CHAPTER VIII
ON THE PERFECT WAY

(1) Four Virtues

BRETHREN, the brother who is endowed with four qualities follows the perfect way,* and his knowledge is bent* on the destruction of the intoxicants. With what four? Brethren, herein a brother is virtuous, well-versed, strenuous in endeavour and possessed of insight. Of a truth, brethren, the brother who is endowed with these four qualities follows the perfect way of conduct and his knowledge is directed to destroying the intoxicants.

(2) Four Virtues (b)

Brethren, the brother who is endowed with four qualities follows the perfect way of conduct and his knowledge is directed towards the destruction of the intoxicants. With what four ? Thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of benevolence, thoughts of love, and right views. Of a truth, brethren, the brother who is endowed with these four qualities follows the perfect way of conduct and his knowledge is directed to destroying the intoxicants.

1 Apaõõaka-absolutely true or certain. Cf. M. i. 401 (Nibbàna).

2 Pàtipadam. 3 Yoni araddhà, here yoni-paõõà.

104 The Numerical SayilngS [TEXT ii, 77,

(3) The Wicked Man

Brethren, he who is possessed of four qualities should be known as a wicked One. What four ? Brethren, herein a wicked one shows up the faults of another even when unasked, not to say when asked. Being indeed asked and plied with questions, he speaks ill of another without suppressing or concealing,' but with full detail. Brethren, such an one should be known as a wicked one.

Then again, brethren, he is a wicked one who, being asked, does not point out the good qualities of another, not to say when unasked. Being indeed asked and plied with questions, he speaks well of another, but suppresses and conceals and does not mention his good qualities in full detail. Such an one should be known as a wicked one.

Then again, brethren, he is a wicked one who, being asked, does not disclose his own bad qualities, not to say when unasked. Being indeed asked and plied with questions, he points out his own bad qualities, but suppresses and conceals them and does not give full details. Brethren, such an one should be known as a wicked one.

Then again, brethren, he is a wicked one who, even unasked, discloses his good qualities, not to say when asked. Brethren, being asked and plied with questions, he points out his own good qualities without suppressing or concealing them and giving full details. Brethren such an one should be known as a wicked one.

Verily brethren, the brother who is possessed of these four qualities should be known as a wicked one.

1 Alambitvà [Comy., alampitam katva]. P.T.S. Ed., and Adyar MS read alampetvà? Ceylon Ed., has alambetvd, which seems to be more correct and means without equivocating'.

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The Good Man

[The good man is he who is endowed wiih the four qualities opposed to those of the wicked man as given above.] Just as brethren, when a bride is first led home either by day or night, she at first shows exceeding great fear and bashfulness towards father-in-law, mother-in-law, husband and even' to servants and labourers but soon afterwards, owing to living together and intimacy,, she begins to talk even to her father-in-law, mother-in-law and husband thus: " Away with you! what do you know?" Even so also, brethren, herein a certain brother, some day or night, leaves the household life, becomes homeless and enters the Order. He at first shows exceeding great fear and shyness towards the brethren, the sisters, the lay-disciples both male and female, and even to the novices and attendants of the monastery ; but afterwards owing to living together and intimacy he begins to say even to teachers and preceptors thus:" Away with you! what do you know ? " Therefore, brethren, thus must ye train yourselves-, `like a bride newly led home will I dwell in thought'Brethren, you should thus train yourselves.

(4) Four Excellences

Brethren, there are these four excellent things.*What four ? The highest virtue, the highest self-concentration, the highest insight and the highest emancipation. Of a truth, brethren, there are these four excellent things.

1 Antamaso,` finally' or 'even'.

2 Aggàmi in Ceylon text, but aïgàni in P.T.S. ed, The latter is a questionable reading.

14.

106 The Numerical Sayings [T.EXT ii,79

(5) Four Highest Things

Brethren, there are these four highest things.* What four? The highest form,the highest feeling,the highest perception and the highest existence. Of a truth, brethren, there are these four highest things.

