0 BRETHREN, there are these four Blessings.* Whosoever is endowed with this lucky tetrad, among either gods or men, ere long attains to fullness and greatness in worldly possessions. What are the four?
To live in a suitable country, to associate with good and righteous people, to possess a rightly-resolved mind, and to have done good deeds in a former life. Indeed, brethren, whosoever among devas and men is endowed with this lucky tetrad ere long attains to fullness and greatness in worldly possessions.
If one live in a lovely land,
With goodly friends around,
With right-aspiring mind
And good deeds done beforeÞ
Four things result from this:
Wealth from the crops, good name,
Good fame and happiness.
1 Catu-cakka, literally ßfour-wheelerû.
46 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 32
(2) Kindly Feeling
0 brethren, there are these four bases of kindly feeling.* What are the four? Liberality, pleasant words, doing a good turn, and equal treatment.* These indeed, brethren, are the four bases of kindly feeling.
A generous hand, kind words, doing good turns,
Being on equal terms in season dueÝ
Such acts of kindly feeling in this world
Are like the linch-pin of a moving car.
But if those acts be wanting, mother who bore
And father who begat will not receive
The honour and respect that are their due.
Wherever wise men fear these acts in mind,
They win great influence, and praise is theirs
(3) The Lion
0brethren, the lion,* king of beasts, at eventide comes forth from his lair. Having so come forth he shakes off sluggishness. Having so done he looks around in the four directions. Then he roars thrice. Having so roared he
1 See infra, Pali Text, [248, and Jataka, V, 330: S.N. 654 and Com ad loc. They are continued at 70 [Pàli Text] Cf,A,L, 132.
Samànattà Ý equality and fraternity'.
Cf. S.N., Ill, p. 34.
iv.  On Blessings 47
goes forth in search of food. And then, brethren, whatsoever animals hear the roar of the lion, king of beasts, they tremble with exceeding fear, terror and alarm. Animals living in holes flee to their holes, aquatic animals rush into the water. Those living in the jungles run away to the jungles. Birds fly into the sky. Brethren, even the royal elephants, whether in village, market-town or royal city, well-secured with strong ropes, do split and break their bonds, and stricken with fear begin to void their excrements and flee wheresoever they can flee. Brethren, the lion, king of beasts, is therefore the lord of animals and is possessed of great majesty.
In the self-same way, brethren, when an Accomplished One appears in the world, an Exalted One, a Supremely Enlightened One, Perfect in knowledge and conduct, an Auspicious One, a Knower of all the worlds, an Incomparable One, a Teacher of devas and men, an Awakened One, a Blessed OneÞHe thus proclaims the Norm: ßThus is body-bood,û thus is the arising of body-hood, thus is the ceasing of body-hood and thus is the path leading to the cessation of body-hood.'
Brethren, whatsoever devas are long-lived, of comely appearance, enjoying much happiness and in long possession of splendid mansions, when they hear the Norm declared by the Accomplished One, they become stricken with exceeding fear, terror and alarm (and exclaim):û Of a truth, friends, being impermanent we fancied ourselves permanent: being unstable we fancied ourselves stable, and being temporary we fancied ourselves eternal. Indeed, friends, we are confined by body-hood, which is impermanent,
48 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 34
unstable and temporary.' 0 brethren, the Accomplished One is therefore Lord of the world including the devas, and is thus possessed of great majesty.
Then the'waked by mighty wisdom
Sets the Norm-wheel rolling onÞ
Teacher He without a rival
Of the devas and the worldÞ
He who taught the world's arising And the ceasing of the self,
Taught the Noble Eightfold Path
That leads to calming of all. woeÞ
Devas, they who live for ages,
Beauteous, of great renown,
Like the beasts before the lion,
Fall a-trembling, are afraid
For they have not conquered serfhood
ßTransient, friend,û say they, ßare we,û
When they hear the Arhant's wordsÞ
Of Him who hath won liberty.
0 brethren, there are these four supreme delights. Which are the four? Brethren, among all sentient beings,
1 [From my translation of S.N., Ill, 84. Kindred Sayings, iii. Ed.]
2 Aggapasàdà from itivutt., p. 87, where the number of delights is three.
iv.  On Blessings 49
whether with two or four, many feet or without feet, with or without form, with or without perception, with neither perception nor non-perception, the Accomplished One, the Exalted Buddha Supreme, is proclaimed to be the most excellent. Brethren, whoso has faith in the Buddha has the best faith. He indeed, who has this best faith, gains the highest result.
