The Large Sutra On Perfect Wisdom

(PDF) (brief translation)
with the divisions of the Abhisamayālaṃkāra
Translated by EDWARD CONZE
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY, LOS ANGELES, LONDON
Contents
Contents 1
Abbreviations 5
Preface 7
Chapter Headings of THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM IN 18,000 LINES 11
V I 11
V II 12
V III 13
Divisions of the Abhisamayalankara 15
Introduction to Chapters 1-21 18
A 18
B 23
C 34
D 45
Outline of Chapters 1 – 21 53
TRANSLATION OF THE SUTRA 56

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 57
Chapter 2 THE THOUGHT OF ENLIGHTENMENT 66
Chapter 3 OBSERVATIONS 79
Chapter 4 EQUAL TO THE UNEQUALLED 112
Chapter 5 THE TONGUE 114
Chapter 6 SUBHUTI 116
Chapter 7 ENTRANCE INTO THE CERTAINTY OF SALVATION 124
Chapter 8 SRENIKA THE WANDERER 129
Chapter 9 THE SIGN 135
Chapter 10 LIKE ILLUSION 143
Chapter 11 SIMILES 149
Chapter 12 THE FORSAKING OF VIEWS 160
Chapter 13 THE SIX PERFECTIONS 163
Chapter 14 NEITHER BOUND NOR FREED 173
Chapter 15 THE CONCENTRATIONS 179
Chapter 16 ENTRANCE INTO THE DHARANI-DOORS 191
Chapter 17 THE PREPARTIONS FOR THE STAGES 203
Chapter 18 GOING FORTH ON THE STAGES 1 OF THE GREAT VEHICLE 221
Chapter 19 SURPASSING 225
Chapter 20 NONDUALITY 232
Chapter 21 SUBHUTI THE ELDER 238
Chapter 22 THE FIRST SAKRA CHAPTER 247
Chapter 23 HARD TO FATHOM 256
Chapter 24 INFINITE 259
Chapter 25 INFINITE 266
Chapter 26 GAINS 270
Chapter 27 THE SHRINE 276
Chapter 28 THE PROCLAMATION OF A BODHISATTVA’S QUALITIES 284
Chapter 29 THE HERETICS 288
Chapter 30 THE ADVANTAGES OF BEARING IN MIND AND OF REVERENCE 291
Chapter 31 ON RELICS 298
Chapter 32 THE DISTINCTION OF MERIT 309
Chapter 33 ON DEDICATION AND REJOICING 321
Chapter 34 GLORIFICATION OF THE VIRTUES OF CONSUMMATION 337
Chapter 35 THE HELLS 342
Chapter 36 THE EXPOSITION OF THE PURITY OF ALL DHARMAS 351
Chapter 37 UNSUPPORTED ANYWHERE 359
Chapter 38 WITHOUT BASIS 370
Chapter 39 THE TRADITION IN THE NORTH 376
Chapter 40 MARA 392
Chapter 41 THE ABSENCE OF MARA’S HOSTS 399
Chapter 42 SHOWING THE WORLD 408
Chapter 43 UNTHINKABLE 414
Chapter 44 THE CONGREGATION 422
Chapter 45 THE SHIP 427
Chapter 46 EXPOSITION OF THE OWN-BEING OF ALL DHARMAS 432
Chapter 47 THE DISCIPLINING OF GREED 437
Chapter 48 SETTLEMENT IN THE TRAINING OF A BODHISATTVA 441
Chapter 49 IRREVERSIBILITY 455
Chapter 50 EXPOSITION OF THE TOKENS OF IRREVERSIBILITY 464
Chapter 51 THE EXPOSITION OF SKILL IN MEANS 473 2
Chapter 52 THE FULFILLMENT OF SKILL IN THE SIX PERFECTIONS 486
Chapter 53 THE PREDICTION OF THE GANGES GODDESS 494
Chapter 54 DEMONSTRATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL IN MEANS 497
Chapter 55 THE EXPOSITION OF THE FORSAKING OF DISCRIMINATION 505
Chapter 56 EVEN TRAINING 524
Chapter 57 PRACTICES 531
Chapter 58 EXPOSITION OF NONDISCRIMINATION THROUGH SIMILES 537
Chapter 59 NONATTACHMENT 542
Chapter 60 ENTRUSTING 565
Chapter 61 NONEXTINCTION 575
Chapter 62 THE SUPREME ATTAINMENT 579
Chapter 63 MANY QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE DUALITY OF DHARMAS 591
Chapter 64 RIGHT EXPOSITION 613
Chapter 65 THE SKILL IN HONOURING, TENDING AND REVERING THE GOOD FRIENDS 620
Chapter 66 EXPOSITION OF SKILL IN MEANS 624
Chapter 67 MORALITY 626
Chapter 68 GROWTH 627
Chapter 69 EXPOSITION OF THE PATH-DEVELOPMENT 628
Chapter 70 THE EXPOSITION OF THE CONSUMMATION OF THE TRAINING IN GRADUAL ACTIVITY 640
Chapter 71 THE NATURE OF DHARMAS IS SIGNLESS AND CANNOT BE APPREHENDED 649
Chapter 72 EXPOSITION OF MARKLESSNESS 660
Chapter 73 THE PERFECTION OF THE IMPERISHABLE CONSUMMATION OF THE MARKS AND MINOR CHARACTERISTICS 669
Chapter 74 THE EXPOSITION OF THE SAMENESS OF ALL DHARMAS 690
Chapter 75 THE EXPOSITION OF IMPERTURBABILITY 699
Chapter 76 THE ARMOUR (PUT ON) FOR THE SAKE OF MATURING BEINGS 710
Chapter 77 THE COGNITION OF THE PERFECT PURITY OF THE BUDDHA-FIELD 720
Chapter 78 SKILL IN MEANS IN THE PURIFICATION OF THE BUDDHA-FIELD 727 3
Chapter 79 THE EXPOSITON OF THE NONEXISTENCE OF OWN-BEING 735
Chapter 80 THE ABSENCE OF (ALL) DEFILEMENT AND PURIFICATION 740
Chapter 81 BEING JOINED TO ULTIMATE REALITY 744
Chapter 82 THE EXPOSITION OF THE UNALTERABLE NATURE OF DHARMA 751
Chapter 83 THE MANIFESTATION OF A BODHISATTVA’S TRAINING 754
Appendix I VIII. THE REUNION WITH THE DHARMA-BODY 765
Appendix II 769
Numerical Lists 779
Index of Terms 789

4


Abbreviations
A : Aṣṭasāhasrika Prajñāpāramitā, ed. R. Mitra, 1888
AA : Abhisaṃayālaṅkara
AAA : Abhisaṃayālaṅkarāloka, ed. U. Wogihara, 1932-1935
Ad : Aṣṭadasasāhasrika Prajñāpāramitā
AdT : Tibetan translation of Ad
AK : Abhidharmakośa, trad. de la Vallee-Poussin
A.N. : Anguttara Nikāya
Asl : Atthasālini
Cpd : Compendium of Philosophy, trsl. S. Z. Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, 1910
CPD : Critical Pali Dictionary
DaBhu : Daśabhūmika
Dhs : Dhammasaṇganī
Divy : Divyavadāna
D.N. : Digha Nikāya
DR : Dezhung Rinpoche
E : Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
H : Haribhadra (=AAA)
JAOS : Journal of the American Oriental Society
J. As. : Journal Asiatique
JRAS : Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
Ku : Kumārajīva
Lal. V. : Lalita Vistāra
Madhy-v-t : Madhyāntavibhāgaṭīka
Mhv : Mahāvastu
Mhvy : Mahāvyutpatti
M. N. : Majjhima Nikāya
Mpp-s : Mahāprajñāpāramitā Śāstra = Nag
MsL : Ms of P, Cambridge Add 1629
MsT : Ms of P, Tokyo, No. 234 in Matsunami’s Catalogue
MW : Monier Williams
Nag : Nagarjuna, Ta chih tu lun, trsl. E. Lamotte, 1944-1970, Mpp-s
Nar : Narthang Kanjur
ND : New Delhi Ms of Large P.P. = Gilgit manuscript
(Ob)(ermiller) : Analysis of the AA, 1933-1943
5
P : Pañcavimśatisāhasrika Prajñāpāramitā
PDc : Pali-English Dictionary
P.P. : Perfection of Wisdom
PT : Tibetan translation of P
Pts : Patisambhidāmagga
PTS Dict or PDc : Pali-English Dictionary
R : Rgs
Rgs : Ratnagunasaṃcayagāthā
S : Satasāhasrika Prajñāpāramitā
Sapt : Saptasātika Prajñāpāramitā
SaPu : Saddharmapuṇdarīka
Si : Sikśasamuccāya
Siddhi : La Siddhi, trad. L. de la Valle Poussin, 1929-1930
S. N. : Samyutta Nikāya
Sn : Sutta Nipāta
Sten Kernow : The two first chapters of the Dasasāhasrika Prajñāpāramitā, Oslo, 1941
Suv : Suvikrāntavikrāmiparipricha Prajñāpāramitā
T : Taisho Issaikyo
Ta : ch. 83 in Narthang III 130a7-147a6
Tb : other text of ch. 83
To : Tohoku Catalogue
Vbh : Vibhanga
V. M. : Vishuddhimagga, ed. Mrs. Rhy Davids or ed. Kosambi

6

Preface

The translation of pages 37 to 430 (abhisamayas I-IV) normally follows the version in 25,000 lines which has been adjusted to conform to the divisions of the Abhisamayālamkāra.1 In some passages of chapters 1-21 I have, however, translated the version in 100,000 lines,2 or adopted readings of the version in 18,000,3 and of those various Chinese translations which seemed to represent an older or more intelligible text. For chapters 22-54 also I have generally followed the revised Pañcavimśatisāhasrika.4 But portions of the original, unadjusted version in 25,000 lines,5 as well as the version in 18,000,6 which are preserved in Gilgit and Central Asian manuscripts of the sixth or seventh centuries, are the basis of pages 229-239 (P), 339-362 (P), 363-367 (Ad) and 369-395 (Ad) of this translation, and I have followed them in those passages which occur in Ms. Stein Ch. 0079a,7 although I have noted all the variants of P insofar as they affect the divisions of the AA.