(6) Removal. of Doubts*

At one tme, the Exalted One, about the time of the final passing away, dwelt between the twin Sàla trees in the Sàla-park of the Mallas. Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren: "Brethren!" They responded:"Yea, Lord!" The Exalted One spake thus Brethren, if there is one single brother, who is affected with doubt or uncertainty as regards the Exalted One, the Norm or the Order, the Path or the Practice, let him question. Brethren, do not become remorseful afterwards (saying):"We met the Master face to face: having met the Exalted One face to face we did not question Him.'"

When He spake thus the Brethren observed silence. A second time the Exalted One addressed the brethren "Indeed, brethren, if there is even one single brother, who is affected with doubt or uncertainty as regards the Exalted One, the Norm or the Order, the Path or the Practice, let him question. Brethren, do not become remorseful afterwards (saying) 'We met the Master face to face:having

1 Råpa, Yedanà and Saïïa Aggàni refer to Form, Feeling and Perecption as objects of meditation. leading to Arahantship. Bhavaggan is the last life wherein Arahantship,is won.

2 This discourse also occurs in Mahà-parinibbana Sutta of Digha Nikàya, i,155. viii.$.76] On the Perfect Way 107 met the Exalted One face to face we did not question Him.'"

When He spake thus, the Brethren were silent for the second time. Then for the third time the Exalted One addressed the brethren Indeed, brethren, if there is even one single brother who is affected with doubt or uncertainty as regards the Exalted One, the Norm or the Order, the Path or the Practice, let him question. Brethren, do not afterwards become remorseful saying "We met the Master face to face: having met the Exalted One we did not question Him."' When He spake thus the brethren were silent for the third time also.

Then indeed the Exalted One addressed the brethren thus "If indeed, brethren, ye question not out of regard for the Master, let a friend speak to his friends ". When He spake thus, the brethren were still silent.

Then the venerable ânanda said to the Exalted One:

"Wonderful, 0 Lord, marvellous, 0 Lord!I am well pleased, 0 Lord, with this Order of the brethren. There is not in this Order of the brethren one single brother who is affected with doubt or uncertainty as regards the Exalted One, the Norm or the Order, the Path or the Practice."

ânanda, you indeed say so out of faith; but it is in the knowledge of the Accomplished One that there is not one single brother in this whole Order of the brethren who is affected with doubt or uncertainty as regards the Exalted One, the Norm or the Order, the Path or the Practice. Of a truth, ânanda, among these five hundred brethren, even the brother who is lowest in virtue is a Streamwinner he is not liable to fall away and is destined to finlenlightenment,"

108 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 80

(7) Unthinkables

Brethren, there are these four unthinkables, which should not be pondered over. He who ponders over them becomes insane and ends in grief. What are the four ? Brethren, the nature of the Exalted Ones is unthinkable and should not be pondered over. He who ponders over it becomes insane and ends in grief. Brethren, the range of ecstasy of one who practises ecstasy is unthinkable and should not be pondered over. He who ponders over it becomes insane and ends in grief. Brethren, the fruits of Kamma are unthinkable and should not be pondered over. He who ponders over them becomes insane and ends in grief. Brethren, the origin of the world is unthinkable and should not be pondered over. He who ponders over it becomes insane and ends in grief. Of a truth, brethren, there are these four unthinkables, which should not be pondered over. He who ponders over them becomes insane and ends in grief.

(8) Purities of a Gift

Brethren, there are these four purities of a gift. What are the four ? Brethren, there is a gift which is purified by the donor and not by the recipient. Brethren, there is a gift which is purified by the recipient and not by the donor. Brethren, there is a gift which is not purified either by the donor or by the recipient. Brethren, there is also a gift which is purified both by the donor and by the recipient.

Brethren, what is the gift that is purified by the donor and not by the recipient ? Brethren, here is a donor who

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is virtuous and of good conduct, but the recipients are sinful and of ill-conduct. Verily, brethren, even thus does a gift become purified by donor and not by receiver.

Brethren, how does a gift become purified by the recipient and not by the donor ? Brethren, here is a donor who is sinful and of evil conduct but the recipients are virtuous and of good conduct. Verily, brethren, even thus does a gift become purified by the recipient and not by the donor.

