Aïguttara Nikàya
002. Mahàvaggo Ý The longer section

1. Vera大asuttaü Ý In vera大a

002.01. I heard thus. At one time The Blessed One was living in Vera大a under a Nimba tree raised on reeds. Then a Brahmin of Vera大a approached The Blessed One, exchanged friendly greetings, sat on a side and said: -

Good Gotama, I have heard this. The recluse Gotama does not worship, attend on, offer a seat or invite Brahmins who are aged, decayed and have come to the end of their lives. Good Gotama, is it the truth. Doesn't good Gotama worship, attend on, offer a seat or invite Brahmins who are aged, decayed and have come to the end of their lives. Good Gotama, it is not the right conduct.

ßBrahmin, I do not see in this world together with its gods, Màra, Brahma and the Community of recluses and Brahmins, any one, to worship, attend on, offer a seat or invite. Brahmin, if the Thus Gone One worships, attends on, offers a seat or invites someone his head would split.û

ßGood Gotama does not enjoy matter!.û

Brahmin, there is a method, according to which, is said the recluse Gotama does not enjoy matter. Brahmin, the enjoyments of forms, sounds, smells, tastes and touches are dispelled to the Thus Gone One, pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not rise again. Brahmin, this is the method according to which, it is rightfully said the recluse Gotama does not enjoy matter. This is not told about you.û

ßGood Gotama does not possess wealth!û

ßBrahmin, there is a method, according to which, is said the recluse Gotama does not possess wealth. Brahmin, the possessions of forms, sounds, smells, tastes and touches are dispelled to the Thus Gone One, pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing, that would not rise again. Brahmin, this is the method according to which, it is rightfully said the recluse Gotama does not possess wealth. This is not told about you.û

ßGood Gotama teaches non-doing!û

Brahmin, there is a method, according to which, is said the recluse Gotama teaches non-doing. Brahmin, I teach non-doing of bodily misbehaviour, verbal misbehaviour and mental misbehaviour and the non-doing of various kinds of demerit. Brahmin, this is the method according to which, it is rightfully said the recluse Gotama teaches non-doing. This is not told about you.û

ßGood Gotama teaches annihilation!û

Brahmin, there is a method, according to which, is said the recluse Gotama teaches annihilation. Brahmin, I teach the annihilation of greed, hate and delusion and the annihilation of various kinds of demerit. Brahmin, this is the method according to which, it is rightfully said the recluse Gotama teaches annihilation. This is not told about you.û

ßGood Gotama teaches loathing!û

Brahmin, there is a method, according to which, is said the recluse Gotama teaches loathing. Brahmin, I teach the loathing of bodily misbehaviour, verbal misbehaviour and mental misbehaviour and the loathing of various kinds of demerit. Brahmin, this is the method according to which, it is rightfully said the recluse Gotama teaches loathing. This is not told about you.û

ßGood Gotama is a disciplinarian!û

Brahmin, there is a method, according to which, is said the recluse Gotama is a disciplinarian. Brahmin, I teach to discipline greed, hate and delusion and to disscipline the various kinds of demerit. Brahmin, this is the method according to which, it is rightfully said the recluse Gotama is a disciplinarian. This is not told about you.û

ßGood Gotama exercises self control!û

ßBrahmin, there is a method, according to which, is said the recluse Gotama exercises self control. Brahmin, I teach exercising control over of various kinds of demerit of bodily misbehaviour, verbal misbehaviour and mental misbehaviour. The Thus Gone One exercising control over various kinds of demerit, they are dispelled, pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not rise again Brahmin, this is the method according to which, it is rightfully said, the recluse Gotama exercises self control.

This is not told about you.

ßThe recluse Gotama is unobtrusive!û

ßBrahmin, there is a method, according to which, it is rightfully said the recluse Gotama is unobtrusive Brahmin, I do not search a womb for the future, for rebirth in the future. It is dispelled, pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not rise again. Therefore I am unobtrusive. Brahmin, to the Thus Gone One lying in a womb, and future rebirth are dispelled pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump, a thing that would not rise again. Brahmin, this is the method according to which, it is rightfully said the recluse Gotama is unobtrusive. This is not told about you.

Brahmin, the hen sits on the eggs in eight or ten or twelve places so that they are well sat on, made ripe and treated and the life in the adled eggs break the shell of the egg with the nails of the feet or the beak and breaking the shell are reborn healthily. What is it, is it senior or junior? Good Gotama, it is senior.

Brahmin, in the same manner I who was with the ignorant populace shrouded in darkness, have broken the shell of ignorance by myself realized, noble rightful enlightenment. Brahmin, I am the senior and the foremost in the world. My effort is aroused not shaken, mindfulness is established, unconfused, the body is appeased and without anger, the concentrated mind is in one point.

