just as, brethren, a person whose turban* or hair is on fire sets going intense resolution, aim, endeavour, exertion, effort, mindfulness and intelligence, for putting out the

1 Cf.S.i, 108: iii, 143

x. [94] On Titans 125

burning turban or the hair; even so, brethren, such a person should set going an intense resolution, aim, endeavour, exertion, effort, mindfulness and intelligence, for the purpose of performing these meritorious deeds.

He thus afterwards becomes possessor of both inward peace of mind and complete realisation through insight of all conditions. Among these, brethren, whatsoever person has both attained to inward peace of mind and also won complete realisation through insight into all conditions such person, brethren, should, after acquiring these meritorious conditions, apply himself towards destroying the intoxicants.

These four. persons are to be found existing in the world.

(4) Peace and Insight(c)

Brethren, there are to be found existin in the world these four persons. What four?

[Repeat as to the four as in the previous discourse, and continue thus]

Among them, brethren, if a person has attained to inward peace of mind, but has not won complete realisation through insight into all conditions, then, brethren, the person who. has won complete realisation of all conditions might be approached and asked by such a person thus:

How, friend, must component things* be viewed, and how must CO mponent things be realised, and seen with insight?"

---------------

1 Samkhàrà-activities,'or `karmic workings'. Mrs.RhysDavids suggests the expressive Greek word `synergies.'

126 The Numerical Sayings TEXT ii, 94

To him the latter then explains it even as he has beheld and known: Friend thus and thus should component thing be viewed. Thus and thus should component things be be grasped, and thus and thus should component things be seen with insight."

He then afterwards becomes possessed both of inward peace of mind as well as of complte realisation through insight into all conditions.

Among them, brethren if a person has won complete realisation througli insight into all conditions, but has not attained to inward peace of mind -then, brethren. the person who has attained to inward peace of mind might be approched and asked by such a person thus:

"How, friend, should the mind be pacified, quieted, concentrated and tranquillised?"

To him the latter then explains it, even as he, has seen and known, thus: "Friend thus indeed should themind be pacified, concentrated, and tranquillised."

He thus afterwards becomes possessed both of complete realisation of the nature of things and of the inward peace of mind.

Among theni, brethren, if a person has neither attained to inward peace of mind, nor won complete realisation of the nature of things, then, brethren, the person who has attained to inward peace of mind and also won complete realisation of the nature of things might be approached and asked by such a person thus:

How friend, should the mind be appeased, quickened, concentrated and tranquillised?

To him the latter then explains, even as he has known, thus:" Thus should the mind be appeased, quickened,

x. [ 95] On Titans 127

concentrated, and tranquillised, and thus should component things be regarded, grasped and realised."

He then afterwards becomes possessed both of inward peace of mind and of complete realisation through insight into the nature of things.

Among them, brethren, if a person has both attained to complete realisation by insight into the nature of things and has won inward peace of mind,-then such a person being thus well established in such meritorious conditions should thereafter apply himself towards the destruction of the intoxicants. Verily, brethren, there are to be found existing in the world these four persons.

(5) Welfare* (a)

There are these four persons, brethren, to be found existing in the world. What four?

He who has not striven for his own welfare nor that of others: he who has striven for others' welfare, but not his own: he who has striven for his own: welfare but not others': he who has striven for both his own welfare and that of others.

Just as, brethren, a torch from a funeral pyre, lit at both ends, and in the middle smeared with dung, kindles no fuel either in village or in forest,-using such a figure of speech do I describe unto you this person-one who has striven neither for his own welfare nor for that of others.'

----------------

1 Cf. Paõõa. IV, 23.

2 The same simile is at S. iii,.93, and Itivutt. 91.

128 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii. 96

Then again, brethren, in the case of the person who has striven for the welfare of others but not his own-of the two he is the more excellent and eminent.

Then again, brethren, in the case of the person who has striven for his own welfare,and for that of others-of these four persons this latter is best and chief, topmost and highest and supreme.

`Just as brethren, from the cow comes milk. from milk cream, from cream butter, from butter ghee, from ghee come the skimmings of ghee,and that is reckoned best of all-even so, brethern that person who has striven both for his own welfare and for that of others is, topmost *and highest and supreme.

These are the four to be found exesting in the world.

(6) welfare (b)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

[Ihe same four Persons as in the previous discourse.]

Brethren, who is the person that has striven for his own welfare but not that of others?

Brethren, herein a certain person practises the extirpation of lust in himself, but does not urge the extirpation of

-------------

1 Cf. S. iii, 264..

2 Mokkho.

3 Cf., Puggala Pa¤¤atti, IV, 23.

x. [ 96] On Titans 129

lust in others:practises the extirpation of ill-will in himself but does not urge the extirpation of ill-will, in others: and also practises the extirpation of ignorance in himself but does not urge the extirpation of ignorance in others.

Indeed brethren, this is the person who pursues his own welfare, but not the welfare of others.

Brethren, who is the person that has striven for others' welfare but not his own?

Brethren, herein a certain person does not practise the extirpation of lust, ill-will and ignorance in himself, but urges the extirpation of lust, ill-will and ignorance in others.

Indeed, brethren, this is the person who has striven for others, welfare, but not his own.

Brethren, who is the person that has not striven for his own welfare nor that of others?