Pages 431-643 (abhisamayas V to VIII, chapters 55-82) translated the Gilgit manuscript of the version in 18,000 lines, and I here simply reproduce, with the kind permission of Prof. G. Tucci, my translation as it first appeared in Serie Orientale Rome (1962 and 1974), though I have, where necessary, rearranged the sequence of the text to make it correspond to the divisions of the Abhisamayālamkāra. In the eighth abhisamaya, VIII 1-3 and VIII 5, 2, 5-21, this correspondence breaks down altogether and I have therefore given the relevant text from P in pages 653-656 as an Appendix. Finally, chapter 83, Maitreya’s Chapter, is missing in the

For the Bibliography see no. 2A of my The Prajñāpāramitā Literature (= PP), 1960, p. 42. 2

Āatasāhasrikā prajñāpāramitā, ed. P. Ghosha, 1902-1913; and Ms. Cambridge Add. 1630. 3

Aṣtādaśasāhasrikā prajñāpāramitā.

.e. for pages 203-228, 240-338, 367-370, 396-414.

PP no. 2, p. 40.

PP no. 3, p. 45.

PP p. 46, i.e. at P 216a-217a, 223a-224a, 226b-228a, 241A-B, 242B-243A, 250b-251a, 256b-257a, 271a-272a, 294a-297a, 302b-304b, 305b-306a, 347, 357a-361b, 363a-364b, 367a-b, 381a-383a, 406b-407b, 408b-409b. Also Sten Know’s Ms (PP p. 45) for P 221 and P 313.

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Gilgit Ms, but is preserved in the Tibetan Ad (To. no. 3790), which corresponds almost literally to the Sanskrit text of P 578a-583b, which I have edited in 1968 in Mélange d’Indianisme à la mémoire de L. Renou, pp. 233-242.

To philological purists unacquainted with the particular problems of the Prajñāpāramitā, my procedure must appear questionable, and they will insist that I should keep the different recensions rigidly apart. There has, for instance, been some criticism of my superimposing the chapter headings of Ad on the text of P, which has no such headings. What motivated me was the belief that this exceptionally difficult text can be studied much more easily if broken up into relatively short and manageable chapters, and I chose those of Ad because Ad alone, in its Tibetan version, gives all the headings, whereas Ś and the unrevised P normally only number the chapters and given the headings just occasionally.8 If there were even the slightest hope that each of the chief version, i.e. S, P and Ad, might be translated in the foreseeable future, I would have stuck strictly to P. As it is, there is no such hope. What is needed at present is to make known the contents and message of the Large Sutra in its entirety and, aware of the execrable nature of the Nepalese Mss. on which alone the text of P can be based, I naturally relied frequently on the older manuscripts, which are more accurate than the often unbelievably careless and corrupt late Nepalese Mss.9 This translation is a continuation of my work on the Abhisamayālamkāra (SOR vi, 1954), and there seems to me some value in showing how the headings of AA fit the text of P. This correspondence is, I admit, not always easy to see, particularly where the Path of Vision is concerned, but with some patience everything will become clear.

The most outstanding feature of contemporary Prajñāpāramitā studies is the disproportion between the few persons willing to work in this field and the colossal number of documents extant in Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan. Looking ahead to the year 2,000, I would say that further study would have to proceed in three stages:

Firstly, the general outlines of the argumentation of the Large Sutra must be determined, irrespective of the different versions and

cf. PP pp. 47-50.

There is the good news that the abhisamayas II-IV will soon be published from the Gilgit Ms. by my friend Professor L. Lancaster of the University of California, Berkeley.

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recensions. This is what I am trying to do in this publication, which has achieved its main purpose if it has rendered the course of the argument intelligible. In this context it must be admitted that my treatment of the lengthy repetitions lacks somewhat in consistency, and has been chiefly guided by the desire to cut down their bulk.

Second, the literal meaning of many now obscure passage must be ascertained with the help of the Ta chih tu lun,10 which ought to be translated in its entirety into a European language.

After that is accomplished, it would be necessary and useful to scrutinize the many versions and recensions of the Large Sutra, to note their differences as well as their agreements, and to try to work out their mutual interrelations. To attempt such a detailed study now would be to put the cart before the horse.

At the top of the page I give a page number, marked P and the appropriate section of the Abhisamayālamkāra, marked AA. The latter follows the numeration adopted in my English translation of the AA. P refers first, i.e., up to page 202, to N. Dutt’s 1934 edition of P, and after that to the pagination of the Ms. Cambridge Add. 1928. I have used this Ms. in all my publications as the standard reference for everything I have said about the unpublished portions of the Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom, because back in 1947 I thought it a particularly good Ms. Further study has revealed substantial omissions; for instance, between P 241 and 254 no fewer than ten and a half leaves are simply left out.11 In spite of this, it will be better to continue to treat Ms. Cambridge Add. 1928 as a kind of master copy until we can refer to a printed copy of a edition of the text.

The translation could not have been accomplished without the help of many institutions and individuals which has been acknowledged with gratitude in the previous editions, i.e. on page v of part I as issued by Luzac & Co. in London in 1961, and on page i

PP p. 41.

They are: P 240A, B, 242A, B, 243A, B, C, D, E, 253A, B. – This states of affairs has misled N. Dutt and myself (PP p. 43) into affirming that ‘one can notice some desire to abbreviate the treatment of the merit derived from perfect wisdom to which A ch. 3-5 and S ch. 17-23 devote a great deal of space’. What we did was to count the pages instead of reading them, and we failed to see that 21 pages in the Ms. were missing in this section. – Further imperfections of Ms. Add. 1928 are that P 233 is missing, P 264 follows after P 265 instead of preceding it, P 282 is missing, while P 283 occurs twice, and P 319, also occurring twice, had to be renumbered P 319A and 319B.

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of parts II and III as issued in Madison, Wisconsin in 1964, and again in Seattle, Washington in 1966.

OṂ NAMO BHAGAVATYAI ĀRYAPRAJÑĀPĀRAMITĀYAI!

Berkeley, California E. C.

