CHAPTER V
TO ROHITASSA

(1) Concentration

BRETHERN, there are these four ways of self-concentration. What are the four? First, there is a way of self-concontration, which, well-practised and developed, results in a happy condition in this life. Then, brethren, there is a way of self-concentration which, well-practised and developed, results in the attainment of perfect knowledge. Then, brethren, there is a way of self-concentration, which, well practised and developed, results in mindfulness and intelligence. Lastly, brethren, there is also a way of self-concentration, which, well-practised and developed, results in the extinction of the intoxicants.

Brethren, what is the way of self-concentration which, well-practised and developed, results in a happy condition in this life? Brethren, herein a brother, separating himself from passions and sins, with reflection and investigation, enters and remains in the First Ecstasy (Jhana), where there is joy and ease born of seclusion.

Freeing his mind from reflection and investigation, and having it concentrated, and retaining the joy and case consequent on the tranquillity of mind, he enters and remains in the Second Ecstasy.

v. [41] To Rohitassa 63

Freeing his mind from joy he obtains indifference to pain and pleasure. He lives enjoying bodily felicity; the saints pronounce this indifference to pain and pleasure as the Third Ecstasy.

Then divesting himself of happiness and sorrow and primarily freeing himself of pleasure and pain, he arrives at and remains in the Fourth Eestasy-a state of mind indifferent to all emotions alike. Brethren, this is said to be the way to self-concentration, which, well-practised and developed, results in a happy condition in this life.

Brethren, what is the way of self-concentration, which, well-practised and developed, results in the attainment of perfect knowledge?.Brethren, herein a brother exercises the faculty of perfection by day, perceives clearly by day as well as by night: thus by open and clear mind he develops the radiant faculty of perfection. Brethren, this is said to be the way of self-concentration, which, well practised and developed results in the attainment of perfeet knowledge.

Brethren, what is the way of self-concentration, which, well-practised and developed, results in mindfulness and intelligence? Brethren, herein a brother clearly understands sensation, perception and conception as each of them arises, presents itself. to the mind and passes away. Brethren, this is said to be the way of self-cocentration, which, well-practised and developed, results in mindfulness and intelligence.

Brethren, what is the way of self-concentration, which, well-practised and developed, results in the extinction of the intoxicants? Brethren, herein a brother dwells in the observance of the arising and passing away of the factors

64 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 46

of the fivefold clinging to existence `thus is body, thus is the arising of body, thus is the passing away of body, thus is sensation, perception, mental coefficients and consciousness, thus is the arising and the passing away thereof.' Brethren, this is said to be the way of self-concentration, which, well-practised and developed, results in the extinction of the intoxicants. Indeed, brethren, these are the four ways of self-concentration. This also was uttered by one in connexion with the Questions of Punnaka in the Chapter on Destiny.*

By searching in the world things high and low,'
He who hath nought' to stir him in the world,
Calm' and unclouded, cheerful, freed of longing,
He hath crossed over birth and old, 1 say.

(2) Answers

Brethren, there are these four kinds of answers toquestions. What are the four? Brethren, there is a

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1 Paràyana-Vagga is the fifth chapter of Sutta-.Niphta of which [4, Sutta-Nipàta, V, 1043 (Punnaka-mànava pucchà is the section referred to. The Gàthàs occur at Sn. 1048 and A. 1. (111, 12).

2 Parovaràni. See above chap. I, [5.

[In A. 1. (111, 32) Mudlr. Gooneratne's translation, I mistranslated this stanza in the first two lines by writing:

Who'er, by wisdom in this world controlled,
Hath nowhere any clinging to the world.-Ed.]

3 Text wrong, read yass'injitam.

4 Read Santo for Sato.

v. [44] To Rohitassa 65

question, which admits of a definite reply. Brethren, there is a question which must be answered after analysis.' Brethren, there is a question which admits of a counterquestion by way of a reply, and there is also a question which has to be left standing over.

The downright answer, qualified reply,
The counter-question, putting the answer by'-
Wkoso knows how to answer thus and thus
According to the Norm, is called `one skilled
In the Four Questions'. Hard is such an one
To overcome, to vanquish, deep, invincible.
Then he is skilled in seeing true and false
Wise to reject the false and grasp the true.
`Sage penetrator of the Real' he's called.

