CHAPTER VI
ON YIELDS IN MERIT

(1) Yields in Merit (a)

BRETHERN there are these four yields in merit and virtue, which bring about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results, and lead to heavenly life, conducing to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing. What are the four?

Brethren, a brother, whilst wearing a robe given by any one, dwells in the attainment of boundless concentration of the mind. To him accrues a yield in merit and virtue, which brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results and leads to heavenly life, conducting to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

Brethren, a brother, whilst partaking of food given by any one, dwells in the attainment of boundless concentration of the mind. To him accrues a yield'in merit and virtue, which brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results and leads to heavenly life, conducting to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

Brethren, a brother whilst using a dwelling offered by any one dwells in the attainment of boundless concentration

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1 Sàvatthi-nidàna Cf. Sumangalà-Vilàsini, p. 303. At an alms giving by Anàthapiõóika..

76 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 56

of mind. To him accrues a yield in merit and virtue which brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results and leads to heavenly life, conducting to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

Brethren, a brother, whilst using the requisites for medicine and support for the sick offered by any one, dwells in the attainment of boundless concentration of the mind. To him accrues a yield in merit and virtue which brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results and leads to heavenly life, conducting to good, to welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

Indeed, brethren, the merit of the Ariyan disciple, who is endowed with these four yields in merit and virtue, is not easy to measure. Such a yield in merit and virtue brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results and leads to heavenly life, conducting to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing. Indeed, such is reckoned a great factor of immeasurable and boundless merit.

Just as, brethren, it is not easy to measure the water of the great ocean (saying) `there are so many measures of water, so many hundreds of measures of water, so many thousands of measures of water, so many hundreds of thousands of measures of water '-for it is reckoned as a huge, immeasurable and boundless quantity of water; likewise, brethren, the merit of the Ariyan disciple who is endowed with these four yields in merit and virtue is not easy to calculate. Such a yield in merit and virtue brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results, leads to heavenly life, conducting to good, welfare, benefit and blessing. Indeed it is reckoned as a great factor of immeasurable and boundless merit.

vi. [52] On Yields in Merit 77

To boundless mighty Ocean, mighty Pool,
Fearsome, the resting-place of divers gemsÞ
As rivers bearing multitudes of men
Flow broadly down and reach the mighty Sea;
So unto him that giveth food, drink, clothes,
Beds, seats and coverlets in charity-
Torrents of merit reach him-he is wise-
As water-bearing rivers reach the Sea.

(2) Yieldt in Merit (b)

Brethren, there are these four yields in merit and virtue, which bring about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results and lead to heavenly life, conducting to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing. What four?

Brethren, herein the Ariyan disciple is endowed with perfect faith in the Exalted One thus:`He the Exalted One is an Arahant, Supremely Enlightened, full of wisdom and goodness, a Blessed One, a World-knower, a peerless Tamer of men, the Teacher of devas and men, an Awakened One, an Exalted One.' Brethren, this is the first yield in merit and virtue, which brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results and leads to heavenly life, conducing to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

Brethren, the Ariyan disciple is also endowed with perfeet faith in the Norm, thus `Well-proclaimed by the Exalted One is the Norm, to be realised in this life and without delay, bidding us come and see, leading us onward, to be known by the wise as a personal experience.' Brethren, this is the second yield in merit and virtue,

78 The Numerical Saying [TEXT ii, 57

which brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results, and leads to heavenly life, conducing to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

Brethren, the Ariyan disciple is also endowed with perfect ' faith in the Order, thus Well-practised is the Order of the Exalted One's disciples, also, in uprightness, method and propriety; namely, the four pairs of persons, the eight classes of individuals. Such is the Order of the Exalted One's disciples, to whom offering and duty should be done and gifts and reverent greeting given, for they are 4 the supreme field of merit in the world.' Brethren, this is the third yield in merit and virtue, which brings about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results, leads to heavenly life, conducting to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

Brethren, the Ariyan disciple is also endowed with virtues lovely to the holy Ones, unbroken and flawless, consistently practised, unblemished, making men free, commended by the wise, unperverted and conducing to rapt concentration. Brethren, this is the fourth yield in merit and virtue, which brings about happiness heavenly bliss, good results, and leads to heavenly life, conducting to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

These indeed, brethren, are the four yields in merit and virtue, which bring about happiness, heavenly bliss, good results, and leads to heavenly life, conducing to good, welfare, benefit, delight and blessing.

Whose bath faith in the Tathàgata
Unwavering and fixed, whose life is good,
vi ü 53] On Yeilds in Merit 79
Praised by the Ariyans and dear to them,
Whoso is loyal to the Brotherhood,
And looks straight forth-,` he is not poor' they say.
Not lived in vain the life of such a man !
Wherefore the wise should cultivate (these three)
Faith, virtue and clear-seeing of the Norm-
Bearing the Buddha's message in his mind.