10

Chapter Headings of THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM IN 18,000 LINES
V I
Nar. P S (ch.) cr. A Page
1. Introduction 1 4 1 i 3 37
2. The production of the thought of enlightenment 16b 17 - 45
3. Observations 34a 37 - 56
4. Equal to the unequalled 83b 93 - 85
5. The tongue 86b 95 - 87
6. Subhūti 89a 98 2 3 89
7. Entrance into the certainty of salvation 107a 116 3 5 95
8. Srenika, the Wanderer 116a 123 4 7 99
9. The sign 136b 139 5 11 104
10. Like illusion 151a 150 6 16 111
11. Similes 173a 160 7 17 117
12. The forsaking of views 188a 172 18 126
13. The six perfections 192a 175 20 128
14. Neither bound nor freed 209a 185 20 137
15. The Concentrations 225a 194 8 23 143
16. Entrance into the dhārani-doors 244a 203 9 - 153
17. The preparations for the stages 262b 214 10 - 163
18. Going forth on the stages of the great vehicle 280a 225 23 179
19. Surpassing 295b 231 11 24 182
20. Nonduality 325a 242 12,13 25 188
21. Subhūti, the Elder 353b 256 27 194
22. The first Śakra-chapter 374a 200b 14 ii 33 203
23. ‘Hard to fathom’ 391a 208a 15 39 211
24. Infinite 397a 211b 16 41 214
25. The second Śakra-chapter 414a 219b 48 220
26. Gains 420b 223a 17 iii 51 224
27. The shrine 434a 230b 18 54 229
28. The proclamation of a Bodhisattva’s qualities 449b 239a 19 70 236
29. The heretics 457a 241b 20 76 240
30. The advantages of bearing in mind and reverence 460b 242a 21 80 243
31. On relics 471b 243d 22 iv 94 249
32. The distinction of merit 499b 249b 23 v 104 259
33. On dedication and rejoicing 510a 258a 24 vi 135 269
V II
34. Glorification of the virtues of consummation 23b 270a 25 vii 170 283
35. The Hells 34a 273b 26 176 287
36. The exposition of the purity of all dharmas 47b 279b 27 viii 187 295
37. Unsupported anywhere 61b 286a 28 193 302
38. Without basis 80b 297a 29 ix 205 312
39. The tradition in the North 90b 301b 30 xi 208 318
40. Mara 122b 315a 31 232 332
41. The absence of Mara’s hosts 132b 319b 32 243 338
42. Showing the world 146a 328a xii 252 346
43. Unthinkable 158b 333a 33 272 351
44. The congregation 170b 336b 34 xiii 280 358
45. The ship 179b 343a 35 xiv 286 363
46. Exposition of the own-being of all dharmas 187b 348a 36 xv 292 367
47. The disciplining of greed 199a 356a 37 299 372
48. Settlement in the training of a Bodhisattva 206a 361a 38 303 376
49. Irreversibility 231a 377a 39 xvii 323 388
50. Exposition of the tokens of irreversibility 243a 383b 40 331 396
51. The exposition of skill in means 255a 390a 41 xviii 341 404
52. The fulfillment of skill in the six perfections 272b 398b 42 xix 356 415
53. The prediction of the Ganges Goddess 287b 404b 43 365 422
54. Demonstration of the development of skill in means 291a 406b 44 xx 370 424
55. The exposition of the forsaking of discrimination 301b 412a 45 380 431
56. Even training 324b 421a 46 xxiii 410 447
57. Practices 335a 425a 47 xxv 424 453
58. Exposition of non-discrimination through similes 343a 428b 48 xxvi 434 458
59. Nonattachment 354b 430b 49 xxvii 444 462
60. Entrusting 364a 445a 50 454 481
61. Nonextinction 378b 451b 51 xxviii 468 490
62. The supreme attainment 385b 455a 52 494
63. Many questions concerning the duality of dharmas 403a 465b 53 505
64. Right exposition 445b 479b 54 524
65. The skill in honouring, tending and revering the good friends 455b 484b 55 530
66. Exposition of skill in means 460b 487b 56 533
67. Morality 462b 488a 57 535
68. Growth 462b 488b 58 536
69. Exposition of the path development 463b 490a 59 537
70. The exposition of the consummation of the training in gradual activity 482b 501b 60 547
71. The nature of dharmas is signless and cannot be apprehended 496a 508b 61 555
72. Exposition of marklessness 514b 517a 62 565
73. The perfection of the imperishable consummation of the marks and minor characteristics 528a 523b 63 573
V III
74. The exposition of the sameness of all dharmas 25a 540b 64 591
75. The exposition of imperturbability 41a 548b 65 598
76. The armour (put on) for the sake of maturing beings 61b 558a 66 607
77. The cognition of the perfect purity of the Buddha-field 78a 565a 67 615
13
78. Skill in means in the purification of the Buddha-field 90b 570b 68 621
79. Exposition of the non- existence of own-being 102a 574b 69 628
80. The absence of (all) defilement and purification 108b 583b 70 632
81. Being joined to ultimate reality 115a 586a 71 636
82. The exposition of the unalterable nature of Dharma 127b 592a 72 642
83. The manifestation of a Bodhisattva’s training 130a 578a - 644
14
Divisions of the Abhisamayalankara
I. THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL MODES
1. The varieties of the thought of enlightenment
2. Instructions
3. The Aids to Penetration
4. The lineage or the source of progress
5. The objective supports
6. The program
7. The progress which consists in putting on the armour
8. The progress in setting out
9. The equipment
10. The progress which consists in going forth
II. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PATHS
1. The limbs of the knowledge of the paths
2. The knowledge of the paths which consists in the cognition of the path of the disciples
3. The knowledge of the paths which consists in the cognition of the path of the Pratyekabuddhas
4. The path of vision and the great advantage
5. What the path of development does
6. Resolute faith
7. Praise, eulogy, and glorification
8. Turning over
9. Rejoicing
10. Glorification of the marks of consummation
11. Absolute purity
III. ALL-KNOWLEDGE
1.-2. Unestablished in either Samsara or Nirvana
3.-4. Farness and nearness to perfect wisdom
5.-6. Points to be shunned and Antidotes
7. The endeavours of the cognition of entities
8. The sameness of the endeavours
9. The path of vision
(10. The resume of I-III)
15
IV.
THE FULL UNDERSTANDING OF ALL MODES
1. Modes
2. Endeavours
3. Qualities
4. Faults
5. Marks
6. The aids to emancipation
7. The aids to penetration
8. The community of irreversible Bodhisattvas
9. The identity of Nirvana and Samsara
10. The purity of the Buddha-field
11. Training in skill in means
V.
THE FULL UNDERSTANDING AT ITS SUMMIT
1. Its characteristics
2. The growth
3. Firm position
4. Complete stabilization of thought
5. The path of vision
6. The path of development
7. The unimpeded concentration
8. The sixteen errors
VI. GRADUAL REUNION
1.-13.
VII. THE SINGLE-INSTANTANEOUS REUNION
1. With regard to all dharmas without outflows and without karma result
2. With regard to all dharmas without outflows which have reached the state where their karma result has matured
3. The single instantaneous reunion which sees all dharmas as devoid of marks
4. The single instantaneous reunion which sees the mark of nonduality in all dharmas
VIII. THE SINGLE-INSTANTANEOUS REUNION
1. The substantial-body
2. The enjoyment-body
3. The transformation-body
4. The work of the Dharma-body by means of the 16
Transformation-body – in general
5. The functions of the Dharma-body
17
Introduction to Chapters 1-21
A

A1. The book opens with an account of the scene and circumstances of the sermon.

On the first page we have a condensed description of both Arhats and Bodhisattvas. The contrast between the two goes through the argument of the entire book. The epithets used here are explained in great detail by Nagarjuna.12

The remainder of the description of A1 is designed to establish the authority of the Sutra. A section on “Entrusting”13 towards the end of the Sutra has the same end in view. In the “Introduction”, the preaching of perfect wisdom is credited with three excellencies: 1. It is

ci

rcumstances, at all times, and throughout the universe. This claim is less presumptuous than it may sound at first sight because the assertions of this book are really no assertions at all and that is why they can endure. 2. It proceeds from the highest level of spirit

fr

om the Buddha himself. The Buddha does not teach it in his human body – which could be seen in Magadha about 500 B.C. – but in his glorified “body”. The “glorified body” of the Lord is either called here asecanaka-atmabhava,14 i.e. the body which is so beautiful that the beholder can never be satiated with looking at it;15 or it is called prakrty-atmabhava, literally the body which brings out, or corresponds to, his “essential original nature”, here rendered as “extraordinary body”.16 “The Buddha always had this body – when he was

P 11-13, but not in Gilgit MS.

from SHlC, to satisfy; or SlC, to sprinkle; cf. CPD, “unmixed, unadulterated”

ith full and unimpaired propertie

so Gilgit MS; P 10 atmabhavam prakritam. The idea is well brought out by a passage in the Pali Dighanikaya (xviii 17 = xix 16). “When,

anamkumara appears (patu bhavati) among the Gods of the Thirty-three, he appears after having created (abhinimmitva) a gross (material) body (olarikam attabhavam). For that which is the natural appearance (pakativanno) of Brahma, that, O Lord, is not sufficiently materialized to impress their vision 18

born, when he became a Buddha, when he turned the wheel of dharma. That is why beings can say to themselves, ‘What I now see that is truly the Buddha’s body’,” and thereby those who hesitated so far can be delivered through their faith.17

The wonderful qualities of the Buddha and his great wonder-working power are taken as tokens of his capacity to teach the real truth about the actual facts of existence. Power and knowledge go together. Omniscience implies omnipotence and omnipresence. The descriptions wish to magnify the Buddha’s stature in the eyes of the reader, and to generate and foster an attitude of pure faith in his authority. At the same time they counteract the notion that the Buddha is a mere man, with a man’s imperfections and limitations, and they try to give an idea of his true body and personality which are immense and inconceivable.

3.

The teaching has not only an intellectual and spiritual, but also a cosmic significance. The universe vibrates in consonance with it, and gives its consent to its message. A series of cosmic miracles precedes the teaching of this, as of other Mahayana Sutras. We speak of a “miracle” when occult of spiritual forces visibly transform or overlay the natural world in such a way as to produce wonder and awe. The description of A1 is a mythological way of conveying and idea that the spirit is victorious over matter. E. Lamotte has divided the drama of A1 into 10 scenes. The translation follows his division.

A2. Secondly, there is a survey of the aims one may have in view in cultivating perfect wisdom. The translation follows P, which has carried out extensive rearrangements in the text of S, omitted many passages, and added a few. The purpose was to make this section appear as a teaching about the “thought of enlightenment” – first (P 18-19, 1 a-d) about the thought of enlightenment in general, and secondly (P 19-37, le) about its 22 kinds.

The “thought of enlightenment” is (a) the decision to win full

(anabhisambhavaniyo … cakkhupathasmin).” - Instead of “extraordinary” one might have translated “natural”, “primary”, “original”, “real”, “usual”.