(3) The Norm

Brethren, there are these four persons to be seen existing in the world. What four? He who fosters hatred, but fosters not the Norm. He who fosters hypocrisy but fosters not the Norm. He who fosters gain; but fosters not the Norm. He who fosters honours but fosters not the Norm. Indeed, brethren, these four persons are to be seen existing in the world.

Brethren who foster hatred and pretence,
They who think much of gains and getting favours,

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1 At D. N., iii, 229, the, order in the Ceylon Edition is the same, but different in P. T. S. Edition,' the second sentence coming last.

66 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT iiy 47

These make no growth or progress in the Norm
By Him, the All-enlightened One, proclaimed.
But they who've lived and live honouring the Norm,
These truly grow and prosper in that Norm
By Him, the All-enlightened One, proclaimed.

(4) Wrongful Conditions

Brethren, there are these four unrighteous conditions. What are the four? Fostering hatred and not revering the Norm. Fostering hypocrisy and not revering the Norm. Fostering gains and not revering the Norm. Fostering honours and not revering the Norm. These indeed, brethren, are the four unrighteous conditions.

Brethren, there are (also) these four righteous conditions. What are the four? Revering the Norm and not fostering hatred. Revering the Norm and not fostering hypocrisy. Revering the Norm and not fostering gains. Reverin the Norm and not fostering honours.

A brother loving hatred and pretence,
Who thinketh much of gains and getting favours,
Even as a rotten seed in good soil sown-
In the Good Norm such makes no growth or progress.
But they who lived and live honouring the Norm,
They prosper in the Norm, as medicines
Work favourably after taking oil.'

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1 Sneham anvàya iv' osadhà.

V. [45 To Rohitassa 67

At one time the Exalted One dwelt at Anàthapindika's Park in the Jeta Grove at Sàvatthi.

At that time Rohitassa, son of a deva, of surpassing beauty, at the waning of the night, illuminating the whole of the Jeta Grove, came to where the Exalted One was. Having so come he made obeisance to the Exalted One, and stood' at one side. Standing at one- side, Rohitassa, son of a deva, said thus to the Exalted One "Lord, is there any world wherein. there is no birth, death, decay or repeated births and deaths, the end whereof (such world) it is possible to know see or reach by going?"

ßIndeed, friend, I do declare that there is no world, where there is no birth, death, decay or repeated births and deaths, the end whereof it is possible to know, see or reach by going to it.û

ßHow wonderful and marvellous, 0 Lord! This is indeed well said by the Exalted One: Indeed, friend, I do declare that there is no world, wherein there is no birth, death, decay or repeated births and deaths, the end whereof it is possible to know, see or reach by going.' 0 Lord, long ago I was a seer called Rohitassa, son of Bhoja, possessed of psychic powers and able to go through the air. Lord, I had then command of such a speed, even as a skilled, trained, well-practised and dexterous archer easily shoots a light arrow far beyond (ground covered by)the shadow of a palm-tree.' I was able to take such a long

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1 In the sky it is said devas do not touch the ground.

2 Tàla-cchàtim in P. T. S. text. Sinhatese text and S.N. i, 62 read tàla-cchàyam, i.e., about 200 yards, the length of a palm-tree shadow,' when the sun is low.

68 The Numerica Sayings [TEXT ii 48

pace that my pace extended from the eastern ocean to the western ocean To me who was endowed with such speed and pace this desire arose: I shall by walking reach the end of the world.' Indeed, Lord excluding the timc'. ocupied with eating, drinking, attending to the calls of nature, sleeping and resting though 1 had one hundred years length of life, and though 1 walked for a hundred years, yet 1 died on the way, not having reached the end of the world. How wonderful and marvellous 0 Lord ! This is indeed, Lord, well said by the Exalted One.û

Indeed, friend, I declare there is no world wherein there is no birth, death, decay or repeated deaths and rebirtlis. the end whereof it is possible to know, see or reach by walking. But, friend, 1 do not declare that without reaching the end of the world one can make an end of sorrow. My friend, I do proclaim that in this very fathom-long body, with its feelings and mind, is the world, the world's arising, the world's ceasing and the path leading to the world's ceasing.'