Brethren, whatsoever teachings there are relating to conditioned things, the Noble Eightfold Path is the most excellent among them. Brethren, whoso has faith in the Norm has the best faith. He indeed who has this best of faiths gains the highest result.
Brethren, whatsoever teachings there are relating to things conditioned or unconditioned, of them all dispassion wliich conquers sensuality, allays thirst, uproots cleaving, breaks the circle of repeated births, destroys craving and leads to cessation and Nibbana, is the most excellent. Brothren, whose has faith in the Norm has the best faith. He, indeed, who has this best of faiths gains the best result.
Brethren, whatsoever fraternities or bodies there are, of them all most excellent in truth is the Order of the Disciples of the Accomplished One, consisting of the four pairs of persons, the eight classes of individuals, well-practised in uprightness, method and propriety, to whom offerings and ministering should be given and gifts and reverent greeting rendered, as unto the supreme field of merit throughout the world. Whose, brethren, has faith in the order, has the best faith. He indeed who has the best of faiths gains the highest result.
These truly, brethren, are the four supreme delights.
50 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 35
Pre-eminent of those who trust
Are they who comprehend the Norm.
Of those who trust th' Enlightened One, Chief, worshipful, without a peer Of those who trust the best of Norms, That calmeth passion, bringing bliss;
Of those who trust the company,'
Best field of merit without peer;
Of those who give their first fruits free Of these the merit doth increase.
Long life their prize,û men's praise, fair name,
Renown and happiness and power.
The giver of the best is he-
The wise, calm through the best of Norms,
Deva or human, he hath reached
The topmost height of happiness.
(5) Great Personage
At one time, the Exalted One dwelt at Squirrels' Haunt in Bamboo Grove near Rajagaha. Then the chief minister of Magadha, the bràhmin Vassakàra, camc, to where the Exalted One was. Having come he courteously greeted the Exalted One. Having exchanged with Him the greetings and compliments of civility and courtesy, he took a seat at one side. And so seated, the brahmin Vassakara.
1 Sangh 2 Aggasmim dànam aggam.
iv.  On Blessing 51
chief minister of Magadha, said to the Exalted One thus: ßMaster(1) Gotama, we bràhmins set forth as an exceedingly wise and great personage one who is endowed with four qualities. With what four? Master Gotama, a person is well-versed in what he has heard. He knows the meaning of what is said:'thus and thus is the meaning of what is said.' He is possessed of good memory, remembers and well recollects what has been done and said long ago. Whatsoever house-holder's duties there be, he is skilled and diligent therein and is endowed with a sense of discrimination in what should be done and ordered to be done. Indeed, Master Gotama, we declare him to be an exceedingly wise and great person, who is endowed with these four good qualities. Therefore, Master Gotama, pray accept what Thou approvest and reject that which Thou disapprovest of in my statement.û
ßBràhmin, I neither approve nor reject what you say. O bràhmin, I also (on my part) declare him to be an execedingly wise and great person, who is endowed with four good qualities. With what four? Bràhmin, herein(2) a person devotes himself to the welfare and happiness of the many, and many who are well-conducted are established in the Path to sainthood. First, whatsoever (good) ideas he wishes to entertain he entertains, and any (bad) ideas he wishes to avoid he avoids. Second, whatsoever (good) intentions he wishes to harbour he harbours, and any (bad) intentions he wishes to expel he expels. Thus he governs his mind with regard to the arising of ideas.(3) Thirdly, without
1 ßMaster,û as a term of address, not a teacher!s title,
2 Idha= in this connexion.
3 See above , 3,2.
52 The Numerical Sayings [TFXT ii, 36
effort, easily and comfortably he takes pleasure in the four ecstatic meditations, which are dependent upon clear consciousness and result in happiness in the world. Lastly, having destroyed the intoxicants he dwells in this life, having attained to the intoxicant-free emancipation of mind, with insight won. Bràhmin, I neither accept nor reject what you say. I myself declare him to be an exceedingly wise and great personage who is endowed with these four good qualities.û
ßO wonderful! Master Gotama! O marvellous! Master Gotama! This also has been well-spoken by Master Gotama. We indeed regard Master Gotama as being endowed with these four good qualities.û
ßOf a truth, bràhmin, you have approached and challenged me to a comparison.(4) So also I deliver my reply to you.
[Repeat the four good qualities above-mentioned.]