Brahmin, then I secluding the mind from sensuality and demeritorious things, with thoughts and discursive thoughts and with joy and pleasantness born of seclusion abide in the first higher state of the mind. Overcoming thoughts and discursive thoughts, the mind internally appeased in one point I abide in the second higher state of the mind without thoughts and discursive thoughts. With equanimity to joy and disenchantment I experience pleasantness with the body too and abide in the third higher state of the mind. To this the noble ones say abiding in pleasantness being mindful of equanimity. Dispelling pleasantness and unpleasantness, earlier having dispelled pleasure and displeasure I abide in the fourth higher state of the mind purifying the mind with equanimity so that it is without unpleasantness and pleasantness.

When the mind is thus concentrated, purified, without blemish, workable and imperturbable I direct the mind to recollect the manifold previous births. Such as one birth, two three, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, innumerable forward world cycles, innumerable backward world cycles and innumerable forward and backward world cycles of births. There I was with such name, clan, disposition, supports, experiencing such pleasant and unpleasant feelings and with such a life span. Disappearing from there I was born here. Thus I recollected with all details the manifold previous births.

Brahmin, this is my first arising of knowledge in the first watch of the night, darkness vanished and light arose, when abiding diligent with aroused effort to dispel. As it happened to the arisen life in the egg shell.

When the mind is thus concentrated, purified, without blemish, workable and imperturbable I direct the mind to know the disappearing and appearing of beings. With the heavenly eye purified beyond human I see beings disappearing and appearing in unexalted and exalted states, beautiful and ugly, in good and evil states, I know beings according their actions: ßThese good beings endowed with bodily, verbal and mental misconduct blaming noble ones and bearing wrong view after death are born in loss, in a bad state in decrease is born in hell. These good beings endowed with bodily, verbal and mental good conduct not blaming noble ones bearing right view. After death are born in gain, in a good state in increase is born in heaven, I know beings according to their actions.

Brahmin, this is my second arising of knowledge in the second watch of the night, darkness vanished and light arose, when abiding diligent with aroused effort to dispel. As it happened to the arisen life in the egg shell.

When the mind is thus concentrated, purified, without blemish, workable and imperturbable I direct the mind for the destruction of desires. I know as it really is, this is unpleasant, this is the arising of unpleasantness, this is the cessation of unpleasantness and this is the path to the cessation of unpleasantness: I know as it really is, these are desires, this is the arising of desires, this the cessation of desires and this is the path to the cessation of desires, as it really is. When I knew and saw thus my mind was released from sensual desires, from desires to be, and from desires of ignorance. When released knowledge arose my mind is released. `Birth is destroyed, the holy life is lived, what should be done is done, I knew, there is nothing more to wish.

Brahmin, this is my third arising of knowledge in the last watch of the night, darkness vanished and light arose, when abiding diligent with aroused effort to dispel. As it happened to the arisen life in the egg shell.

When this was said the Brahmin of Vera大a said thus to The Blessed One: ßGood Gotama is the foremost! Good Gotama is the most superior! I understand good Gotama. It is like something overturned is reinstated. Something covered is made manifest. As though the path is shown to someone who had lost his way. Thus in many ways the Teaching is declared. Now I take refuge in good Gotama, in the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus. I am a lay disciple from today until life lasts.

2. Sãhasuttaü Ý The general Siha

002.02. At one time The Blessed One was living in the gabled hall in the Great Forest in Vesali. At that time many well-known Licchavis assembled and seated in the assembly hall were talking in praise of The Blessed One, the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus.

The general Siha was also seated in that gathering and it occurred to Siha ßWithout doubts The Blessed One should be worthy and rightfully enlightened that these well-known Licchavis assembled and seated talk the praise of The Blessed One, the Teaching and the Community in various ways.û Then the general Siha approached Nigantha Nataputta and said to him: "Venerable sir, I desire to approach the recluse Gotama.û

ßSiha, you a man of action, why do you want to see the recluse Gotama of non-action? Siha, the recluse Gotama, teaches non-action and disciplines, disciples for non-action. Then general Siha's intentions of going to see The Blessed One subsided.

For the second time many well-known Licchavis assembled and seated in the assembly hall were talking in praise of The Blessed One, the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus.

The general Siha was also seated in that gathering and it occurred to Siha ßWithout doubts The Blessed One should be worthy and rightfully enlightened that these well-known Licchavis assembled and seated talk the praise of The Blessed One, the Teaching and the Community in various ways.û Then the general Siha approached Nigantha Nataputta and said to him:? ßVenerable sir, I desire to approach the recluse Gotama.û

ßSiha, you a man of action, why do you want to see the recluse Gotama of non-action? Siha, the recluse Gotama, teaches non-action and disciplines, disciples for non-action. Then general Siha's intentions of going to see The Blessed One subsided for the second time.

For the third time many well-known Licchavis assembled and seated in the assembly hall were talking in praise of The Blessed One, the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus.

The general Siha was also seated in that gathering and it occured to Siha ßWithout doubts The Blessed One should be worthy and rightfully enlightened that these well-known Licchavis assembled and seated talk the praise of The Blessed One, the Teaching and the Community in various ways.û Then it occurred to the general Siha: ßWhat is the use of the consent of these Niganthas? I will approach to see The Blessed One worthy and rightfully enlightened.û.