Brethren, herein a certain person practises not the extirpation of lust, ill-will and ignorance in himself nor arges the extirpation of lust, ill-will and ignorance in others.

Brethren, this is the person that has not striven for his own welfare nor that of others.

Brethren, who is the person that has striven for his own welfare as well as that of others?

Brethren, a certain person both practises the extirpation of lust, ill-will.and ignorance in himself and also urges the extirpation of lust, ill-will and ignorance in others.

Brethren, this is the person who has striven for his own welfare as well as that of others.

These four persons are to be found existing in the worlds. 17

130 The Numerical Saying [TEXT 97

(7) Welfare(c)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

[The same four persons as in the previous Discourse]

Brethren, who is the person that has striven for his own welfare but not that of others? Herein, brethren, a certain person is quick to observe merit rious conditions, is good at

remembering* the Norm which he has heard, reflects upon the meaning of the Norm so known, and learning the letter and the,meaning becomes one who has reached complete proficiency in the major and minor points of the Norm. Yet is he not pleasant of voice nor recites clearly, is not endowed with urbane speech, distinctly and clearly enunciated,* and explaining the, meaning ; he does not become one who teaches, urges, incites and gladdens* his eo-mates in the godly life. Indeed, brethren, this is the person who has striven for his own welfare but not that of others.

Brethren, who is the person that has striven for the welfare of others but not his own? Herein, brethren, a certain person is neither quick to observe meritorious conditions, nor is he good at remembering the doctrines which he has heard, nor does he reflect upon the meaning of the doctrines so known, and not learning the letter and the meaning becomes not one who reaches complete proficiency in the major and minor points of the Norm ; but he is pleasant of voice, recites clearly, is endowed with urbane

-----------------------

1 Reading dhàraka-jdtiko with P.T.S. Ed. and Adyar MS.

2 Anelagala` without impediment' or hoarseness: (an-ela= faultless)

3 Cf.S.II 108: Udàna 59 etc.

x. [ 98] On Titans 181

speech, distinctly and clearly enunciated, and explaining the meaning ; so he has become one who teaches, urges, incites and gladdens his co-mates in the godly life. This indeed, brethren, is the person -who has striven for the welfare of others but not his own.

[The other two sections are similar and may be understood mutatis mutandis.]

(8) Welfare (d)

[The same four persons are referred to in this discourse also, without elaboration.]

(9) Welfare (e)

[The same four personq but with the following variation:] Brethren, who is the person that has striven for his own welfare but not that of others? Herein, brethren, a certain person abstains from killing and so forth, but urges not others to abstain from killing and so forth.

Brethren, who is the person that has striven for the welfare of others but not his own? [This is the opposite of the former.]

[The rest of this discourse may be understood mutatismutandis.]

(10) Praise and Blame

Now the wandering ascetic Potaliya came to where the Exalted One was. Having come he exchanged with Him

132 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 100

the greetings and compliments of civility and courtesy and took a seat at one side. To the wandering ascetic Potaliya so eated the Exalted One spoke thus:

"Potaliya, there are these four persons * to be found existing in the world. What four?

Herein, Potaliya, a certain person at the proper time in accordance with truth and fact speaks in dispraise of what is blameworthy, but does not in like manner speak well of what deserves praise.

Herein, Potaliya, a certain person at the proper time in accordance with truth and fact speaks well of what deserves praise but does not speak ill of what is blameworthy (in a man) .

Herein, Potaliya, a certain person at the proper time in accordance with truth and fact neither speaks ill of what deserves praise nor praises what is praiseworthy.

Herein also, Potaliya, a certain person at the proper time in accordance with truth and fact speaks ill of what deserves blame and speaks well of what is praiseworthy.

Potaliya, there are to be found existing in the world these four persons. Potaliya, among these four persons, whom do you commend as best and most excellent?

"Master Gotama, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world-as you say- [Repeat the same four persons]. Master Gotama, among these four persons the person who at the proper time in accordance with truth and fact neither speaks in dispraise of what is blameworthy, nor praises what is praiseworthy,-him do 1 commend as best and most excellent among these four

---------------

1 Cf. Pugg. Pa¤¤. IV, 17.

x. [ 100] On Titans 133

persons. What is the reason therefor? Master Gotama, such a person's indifference * is indeed most commendable."

"No indeed, Potaliya, among these four persons that person who at the proper time in accordance with truth and fact speaks in dispraise of what is blameworthy and praises what is praiseworthy,-he is best and most excellent of them all. What is the reason therefor? Potaliya, discrimination * in choosing the proper time in such things is most commendable.'

"0 most excellent, Master Gotama! 0 most marvellous, Master Gotama! Just as if a man were to set up that which has been overthrown, or were to reveal that which is hidden, or were to point out the way to him who has gone astray, or to bring a light so that those in darkness could see external forms -just so has the truth been expounded in many a figure by Master Gotama. So do I betake myself to Lord Gotama as my guide, to His Norm and to His Order. May Lord Gotama accept me as an adherent, as one who from this day forth, as long as life endures, has taken Him as his Guide "

(CHAPTER X: ON TITANS ENDS)

---------------

1 Upekkà.

2 Kàla¤¤utà.

3 Potaliya's ideal as a recluse is indifference to both alike, but the Buddha says 'Not indifference but tact, discrimination (knowledge when and how to do a thing) .'