Aïguttara Nikàya
002. Nàthavaggo Ý The section on refuge

1. Senàsanasuttaü Ý Dwellings

11. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with five factors, partaking dwellings endowed with five factors before long destroying desires, releasing the mind from desires and released through wisdom abides having realized here and now.

Bhikkhus, with what five factors is the bhikkhu endowed?

Here, bhikkhus the bhikkhu has faith in the enlightenment of the Thus Gone One: That Blessed One is ... re ... is blessed. Has few ailments is endowed with a digestive system suitable for making endeavour not too cold nor too hot; not crafty, is not a hypocrite, manifests himself as he really is, to the Teacher or to wise co-associates in the holy life Abides with aroused effort, to dispel demeritorious things and for acquiring meritorious things; is firm in meritorious things, with the main aim in view; becomes wise about the rising and fading of the five holding masses to see penetratingly, for the rightful ending of unpleasantness. The bhikkhu is endowed with these five factors.

Bhikkhus, how is the dwelling endowed with five factors?

Here, bhikkhus, the dwelling is not too remote, nor too close and is endowed with easy reach, not too crowded during the day and with little noise and much silence during the night, with few attacks from gadflies and yellow flies, heat of the air and creeping things; to those abiding in that dwelling, robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites whrn ill arises without difficulty. In that monastery abide elder bhikkhus, who are learned, recalling with the headings the Teaching and Discipline handed down from the past.

From time to time they could be approached and asked. `venerable sir, what is the meaning of this' and those venerable ones would explain to him, make manifest the hidden meanings and dispel doubts in the Teaching. Bhikkhus, thus the dwelling is endowed with five factors. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with five factors, partaking dwellings endowed with five factors before long destroying desires, releasing the mind from desires and released through wisdom abides having realized here and now. û

2. Pa¤caõgasuttaü Ý Five factors

12. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu dispelling five factors and endowed with five factors, having completed the duties in the holy life becomes a noble man. Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu dispel five factors?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu dispels sensual interest, anger, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry and doubts. Thus the bhikkhu dispels five factors.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu endowed with five factors?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is endowed with the mass of, virtues, concentration, wisdom, release and knowledge and vision of release of one gone beyond the training. Bhikkhus, thus the bhikkhu is endowed with five factors. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu dispelling these five factors and endowed with these five factors, having completed the duties in the holy life becomes a noble man.

Sensual interest, anger, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry,
And doubts are not evident in the bhikkhu, any more.
Is endowed with virtues, concentration, wisdom, release,
And knowledge and vision of release of one gone beyond the training.
He is endowed with five factors and has dispelled five factors
And he is complete in this dispensation, it is said.

3. Saüyojanasuttaü Ý Bonds

13. ßBhikkhus, these ten are bonds. What ten?

The five lower bonds binding to the sensual world and the five upper bonds.

Bhikkhus, what are the five lower bonds binding to the sensual world?

The view about the self, doubts, clinging to virtues and missing the path, sensual interest and anger. These are the five lower bonds binding to the sensual world.

Bhikkhus, what are the five upper bonds?

Greed for material, greed for immaterial states, conceit, no balance in attainments and ignorance. These are the five upper bonds.

Bhikkhus, these are the ten bonds.û

4. Cetokhilasuttaü Ý Arrows in the mind

14. Bhikkhus, in whomever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni the five arrows in the mind are not dispelled and the five bonds in the mind are not cut, with the arrival of night or day decrease in meritorious things could be expected. What are the five arrows in the mind not dispelled?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu has doubts, is not settled, is not reassured about the Teacher. When the bhikkhu doubts, is not settled and is not reassured about the Teacher, his mind does not tend to exert, apply, persevere and make endeavour. This is the first arrow that is not dispelled.

Again, the bhikkhu has doubts, is not settled, is not reassured about the Teaching, ... re ... the training, ... re ... angry and displeased with the co-associates in the holy life is hurt and has an arrow in the heart When the bhikkhu doubts, is not settled and is not reassured, his mind does not tend to exert, apply, persevere and make endeavour. This is the fifth arrow in the mind not dispelled Bhikkhus, these five arrows are not dispelled in the mind.