(3) Livinq together (a)

At one time, the Exalted One had entered the high road between Madhura and Veranjà. Also many householders and their wives had joined the high road between Madhura and Veranjà. Then the Exalted One having left the road took a seat under a certain tree, and these householders and their wives saw the Exalted One seated under a certain tree. So seeing they came to where the Exalted One was. Having come they made obeisance to the Exalted One and sat at one side. To the householders and their wives so seated at one side the Exalted One spake thus:

Householders, there are these four ways of living together. What are the four? A vile man ! lives with a vile woman, a vile man lives with a goddess, a god lives with a vile woman, and a god lives with a goddess.

Householders, how does a vile man live with a vile woman? Herein, householders, a husband kills, steals, commits impurity, lies and indulges in fermented liquor,

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1. DevaÞgod or king and devi=goddess or queen. Chavo, `a corpse,' is here a term signifying `one contemptible'. The contrast is meant to be between the two highest degrees of mankind, chavo=out-cast, dev=king. We might say `the beggar and the nobleman'

80 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 58

is wicked and sinful, with his heart possessed by avarice he lives the life of a householder and abuses and reviles recluses and bràhmins. Also his wife kills, steals, commits impurity, lies, and indulges in fermented liquor, is wicked and sinful, with her heart,possessed by avarice she lives the life of the family and abuses and reviles recluses and bràhmins. Thus indeed, householders, a vile man lives with a vile woman.

Householders, how does a vile man live with a goddess? Herein, householders, a husband kills, steals, commits impurity, lies and indulges in fermented liquor, is

wicked and sinful, with his heart possessed by avarice, he lives the life of a householder and abuses and reviles recluses and bràhmins. But his wife abstains from killing, thieving, sexudal impurity, lying and indulgence in fermented liquor, is virtuous and of good behaviour; with her heart freed from the taint of avarice she lives the family life and -abuses not nor reviles recluses and brahmins. Thus indeed, householders, a vile man lives with a goddess.

Householders, how does a god live with a vile woman? Herein, a husband abstains from killing, thieving, impurity, lying and indulgence in fermented liquor, is virtuous and of good behaviour; with his mind freed from the stains of avarice, he lives the family life and abuses not nor reviles recluses and bràhmins. But his wife kills, steals, commits impurity, lies and indulges in fermented liquor, is wicked and sinful with her heart possessed by avarice she lives the family life and abuses and reviles recluses and bràhmins. Thus indeed, householders' a god lives with a vile woman.

Householders, how does a god live with a goddess? Herein, a husband and a wife both abstain from killing,

vi. [54] On Yields in Merit 81

thieving, impurity, lying and indulgence in fermented liquor, are virtuous and of good behaviour; with minds freed from the taints of avarice they live the family life and abuse not nor revile recluses and bràhmins. Thus indeed, householders, a god lives with a goddess.

These, householders, are the four ways of living together."
Both vicious,mean, abusing others, these-
Husband and wife, a vile pair linked together.
A vicious husband, mean, abusing others,
A virtuous wife, not stingy, but well-spoken-
A goddess she, paired with a partner vile.
A husband good, not stingy, but well-spoken,
A wife who's vicious, mean, abusing others-
A woman vile she's partnered with a god.
If both, believers, using loving words
One to the other, live the righteous life,
Many the blessings that attend their home.
Dejected are their foes, for both are good.
Here living by the Norm, in goodness matched,
In beaven they win the bliss that they desire.

(4) Living together (b)

[This discourse is substantially the same as discourse (3), except that: in the prose portion gahapatayo (householders) is omitted.]

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(5) Happy Couple

At one time the Exalted One dwelt in the Deer-park of the Bhesakàla-grove at Crocodile Haunt, in the country of the Bhaggà. Now the Exalted One in the forenoon having put on His under-garment, taking bowl and outer-robe proceeded to the residence of the householder Nakula-pità l (Nakula's father). Having arrived He sat down on the seat prepared for Him. Then both Nakula's father and mother came to where the Exalted One was. Having come they made obeisance to the Exalted One, and sat at one side. So seated the householder Nakulapità spoke thus to the Exalted One: "Lord, ever since Nakulamàtà as a girl was brought home to me, when a youth, I know not of any misbehaviour ' on her part even by thought, much less in deed. Lord, we desire in this life to rejoice with each other and also to rejoice with each other in the next world."

Also the wife Nakulamàtà said thus to the Exalted One: "Lord, ever since I as a girl was taken home to Nakulapità when a youth, I know not of any misbehaviour on his part even in thought, much less in deed. Lord, we desire in this life to rejoice with each other and also to rejoice with each other in the next world."

(The Master replied)" House-holders, these two, husband and wife, should indeed desire to rejoice with each other in this life and also to rejoice with each other in the next world.