Brethren, how is a gift not purified either by the donor or by the recipient ? Brethren, here is a donor who is sinful and of evil conduct and the recipients are also sinful and of evil conduct. Verily, brethren, even thus is a gift not purified either by the donor or by the recipient.

Brethren, how is a gift purified both by the donor and by the recipient ? Brethren, here is a donor who is virtuous and of good conduct and the recipients are also virtuous and of good conduct. Verily, brethren, even thus does a gift become purified both by the donor and by the recipient.

Verily, brethren, there are these four purities of a gift.

(9) Failure and Success in Trade

Once the venerable Sàriputta came to where the Exalted

One, was. Having come he made obeisance to the Exalted

One and took a seat at one side. So seated the venerable,

1 Cf. Digha N., III, 231: Majjh., iii, 256. The order differs here.At Kathà. Vatthu (Bk. xvii) the matter is argued thus by the dissentient . 'If a gift may be sanctified by the receiver, does he not become the agent (of kamma) for a different person ? (Aïïo aïïassa kàrako). Does not one cause the weal or woe of another ? Does not one sow, another reap ?' The answer is given by the Theravadin in the words of the Buddha. cf. Points of Controversy, p. 322.

110 The Numerical Sayings TEXT ii, 81

Sàriputta said thus to the Exalted One. ,What is the reason, Lord, what is the cause, that such and such a trade-venture undertaken by some person should fail ? What is the reason, Lord, what is the cause, that such and such a trade-venture undertaken by some person should not succeed as intended?

What is the reason, Lord, what is the cause that such and such a trade-venture undertaken by some person should succeed even as intended ? What is the reason, Lord, what is the cause, that such and such a trade-venture undertaken by some person, should succeed even beyond his intention?"

Sàriputta, herein a certain person approaches a recluse or a bràhmin and invites him saying Pray, Sir, order any requisites.' He offers but gives them not. Then he departs from that life and is reborn. He starts a certain trade, but it goes to ruin.

On the other hand, Sàriputta, herein a certain person approaches a recluse or a brahmin and invites him saying Pray, Sir, order any requisites.' He offers but does not give them as intended. He departs from that life and is reborn. He starts a trade but it succeeds not to his wish.

Again, Sàriputta, in this connexion-a certain person approaches a recluse or a bràhmin and invites him saying `Pray, Sir, order any requisites.' He both offers and supplies them even as intended. Then he departs from that life and is reborn. He starts a trade and it succeeds even as intended.

Lastly, Sàriputta, in this connexion a certain person approaches a recluse or a bràhmin and invites him saying `Pray, Sir, order any requisites.' He both offers and supplies them even beyond his intention. Then he departs

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from that life and is reborn. He starts a trade and it succeeds even beyond his expectation.

Verily, Sàriputta, these are the reasons, these are the causes, why a trade-venture undertaken by a certain person should fail, not succeed as intended, succeed as intended and also succeed even beyond expectation."

(10) Disabilities of Women

Once the Exalted One dwelt in Ghosita-park at Kosambi. Then the venerable ânanda came to where the Exalted One was. Having so come he made obeisance to the Exalted One and took a seat at one side. So seated the venerable ânanda said thus to the Exalted One

"What is the reason, Lord, what is the cause that womenfolk do not preside in a court of justice,' nor engage in an occupation, nor go to a foreign* country ?

ânanda, a woman is given to anger. ânanda, woman is envious. ânanda, a woman is greedy. ânanda, woman is poor in wisdom. This is the reason, ânanda, this is the cause, why women-folk do not preside in a court of justice, nor engage in an occupation, nor go to a foreign country."

(CHAPTER VIII : ON THE PERFECT WAY ENDS,)

1 Sabhàyam-vinicchaya-karaõatthàyavinicchaya-sabhàyam.Comy.

Kambojant in Ceylon text. but kammojam in P. T. S. ed. Kamboja country is only an example. but taken to mean any foreign country.' Comy Kamm`oja, However, like dhamm'oja, may well mean `deed-essence' or `perfection of deed '[It is of interest here that, about the time I wrote this note, two ladies, now of Adyar,Madras were appointed Justices of the Peace for Madras: (and they have been 'to Kamboja'). This, I believe, is the first instance of such a thing in India, Ed.].