CHAPTER IX
ON STEADFAST PERSONS

(1) Hell and heaven (`a)

Brethren, he who is given ' to four things is reborn in purgatory even as a thing taken up must be laid down.' What are the four ? He who kills, he who steals, he who is a wrong-doer sexually, he who is a liar. Indeed, brethren, he who is given to these four things is reborn in purgatory even as a thing taken up must be laid down.

Brethren, he who abstains from four things is reborn in heaven, even as a thing taken up must be laid down. What four ? He who abstains from killing, he who abstains from theft, he who abstains from wrong-doing sexually and he who abstains from falsehood. Brethren, he who abstains from these four things is reborn in heaven, even as a thing taken up must be laid down.

(2) Hell and Heaven (b)

[The same destiny is repeated for those guilty of falsehood, backbiting, harsh 5peech and frivolous talk' and for those who abstain from such.]

1 Macalo=immovable. The m is euphonic. The title of the chapter is really Acalavagga.

2 Yathàbhatam nilokhitto. Cf. supra text ü 19 (by fore of gravity or natural course). Persons gravitate naturally to their own state of consciousness. These hells or purgatories are of various durations.

IX.83] On Steadfast Persons 113

(3)Hell and Heaven (c)

Brethren, he who is given to four things is rehorn,in purgatory, even as a thing taken up is laid down. What four ? He who without knowledge or due enquiry praises one who deserves not praise, he who without knowledge or due enquiry blames one who deserves praise, he who in like manner rejoices wherein one should not rejoice, and he. who in like manner rejoices not wherein one, should rejoice. Indeed, brethren, he who is given to these four things is reborn in purgatory, even as a thing taken up must be laid down.

Brethren,, he who is given to, four things is reborn in heaven, even as a thing taken up must be laid down. What four ? He who with knowledge or after due enquiry blames him who is blameworthy. He who in like manner praises him who is praiseworthy. He who in like manner rejoices not wherein one should not rejoice. And he who with knowledge and after due enquiry rejoices wherein one should rejoice.

Verily, brethren, he who is given to these four things is reborn in heaven, as a thing taken np must be laid down.

(4) Hell and Heaven (d)

[The same destiny it assigned to those who foster hatred and hypocrisy and love gain,,. but not the good Norm, and the same happy result to abstention from these habits.]

114 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 85

(5) PerRono in Darkness and Light*

Brethren, there are to be found existing in the world these four persons. What four ? He who is in darkness and goes on into darkness. He who is in darkness and goes on into light. He who is in light and goes on into darkness. And he who is in light and goes on into light.

Brethren, who is the one that is in darkness and goes on into darkness ?

Herein, brethren, a certain one is born into a low caste, either as a caõóà1a, a hunter, a basket-weaver, a wheelwright,* a scavenger or as a beggar, destitute of food and drink, finding it hard to get a livelihood, born where food and clothing are hardly won. He is then of dark complexion, ugly to look upon, dwarfed, full of sickness, and either blind of one eye, deformed, and lame or paralysed. Not getting food, drink, clothes, carriage, bed, dwelling or light,

or perfumes and garlands of flowers, he commits evil deeds with the body, evil deeds with the lips, and evil deeds with the mind. Thus having done evil acts with the body, with the lips and with the mind, upon the dissolution of the body, he is after death reborn into a state of woe and suffering, or into purgatory. Indeed, brethren, this is the one that is in darkness and goes on into darkness.

Brethren, who is the one that is in darkness and goes on into light ?

Herein, a certain one is born into a low caste and so forth. He does good deeds with the body, he does good

1 Cf. Puggala-païïatti, iv, 19.

2 Ratha-kàra=camma-kàra (a smith) ace. to Comy.

ix. m.85] On Steadfast Persons 115

deedswith the lips and he does good deeds with the mind. Having done good acts with the body, words and thoughts, upon the dissolution of the body he is reborn after death into the happiness of the heaven world. Indeed, brethren, this is the one who is in darkness and goes on into light.

Brethren, who is he that is in the light and goes on into darkness ?