Then the general Siha with about five hundred carriages went to Vesali during the daytime to see The Blessed One. Approaching as far as the carriages could go, descended from the carriages and went on foot. The general Siha approached The Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said to The Blessed One:

ßVenerable sir, I have heard this said: 'The recluse Gotama teaches non-action and disciplines his disciples for non action. Venerable sir, those who said `the recluse Gotama teaches non-action and disciplines disciples for non-action' How far are they saying the words of The Blessed One and not accusing The Blessed One falsely. Are they saying it according to the Teaching and not falsely accusing The Blessed One? We do not like to accuse The Blessed One for what he has not said.û

ßSiha, rightly saying there is a method of mine according to it -the recluse Gotama teaches non-action and disciplines his disciples in non-action.

Siha, rightly saying there is a method of mine according to it -the recluse Gotama teaches action and disciplines his disciples in action.

Siha, rightly saying there is a method of mine according to it -the recluse Gotama teaches annihilation and disciplines his disciples in annihilation.

Siha, rightly saying there is a method of mine according to it -the recluse Gotama teaches loathing and disciplines his disciples in loathing.

Siha, rightly saying there is a method of mine according to it -the recluse Gotama is a disciplinarian and disciplines his disciples.

Siha, rightly saying there is a method of mine according to it -the recluse Gotama is not destined to another birth and disciplines his disciples not to be destined for another birth.

Siha, rightly saying there is a method of mine according to it -the recluse Gotama gives comfort disciplines his disciples to gain comfort.

Siha, what is that method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches non-action and disciplines disciples for non-action? Siha, I tell non-doing of bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct and mental misconduct and various demeritorious things.

Siha, this is the method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches non-action and disciplines disciples for non-action.

Siha, what is that method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches action and disciplines disciples for action? Siha, I tell of bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct and mental good conduct and the doing of various meritorious things.

Siha, this is the method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches action and disciplines disciples for action.

Siha, what is that method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches annihilation and disciplines, disciples for annhilation? Siha, I tell the annhilation of greed, hate and delusion and various kinds of demeritorious things.

Siha, this is the method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches annihilation and disciplines disciples for annihilation.

Siha, what is that method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches loathing and disciplines disciples for loathing? Siha, I loathe bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct and mental misconduct and various demeritorious things.

Siha, this is the method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches loathing and disciplines disciples for loathing.

Siha, what is that method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama is a disciplinarian and disciplines disciples? Siha, I tell the giving up of greed, hate and delusion and various kinds of demeritorious things.

Siha, this is the method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama is a disciplinarian and disciplines disciples.

Siha, what is that method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches self control and disciplines disciples for self control? Siha, I tell the self control of demeritorious things of bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct and mental misconduct. Siha, whosever demeritorious things are dispelled by self control, pulled out from the root, made a palm stump, made a thing that would not grow again. I tell he is self controlled.

Siha, this is the method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches self control and disciplines disciples for self control.

Siha, what is that method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches not entering another womb and disciplines disciples for not entering another womb? Siha, whosever future lying in a womb and future rebirth is dispelled pulled out from the roots, made a palm stump that would not grow again. I tell he does not enter another womb. The Thus Gone One not lying in a womb has dispelled future birth. Has pulled it out with the roots, it is made a palm that would not grow again.

Siha, this is the method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama does not enter a womb, and disciplines disciples for it.

Siha, what is that method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches comfort and disciplines disciples for comfort? Siha, I am the most comforted one and I teach disciples and discipline them for the highest comfort.

Siha, this is the method of mine, which rightfully says the recluse Gotama teaches comfort and disciplines disciples for comfort".

When this was said the general Siha said to The Blessed One: -"Venerable sir, I understand! ... re ... venerable sir, bear me as a lay disciple who has taken refuge from today until life lasts".

ßSiha, make a thorough investigation. It's suitable for well-known people like you.û

ßVenerable sir, on account of this too I am very much satisfied with The Blessed One, that The Blessed One says to me `Siha, make a thorough investigation. It's suitable for well-known people like you'.û

`Venerable sir if my discipleship was gained by those of other faiths, they would have taken me throughout Vesali under their banner saying `The general Siha has come to our faith. Here The Blessed One says Siha, make a thorough investigation. It's suitable for well-known people like you.' Now I take refuge in The Blessed One, the teaching and the Community of bhikkhus for the second time. I am a disciple who has taken refuge from today until life lasts".

ßSiha, for a long time your clan has been a welling spring to the Niganthas'. You should think to offer them morsel food at their arrival.û

ßVenerable sir, on account of this too I am very much satisfied with The Blessed One, that The Blessed One says to me `Siha, for a long time your clan has been a welling spring to the Niganthas'. You should think to offer them morsel food at their arrival.'û

`Venerable sir I have heard it said-' The recluse Gotama said it- Offerings should be made to me. Offerings should be made to my disciples only. The highest benefits are for offerings given to me and my disciples.. Here The Blessed One makes arrangements for offerings to be made to the Niganthas' Here, venerable sir, we should know the right time to offer. Now I take refuge in The Blessed One, the teaching and the Community of bhikkhus for the third time. I am a disciple who has taken refuge from today until life lasts.û

Then The Blessed One gave a graduated sermon to the general Siha such as talking on giving gifts, virtues, heavenly bliss, the dangers of sensuality, the defiling nature of folly and vanity and the benefits of giving up. When The Blessed One knew that the mind of the general Siha was ready, tender, free from obstructions, exalted and pleased, he gave the special message of the enlightened ones such as unpleasantness, the arisisng of unpleasantness, the cessation of unpleasantness and the path leading to the cessation of unpleasantness.