Nag. 518-9

19

others. Emptiness and compassion are it two constituents.18 It makes one into a Bodhisattva. The term is used twofold19: 1. For the initial, first, production of the thought of enlightenment, the “vow”20. 2. For the marching towards21 enlightenment. In the second sense it covers the entire career of a Bodhisattva, and its 22 forms correspond to its stages (cf. III1f), and end in Buddhahood. The 22 kinds of P are also found in Asanga’s Sutralamkara (ch. IV. 15-20), although in a different order. A3. Thirdly, there are various p

hroughout at contrasting the Bodhisattva-doctrine of the great vehicle with the teachings of the Disciples, and at correcting the views and practices of the Disciples by infusing them with the spirit of emptiness. In the firs

re of reality, and about the attitude to be adopted towards it. Things, or “dharmas”, are, by their nature, empty; they are really emptiness itself. We cannot “get at” them, but only at their names, which do not really represent them. We therefore should not “review” anything at all, should not “settle down” in anything. It is noteworthy that the ontology of the Prajnaparamit

sented here, and elsewhere (cf. P 39, 99, 150), as a simple continuation, or extension, of the traditional Buddhist doctrine of “not-self” (an-atta). It is supposed to be well known and agreed upon that the “self”, and other expressions which imply a “self”, such as “being”, “living soul”, “person”, “organism”, “individual”, “one who feels”, “agent”, or “thinking subject”, etc. are mere words, to which an ultimate reality nothing at all corresponds. What is true of the self is now said to be true also of all other supposed entities which, in their differentiation, are data which somehow imply a separate self, and therefore will be unreal on the level of accomplished self-extinction on which alone the truth becomes discernible. A3b. I

rior to that of the Arhats, because in his compassion he puts it at the disposal of all beings, so that they may be able to win Nirvana. This superiority is based on the “thought of enlightenment” (see A2), and the 6 perfections (P 41), and it finds

sunyata-karuna-garbha. H.

H 16.

pranidhi

prasthana = setting out, see CII, 4. 20

and expression in the fact that, as the source of all that is good in the world, the Bodhisattvas are worthy of the gifts of all beings, including the Arhats. A3c. The prelim

ect wisdom. The translation is not easy to follow because of the ambiguities of the word yoga, and of its derivatives yukta and yojayati, which are used in many shades of meaning, and have to rendered by “joins”, “join up”, “undertaking”, “endeavour”, “endeavouring”, “discipline”, and so on. The argument begins with a reinter

hs of the sermon at Benares (A – D). The connection is not immediately obvious at first sight, and requires prolonged study to be noticed.22 Then follows a discourse on the first two “Jewels”, i.e. the Buddha (E) and the Dharma (F). The third, the Samgha, the Community of Saints, is dealt with in A3d. A3d. The remaining instructions have in

with the formula “there a Bodhisattvas, great beings”. They deal with the various kinds of Bodhisattvas. First of all (A3dI) they consider the differences which arise from the circumstances of their rebirth, and their place on the spiritual ladder. The decisive experience of a Buddhist takes place when he “wins the Path”. He then ceases to be a common man, and becomes a “saint”, or arya. The classification of the “saintly, or holy persons” (aryapudgala) had, early on, occupied the minds of the scholastics, and this section of the Sutra may usefully be compared with the Pali Puggalapannatti, and with Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakosa. I have not discovered the principle which underli

ification adopted by S. P read into the text a scheme of 20 different kinds of saints, all of them “irreversible” according to H. But P had to make considerable rearrangements, as well as some additions and omissions. In a general way the types seem arranged, both in S and in P, in an ascending order of worth. The enumeration begins with the “Streamwinner”, and ends with the last stage of a Bodhisattva’s career, when he has become a Buddha. This leads to a number of remarks on a variety of practices, or

wments, of a Buddha (A3dII), first of all perfect purity (1), and all-knowledge (2, 3); and the five eyes (4), the six superknowledges (5), and the knowledge of all modes and evenmindedness (6).

A – C form the core of the Heart Sutra.

21

The five eyes, o

tioned quite early on in Buddhist history. The account here agrees in general with the tradition of the older schools. The essential objects of each “eye”, are, according to H: 1. separate differentiated things; 2. decease and rebirth of beings23; 3. all dharmas viewed in direct intuition, without intervention of any discursive thought (avikalpana)24; 4. the faculty of attainment (adhigama) peculiar to different kinds of saints25; 5. all dharmas which are fully understood (abhisambodha) in all their aspects and modes.26 The insistence on the nonapprehension of the five “eyes” is the special instruction here. The list of the six superknowledg

e traditional lore of the Buddhists. The first five describe psychic qualities, the sixth is peculiar to the Buddha. The special instruction consists, according to H, in that they should be seen from the standpoint of the Absolute as “quiescent from the outset”.27 A3dII6.

gatives of a Buddha: 1. The knowledge of all modes, which does not proceed by opposing one concept to another, and which is not an act of mind, and 2. an evenmindedness to which all dharmas are the same, and identical. H treat A3dII6 as a part of A3dII5. In several texts the magical power “without outflows” is equated with evenmindedness.28 A4. The prelimin

rlude, which falls into three parts: In the second part the great Disciples give their assent to the instructions; they acknowledge the superiority of the perfection of wisdom of the Bodhisattvas, and the Buddha once more (cf. A3b) explains that the Bodhisattvas are the source of all the good there is in the world. The first and third parts deal briefly with the prediction of the future Buddhahood of various members of the assembly. The descriptions follow in general the stereotyped lines laid down in

The heavenly eye sees beings and thing which are found in the six places of rebirth.

The wisdom eye knows the true character of dharmas. Nag. 439.

The dharma-eye sees by which means (upaya) and which teaching (dharma) a given person finds the Path. Nag. 439.

The Buddha-eye is the direct intuition of all dharmas. Nag. 439.

adi-santatvena-avaboda. H.

Nag. 330 n. 1.

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early Mahayana Sutras. They have, however, some special features which also appear in two passages of the Ashta,29 which are later additions. The parallel suggests that this section of the Sutra was composed about the time of the Christian era, i.e. between 50 B.C. and 50 A.D.

aparamita is reached. All the many thousand lines of this Sutra can be summed up in two sentences: 1. One should become a Bodhisattva (a Buddha-to-be), i.e. someone content with nothing less than all-knowledge attained through the perfection of wisdom for the sake of all living beings. 2. There is no such thing as a Bodhisattva, or all-knowledge, or a “being”, or the perfection of wisdom, or an attainment. The solution of this dilemma lies in nothing else than the fearless acceptance of both contradictory facts. T

d on, is the common theme of B. B1 reiterates the teaching of A1, that the doctrine preached here proceeds from the Buddha’s might, who ever may give utterance to it. At the beginning of B2 the central theme is then stated. Thereafter, chapter 2 of S (=B2) is an expansion and restatement of the short outline of the teaching in A3a. The Bodhisattva, and all that he is made of, is a mere word, inaccessible as dharma, or as factual reality. If B2 were regarded as an attempt at argumentation, it would be unduly prolix. It aims, however at describing a repetitive meditation which is designed to bring about a certain state of mind, and not merely to convince the intellect, but to reform the whole personality. B3. Ch

rks about the degrees of ripeness in insight, which are difficult to follow because the terminology is unfamiliar, and the argument relies to some extent on a play of words. The passage is, however, important in that it sets the theme for the remainder of B. B3 contrasts, by a series of allusions, the distinctive atti

dhisattva with that of a Disciple. When a Disciple practises

ch. 19 end, ch. 28 beginning.

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the meditation of the (16) aspects, or attributes of the four holy Truths, i.e. impermanence, etc.,30 he uses it as an antidote to the belief in a separate individual self. With this end in view he “settles down” in the conviction that impermanence, etc., represent actual properties of actual facts (dharmas). The Bodhisattva, on the other hand, contemplates those same aspects as antidotes to a belief in separate dharmas. He can therefore accuse the Disciple of a “craving for separate dharmas” (dharmatrishna), “craving” being the very opposite of the emancipation intended by such contemplations. A Bodhisat

cterised by “rawness”, or “immaturity”. The translation is here somewhat unintelligible because the argument relies on contrasting two Sanskrit words, amah and ny-amah. Nyamah, Pali niy-yama, means “the way of salvation”, “the certainty of winning salvation by pursuing a certain way”. Buddhist etymology derives nyama from ama, “raw, crude, immature” – as nis-ama “de-rawing, ripening”.31 “Rawness” is identified with the defilements, and the condition of being an ordinary unconverted person. One distinguishes (at P 182) the distinctive Bodh

lvation” from that of a Disciple32 and of a Pratyekabuddha.33 The term nyama denotes that stage at which each type knows for certain that they will, by their own distinctive methods, win the particular kind of salvation of which they are capable, i.e. Arhatship, Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment, full enlightenment. In the case of Bodhisattvas one can also say that they “enter into the fixed condition of a Bodhisattva” (as nyama is translated at P 66). At P 107 the entrance into the Bodhisattva-niyama is mentioned together with the entrance into the irreversible stage. The stage of certainty is preceded by another stag

characteristic that one can “fall” from it. Traditionally that stage is known as the “Summits”. The scholastics of the Sarvastivadins distinguished four stages preceding entrance into the Path by the name of “Aids to penetration” (nirvedhabhagiya).

For the list see my Buddhist Meditation, 1956, pp. 142-146.

Tibetan: nyama = skyon med-pa, absence of fault; niyama = nes-par’gyur-ba = fixed determination, what is certain to come about.

Also called samyaktva-niyama in A ii 38, as Pali sammattaniyama-avakkanti. samyaktva = Nirvana at A.K. vi 181.

33 so H 903, 14 opposes bodhisattva-nyama-avakranti to sravaka-pratyekabuddhabodhi. Similarly P 21.