Herein, a certain one is born into a high caste, either a wealthy princely clan, a wealthy bràhmin clan or a wealthy clan of the householders ; rich, of great wealth and resources; possessed of much gold and silver, property, money and treasures. He is also beautiful in person, comely in appearance, amiable, and endowed with the highest beauty of complexion ; amply supplied with food, drinks, clothes, equipages, perfumes and garlands of flowers, with bed, dwelling or light. But he commits evil deeds with the body, evil deeds with the lips and evil deeds with the mind. Thus having done evil acts with the body, words and thoughts, on the dissolution of the body he is after death reborn into a state of woe and suffering or inter purgatory. Indeed, brethren, this is he who is in the light and goes on into darkness.

Brethren, who is the one that is in the light and goes on into the light ?

Herein, brethren, a certain one is born into a high caste and so forth. He commits good deeds with the body, with the lips and so forth on the dissolution of the body he is born after death in to the happiness of the heaven world. Indeed, brethren, this is he who is in the light and goes on into the light.

116 The Numerical Sayings [TEIT ii, 86

There are to be found existing in the world these four.

(6)Low State and High State

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four?

He who goes on from a low state * into a low state, he who goes on from a low state into a high state, he who goes on from a high state into a low state, and he who goes on from a high state into a high state.

[The rest of this discourse is the same as in discourse (5) above.]

(7) kinds of Recluses (a)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four ? The steadfast recluse,* the white lotus-like* recluse, the blue lotus-like* recluse and the exquisite* among all recluses.

1 Oõata-nica, làmaka. Comy.

2 Samanam-acalo, 'unshaken recluse,' refers to the seven classes of sekhà. He is said to be , steadfast,' as he is firmly established in the faith.

3 Pundarika is the lotus flower consisting of less than one hundred petals and here:applies to sukkha- vipassaka-Arahant. He is called samana-pundarika as he lacks jhàna and abhiïïa and is imperfect in virtues. Pundarika = white lotus.

4 Paduma is the lotus flower consisting of over a hundred petals and here applies to the intoxicant-freed Arahant, who has perfected jhàns and abiïïas. He is thus called samana-paduma, blue lotus.

5 Samana-sukhumàlo. Among all these recluses this Samana is absolutely freed in mind and hence freed from all ills, bodily or mental and refers to Himself and those like unto Himself only, i.e., all Tathàgatas-Comy.

ix 87] On Steadfast Persons 117

Brethren, who is the person called the steadfast recluse ? Brethren, a brother is under training and discipline and dwells aspiring to attain the supreme emancipation from the, bonds. Just as, brethren, the eldest son of a royal anointed king, though not yet himself anointed, is quite certain of the crown. Likewise, brethren, is a brother who is under training and discipline aspiring to attain the supreme emancipation from the bonds . he indeed, brethren, is the steadfast recluse.

Brethren, who is the person called the white lotus-like recluse ?

Brethren, herein a brother, having destroyed the intoxicants, is without the intoxicants, is emancipated in mind and emancipated through insight, and in this life, having achieved supernormal knowledge, he himself dwells in the attainment thereof, but without applying his mind to the acquisition of the eight ecstatic conditions. Indeed, brethren, this is the person called the white lotus-like recluse.

Brethren, who, is the person called the blue lotus-like recluse ?Brethren, herein a brother having destroyed the intoxicants and go forth, himself lives in the attainment thereof, and also dwells with his mind applied to the acquisition of the eight ecstatic meditations. This indeed, brethren, is the person called the blue lotus-like recluse.,

Brethren, who is the person called the exquisite among all reclucs ?

Brethren, herein a brother being oft invited (to almsgiving) enjoys many robes, and few if uninvited. Being oft invited he enjoys much alms-food and but little if uninvited. Being Oft invited he enjoys bed and lodging, and few if uninvited. Being oft invited he enjoys a good store of

1 Samana-paduma-samatha yànika Arahant.

118 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 88.

medical requisites and supports for the sick and the feeble, and but little if uninvited. If he dwell in the company of some holy ones, many of their deeds of body please him, but only a few do not please. They do many actions by word and thought that please him, but only a few that do not please. They make many presents of offerings which are pleasing and only a few that are not pleasing.

Whatsoever feelings there be, whether arising from bile, phlegm, wind or a combination of these, or due to change of season, being attacked by adversities, due to another's agency, or as a result of Kamma, these do not arise unto him in plenty, and he is free from illness.

He has gained the four pleasure-giving ecstasies easily and without difficulty, and having destroyed the intoxicants is without the intoxicants, emancipated in heart and emancipated in intellect, and himself in this very life, having realised the supreme faculties, dwells in the attainment thereof. Of a truth, brethren, this one among (all) recluses is the absolutely happy recluse.