Bhikkhus, what are the five bindings in the mind not cut?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is with undispelled greed, interest, love, thirst, wailing and craving for sensuality, as a result his mind does not tend to exert, to apply, to persevere and to make endeavour. This is the first bondage of the mind not cut.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is with undispelled greed, interest, love, thirst, wailing and craving for the body, ... re ... for material, ... re ... eating as much as he could he abides enjoying the pleasure of sluggishness and sleep, ... re ... and leads the holy life aspiring to be born with a certain company of gods-: `By my virtues and austerities and leading a holy life, may I be born with that company of gods' as a result his mind does not tend to exert, to apply, to persevere and to make endeavour. This is the fifth bondage of the mind not cut. Bhikkhus, these are the five bonds of the mind not cut.

Bhikkhus, in whomever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni these five arrows in the mind are not dispelled and the five bonds in the mind are not cut, with the arrival of night or day decrease in meritorious things could be expected.

Bhikkhus, with the arrival of the waning side, by night or by day decrease should be expected in the colour, in the disc, in the radiance and the beauty of the moon. In the same manner bhikkhus, in whomever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni the five arrows in the mind are not dispelled and the five bonds in the mind are not cut, with the arrival of night or day, decrease in meritorious things could be expected.

Bhikkhus, in whomever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni the five arrows in the mind are dispelled and the five bonds in the mind are cut, with the arrival of night or day increase in meritorious things could expect. What are the five arrows in the mind dispelled?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu has no doubts, is settled, is reassured about the Teacher. When the bhikkhu does not doubt, is settled and is reassured about the Teacher his mind tends to exert, to apply, to persevere and make endeavour. This is the first arrow that is dispelled.

Again, the bhikkhu has no doubts, is settled, and reassured about the Teaching, ... re ... the training, ... re ... not angry and displeased with the co-associates in the holy life not hurt does not have an arrow in the heart When the bhikkhu has not doubts, is settled and is reassured, his mind tends to exert, apply, persevere and make endeavour. This is the fifth arrow in the mind dispelled Bhikkhus, these five arrows are dispelled in the mind.

Bhikkhus, what are the five bindings in the mind, that are cut?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is with dispelled greed, interest, love, thirst, wailing and craving for sensuality, as a result his mind tends to exert, to apply, to persevere and to make endeavour. This is the first bondage of the mind that is cut.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is with dispelled greed, interest, love, thirst, wailing and craving for the body, ... re ... for material, ... re ... not eating as much as he could does abide enjoying the pleasure of sluggishness and sleep, ... re ... and does not lead the holy life aspiring to be born with a certain company of gods thinking-: `By my virtues and austerities and leading a holy life, may I be born with that company of gods' as a result his mind tends to exert, to apply, to persevere and to make endeavour. This is the fifth bondage of the mind cut. Bhikkhus, these are the five bonds of the mind that are cut.

Bhikkhus, in whomever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni these five arrows in the mind are dispelled and the five bonds in the mind are cut, with the arrival of night or day increase in meritorious things could be expected.

Bhikkhus, with the arrival of the waxing side, by night or by day increase, should be expected in the colour, disc, radiance and beauty of the moon. In the same manner bhikkhus, in whomever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni the five arrows in the mind are dispelled and the five bonds in the mind are cut, with the arrival of night or day, increase in meritorious things could be expected.û

5. Appamàdasuttaü Diligence

15. Bhikkhus, of all beings who have no feet, two feet, four feet, many feet, who are material, immaterial, perceptive, not perceptive or neither perceptive nor non-perceptive, the Thus Gone One, worthy and rightfully enlightened is the foremost. In the same manner it is said, all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as all foot prints of moving things get included in the foot print of the elephant and it is the biggest in size. In the same manner it is said, all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as all beams of a gabled house go to the top, end and meet at the top and of them, the one at the top is the foremost. In the same manner all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as of all scents the dark fragrant sandal wood is the foremost; in the same manner, all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as of all heartwood scents, the red sandal wood is the foremost; in the same manner it is said, all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as of all scents of flowers, the scent of the jasmine is foremost. In the same manner, it is said, all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as for all junior kings the universal monarch is the foremost. In the same manner, it is said all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as the moon is foremost for the constellation of stars and their radiance is not worth one sixteenth to the radiance of the moon. In the same manner, it is said all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as in Summer when it had rained and the sky is clear the sun rises, burning and giving light and dispels all signs of darkness. In the same manner, it is said all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.

Bhikkhus, just as all great rivers such as the Ganges, Yamuna, Acirawathie, Sarabhu and Mahi, flow into the ocean, for them the ocean is the foremost. In the same manner, it is said all meritorious things originate and come together in diligence, and diligence is foremost, for all meritorius things.û

6. Aahuneyyasuttaü Ý Reverential

16. Bhikkhus, these ten great beings are reverential, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy to honour with clasped hands, the incomparable field of merit for the world. What ten?