24

They bore the names “Heat”, “Summits”, “Patience”, “Supreme mundane dharmas”. In the text here they are preferred to by the term “wholesome roots”. The Aids to penetration are parts of the preparatory path (prayogamarga) which leads up to the intuition of the truth (satya-abhisamaya) in the Streamwinner, and they have the four Truths in their 16 aspects for object. On the second stage, the “Summits” (murdan), one has yet little faith in the three Jewels, and from it one can “fall”. The definition of the “Summits” which the Sutra here has in view is given in the Abhidharmakosa34: “They are called ‘Summits’ because they are the highest among the unfixed (a-cala) wholesome roots, i.e. of those from which one can fall; either one falls back from them, or one goes beyond them in the (next stage of) Patience”. The third stage Patience (kshanti), seems alluded to in the phrase “adaptable craving for dharmas”35 in the text. It implies a contrast to “patience conforming to dharmas”,36 which is an attitude to be adopted relative to “deep dharmas,” and the descriptions given by Nagarjuna37 well tally with the attitude to dharmas enjoined here. The text therefore envisages here

guishes three “clans” (gotra) of saints, each with a distinctive aim, programme of practices, and stages of progress. The other distinguishes four preparatory stages in the career of the saints, the “Aids to penetration”. The two traditions are combined already in the Abhidharma of the Sarvastivadins. According to the Mahavibhasha38 the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas can, in the first two preparatory staes, still change their clan, and choose to become Buddhas. But by the time they have reached the stage of “Patience”, they are too specialised and fixed to modify (avivartya) their approach. Once he has gone to his distinctive stage of

VI 164

35 anulomiki dharma-trishna. – In H to A xvi 322 the bodhisattva-nyama-avakranti is identified with the third nirvedha-bhagiya (esp. H 633, 21), in H to A xvii 331, however, with duhke dharma-jnana-kshanti. In A.K. vi 175 one is capable of entering nyama after the fourth stage, agra-dharma. A vi 179 sq., dharma-jnana-kshanti follows immediately on agradharma, i.e. the duhke dharma-jnana-kshanti. This is entrance into samyaktva-niyama, which makes and arya. – The whole problem of kshanti is full of obscurities, which have so far not been cleared up.

dharma-anulomiki kshanti.

Mpp-s 327, 337, 396.

Lin li-kuan, L’aid-memoire de la vraie loi, 1949, p. 293. – cf. Also A.K. VI pp. 175-6.

25

“Patience”, a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha can no more fall into the bad destinies, i.e. he cannot be reborn in hell, as an animal, or as a ghost. This fact then excludes him from the career of a Bodhisattva who has made a vow to be sometimes reborn in the bad destinies, so as to comfort and convert the damned, the animals and the ghosts. The Sutra here states the conditions under which a Bodhisattva falls from his own distinctive path, and those under which he goes along it. So much about B3. After the Bodhisattva has spent one incalculable aeo

ructions”,39 he now enters into the “path of training”, the stage of a “beginner”.40 The purpose of the “Aids to penetration” is, as we saw, to bring about a condition which makes the path of vision appear, and which destroys the quality of being an average, unconverted person.41 Buddhaghosa’s Visuddhimagga gives a masterly account of the meditations which precede entrance into the Path. As a result of these meditations42 indifference of repulsion (patikulyata) to complexes (sankhara), or conditioned events, is established. One wants to be released from them, grasps them in contemplation, sees nothing in them one could seize upon as I or mine, puts away fear or delight, and becomes indifferent (udasino) and impartial (majjhato) to all “complexes”, as not really concerning one at all. One turns away from them and views the tranquil Path, Nirvana as calm. All signs which indicate anything conditioned stand out as mere impediments, or obstacles (palibodha).43 One makes Nirvana into the object, which is signless, procedureless, without complexes, the stopping of complexes, by means of a cognition “which passes beyond the kinship and plane of average men, which enters into the kinship and plane of the Ariyas”. It is the first turning to, the first laying to heart, the first bringing to mind of Nirvana as object.44 We do not, I think possess a description of the m

ices associated with the “Aids to penetration” among either Sarvastivadins or Madhyamikas. We are much better informed

so H 36.

prayoga-marga = adhimukti-carya-bhumi H 64. adikarmika. cf. at P 154.

A.K. VI 167.

V.M. 656.

V.M. 672.

For similes see V.M. 673 sq.

26

about the interpretation of the Yogacara School.45 As interpreted by the Yogacarins, the Aids to penetration aim at first to remove the belief in separate outer objects, and the inclination towards them, and thereafter to bring about a concentration in which “the light of the gnosis appears as without the distractions caused by the separate representation of a perceiving subject”.46 Although in their details the Yogacara accounts of the Aids to penetration are heavily coloured by the theories which are specific to that school, in a general way the removal of both object and subject can be regarded as the red thread which goes through the argumentation of B4 to B10.

It must still be mentioned that the Aids to penetration arise through meditational development,47 and that they require a state of concentration, or trance. As a matter of fact, the two last Aids to penetration can be accomplished only in the fourth trance (dhyana), which is the necessary prerequisite (asraya) for entry into the path of vision.48 The Sutra mentions two concentrations, one at P 133 and one at P 142, which occur according to H on the “Summits” and “Supreme dharmas” respectively. The two insights are called “concentrations”, because of the peaceful calm which accompanies them.49

B4 to 10 gives an ontological analysis of a Bodhisattva on the decisive stages of his career. These stages are not thought to be achieved here, but are described as they are conceived in the course of the meditations preceding the path of vision. The argument refers to the following ten events in a Bodhisattva’s career: 1. He gains the thought of enlightenment, P 121-122; 2. becomes irreversible P 107, 117-120, 123, 128; win 3. perfect wisdom P 123, 136; and 4. the prediction, P 144; 5. he “goes forth” to the knowledge of all modes, P 138, 141; 7. obtains perfect purity, P 138 (cf. A3dII1); 8. gains apparitional rebirth, P 138 (corresponds to the 9th bhumi in P 224); 9. is able to know full enlightenment, P 141; and 10. reaches the knowledge of all modes, P 151-154.

Alternatively chapters 3 to 6 of S may survey four aspects of a

Haribhadra 63-64; Sutralamkara VI 9; XIV 23-26; Madhyantavibhaga 26-27; Mahayanasamgraha III 7, 9, 13. Siddhi 575-584, 602-3.

artha-grahaka-vikshepa-anabhaso jnanaloka nishpadyate. H 64.

bhavana. A.K. VI 170.

Siddhi 583.

49 Rgs I 10 … anupadahi sprisati santi-samadhi sreshtham. 11. eva-atma-santa viharamn ...

27

Bodhisattva’s spiritual life: -

I.

The thought of enlightenment, which initates, accompanies, and concludes it (B4).

II.

The perfect wisdom which inspires him, viewed as an object (B5, 6, 6a).

III.

His relation to all-knowledge and enlightenment (B7b – 8).

IV.

That all the constituents of his spiritual life are due to ignorance and are illusory (B9, 10)

I have had great difficulty in unravelling the sequence of the argument, and am not sure that I have always succeeded in doing so.

I. (B4) The idea that the thought of the Absolute, being an absolute thought, is “transparent luminosity” (pra-bhasvara)50 repeats an old tradition, that “thought in its substance is luminous through and through, but has become defiled by adventitious taints”.51 Such a self-luminous and pure thought is at the heart of all reality. It is the original reality which we have covered up with all sorts of coverings. The dialectics of a thought which is really no thought – a thought, which, as unconditioned, is included neither in mind nor in consciousness, and is without a separate object – is here simply asserted. Its logical implications are ignored, the descriptions of the ways of getting to it occupy the rest of the Sutra. At this point the Sutra is content to state that in his attitude to this thought, as to all data of experience, the Bodhisattva should not “fancy himself”. The connotations of the Sanskrit phrase na manyate cannot be reproduced by one single English word. Man-yate is connected on the one side with man-as “mind”, and on the other with mana, “conceit”. In the first sense it can be translated as “to think of or about”, “to consider”, “to mind (about)”, “to put one’s mind to”, “to have in mind”, “to have in view”, “to set one’s heart on”, “to fix the thoughts on”, “to wish, or strive”, “to care about”. In the second sense it means “to be conceited about”, “to fancy oneself for”.52 Conceit is due to a false sense of

Pali : pabhassara; or pandara in Asl. 140.

Anguttara Nikaya, 1, 8 – 10.

Also Pali mannati, to be proud of, to be conceited, to boast. – manyana = Pali mannana, at A xxi 387, 389, and xxix 480. – H to A xi 235 explains by utkarsha. In this sense the term is used at A I 5, 8, 13. – Also P 84, 121, 145, 171. – Often manyate means to “think falsely, fancy”, as e.g. in A I 24, iv 94, xi 233, and other cases. – At A vi 161 “mind” = seize = get at = construct = discriminate =

28

ownership and an insufficient extinction of self. It is discussed more amply in the later parts of the Sutra.53

IIa. (B5) The Bodhisattva next considers that from the point of view of ultimate reality all things neither appear nor disappear, and that in consequence they can be neither affirmed nor denied. Furthermore (at I3g), seen from the Absolute all dharmas are unutterable, and verbal fictions are all that we ever operate with.