Just as a pure cloth free of any impurity would take the dye evenly, in the same manner the pure stainless eye of the Teaching appeared to the general Siha seated there itself- ßWhatever arisen thing has the nature of ceasing".

Then the general Siha then and there mastered the Teaching, knew the teaching, penetrated it, dispelled doubts and becoming confident did not want a another teacher in the dispensation and said to The Blessed One- ßVenerable sir, accept tomorrow's meal from me together with the Community bhikkhus.û The Blessed One accepted in silence.

The general Siha knowing that The Blessed One had accepted the invitation, worshipped, circumambulated The Blessed One and went away. The general Siha then addressed a certain man and said: Go and find what meat there is in the market! The general Siha at the end of that night prepared various kinds of nourishing eatables and drinks in his home and informed The Blessed One: - ßVenerable sir, the food is ready, it is the right time.û

Then The Blessed One putting on robes in the morning, and taking bowl and robes approached the house of the general Siha together with the Community of bhikkhus and sat on the prepared seats. At that time many Niganthas were walking from street to street and from junction to junction with raised hands saying ßToday the general Siha has killed fat cattle and has prepared food for the recluse gotama. The recluse Gotama knowing the meat is prepared on account of him partakes it.û

Then a certain man approached the general Siha and whispered in his ear: ßSir, know that many Niganthas are walking from street to street and from junction to junction with raised hands saying ßToday the general Siha has killed fat cattle and has prepared food for the recluse gotama. The recluse Gotama knowing the meat is prepared on account of him partakes it. Sir, from a long time these venerable ones depreciate The Blessed One, the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus. Accusing The Blessed One with unreal false statements, these venerable ones cannot destroy the fame of The Blessed One in this manner. We would not destroy the life of any living thing knowingly!û

The general Siha offered nourishing eatables and drinks to the Community of bhikkhus headed by The Blessed One with his own hands and satisfied them. Knowing The Blessed One had finished taking the meal the general Siha sat on a side. The Blessed One advised him incited him and made his heart light giving a talk and getting up went away.

3. Assàjànãyasuttaü Ý The thoroughbred

002.03. Bhikkhus, endowed with eight things the king's thoroughbred becomes worthy for the king, royal in the service and royal by the mark. What eight?

Here, the king's thoroughbred is pure in breed on both sides; mother's and father's. Is one born in that region where other thoroughbreds are born. Whatever food given to him- wet or dry he eats carefully not throwing it about. Loathes to sit or lie on urine and excreta. Is gentle and pleasant and does not terrify other horses. All craftinesses, fraud and deceit are explained to him as it really is, by the horse trainer. The horse trainer makes an effort to subdue that horse and rides it. He makes up his mind thus.`Other horses may carry him or not carry him, I will carry him. He goes straight ahead whether it is to end in life or death and is firm in it. Bhikkhus, endowed with these eight things the king's thoroughbred becomes worthy for the king, royal in the service and royal by the mark.

In the same manner bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with eight things becomes reverential, ... re ... the incomparable field of merit for the world. What eight?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is virtuous restrained in the higher code of rules seeing fear in the slightest fault observes the rules. Whatever food offered to him whether rough or exalted, he partakes them without annoyance. Loathes bodily, verbal and mental misbehaviour and various demeritorious things. Is gentle and has a pleasant abiding not terrifying other bhikkhus. All his craftinesses, fraud and deceit are explained to him by the Teacher or wise co-associates in the holy life. His Teacher, or wise co-associates in the holy life try to subdue him. He makes up his mind: Other bhikkhus may get the training or not get the training. I will be trained. He goes straight ahead. -Such as in right view, ... re ... right concentration. He is with aroused effort, thinking if it happens my skin, veins and bones remain, may flesh and blood dry up. Until there is strength in me, I will make effort to attain, what could be attained through manly strength and vigour. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with these eight things becomes reverential, ... re ... the incomparable field of merit for the world.

4. Assakhlunkasuttaü Ý Inferior horse

002.04. I will tell the eight inferior horses and the eight defects of horses. The eight inferior men and the eight defects of men. Listen and attend to it carefully Those bhikkhus agreed and The Blessed One said:

Bhikkhus, who are the eight inferior horses and what are the eight defects of a horse?

A certain inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer draws the chariot backwards. There is such an inferior horse. This is the first defect of horses.

Again a certain inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer pulls the chariot backwards, lightly and swiftly destroying the pole of the carriage and breaking the threepod pole. There is such an inferior horse. This is the second defect of horses.