The Thus Gone One, worthy and rightfully enlightened, the self enlightened one, one released bothwise, one released through wisdom, the body witness, one come to right view, one released through faith, one leading a life with faith, one leading a life according to the Teaching and the one of lineage. Bhikkhus, these ten great beings are reverential, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy to honour with clasped hands, the incomparable field of merit for the world.û

7. Pañhamanàthasuttaü Ý First on refuges

17. ßBhikkhus, live with a refuge, it is unpleasant to live without a refuge. Bhikkhus, these ten are for refuges. What ten?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes virtuous abiding restrained in the higher code of rules and conducts himself seeing fear in the slightest fault. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes learned, bears the learning, that is good in the beginning, middle and end, meaningful even in the letters and stating the complete and pure holy life. Bearing it in mind, reciting it and penetratingly seeing it, straightens his view Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes a spiritual friend, a good friend with good associations. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is suave, endowed with gentle manners, is ready to accept advice. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes clever and discriminative in doing and getting done, whatever things large or small for the co-associates in the holy life Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes a lover of the Teaching, talking delightedly and pleasantly about the deeper aspects of the Teaching and the Discipline. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu abides with aroused effort for dispelling demeritorious things and for acquiring meritorious things firm, not to give up the main aim in meritorius things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes one satisfied with whatever gain of robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites when ill. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is endowed with the highest mindful prudence, calling and recalling to mind things heard and said long ago. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes wise about the rising and fading of the five holding masses to be endowed with the noble ones' penetrating insight to rightfully end unpleasantness. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Bhikkhus, abide with a refuge, not without. It is unpleasant to live without a refuge. Bhikkhus, these are the ten refuges to the bhikkhu.û

8. Dutiyanàthasuttaü Ý Second on refuges

18. I heard thus. At one time The Blessed One was abiding in the monastery offered by Anàthapiõóika in Jeta's grove in Sàvatthi. The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus from there:

ßBhikkhus, these ten are for refuges. What ten?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is virtuous, ... re ... seeing fear in the slightest fault. `Indeed the bhikkhu is virtuous abiding restrained in the higher code of rules conducts himself seeing fear in the slightest fault.' Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus think to speak and advise him. Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is learned, ... re ... straightens his view. `Indeed the bhikkhu is learned, bears the learning, that is good in the beginning, middle and end, meaningful even in the letters and stating the complete and pure holy life. Bearing it in mind, reciting it and penetratingly seeing it, straightens his view `Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus, think to speak and advise him'. Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is a spiritual friend ... re ... good to associate. Indeed the bhikkhu is a spiritual friend, a good friend with good associations. `Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus, think to speak and advise him.' Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is suave, ... re ... ready to accept advice. `Indeed, the bhikkhu is suave, endowed with gentle manners, is ready to accept advice.' Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus think to speak and advise him. Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes clever, and discriminative in doing and getting done ... re ... for the co-associates in the holy life. `Indeed the bhikkhu is clever and discriminative in doing and getting done, whatever things large or small for the co-associates in the holy life.' Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus think to speak and advise him.' Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is a lover of the Teaching ... re ... the deeper aspects of the Teaching and Discipline. `Indeed the bhikkhu is a lover of the Teaching, talking delightedly and pleasantly about the deeper aspects of the Teaching and the Discipline.' Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus think to speak and advise him. Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu abides with aroused effort ... re ... not giving up the main aim in meritorious things. `Indeed the bhikkhu abides with aroused effort for dispelling demeritorious things and for acquiring meritorious things, firm, not to give up the main aim in meritorius things.' Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus think to speak and advise him. Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is satisfied ... re ... and requisites when ill. `Indeed the bhikkhu is satisfied with whatever gain of robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites when ill.' Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus think to speak and advise him. Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is endowed with the highest mindful prudence ... re ... things heard and said long ago. `Indeed the bhikkhu is endowed with the highest mindful prudence calling and recalling to mind things heard and said long ago.' Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus think to speak and advise him. Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is wise about the rising and fading of the five holding masses ... re ... to rightfully end unpleasantness. `Indeed the bhikkhu is wise about the rising and fading of the five holding masses to be endowed with the noble ones' penetrating insight to rightfully end unpleasantness.' Even the elder bhikkhus, the middlings and novice bhikkhus think to speak and advise him. Compassionately considered by the elders, middlings and novices, he could expect increase in meritorious things. Bhikkhus, this is also a refuge to the bhikkhu.