He who knoweth how to loosen
Every being from Death's snare-
Who for good of men and devas
Hath set forth the Way, the Norm-
When they see Him, when they hear Him-
Mighty multitudes are calmed-
Him, the skilled one to interpret
What is right and what is wrong;*
1 âsajji upania-vàcà. Cf, A, I, 172, where Mudaliyar Guneratne seems to miss the sense. The idia intended here is that the bràmin came up and gave a knock-down blow by way of challenge. Upaniya=accusing.
2 Cf, Sutt. Nip., 627. Maggàmaggassa kovindam.
iv.  On Blessings 53
Him, who hath His course completed,'
Him, who bath the Taints renounced:
He,'tis.He men call ßa Buddha,'
One who weareth His last body,'
Deep in wisdom,' Super-man.û
(6) Not a Man
At one time, the Exalted One had reached the highroad between (the two towns of) Ukkattha and Setabbya. Then the brahmin named Dona had also reached the highroad between Ukkattha and Setabbya. Now Dona the bràhmin saw the marks of the discs on the feet of the Exalted One, consisting of a thousand spokes, with tyres and hubs, complete in all respects. So seeing, this thought occurred to him How wonderful indeed and marvellous! Verily these cannot be the feet of a human being.'
Just then the Exalted One left the road and sat down at the foot of a tree cross-legged, with body erect and mindfulness well-established. Then Dona the bràhmin, following the footsteps of the Exalted One, saw Him seated at the foot of that tree resplendent and of a comely appearance, with senses controlled, with mind appeased, supremely tamed, restrained, and powerful. So seeing he approached where the Exalted One was. Having come he said thus to Him;
2 Mahà-puriso. Cf. S. N., V, 158. Dhammapada, 352 and D. N. III (Dialogues, III, 134) . It is by emancipation of mind (says the Buddha) that I call a man'Super-man'.
3 Cf. A III, 223. Perhaps this is the Dona who was given the Buddha's bowl after the cremation.
54 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 38
ßIs not the Venerable One a god?û
Bràhmin, I am indeed not a god.û
Is not the Venerable One then a Gandhabba?
Bràhmin, I am indeed not a Gandhabba.û
Is not the Venerable One then a Yakkha?
Bràhmin, I am indeed not a Yakkha.û
Is not the Venerable One then a man?
Bràhmin, I am indeed not a man.û
(Then said the bràhmin) ßWhen Thou art thus questioned ßIs not the Venerable One a god?' Thou sayest: Bràhmin, I am indeed not a god.' When thou art questioned ßnot the Venerable One then a Gandhabba?' Thou sayest ßBràhmin, I am indeed not a
Gandhabba.' When Thou art questioned ßIs not the Venerable One then a Yakkha?' Thou sayest: `Bràhmin, I am indeed not a Yakkha.' When Thou art questioned ßIs not the Venerable One then a man?' Thou sayest Bràhmin, I am indeed not a man.'? Who then can the Venerable One be? ß
ßBràhmin, verily I was a god, a Gandhabba, a Yakkha, a man so long as I had not purged myself of the intoxicants. These very intoxicants are now given up, with roots cut out like unto a palm-tree, with its base destroyed and rendered unable to sprout again, so that in future they do not come into existence. Bràhmin, just as a lotus or a water-lily born of the water, grown in the water, risen out of the water, stands unstained by the water, even so, brahmin, being born of the world, grown in the world, having overcome the world I abide unstained by the world. Therefore, O bràhrnin, consider me as the Enlightened One.
1 No is an interrogative. Latin nonne.
Iv.  On Blessings 55
All I destroyed by me the taints are
Which could cause me to be born
As a deva or Gandhabba,
As a Yakkha or a bird,
As a man or egg-born creature
All destroyed and rooted out!
As a lotus fair and lovely
By the water is not fouled,
By the world I am not tainted,
Therefore am I Buddha called.
(7) Safe from falling away
Brethren, a brother who is endowed with four qualities is safe against falling away and is near unto Nibbana. With what four?
Brethren, herein a brother leads a virtuous life, his sense-doors are well-guarded, he observes moderation in eating and is devoted to vigilance.
Brethren, how does a brother lead a virtuous life? Brethren, herein a brother is virtuous, dwells in the observance of Patimokkha rules, observes good manners and right behaviour, fears even venial sins, and having taken the precepts practises them. Thus indeed, brethren, a brother leads a virtuous life.