Again, a certain inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer raising the carriage pole with his thighs crushes down with the carriage pole. There is such an inferior horse. This is the third defect of horses ...

Again a certain inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer, goes in the wrong direction and turns the carriage in the wrong direction. There is such an inferior horse. This is the fourth defect of horses.

Again, a certain inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer swiftly moves the forepart of the body and stretches forth the forefeet. There is such an inferior horse. This is the fifth defect of horses.

Again, a certain inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer, not heeding the charioteer or the goad stick, throwing out the bit of the briddle goes where it likesòhere is such an inferior horse. This is the sixth defect of horses.

Again, a certain inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer would not proceed or turn back would stand there itself like a post. There is such an inferior horse. This is the seventh defect of horses.

Again, a certain inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer firmly planting his forefeet and hind feet stands on all fours there itself. There is such an inferior horse. This is the eighth defect of horses. Bhikkhus, these are the eight inferior horses and the eight defects of horses.

Bhikkhus, who are the eight inferior men and the eight defects of men?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhus accuse a bhikkhu of an ecclesiastical offence, that bhikkhu saying I do not recall disowns it Like the inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer draws the chariot backwards. Bhikkhus, this inferior man is like him. There is an inferior man comparable to him.. This is the first defect of men..

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhus accuse a bhikkhu of an ecclesiastical offence, that bhikkhu retorts -'What is the use of your words. You are foolish and not learned. We should think to speak to you! Like the inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer moves back swiftly and lightly destroying the carriage pole and tripod pole. Bhikkhus, this inferior man is like him. There is an inferior man comparable to him.. This is the second defect of men.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhus accuse a bhikkhu of an ecclesiastical offence, the offending bhikkhu accuses him in return. You have fallen to this eccelesiastcal offence. You should make amends first Like the inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer raising the carriage pole with his thighs crushes down with the carriage pole. Bhikkhus, this inferior man is like him. There is an inferior man comparable to him.. This is the third defect of men.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhus accuse a bhikkhu of an ecclesiastical offence, the offending bhikkhu evades the question and turns the conversation in some other direction and shows anger and aversion. Like the inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer goes in the wrong direction and turns the carriage in the wrong direction. Bhikkhus, this inferior man is like him. There is an inferior man comparable to him.. This is the fourth defect of men.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhus accuse a bhikkhu of an ecclesiastical offence, the offending bhikkhu makes confused movements of his limbs in the midst of the Community. Like the inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer swiftly moves the forepart of the body and stretches forth the forefeet. Bhikkhus, this inferior man is like him. There is an inferior man comparable to him.. This is the fifth defect of men.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhus accuse a bhikkhu of an ecclesiastical offence, the offending bhikkhu not heeding the Community of bhikkhus and not heeding the accusing bhikkhu goes away as he likes with his bowl. Like the inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer not heeding the charioteer or the goad stick, throwing out the bit of the briddle goes where it likes. Bhikkhus, this inferior man is like him. There is an inferior man comparable to him.. This is the sixth defect of men.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhus accuse a bhikkhu of an ecclesiastical offence, the offending bhikkhu neither saying I have fallen for the offence nor saying I have not fallen for the offence, becoming silent troubles the Community of bhikkhus Like the inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer does not proceed or receed but stands there as a post. Bhikkhus, this inferior man is like him. There is an inferior man comparable to him.. This is the seventh defect of men.

Again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhus accuse a bhikkhu for an ecclesiastical offence, the offending bhikkhu says-'You venerable one is very much younger than me. You are adorned. I will return to lay life.' He gives up robes, returns to lay life and says- Venerable ones now be happy. Like the inferior horse when said `Go!' As though struck by the charioteer firmly planting his forefeet and hind feet stands on all fours there itself. Bhikkhus, this inferior man is like him. There is an inferior man comparable to him.. This is the seventh defect of men.

5. Malasuttaü Ý Stains

002.05. Bhikkhus, these eight are stains. What eight?

Bhikkhus, not reciting is a stain for the reciter, lacking effort is a stain for the householder, laziness is the stain for beauty, negligence is a stain for the protector, misbehaviour is the stain of woman, selfishness is the stain of the giver, evil demeritorious things are stains in this and the other world, and ignorance is the worst stain. Bhikkhus, these eight are stains.

Not reciting is the stain of the reciter, lack of effort of the householder,
Laziness is the stain of beauty, negligence of the protector.
Misbehaviour is the stain of women, selfishness of the giver,
Evil demeritorious things are stains in this and the other world
And ignorance is the worst stain of all.

6. Dåteyyasuttaü Ý Giving authority to perform some duty

002.06. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with eight things is suitable to be given authority to perform some duty. What eight?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu should be a listener, one who makes others listen, a learner, a bearer of the learnt, one who takes it into heart, and could give it to others, is clever in the accompaniments and non-accompaniments and a non-quarreller. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with these eight things is suitable to be given authority to perform some duty.

Bhikkhus, Sàriputta endowed with eight things is suitable to be given authority to perform some duty. What eight?