IIb. (B6a) Because of the emptiness of all entities one should “not stand” in, or on, them, i.e. one should not insist on their reality. “Not to take one’s stand” is equated with “not settling down in the fixed conviction” that this is so or so, or with not having a fixed inclination to do, to win or to lose something.54 The best way of avoiding the fault of “standing” on dharmas is not to bring them in at all,55 and to refrain from any act of discrimination which may turn to them.56 The often repeated saying that the Bodhisattva should “stand in perfect wisdom by not taking his stand anywhere” is explained by Asanga57 as the avoidance of five standpoints:

1. He does not take his stand on a belief in a self (see P 132). And thus does not say “I know”, “this is my wisdom”.

2. He does not take his stand on the conceptions of Bodhisattvas who have not seen the true reality, and thus he does not try to define wisdom in any way.

“When you see a thing, it puts you into its bondage;

When you do not see it, then you are free of it.”

3. He does not abide in either Samsara or Nirvana, avoiding them both as extremes (anta).

4. He rejects the standpoint of the Disciples who are content to cut off their own passions, as well as 5. that of the Disciples who dwell in Final Nirvana to the detriment of the welfare of beings.

“Turning of the mind”58 is, according to Vasubandhu,59 the

see = review. – H to A i 5 = abhinivesam na kuryad. H to A i 9 = tattvato na budhyate. H to A I 13 = savikalpena tattvato’sattvat. 53

S ch. 45.

asthanayogena = anabhinivesayogena H to A I 8 = S 582.

asthanata = anivesatah H to A xii 274.

rupa-abhoga-vikalpa.

Mahayanasamgraha 253.

cetasa abhoga.

Trimsika 20.

29

decisive trait of the act of attention which dwells on an object for more than one moment, and the negation of “formative influence” therefore follows directly from that of “standing”. In the Ashta60 the Lord is quoted as identifying “formative influence”61 with “discrimination”,62 and the later Pali tradition counts “formative influence” among the Maras.63 As a secondary meaning of the term we may mention “accumulation of karma”.64 In its etymological meaning the term means “to bring together”, “perform”, “prepare”, “render effective”. In its connotations the term is connected with samskara, “impulses”, the fourth skandha, which is defined by abhisamskarana as its mark,65 and with the will66 and its creations, and with the conditioned, which is created by it. In B6a “formative influences” are further connected with “taking hold” of something, and he who attempts to take hold of something does not reckon with its essential emptiness.

IIc. (B8b) Further, all “signs” should be avoided. We have to do with a “sign” (nimitta) wherever the impression of a stimulus is either taken as an indication that there is something there – as in perception – or as a reason for doing something about something. The taking up of a “sign” is regarded as the salient feature of perception. Innocuous as it may seem, perception as such is an obstacle to salvation in that it is both erroneous and misleading. It is erroneous because the world as perceived is largely a fabrication of our desire for adaptation to it, and covers up the vision of what is really there, i.e. Nirvana, or the succession of ceaselessly changing momentary dharmas. It is misleading because, as the commentators put it, we first “recognize” a set of data as a “man”, or a “woman”, and then base bad actions on that “recognition”. The sign is “defilement”, and the Absolute is called the “signless” (animitta). It is, indeed, unrecognizable when met.

Srenika the Wanderer is, according to Nagarjuna67 the Srenika Vatsagotra, who in the Pali texts is simply called Vacchagotta. A

A xviii, 346 = S ch 41.

abhisamskaro = citta-abhoga H.

vikalpa = viparyasa H.

Thag-A II 46, Ud-A 216, V.M. 211. Five Maras: khandha-, kilesa-, abhisankhara-, maccu-, devaputta-, -C. Nidd. No. 506 kammabhisankaravasena patisandhiko khandhamaro dhatumaro ayatanamaro.

as in A vii 183.

samkhatam abhisamkharonti A.K. I 29, S.N. 87.

A.K. iv 169 = cetayate.

Mpp-s, Lamotte 46 n, 184 n.

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number of his conversations with the Buddha are recorded. They are scattered through the Pali Canon, but combined into one section in the Samyuktagama of the Sarvastivadins. The text refers here to a Sutra68 which, according to Nagarjuna,69 discussed “Srenika the Believer” and at the same time, according to the Vibhasha70 and Nagarjuna, preached the emptiness of all dharmas. Since Subhuti’s argument is difficult, and since we are inclined to lean on signs, and do not see how we can have faith without a sign, “Subhuti here takes as his witness the Little Vehicle where it speaks of the emptiness of dharmas, How could those who practice the great vehicle not believe in it?”

Srenika showed “faith”, first, in that he believed that the Buddha could help him to find the path,71 and, second, in that he was willing to accept the Tathagata in spite of the fact that he could not be related to any of the skandhas, i.e. to form, etc. He entered into a “cognition with a limited scope” which, according to Haribhadra means that it was directed to the absence of a self in persons,72 and not also in dharmas). Srenika was concerned to find a true self, in other words, the Tathagata. Nagarjuna relates that Srenika originally took the person as one lump, and that therefore the Buddha asked him about its elements. He had also heard people speak of the “I” in two ways, as identical with the five skandhas, and as different from them. The skandhas are multiple, and the I is one – so they cannot be identical. The self would be born and perish as the skandhas do, and it would not be independent of causes and conditions – thus it would not be the true self. Therefore, how can something outside the five skandhas have the character of “I” or “self”? As Nagarjuna puts it, “Srenika’s second act of faith consisted in that, when he had heard that the Buddha denied the self, and said that from the beginning there was none, he accepted the fact that, because there is no self, the dharmas have no support, and are like a dream, a mirage, nonapprehensible. Having obtained power of faith, he entered into the true mark of dharmas, and did not mistake form for the

68 i.e. Samyukta no. 105 (pp. 3

M.N. 72, 487, cf. 481.

Mpp-s chuan 42, p. 368b; cf. 350a.

p. 3 profound abhidharma (?) = sunyata. 71 Samyu

p. 50 pudgala-nairatmya. 31

Srenika

“Do you regard the Tathagata as form?” “No.” “As in form?” “No.” “As outside form?” “No.” “As the absence of form?” “No.” “When, under all these aspects, you do not see the Tathagata, should you doubt, and say: What is there fixed and definite in the Buddhas’ doctrine?” “No.” Srenika then won the path, and became an Arhat. This is how Nagarjuna recounts the Sutra. The Samyukta-agama has some variations. There it is stated expressly that the initial question assumes that the true self is identical with the reality which survives death, and that three answer are possible: 1. The self is eternal, 2. the self is cut off, 3. (the self is) the Tathagata. IId. (B6c) Perfect w

neither found nor got at, and one should accept this fact without losing heart. IIe. (B6a) Nor

that a Bodhisattva has perfect wisdom, “is not lacking in it”, one seems to attribute to him a property. Such attribution of properties is quite incompatible with the emptiness of all dharmas. III. then considers the statements one may make about a

isattva’s relations to the knowledge of all modes, or to enlightenment. In each case, such statements must be seen in the light of emptiness, and they really assert or posit nothing at all. B7b. The Bodhisattva “goes forth” to all-knowledge. That

ment must take account of the fact that no dharma is ever “born” – originated into birth-and-death, or “goes forth”, escapes from it – since it has no own-being and no nature of its own. B7c. Skill in means is a well-known condition of winning

htenment. It is now defined as the absence of all the false attitudes described in B5-7a. B7d. The knowledge o

those dharmas do not in themselves exist, it is without an object, it is a non-dual cognition, i.e. one which differs substantially from the cognitions with which we are familiar. B8. It is stated that the Buddhas deliver

e enlightenment to a Yogin who practices true meditation and whose personality possesses such a constitution, made of form, etc. that the Buddhas can base a prophecy on it. This statement is not, however really true, because it implies false discriminations. IV. The analysis is fitly summed up by the conclusion

rate entities do not exist, and are all ignorance (B9) and 32

illusion (B10). B9 can be regarded as the removal of the false discrimination of an object, and B10 (from 1 3u) that of a subject. B9a. First of all, the non-existence of separate dharmas,

h results from the foregoing analysis, is connected with ignorance. This Sanskrit root VID means both to “know” and to “find”, and therefore a-sam-VID-yamana “do not exist”, and a-VID-ya, “ignorance”, are more closely connected in Sanskrit than they are in English. The belief in the existence of dharmas which really do not exist is ignorance. Ignorance is the first link of conditioned coproduction. The doctrine of conditioned coproduction is restated in what follows. The argument is perhaps made more intelligible by a parallel passage in Candrakirti’s Prasannapada73: “Because of the apprehension of a self, and of what belongs to a self, beings do not overcome birth-and-death. And why? It is because one reviews self and other, that action-forming forces (karma-abhisamskara) come about. The foolish untaught common people who do not know that all dharmas are absolutely, completely nirvanised get at ‘self’ and other. Having got at that, they settle down in it. They then become greedy, full of hatred and confused. Thereupon they bring about the threefold action – by body, speech, and mind. Discriminating, by superimposition,74 what does not exist, they say ‘I am greedy, full of hatred, confused’.” B9b then infers from

ttitude to be adopted to perfect wisdom, enlightenment. B9c is absent in S. It is an addition made by P, to bring ho

act that neither must one assume the reality of the objective elements, nor must one believe in the subject as an ultimately real agent the experiences. B10 considers, fina

goes to enlightenment and finds that it is nothing but an illusion. B11

rience, which has been expounded in B4 – 10, would have a most demoralising effect on spiritual life if it were not counterbalanced by a positive attitude to other people. While he is still in the initial stages of his training, on the level of a

xvii, 296.

so’sat-samaropena vikalpayati.