Brethren, how does a brother guard his sense-doors?Brethren, herein a brother, having perceived a form with the
1 Gathas quoted at Papaõca.Såd, p. 61.
2 Read devupapatty'assa.
3 Read aõóaje for abbaje.
4 Cf. Sutta Nip.,,542 Comy., vinalikatà=vigata-nala, ucchinna.
56 The Numerical Sayings [TEXTii, 39
eye, is not entranced by the general appearance nor taken up with the details thereof; by reason of what? Because evil thoughts such as covetousness and ill-will attack him who dwells with the sense of sight uncontrolled. He practises control and guards the sense of sight and attains to restraint of the sense of sight.
Having heard a sound with the car, smelt an odour with the nose, tasted a savour with the tongue, felt a touch with the body and conceived a thought with the mind, he is not entranced by the general qualities nor taken up with the details thereof; by reason of what? Because evil thoughts such as covetousness and ill-will attack him who dwells with mind uncontrolled. He practises control and guards the mind and attains to restraint of the mind. Thus indeed, brethren, does a brother guard the doors of the senses.
Brethren, how does a brother observe moderation in eating? Brethren, here a brother takes food with mind fully awake, not for the purpose of sport, lust, adornment or beauty, but, so long as life lasts, with a view to nourishment, satisfying, hunger, and as an aid to leading the holy life; also (thinking to himself)'thus shall I get rid of old pain and not create new pain. I shall pass my time harmlessly and dwell at case.' Thus indeed, brethren, does a brother observe moderation in eating.
Brethren, how does a brother practise vigilance? Herein a brother in the daytime, whilst walking up and down or sitting down, cleanses his mind of the obstructive causes. During the first watch of the night, whilst walking up and down or sitting down, he cleanses his mind of the obstructive causes. During the middle watch of the night, placing one foot upon the other foot, he lies down on his right side in
1v  On Blessings 57
noble repose, mindful and recollected, with a fixed intention to rise (at a particular time) . During the last watch of the night, having risen up, whilst walking up and down or sitting down, he cleanses his mind of the obstructive causes. Thus indeed, brethren, a brother practises vigilance.
Brethren, a brother who is endowed with these four qualities is safe from falling away and is near Nibbana.
In virtue established, with his senses trained,
Keeping the mean in food, and wide-awake,
A brother dwells, unwearied day and night.
Re practises the goodly Norm to win
The home of peace. In earnestness delighting,
In slackness seeing danger-thus a brother
Is safe from failure. He is near the Goal.
(8) Who is a Brother?
0 brethren, a brother is said to be one freed from individual * beliefs, one who has done with all foolish longings, one whose body-complex is calmed, one who is solitary.
Brethren, how does a brother become one who is freed from individual beliefs? Herein, brethren, if a brother entertain any individual beliefs held by many recluses and bràhmins, such as, `the world is eternal or not eternal,' `the world is finite or infinite,' `life is the same as body,' or life is one thing and body is another thing,' `the Accomplished One' exists after death or does not exist after death,' `the Accomplished One both exists and does not exist after death,' `the Accomplished One neither
1 Pacceka-sacco-private view of his own.
2 Tathàgato means also `a sentient being.' (Comy.) .
58 The Numerical Sayiqtgs [TEXT ii, 41
exists nor does not exist after death,'--he is thus freed, removed, extricated and liberated from and has given up all such (points of individual belief) . Thus indeed, brethren, is a brother one who is freed from individual beliefs.
Brethren, how does a brother become one who has done with all foolish longings? 1 Brethren, herein a brother has given up all longing for sensual pleasures, has given up longing for continued existence and has ended the desire for the holy life.* Thus indeed, brethren, is a,brother one who has done with all foolish longings.
Brethren, how does a brother become one whose body complex is calmed *? Brethren, a brother has given up happiness, has given up pain, has ended happiness and pain in the past also, and having perfected equanimity (which is removed alike from both happiness and pain) and mindfulness, he dwells having attained the Fourth Ecstasy. Thus indeed, brethren, is a brother one whose bodycomplex is calmed.
Brethren, how does a brother become a solitary one? Brethren, a brother has destroyed egoism, with roots cut out, like a palm tree with its base destroyed and rendered unable to sprout again, so that in future it does not again come into existence. Thus indeed, brethren, does a brother become a solitary one.
Indeed a brother is thus said to be one freed from individual beliefs, one who has done with foolish longidgs, one whose body-complex is calmed and one who is solitary.'
2 It is to be noted that even to `desire' Nibbàna means failure. A hard saying. One must grow to Nibbàna.
4 Itivutt., 48.
iv.  On Blessings 59
Longing for sensual pleasures, longing to be,
Longing to live the holy life (these three)
Are called `Perversion of the Truth,' and these
Arise from heaping up false-view. In him
Who from all sensual lust is purified,'
Who, by destroying craving, is set free-
Renounced are these desires, and rooted out.