Here, bhikkhus, Sàriputta is a listener, one who makes others listen, a learner, a bearer of the learnt, takes it into heart, and gives it to others, is clever in the accompaniments and non-accompaniments and he is a non-quarreller. Bhikkhus, Sàriputta endowed with these eight things is suitable to be given authority to perform some duty.

Does not fear, come to a gathering with complicated views,
Does not omit any words or conceal the dispensation.
Speaks distinctly, is not angry when questioned
Such a bhikkhu is suitable to give authority to perform some duty.

7. Pañhamabandhanasusttaü Ý First on bonds

002.07. Bhikkhus, in eight ways the woman binds the man. What eight?

Bhikkhus, by crying the woman binds the man. By laughing, ... re ... by talking, ... re ... by the deportment, ... re ... by presenting wild flowers, fruits and gleanings ... re ... by the scent, ... re ... by tastes, ... re ... and by the touch. Bhikkhus, in these eight ways the woman binds the man. Bhikkhus, those beings bound by the touch are well bound.

8. Dutiyabandhanasusttaü Ý Second on bonds

002.08. Bhikkhus, in eight ways the man binds the woman. What eight?

Bhikkhus, by crying the man binds the woman. By laughing, ... re ... by talking, ... re ... by the deportment, ... re ... by presenting wild flowers, fruits and gleanings ... re ... by the scent, ... re ... by tastes, ... re ... and by the touch. Bhikkhus, in these eight ways the man binds the woman. Bhikkhus, those beings bound by the touch are well bound.

9. Pahàràdasuttaü Ý Paharada the king of Titans

002.09. At one time The Blessed One was living in Vera大a under a Nimba tree raised on reeds then the king of Titans Paharada approached The Blessed One, worshipped and stood on a side. The Blessed One said thus to him:

ßPaharada, do the Titans delight in the great ocean?û

ßYes, venerable sir. The Titans delight in the great ocean.û

ßPaharada, how many wonderful and surprising things are there in the great ocean, seeing which the Titans delight?

ßVenerable sir, there are eight wonderful and surprising things in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in the great ocean. What eight?

Venerable sir, the great ocean has a gradual incline, a gradual leading, a gradual slope, it does not fall abruptly. On account of the ocean's gradual incline, leading, slope and it not falling abruptly the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the first wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, venerable sir, the great ocean is everlasting and it does not go beyond the limit. On account of the ocean lasting forever and not going beyond the limit, the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the second wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, venerable sir, the great ocean does not live with the dead, with corpses. On account of the ocean not living with the dead and corpses the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the third wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean, seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, venerable sir, the great rivers- such as the Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravathie, Sarabhu and Mahi having come to the great ocean dispel their name and clan. On account of the great rivers Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravathie, sarabhu and Mahi coming to the great ocean and dispelling their names and clans the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the fourth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, venerable sir, whatever rivers in the world and all the rain that falls from the sky rushing to the great ocean does not make the ocean less or more. On account of all the rivers in the world and the rain that falls from the sky rushing to the great ocean, not making the ocean less or more the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the fifth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, venerable sir, the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt On account of the ocean having one taste, the taste of salt the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the sixth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, venerable sir, the great ocean has many kinds of jewels. Such as pearls, lapis gems, mother of pearl, quartz, coral gems, gold and silver and crystal cats' eye. On account of the ocean having many kinds of jewls. Such as pearls, lapis gems, mother of pearl, quartz, coral gems, gold and silver and crystal cats' eyeòitans delight in the ocean. This is the seventh wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, venerable sir, the great ocean is the home of great beings such as large fish, great ocean fish, greedy monsterous fish, Titans, powerful beings with long life, heavenly musicians, beings as long as a hundred yojanas, two hundred yojanas, three hundred yojanas, four hundred yojanas and five hundred yojanas. On account of the ocean being the home of great beings such as large fish, great ocean fish, greedy monsterous fish, Titans, powerful beings with long life, heavenly musicians, beings as long as a hundred yojanas, two hundred yojanas, three hundred yojanas, four hundred yojanas and five hundred yojanas. the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the eighth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Yet, venerable sir, do the bhikkhus delight in this dispensation of the Teaching?û

ßPaharada, bhikkhus, do delight in this dispensation of the Teaching.

ßVenerable sir,, how many wonderful and surprising things are there in this dispensation, seeing which the bhikkhus delight?

ßPaharada, there are eight wonderful and surprising things in the dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it. What eight?