33

beginner,75 the Bodhisattva needs some social support, some “sustenance” (samparigraha H). In order to stand the Void he must be firmly anchored in society. Those who are engaged in completely isolating themselves from everything, and in purifying themselves of it, are in need of association with spiritual friends (B12) to keep up their morale. If the house is well garnished and cleaned, one must beware lest worse devils enters into it. According to a Tibetan commentary,76 the two supports mentioned in B11 and 12 are 1. internal, i.e. the cognition which enables one to reject the two extremes of phenomenal existence and the Hinayanistic Nirvana; 2. external, i.e. the spiritual preceptor and teacher.

B11. First, all people in general are one’s support in so far as one regards their welfare as one’s personal responsibility, and “never abandons all beings”, as the Sutra says elsewhere.77 The text here indicates the practice of the six perfections with a thought associated with the knowledge of all modes as the basis for the “skill in means”, and the absence of depression and fear as its fruit.

B12. Buddhist texts frequently emphasise the necessity of a good spiritual friend (kalyana-mitra). It is mentioned in other parts of the Sutra as well,78 and Santideva has collected an instructive number of passages from a variety of texts.79 The “true friend” is one who helps us to win a better destiny, or the ultimate goal of Buddhahood. The term does not refer so much to good companions as to one’s teacher, the spiritual adviser from whom one learns the Dharma, and whom one should revere. He is important as a protector against the forces of evil, personified in Mara – who twist the teaching. In other parts of the Sutra80 the “deeds of Mara” are enumerated in greater detail than here.

C

C. A new topic is now taken up in chapters 7 to 11 of S: What is a Bodhisattva? (CI) What is a great being? (CII)

so’sat-samaropena vikalpayati.

nava-yana-samprasthita = adikarmika A xv, 292.

A xxvii, 448 = S ch. 49.

A xv, 292 = S ch. 37; A xxii, 396 = S ch. 45.

Sikshasamuccaya pp. 34 – 44.

A xii = S ch. 31 – 32; A xii = S ch. 45.

34

What is the great vehicle? (CIII).

CI. As to the first, the exact question is: bodhisattva kah pada-arthah? literally, “Bodhisattva”, “what is the pada-arthah?” “Pada-artha” either means, 1. “meaning (artha) of a word” (pada), or, 2. that which corresponds to the meaning of a word, i.e. a “thing”. The answer is: “a-pada-arthah bodhisattva-pada-arthah”, literally “nothing is the meaning of the word ‘Bodhisattva’”. One may also translate: “‘Bodhisattva’, what entity is that? – The entity ‘Bodhisattva’ is a nonentity”.

The remainder of the chapter based on a play of words, between pada-artha and padam, as noted in the translation. It elaborates a famous verse in the Dhammapada,81 which I quote here according to the Sanskrit version of the Udanavarga.82

“Of those who have no hoard, who have well comprehended food.83

Whose range is the Void, is the Signless, is Detachment84 –

As the track of birds in the sky (space), so is their track85 hard to follow.

Those in whom becoming has dried up, who do not lean on the future,86

Whose range is the Void, is the Signless, is Detachment –

As the track of birds in the sky, their track is hard to follow.”

The text here inserts a classification of dharmas, by way of describing the objective foundation (alambanam) of a Bodhisattva’s activity, as a counterpart to CI which, according to Haribhadra, demonstrates the true essential inner nature of a Bodhisattva, the subjective substratum of the properties of a Buddha.87 In the form of a diagram:

All dharmas

┌───────┼────┐

A. wholesome B. unwholesome C. indeterminate

├─────────────┐

1. worldly = 2. supramundane =

vv. 92 – 93.

XXIX, 23 – 24 in Rockhill; no. 35 – 42 in Stzb. Pr. Ak. Wiss., 1908, pp. 977 – 985.

bhajana: the necessaries of life.

vi-veka.

or: future destiny; padam, or gati.

are unconcerned about it; hy aparantam ca nasritah.

pada-artha = pratishtha-artha = prakritistham gotram = primordial lineage = pratipatter adhara.

35

with outflows without outflows

┌─────────┤

2a conditioned 2b unconditioned

┌─────────┤

2ba common 2bb uncommon

“Indeterminate” dharmas are actions which have no karmic effect, either wholesome or unwholesome. “Wholesome” dharmas should be accepted, “unwholesome” rejected, “indeterminate” ignored. As to the “wholesome”, the “worldly” are found in ordinary people, while the “supramundane” are included in the right path of the Saints. Since worldly dharmas are “with outflows”, not an antidote to the seizing on self, they should be shunned, just as the “supramundane” should, for the opposite reason, be accepted. The “supramundane” are, when contemplated, either “conditioned” or “unconditioned”. “Conditioned” elements relate to the empirical conventional world, are included in the triple universe, and depend on causes and conditions. Haribhadra instances the 37 wings to enlightenment. The “unconditioned” elements relate to ultimate reality, are not included in the triple universe, and do not depend on conditions. Suchness is an example. When developed, supramundane dharmas are either “common” or “uncommon”. The “common” manifest themselves in the spiritual stream (santana) of all the Saints, the “uncommon”, such as the 10 powers, only in that of the Buddha. Again the latter should be preferred.

CII. Next, the meaning of “great being”. Four definitions are given by the Buddha himself, by Sariputra, by Subhuti, and by Purna (CII, 4), CII, 1 – 3 expound the aim, goal or programme (samuddesa) of Mahayanistic activity. Haribhadra88 says that CII, 1 – 3 correspond to the three stages of the conquest of a country by a king: he annihilates all hostile forces; takes possession of the ground thus gained; attains a predominant position with regard to other kings.

CII, 1. The Buddha, the great Compassionate One, sees the greatness of the Bodhisattva in his comprehensive service to others.

CII, 2. Sariputra, chief protagonist of Abhidharma-wisdom, characteristically stresses the negative aspect of his greatness, the

p. 83.

36

forsaking of all false views.

CII, 3. Subhuti sees the greatness of the Bodhisattva in his final positive achievement (adhigama), i.e. the thought of enlightenment and of all-knowledge. In his explanation of the Bodhisattva’s nonattachment to his thought, Subhuti, in the account given by the Ashta,89 repeats what he had said before (at B4) about the “thought of enlightenment”, and it is there, and not in CII, 3, either in S or in P, that he makes one of the remarks about which Sariputra questions him (see ch. 12 n. 3).

CII, 4. Purna, son of Maitrayani, was “the foremost in explaining the doctrine”.90 With his answer a new argument begins – a description of the various stages of progress (pratipatti, H) of the Bodhisattva.

According to Haribhadra, the argument from CII, 4 to the end of D is occupied with the four kinds, or stages, of “progress”. These correspond, according to Asanga,91 as follows, to the stages of a Bodhisattva’s career. The “putting on of the armour” (CII, 4), which signifies vigour, and the “setting out”92 (CII, 5 – 6) correspond to the initial stages of “equipment with merit” and of “action in resolute faith”, the “progress in equipment”,93 up to CIII, 1e, to the upper part of the “path of training”, the first stages of CIII, 1f to the “path of vision”, the remaining stages of CIII, 1f to the “path of development”, CIII, 2 to both paths, and the “progress in going forth” (CIII, 3 and D) has the last three stages of the “path of development” for basis (adhisthana).

CII, 4. The first step in the progress is “to put on the great armour”. The Bodhisattva is a hero, a warrior, and an “armour” seems appropriate to him. The armour consists in the six perfections, which are again described, first in general, with special stress on the altruism of a Bodhisattva, and then one by one in great detail. Thirty-six varieties are surveyed, 6 groups of 6 – each perfection being combined with all the others.

CII, 5, 6. After that we hear what occurs when the

I 19 – 20.

A.N. I, p. 23. – Mpp-s 196 n.

H 84.

samprasthita.

def. H 106, Ob. 184: samasta-mahayana-anushthanena sambhriyate samudagama-bhavena mahabodhir ebhih., bring to full accomplishment the whole of the Mahayanistic Path, representing thus an amassing (of the factors) of the great enlightenment, in the sense of bringing it to full realization. 37

Bodhisattva, next, sets out94 in the great vehicle (CII, 5), and, after that when he mounts on95 it (CII, 6). To “set out” means to get started. If “mounting on” is a later step, the translation is faulty, and one should render the term by “ascend on”. This is suggested by Haribhadra,96 according to whom the Bodhisattva first “sets out” in the vehicle which represents the factors and results of the path,97 and then “ascends on” it, or “by means of it”, inasmuch as he comes to higher and still higher degrees of perfection.98

CII, 7. After Purna had (at CII, 4 – 6) explained the practical task of a Bodhisattva in its three initial stages, Subhuti and the Buddha consider the actual reality which can be attributed to these practical endeavours. They and their objects have only the reality value of a magical illusion, of a magical show, owing to the illusory nature of the “beings” involved.

The ontological analysis now proceeds in three steps:

1.

In actual reality, the Bodhisattva is not armed with the great armour, because “to be armed with the great armour” is an attribute, a mark, which may be said to be his own, and the emptiness of all “marks” means that their negation can be attributed to a thing, or a person, with the same justification as their affirmation.

2.

One makes practical efforts to bring something about, to ‘make” something. But there is no maker of anything, nor any power to make, or to put together. This is, in the final analysis, due to their “beyond-end-ness”.

3.