Not to be reached by going is world's end.
Yet is there no release for man from woe
Unless ye reach world's end. Yea, verily
He that is wise and lives the holy life,
He knows the world. He goeth to world's end.
Calmed is he, for he knows. He hankereth
Neither for this world nor for any world.

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1 This may be translated `without even eating, etc.'

2 Loko in this discourse is used in two senses, the world of space (macrocosm) and that of a human being (microcosm).

v. [461] To Rohitassa 69

(6) Rohitassa (b)

Thereafter at dawn the Exalted One addressed the brethren thus; "Brethren, this night Rohitassa came [and repeated the whole of discourse (5) given as above].

(7) Distant Things

Brethren, there are these four very distant things. What are the four? Brethren, the sky and the earth-this is the first pair of very distant things. Brethren, the hither shore and the further shore of an ocean-this is the second pair of very distant things. Brethren, the place where the sun rises and the place where the sun sets-this is the third pair of very distant things. The doctrine of the righteous and the doctrine of the unrighteous-this is the fourth pair of very distant things. These, brethren, are the four (pairs of) very distant things.

Far from the sky is earth, and far, men say,
The other side of ocean: far the place
Where the blazing one, the son of fire, ariseth
From where he goeth down: but further still
The span that parts the True Norm from the false.
Unperishing the friendship of good men;
Long as the Good Norm lasteth, it shall last.
Soon wanes the friendship of the bad. Wherefore
The Norms of good and bad are far removed.

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1Verocano Son of Agni (fire)' a title of the Sun-[The first.part of the Gàtha is from Jot., V, 483] .

70 The Numerical Sayings TE XT, ii. 51

(8) Venerable Visàkha

At one time, the Exalted One dwelt at Anàthapindika's Park in the Jeta Grove at Sàvatthi. Now at that time the venerable Visàkha, son of Païchàli, was in the assembly hall, teaching, rousing, stirring and gladdening the brethren by means of a religious discourse, couched in courteous language, distinct and clearly enunciated, unfolding the meaning, full of doctrinal meaning and transcendental.' Then the Exalted One at eventide, having risen from His solitude, proceeded to where the assembly hall was. Having arrived He sat down on the seat prepared for Him. So seated He addressed the brethren thus;

Brethren, who was it in the assembly hall, teaching, rousing, stirring and gladdening the brethren by means of religious discourse, couched in courteous language, distinct and clearly enunciated, unfolding the meaning, full of doctrinal meaning and transcendental? Lord, it was the venerable Visàkha, son of Païcàli, who was in the assembly hall, teaching, rousing, stirring and gladdening the brethren by means of a religious discourse, couched in courteous language, distinct and clearly enunciated, unfolding the meaning, full of doctrinal meaning and transcendental."

Then the Exalted One said thus to the venerable Visàkha, son of Païcàli: " Well said, well said, Visàkha! Well said, indeed ! Thou, Visàkha, hast taught, roused, stirred and gladdened the brethren by means, of a religious discourse, couched in courteous language, distinct and clearly

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1 S. N.' I, 189. 11, 280, anelagala (an-elo, faultless) pariyàpnna- Comy. on Salllyutta says " included in the doctrine of the Four Truths ": while he takes the next word anissita to mean independent,' i.e., not dealing with samàra.

v. [48] TO Rohitassa 71

enunciated, unfolding the meaning, full of doctrinal meaning and transcendental." 1

Tho' he utter no word, men know him-
The wise mixed up with the fools.
When he opens his mouth, men know him,
When he teaches the Deathless Way . 2
Let him speak, let him light up the Norm:
Let him hoist up the Banner of Seers.
The Seers are the well-spoken Banner."
The Norm is the Banner of Seers.