Verily, brethren, if one should rightly describe it, among recluses it is Myself whom he would call the absolutely happy recluse. Brethren, if one should rightly describe it, among recluses he would call Myself the exquisite recluse, inasmuch as I use many robes being oft invited . . . [repeat the same as above set forth].

These four persons to be found existing in the world.

(8)Kinds of Recluses (b)

Brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four ?.

ix. 88] On Steadfast Persons 119

The steadfast recluse, the white lotus-like recluse, the blue lotus-like recluse, and the exquisite among all recluses.

Brethren, who is the steadfast recluse ? Brethren, herein a brother having broken three fetters has become a Streamwinner, is secure against falling away and is assured of final enlightenment. This indeed, brethren, is the one called the steadfast recluse.

Brethren, who is the white lotus-like recluse Brethren, herein a brother having destroyed three fetters and attenuated lust, ill-will and delusion has become a Oncereturner, and once only returning to this world makes an end of sorrow. This indeed, brethren, is the one called the white lotus-like recluse.

Brethren, who is the blue lotus-like recluse ? Brethren, herein owing to the destruction of the five bonds that bind people to these lower worlds of lust, a brother has become the inheritor of the highest heavens, there to pass away, thence never to return. This indeed, brethren, is the one called the blue lotus-like recluse.

Brethten,.who is among all recluses the exquisite recluse ? Brethren, herein a brother having destroyed the intoxicants and so forth..... dwells in the attainment thereof. This indeed, -brethren, is the one called the exquisite recluse among all recluses.

These four are to be found existing in the world.

(9)Kindi of Recluses(c)

Brethren, there are. these four persons to be found existing in the world. What four ?

120 The Numerical Sayings [,PEXT ii 89

The steadfast recluse, the white lotus-like recluse, the blue lotus-like recluse and among recluses the exquisite recluse.

Brethren, who is the steadfast recluse ? Brethren, herein a brother has right views, right aim, right speech, right actions, right means of livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right rapture. This indeed, brethren, is the one called the'steadfast recluse.

Brethren, who is the white lotus-like recluse ? Brethren, herein a brother has right views and so forth and also right wisdom and right emancipation, but does not dwell experiencing the eight deliverances in the body.' This indeed,. brethren, is the one called the white lotus-like recluse.

Brethren, who is the blue lotus-like recluse ? Brethren. 'herein a brother has right views and so forth and indeed dwells experiencing the eight deliverances in the body. This, brethren, is the one called the blue lotus-like recluse.

Brethren, who is among recluses the exquisite recluse ? Brethren, herein a brother being oft invited enjoys robes in plenty and so forth.

Verily, brethren, if one should rightly describe it, he would call Myself the exquisite recluse among recluses.

Of a truth, brethren, these four persons are to be found existing in the world.

(10) Kinds of Recluses (d)

Brethren, there are to be seen existing in the world these four persons. What four ?

1Text kàyena phassitvà (? phusitvà).

ix. 90] On Steadfast Persons 121

The steadfast recluse, the white lotus-like recluse, the blue lotus-like recluse and among recluses the exquisite recluse.

Brethren, who is the steadfast recluse? Herein, brethren, a brother,is under training and not having attained his object dwells looking for the supreme liberation from attachments. This indeed, brethren,, is the one called the steadfast recluse.

Brethren, who is the white lotus-like recluse ? Brethren, herein a brother dwells in the contemplation of the arising and the passing away of the factors of body and so forth, but indeed he does not dwell experiencing in body* the eight deliverances. This indeed, brethren, is the one called the white lotus-like recluse.

Brethren, who is the blue lotus-like recluse ? Brethren, a brother dwells in the contemplation of the arising and the passing away of the factors of the fivefold clinging to. existence (saying) :" Thus is body, thus is the passing away of body and so forth ", and also dwells experiencing in body the eight deliverances.' This, brethren, is the one called the blue lotus-like recluse.

Brethren, Who among recluses is the exquisite recluse ?' Brethren, herein a brother being oft invited (as above). Of a truth, brethren, if one should rightly describe it, he would call Myself among recluses the exquisite. recluse.

Verily, brethren, there are these four persons to be found existing in the world.

(CHAPTER IX: ON STEADFAST PERSONS ENDS)

1 Vimokhas belong to ecstatic meditation. See Dhamma-sangani, p.C3 and Atthasalini,.p. 255.

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