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1 Cf. S. III, 1 (n. trans.) where Nakulapità in extreme old age is comforted by the Master and advised not to let his mind falter in sickness.

2 Aticaritar (text-ita), 1 a transgressor (of modesty)'.

3 Text punctuates wrongly. Abhisamparityam-adverb (in a future Itate).

vi. 57] On Yields in Heit 83

Both should be equally faithful, equally virtuous, equally generous and equally wise. Then will they rejoice with each other not only in this life, but also in the next world."

(6) Husband and wife

Brethren,* these two, husband and wife, should indeed desire to rejoice with each other in this life as well as in the next world. They should also be equally faithful, virtuous, generous and wise and rejoice with each other in this life as well as in the next world.

(7) Results of gifts

At one time the Exalted One dwelt among the Koliyans in the Koliyan township called Sajjanelam.* Then the Exalted One in the morning having duly robed Himself, taking His alms-bowl and mantle, proceeded to the house of Suppavàsà the daughter of the Koliyans. Having arrived He sat down on the seat made ready for Him. Then indeed Suppavàsà, the daughter of the Koliyans, waiting on Him with her own hands caused Him to take His fill of excellent food both hard and soft. When the Exalted One had finished the meal and removed His hand from the bowl, Suppavàsà the daughter of the Koliyans took a seat respectfully at

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1 The gàthàs here following in the text and at discourse (6) are exactly the same as the second half of the preceding ones.

2 The last passage of the previous discourse appears to have been repeated to the brethren.

3 Sajjanelam (so-called) is a township of the Koliyans..

84 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 63

one side. To her so seated the Exalted One spake thus Suppavàsà ! the Ariyan woman-disciple who offers food gives to the recipient four things. 'What are the four? She gives long life, she gives personal beauty, she gives happiness and she gives bodily strength. Having given long life she herself becomes a partaker of long life both human and divine: having given personal beauty she becomes a partaker of personal beauty both human and divine: having given happiness she becomes a partaker of happiness both human and divine: and having given bodily strength she herself becomes a partaker of bodily strength both human and divine. Suppavàsà ! the Ariyan womandisciple who offers food thus gives to the recipient these four things.

`If she give pure food well-prepared
Choice food possessing savour,'
That offering to the upright given
To those great ones that walk the Paths,
On merit heaping merit,
Hath great fruit and by Him is praised,
The Knower of the world.
Mindful of such an offering
They who pass happy through the world
O'ercome the taint of meanness utterly*
And blameless reach the Happy Place.

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1 Read, Sà ca deti (With Adyar MS.) for yà dadàti of text.

2 The text is crrupt. Viniyya (but for the metre) should be vineyyum.

vi, [58] On Yields in merit 85

(8) Food (a)

Once the householder Anàthapindika came to where the Exalted One was. Having come he made obeisance to the Exalted One and took a seat at one side. To the householder Anàthapindika so seated the Exalted One spake thus: " Indeed, householder, the Ariyan disciple who offers food gives to the recipient four* things. What are the four? He gives long life, personal beauty, happiness and bodily strength. Having given long life, personal beauty, happiness and bodily strength, he himself becomes a partaker of long life, personal beauty, happiness and bodily strength both human and divine.

Householder, the Ariyan disciple who offers food gives to the recipient these four things."
To those well-trained, who live on other's alms,
They who give zealously in season due
Their daily food-four blessings these confer-
Long life and beauty, happiness and strength.
Who giveth life and strength, beauty and bliss,
Hath long and honoured life, wherever born.

(9)Food (b)

[]his "discourse is the same as discourse with the diference that it is addressed to the brethren, only substituting 'donor 'for the Ariyan disciple']

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1 Thànàni.

86 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 65

(10) Duties of a Layman

Once the householder Anàthapindika came to where the Exalted One was. Having come he made obeisance to the Exalted One and took a seat at one side. To the householder Anàthapindika so seated the Exalted One spake thus: " Indeed, householder, the Ariyan disciple who is endowed with four* things practises the proper duties of a layman, which redound in honour and lead to heavenly life. With what four?

Herein, householder, the Arlyan disciple waits upon the Order of Brethren with, robes he waits upon the Order with almsfood, waits upon the Order with seats and dwellings and waits upon the Order with the requisites for medicine and support for the sick. Indeed, householder, the Ariyan disciple who is endowed with these four things is one who practises the proper duties of a layman, which redound in honour and lead to heavenly life."

They do their* duty, those wise householders,
Who serve with robes the blameless * goodly ones
With bowl-food, bed, comforts and requisites.
By day and night their merit groweth ever,.
By doing kindly deeds one reaches heaven.*

(CHAPTER VI: ON YIELDS IN MERIT ENDS)

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1 Sàmici-ptipadam.

Read sammaggate for text samaggate.

3 At Petavatthu, text 1.