(9)Hallucinations

Brethren there are these four hallucination of perception, of thinking, and of views. What are the four? Brethren, to say that there is a permanence in irnpermanence is a hallucination of perception, of thinking and of views. Brethren, to say that there is happiness in sorrow is a hallucination of peraception, of thinking and of views. Brethren, to say that there is a soul in soullessness is a hallucination of perception, of thinking and of views. Brethren, to say that there is purity in impurity is a hallucination of perception, of thinking and of views. These indeed, brethren, are.the four hallucinations.

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1 The Gàthàs from S. 11, 280, are quoted at Comy. on Sutta--Niptita, II, 520, as.spoken to ânanda.

2 Amata-padam=Nibbàna.

3 Subhàsita-dhajà.

'Vi.pallàsa-Buddhaghosa says it is viparita-saïïa which is much the same as a mirage.

72 The, Numerical Sayings . [TFXT ii 52

Brethren, there are also these four kinds of clear-sight in perception, thiniking and views. What are the four?Brethren, to say that there is impermanence in impermanence sorrow: in sorrow, no soul in soullessness and impurity in impurity-these are the four kinds of clearsight in perception, thinking and views.

They who in change discern the permanent,
And bliss in what is woe, and see the self
In what is selfless, in th' impure the pure-
They wander on the path of wrongful view.
Poor senseless creatures with their minds unhinged,
In Màra's bondage bound,' not in safe ward,*
Back to the round of birth and death they go.
But when th' Enlightened Ones who bring the light
Appear, and teach the Norm that shows the Way
That leads to sorrow's ceasing, hearing Them
Men become wise, and get sane minds, and see
The transient as transient, and woe
As being woe, and what is selfless see
As selfless, as impure what is impureÞ
Thus they have woe transcended by Right View.

(10) The Faults

Brethren, there are these four faults of the Sun and of the Moon. Stained by these faults the Sun and the Moon

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Read yoga-yuttà for guttà. There is a play of words on yoga-yuttà and yoga-kkhema.

v,[50] To Rohitassa 73

shine not, nor are bright and brilliant. What are the four? Clouds, frost, smoke and dust, and Ràhu. These indeed, brethren, are. the faults of the Sun and of the Moon. When stained by these faults the Sun,and the Moon shine not, nor are bright and brilliant. Likewise there are these four faults of recluses and brahmins. Stained by these they shine not, nor are bright and brilliant. What four?

Brethren, there are certain recluses and bràhmins, who partake of intoxicants and abstain not from intoxicants. Brethren, this is the first fault of recluses and brahmins. Stained by these faults, certain recluses and brahmins shine not, nor are bright and brilliant.

Brethren, there are certain recluses and bràhmins,.who indulge in the sexual act and abstain not from it. This is the second fault of them. Stained by this,fault, certain recluses and bràhmins shine not, nor are bright and brilliant.

Brethren, there are certain recluses and bràhmins who accept gold and silver and abstain not from so doing. This is the third fault of them. Stained by, this fault, certain recluses and brahmins shine not, n or are bright and brilliant.

Brethren, there are certain recluses and bràhmins who pursue a wrong mode of living and abstain not from wrong means of livelihood. Brethren, this-is the fourth fault of recluses and bràhmins. Stained by this fault, certain recluses and brahmins shine not nor are bright and brilliant.

Brethren, these indeed are the four faults of recluses and bràhmins. Stained by these four faults, certain recluses and bràhmins shine not nor are bright and brilliant.

74 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 54

Some samans and bràhmins are made vile*
By lust and ill-will. Clothed in ignorance
Beings delight in pleasure-giving forms.
They drink fermented liquor, follow lusts,
Take gifts of gold and silver in their folly-
Thus they by wrongful livelihood exist.
These are called `faults' by the Enlightened One,
The Kinsman of the Sun. Tainted by these
Some samanas and bràhmins do not shine.
Their radiance is tarnished, soiled by girt,
Shrouded in darkness ; slaves of craving they,
Slaves to the cord of being and they swell
The dreadful charnel-house and get rebirth.

(CHAPTER V: ROHITASSA-VAGGA ENDS)

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1 Text corrupt. it is best to read patikkhuññhà.

Sa-netlikà-they have not broken the cord that binds to rebirth.

3 Ktasin-a frequent phrase for those who add to the cemeteries by constant dying. Cf. g., II, 178.