That brother is indeed a holy one!
Tense, calmed, unconquered, comprehending pride,
He's called `awake,' `a solitary one'.
Once the bràhmin Ujjaya came to where the Exalted One was. Having come he spoke courteously with Him and having exchanged the compliments of civility and courtesy he took a seat respectfully on one side. So seated the bràhmin Ujjaya addressed the Exalted One thus Does not Master Gotama speak highly of oblations?
Indeed, bràhmin, I do not speak highly of all oblations. Neither do I, bràhmin, speak disparagingly of all oblations. In whatsoever oblations oxen are slaughtered, goats, sheep, fowls, and pigs are killed and other sorts of animals come to destruction, indeed, bràhmin, I do not speak highly of such wrongful oblations. What is the reason thereof? Because, bràhmin, neither Arahants nor those who have attained to the Path of Arahantship even approach such wrongful oblations. Whatsoever oblations there are, wherein oxen are not slaughtered, goats, sheep, fowls and pigs
60 The Numerical Saying,3 [TEXT ii, 42
are not killed and other sorts of animals do not come to destruction, of such harmless oblations, bràhmin, I do indeed speak highly, namely: -perpetual gifts of alms and traditional offerings; because, bràhamin, the Arahants and those who have entered the Path of Arahantship do attend such Normless oblations.
The sacrifice of horse and human life,
The throwing of peg the drinking-rite,
The open doors of hospitality,
And all the cruelty I put into these-
Have little fruit. Where goats and sheep and fowls
Of many sorts are sacrificed, go not
Those mighty Sages who have reached the height.
But sacrifices free from cruelty
Are meet and proper-where no goats and sheep
And cows of many sorts re slain. To such
Go mighty Sages who have reached the height.
Such should the thoughtful celebrate; and great
The fruit of such. Profit they bring, not loss.
Large is the offering, and the gods are pleased.
1 For Gàthàs cf. S. I., 76 (Cf. Mrs. Rhys David's trans. at Kindred Sayings, I, 102) . Itiv,., 21: 8. Nik. 303. For these sacrifice see Comy. That on S, n (loc. cit.) Sammàpààso, ays every day they threw a sammà, (pin of a yoke or a peg) and where it fell they built an alter.'
We should read Vàjapeyyam (with itiv. gam. and S. n. Comy) for vàcapeyyam of A text and S. n. It was a drinkirig-festival at which seventeen oxen were slain. Niraggala. Comy, explains by n'atthi etha aggalo ti ßthere is no bar or hindrance here,û and it appeares to mean free conviviality without restraint. [ Ed]
2 Sa-àramba is often taken as meaning `involving cruelty' but it really means `full of energy and noice' I translate the Gàthà in accordence with the translater's version. Ed.]
iv . On Blessings 61
10) To Udàyni
[This discourse, which was addressed to the bràhamin, named Udàyi, is similar to discourse (9) excepting the verses which here follow:]
Oblations without cruelty performed
And in due season-such do those approach*
Who in the holy life are well-controlled,
Who have the veil uplifted in the world,*
Passing beyond all questioning.' And such
Do the Enlightened praise,, those skilled' in merit.
When with a sacrifice or act of faith'
Proper and fitly done, with heart devout
One offers gifts to that best field of merit-
Those namely who do live the holy life-
Gifts well-prepared and fitly made to those
Who worthy are of offerings-then indeed
Large is the offerin and the devas glad.
Thus offering, the thoughtful, faithful one,
With heart released, thereby becoming wise,
Attaineth to Nibbana,* home of bliss.
(CHA PTER IV: ON BLESSINGS ENDS)
1 T ext upasamyanti =upayanti.
2 Vivatta-cchadà [ Cf. D.N.iii, 142, 178.]
3 Vitivatta-kathan-kathi for text's vãtivatta-kàlangati.
4 Kovidà see text.
6 Avyàpajjham (free from ill-will): a synonym for Nibbana.
1. [BJTS] = Master + 1. Master,' as a term of address, not a teacher's title.
2. [BJTS] = herein + 2 Idha=in this connexion.
3. [BJTS] = ideas + 3 See above,? 32 2.
4. [BJTS] = comparison + 1. âsaiia upanãya-vàcà bhàsità. Cf. A. 1, 172, where Mudaliyar Guneratue seems to miss the sense. The idea intended here is thit the bràhmin came up aiid gave a kick-down blow by way of challenge. Upanãya=accusing.