Paharada, just as the great ocean has a gradual incline, a gradual leading, a gradual slope, and does not fall abruptly. This dispensation of the Teaching is of gradual instructions, gradual performance and a gradual means of attaining the goal. It is not a sudden realization of knowledge. This is the first wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation of the Teaching seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Paharada, just as the great ocean is everlasting and it does not go beyond the limit. In the same manner my disciples do not exceed the limit of the appointed instructions even for the cause of life. My disciples not exceeding the limit of the appointed instructions even for the cause of life, is the second wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation of the Teaching seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Paharada, just as the great ocean does not live with the dead, with corpses. It quickly throws it on shore. In the same manner whoever person is unvirtuous, with evil misbehaviour like excreta and dirt, with undercover actions, with only a promise for recluseship, not living the holy life, internally putrid and filth oozing. The Community does not live with them, all get together to throw him out. Wherever he is seated with the Community, he is far away from them. The Community too is far removed from himòhis is the third wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation, seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Paharada, just as, the great rivers- such as the Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravathie, Sarabhu and Mahi having coming to the great ocean dispel their names and clans. Coming to the great ocean they give up their earlier names and is known as the `great ocean' In the same manner whoever leaves home, becomes homeless coming to the dispensation of the Thus Gone One from these four clans of warriors, Brahmins, householders or outcastes, they dispel their earlier names and clans and become `recluses the sons of the Sakya' This is the fourth wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation, seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Paharada, just as, whatever rivers in the world and all the rain that falls from the sky rushing to the great ocean, does not make the ocean less or more. In the same manner many bhikkhus entering the element of extinction, does not show decrease or increase. This is the fifth wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Paharada, just as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt In the same manner this dispensation of the Teaching has one taste, the taste of release. This is the sixth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean, seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Paharada just as, the great ocean has many kinds of jewels. Such as pearls, lapis gems, mother of pearl, quartz, coral gems, gold and silver and crystal cats' eye. This dispensation of the Teaching has various kinds of jewels. Such as the four establishments of mindfulness, the four endeavours, the four psychic attainments, the five mental faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and the Noble Eightfold Path. This is the seventh wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Paharada just as, the great ocean is the home of great beings such as large fish, great ocean fish, greedy monsterous fish, Titans, powerful beings with long life, heavenly musicians, beings as long as a hundred yojanas, two hundred yojanas, three hundred yojanas, four hundred yojanas and five hundred yojanas. In the same manner Paharada, this dispensation is the home of Great Beings such as those who, enter the stream of the Teaching, partake the benefits of entering the stream of the Teaching, once returners, partaking its benefits, non-returners, partakers of its benefits, those in the state of worthiness and partaking the benefits of worthinessòhis is the eighth wonderful and surprising thing in the dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

10. Uposathasuttàü Ý Full moon observances

002.10. At one time The Blessed One was living in the Pubba monastery, in the palace of Migara's mother. The Blessed One was seated surrounded by the Community of bhikkhus on that full moon day. Then venerable ânanda when the first watch of the night was over got up from his seat, arranged the robe on one shoulder and clasping hands towards The Blessed One said: ßVenerable sir, the night has gone out, the first watch of the night is over. The Community of bhikkhus have sat long. May The Blessed One recite the Full moon day recital for confession.û

When this was said the Blessed became silent. For the second time, venerable ânanda when the second watch of the night was over got up from his seat, arranged the robe on one shoulder and clasping hands towards The Blessed One said: ßVenerable sir, the night has gone out, the second watch of the night is over. The Community of bhikkhus have sat long. May The Blessed One recite the Full moon day recital for confession.û For the third time, venerable ânanda when the third watch of the night was over got up from his seat, arranged the robe on one shoulder and clasping hands towards The Blessed One said: ßVenerable sir, the night has gone out, the third watch of the night is over. The day has dawned with a happy face. The Community of bhikkhus have sat long. May The Blessed One recite the Full moon day recital for confession.û

ßânanda, the gathering is impure.û

Then it occured to venerable Mahàmoggallàna: `On account of which person did The Blessed One say, ânanda, the gathering is impure.?ût Then venerable Mahàmoggallàna penetrating with his mind cognized the complete Community of bhikkhus and saw that unvirtuous person with evil things and misbehaviour like excreta and dirt, with undercover actions, with only the promise of a recluse, with only a promise to lead a holy life, internally rotten and filth oozing, seated in the midst of the Community of bhikkhus. Venerable Mahàmoggallàna got up from his seat and approached that person and told him: ßVenerable one, get up! You are seen by The Blessed One. You cannot live with the Community.û

When this was said, that person kept silent. For the second time venerable Mahàmoggallàna told him: ßVenerable one, get up! You are seen by The Blessed One. You cannot live with the Community.û

For the second time, that person kept silent. For the third time venerable Mahàmoggallàna told him: ßVenerable one, get up! You are seen by The Blessed One. You cannot live with the Community.û For the third time, that person kept silent.

Then venerable Mahàmoggallàna taking him by the arm led him out of the hall and closed the door. Then venerable Mahàmoggallàna approached The Blessed One and said: ßVenerable sir, that person is sent away. The gathering is now pure May The Blessed One recite the Full moon day recital for confession.û

ßMoggallàna, it is wonderful and surprising. Until he was led out held by the arm the foolish man was here.û

Then The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus: ßBhikkhus, from today you recite the Full moon day recital for confession. From today I will not recite the Full moon day recital for confession. It is not possible for the Thus Gone One to recite the Full moon day recital to an impure gathering.û

Bhikkhus, these eight are wonderful and surprising things in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in the great ocean. What eight?