Bhikkhus, abide with a refuge, not without. It is unpleasant to live without a refuge. Bhikkhus, these are the ten refuges to the bhikkhu.û The Blessed One said thus and those bhikkhus delighted in the words of The Blessed One.

9. Pañhama Ý ariyàvàsasuttaü Ý First on noble ones' abidings

19. ßBhikkhus, these ten are noble ones' abidings. In the past noble ones abode in them. At present the noble ones abide in them and in the future noble ones will abide in them. What ten?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu dispels five factors, is endowed with six factors, protects one, is supported in a fourfold way, the various sceptical doubts are dispelled, the various desires are appeased, is with undisturbed thoughts, is with appeasd bodily determinations, is with well released mind and is with well released wisdom. Bhikkhus, these ten are noble ones' abidings. In the past noble ones abode in them. At present the noble ones abide in them and in the future noble ones will abide in them.û

10. ôutiya Ý ariyàvàsasuttaü Ý Second on noble ones' abidings

20. At one time The Blessed One was abiding in the hamlet named Kammasadhamma in the country of the Kurus. The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus from there:

ßBhikkhus, these ten, are the noble ones' abidings. In the past noble ones abode in them. At present the noble ones abide in them and in the future noble ones will abide in them. What ten?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu dispels five factors, is endowed with six factors, protects one, is supported in a fourfold way, the various sceptical doubts are dispelled, the various desires are appeased, is with undisturbed thoughts, is with appeased bodily determinations, is with well released mind and is well released with wisdom. Bhikkhus, these ten are noble ones' abidings. In the past noble ones abode in them. At present the noble ones abide in them and in the future noble ones will abide in them.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu dispel five factors?

Here bhikkhus, the bhikkhu has dispelled sensual interest, anger, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry and doubts. Thus the bhikkhu has dispelled five factors.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu endowed with six factors?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu seeing a form is neither displeased nor pleased, abides with equanimity mindful and aware. Hearing a sound, ... re ... smelling a scent, ... re ... tasting ... re ... experiencing a touch with the body and cognizing an idea with the mind is neither displeased nor pleased, abides with equanimity mindful and aware. Thus the bhikkhu is endowed with six factors.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu protect one?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is constantly with a protected mind. Thus the bhikkhu protects one.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu supported in a fourfold way?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu discriminating pursues one, discriminating patiently bears one, discriminating avoids one and discriminating drives out another. Thus the bhikkhu is supported in a fourfold way.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu with various doubts dispelled?

Here, bhikkhus, whatever sceptical doubts such as the world is eternal, the world is not eternal, the world is limited, the world is not limited, the soul is the body, the soul is one and the body is another, the Thus Gone One is after death, the Thus Gone One is not after death, The Thus Gone One is and is not after death The Thus Gone One neither is nor is not after death, all these sceptical doubts of recluses and Brahmins are thrust out rejected, forsaken, vomited and the bhikkhu's mind is released. Thus the bhikkhu has dispelled various sceptical doubts.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu with various desires appeased?

Here bhikkhus, the bhikkhu has dispelled sensual desires, the desires `to be' and desires of the holy life. Thus the bhikkhu is with various desires appeased.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu with undisturbed thoughts?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu has dispelled sensual thoughts, angry thoughts and hurting thoughts. Thus the bhikkhu is with undisturbed thoughts.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu with appeased bodily determinations?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu dispelling pleasantness and unpleasantness and earlier having dispelled pleasure and displeasure, abides in the fourth higher state of the mind. Thus the bhikkhu is with appeased bodily determinations.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu with a well released mind?

Here, bhikkhus the bhikkhu's mind released from greed, hatred and delusion. Thus the bhikkhu's mind is well released.

Bhikkhus, how is the bhikkhu thoroughly released knowing?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows, `my greed is dispelled, pulled out with the roots, made a thing that would not rise in the future'. `My hate is dispelled, pulled out with the roots, made a thing that would not rise in the future'. `My delusion is dispelled, pulled out with the roots, made a thing that would not rise in the future' Thus the bhikkhu is thoroughly released with wisdom.

Bhikkhus, whoever noble ones were in the past, all of them abode in these ten noble abidings. Whoever noble ones will be in the future, all of them will abide in these ten noble abidings. Whoever noble ones there are at present, all of them abide in these ten noble abidings. Bhikkhus, these ten are the abiding in which the noble ones in the past abode, at present abide and will abide in the future.û