Bhikkhus, the great ocean has a gradual incline, a gradual leading, a gradual slope, it does not fall abruptly. On account of the ocean's gradual incline, leading, slope and it not falling abruptly the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the first wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again,. bhikkhus, the great ocean is everlasting and it does not go beyond the limit. On account of the ocean lasting forever and not going beyond the limit, the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the second wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, bhikkhus, the great ocean does not live with the dead, with corpses. On account of the ocean not living with the dead and corpses the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the third wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean, seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, bhikkhus, the great rivers- such as the Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravathie, Sarabhu and Mahi having come to the great ocean dispel their name and clan. On account of the great rivers such as Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravathie, sarabhu and Mahi coming to the great ocean and dispelling their name and clan the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the fourth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, bhikkhus, whatever rivers in the world and all the rain that falls from the sky rushing to the great ocean does not make the ocean less or more. All the rivers in the world and the rain that falls from the sky rushing to the great ocean does not make the ocean less or more the Titans delight in the ocean becaise of that. This is the fifth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, bhikkhsus, the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt On account of the ocean having one taste, the taste of salt the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the sixth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, bhikkhus, the great ocean has many kinds of jewels. Such as pearls, lapis gems, mother of pearl, quartz, coral gems, gold and silver and crystal cats' eye. On account of the ocean having many kinds of jewels. Such as pearls, lapis gems, mother of pearl, quartz, coral gems, gold and silver and crystal cats' eyeòitans delight in the ocean. This is the seventh wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Again, bhikkhus, the great ocean is the home of great beings such as large fish, great ocean fish, greedy monsterous fish, Titans, powerful beings with long life, heavenly musicians, beings as long as a hundred yojanas, two hundred yojanas, three hundred yojanas, four hundred yojanas and five hundred yojanas. On account of the ocean being the home of great beings such as large fish, great ocean fish, greedy monsterous fish, Titans, powerful beings with long life, heavenly musicians, beings as long as a hundred yojanas, two hundred yojanas, three hundred yojanas, four hundred yojanas and five hundred yojanas. the Titans delight in the ocean. This is the eighth wonderful and surprising thing in the ocean seeing which the Titans delight in it.

Bhikkhus, in the same manner there are eight wonderful and surprising things in the dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it. What eight?

Bhikkhus, just as the great ocean has a gradual incline, a gradual leading, a gradual slope, and does not fall abruptly. This dispensation of the Teaching is of gradual instructions, gradual performance and a gradual means of attaining the goal. It is not a sudden realization of knowledge. This is the first wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Bhikkhus, just as the great ocean is everlasting and it does not go beyond the limit. In the same manner my disciples do not exceed the limit of the appointed instructions even for the sake of life. My disciples not exceeding the limit of the appointed instructions even for the sake of life, is the second wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation of the Teaching seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Bhikkhus, just as the great ocean does not live with the dead, with corpses. It quickly throws it on shore. In the same manner whoever person is unvirtuous, with evil misbehaviour like excreta and dirt, with undercover actions, with only a promise for recluseship, not living the holy life, internally putrid and filth oozing. The Community does not live with them, all get together to throw him out. Wherever he is seated with the Community, he is far away from them. The Community too is far removed from himòhis is the third wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation, seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Bhikkhus, just as, the great rivers- such as the Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravathie, Sarabhu and Mahi having come to the great ocean dispel their names and clans. Coming to the great ocean they give up their earlier names and is known as the `great ocean' In the same manner whoever leaves home, becomes homeless coming to the dispensation of the Thus Gone One from these four clans of warriors, Brahmins, householders or outcastes, they dispel their earlier names and clans and become `recluses, the sons of the Sakya' This is the fourth wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Bhikkhus, just as, whatever rivers in the world and all the rain that falls from the sky rushing to the great ocean, does not make the ocean less or more. In the same manner many bhikkhus enter the element of extinction, on account of it the element of extinction does not show decrease or increase. This is the fifth wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Bhikkhus, just as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt In the same manner this dispensation of the Teaching has one taste, the taste of release. This is the sixth wonderful and surprising thing in the dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Bhikkhus, just as, the great ocean has many kinds of jewels. Such as pearls, lapis gems, mother of pearl, quartz, coral gems, gold and silver and crystal cats' eye. This dispensation of the Teaching has various kinds of jewels. Such as the four establishments of mindfulness, the four endeavours, the four psychic attainments, the five mental faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and the Noble Eightfold Path. This is the seventh wonderful and surprising thing in this dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.

Bhikkhus, just as, the great ocean is the home of great beings such as large fish, great ocean fish, greedy monsterous fish, Titans, powerful beings with long life, heavenly musicians, beings as long as a hundred yojanas, two hundred yojanas, three hundred yojanas, four hundred yojanas and five hundred yojanas. In the same manner this dispensation is the home of Great Beings such as those who enter the stream of the Teaching, partake the benefits of entering the stream of the Teaching, once returners, those partaking its benefits, non-returners, partakers of its benefits, those in the state of worthiness and those partaking the benefits of worthinessòhis is the eighth wonderful and surprising thing in the dispensation seeing which the bhikkhus delight in it.