The practical efforts aim at emancipation, or deliverance. As such they are without a real basis, because one cannot claim that anything, as it exists, is either bound or freed. Candrakirti99 defines “bondage” as the defilements, like greed, etc., since they deprive of their autonomy100 the beings who are bound by them. Because a common man is in their bondage, he cannot rise above the triple word. Freedom consists in cutting through the bonds

Its mark (H 86) is to be samyak-vyavasthita, its essence is the attainment of a correct position, and the process of mastering all the properties of a Mahayanistic saint (samasta-mahayana-dharmakramana-svabhava).

samarudho.

H 85.

hetu-phalapatmaka-dharma.

uttarottara-visesha-adhigaman.

Prasannapada

0 a-sva-tantri-karane.

38

of the passions. These passions are essentially ignorance, which again is the result of making distinctions, e.g. between “to be” and “not to be”, or between “Nirvana” and “birth-and-death”, “emancipation” and “bondage”, and so on.101

CIII. Next, the argument proceeds to the meaning of the great vehicle. The Sutra begins here with five questions asked by Subhuti, as in AI 23. The questions are then answered, one by one: the first in CIII, 1 a-e, the second in CIII, 1f, and the third to fifth in CIII, 2. It must be borne in mind that the Large Prajnaparamita is an expansion of the Ashta, and that CIII, 1, a-f are represented there by only three short sentences.

In one of the more systematic parts of the Sutra, the great vehicle is now defined through its constituents (CIII, 1).

CIII, 1a. First, of course, the six perfections, which are briefly defined with special emphasis on the “skill in means”, or the help which we owe to others.

CIII, 1b. Considering the paramount importance of the idea of emptiness, a list of 20 kinds of emptiness is particularly welcome. The term “emptiness” as such is said to mean “neither unmoved nor destroyed”. “Unmoved” (a-kutastha) means that it overtowers (kuta) all change, is unchangeable in what it is, in its own being, “steadfast as a mountain peak, as a pillar firmly fixed”.102 The opposite would be the change, or destruction, of its own being. Both of these are excluded.

Now, from its beginnings, Buddhism has been taught as the “middle way” between the two heresies of Eternalism and Annihilationism. It is now maintained that to say “a thing is” is equivalent to “it is eternally what it is”, “it remains for ever what it is”, and that the formula “it is destroyed” is equivalent to saying that “it is not”. The whole doctrine of emptiness, as taught here, rests on this equivalence.

“Emptiness” is a word for the identity, or nondifference, of “yes” and “no”. It is an antidote to all grasping at false discriminations and conceptions (vikalpa), and it is another term for “nonduality”. “Yes” and “no” are not reflections of actual fact, but of the attitudes of self-willed individuals.

The general notion of emptiness is then applied to 20 different

1 see Prasannapada ch. 11, and Schayer’s German translation, 98 – 103.

2 D.N. I 14 and D.N. –A. 1, 10.

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concepts or categories. Lists of emptinesses were very popular in the Mahayana, and also the Theravadins had one. Outside the Prajnaparamita tradition we have a list of 24 in Patisambhida magga (Pts.) II, 177-184, and of 7 in the Lankaravatara (p. 74). The formulations of the Pts provide an instructive contrast to this section of the Sutra. “Empty” is taken there to mean “empty of self, or of anything that would constitute a self – i.e. of permanence, stability, everlastingness, nonliability to reversal”. On the whole, three meaning of “empty” can be distinguished in that text:

1. Empty of self;103

2. Moving in the direction of Nirvana;104

3. Absence of correlative items in each other.105

The Prajnaparamita list itself, the most authoritative in the Mahayana, may have originally comprised only 16 items, to which at some later date first two,106 and then two more items were added. Sometimes, however, we meet with lists of 7 and 14.107 A few of these forms occur independently in other parts of the text.108

We possess a number of explanations of the items, which however, vary widely among themselves. The earliest is that of Nagarjuna (c. A.D. 150?), as yet untranslated.109 The Yogacara authors, whose writings have come to us, seem to have largely ignored the original intention of the text. We possess a commentary in the Sandhinirmocana-sutra (c. 150),110 in Sthiramati’s Madhyantavibhagatika,111 c. 450, and in Dinnaga’s Pindartha,112 c. 450. The deviation of these authors from the original meaning is due to their desire to find “the real esoteric meaning” of the Sutras.113 The hints of Haribhadra,114 c. 800, are

3 no. 1, 3, 11-13, 14?

4 no. 4, 6-10, 16-24.

5 no. 2, 5, 15.

6 A number of passages mention only 18 items, e.g. P 161; S 1374, 15; 1375, 21; 1403. 10

7 7: S I 137, 14: Gilgit Ad LXIII, 248b.

8 e.g. 3, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 19. – 3 at P 134 (cf. P 89 and A ix 205); 12 at P 173-4, 263; S 137, 139 (P 45), S 604, 613, P fol. 592a; 13 at S 137; 14 at P 48, 93, 134, 169, 191, 222, fol. 470, 477b, 523a; A vii 171, xvii 331, 15 at P 39; 19 at P 84, 198, 262, cf. P 39, 138, fol. 593b. 10

9 Mpp-s ch. 48, chuan 31, pp. 285b-296b.

0 VIII, 29.

1 pp. 45 – 63.

2 vv. 8 – 18.

3 Madhya-v-t. p. 58: sarva-sutranta-abhisamdhi- vyakarana- artham.

40

of great help, although he often seems to do violence to the text by coordinating the 20 forms of emptiness with the ten stages (bhumi) of a Bodhisattva and with the ten kinds of ignorance, which, according to the Yogacaras,115 are removed on the ten stages. Suzuki’s notes116 should also be consulted.

CIII, 1c. The 20 forms of emptiness, which constitute the “equipment with cognition”,117 are followed by a list and short explanation of 112118 concentrations, constituting the “equipment with merit” according to Haribhadra. The Old Wisdom School had known only two kinds of concentrations: either a list of 8, i.e. the 4 trances and the four formless trances (see P 210), or a list of 3 concentrations which are identical with the 3 doors to freedom, i.e. the signless, emptiness, and the wishless (see P 208). In the beginnings of the Mahayana it became usual to give names to a manifold variety of concentrated attentions on insights into aspects of the truth, and even to the concomitants of being in a state of concentration. These concentrations, really innumerable, are said to be varieties of the 3 doors to freedom,119 and they belong to the plane of the 4th trance.120 Lists of such concentrations seem to have been popular in the first centuries of the Christian era. A few are mentioned in the body o the Sutra, outside this chapter.121 Others are found in the Ashta,122 the Saddharmapundarika,123 Samadhirajasutra, Karunapundarika124 and Guhyasamaja.125

The terminology used in this context has not yet been scientifically explored. It is obviously esoteric, and requires initiation by a Guru, which in its turn is said to depend on the merit acquired in the past.

CIII, 1d. Next comes a survey of 21 practices, which

4 pp. 95 – 6.

5 i.e. Mahayanasamgraha ch. 5, 1. Madhy-v-t. pp. 101 – 107. Siddhi pp. 639 – 660.

6 Essays III, 222 – 228.

7 jnana-sambhara H.

8 The number varies in different documents. The Tibetan translation of S, for instance, gives 162. 11

9 Mpp-s. chuan 28, 268a.

0 Lamotte, Mahayanasamgraha 44.

1 cf. Mpp-s 434, 472.

2 xxx, 490-494, a later addition.

3 xxiii, 352-3.

4 p. 99 (118).

5 chapter 13. – A list of four is found in Asanga’s Mahayanasamgraha (xii 3), and in the Siddhi (p. 632), as well as in Dharmasamgraha cxxxvi.

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constitute the “equipment with the path” according to Haribhadra. Most of them are common to all Buddhist schools. As given here they agree to a large extent with the traditions of both Theravadins and Sarvastivadins.

CIII, 1e. Next, the 43, or 42,126 Dharani-doors. A dharani – from DHRI, to carry – is a verbal expression which permits to “bear in mind” a certain truth. It is a help to memory, to prolonged meditation, and, in addition, like a mantra it encloses the magical efficacy of the doctrine, and has power to protect its user from danger. Mukha means “door”, the entrance to a truth, or to an aspect of reality (dharma), or it may mean the “aspect” itself.

In Sanskrit, the vowel A is considered as inseparable from all consonants. A mystical alphabet, the A-RA-PA-CA-NA, became at some unspecified time current in some Buddhist circles.127 It differs from the regular Sanskrit alphabet by the sequence of the letters, the omission of v and of all (i.e. 12) vowels except A, and the inclusion of 13 double consonants. One of these, the letter YSA = Z, cannot possibly occur in Sanskrit words. This fact, together with some other particularities,128 suggests that it took its present shape in the North West corner of India. With the help of the Chinese and Tibetan translations we can follow the development which this section of the Sutra underwent between A.D. 200 and 900. The letters which comprise the Arapacana have remained substantially the same during that period. But there are great variations in the choice of the words used to illustrate them. In one case Nagarjuna’s commentary indicates that a word had its origin in Southern India.129 The text of the Nepalese manuscripts of the Sanskrit text, which date from c. 1800, is, through the ignorance and carelessness of the scribes, often unsatisfactory. My translation follows in general the Gilgit Ms. Of Ad. But in a

6 Some sources give 43, other 42 letters, and we cannot at present decide which number was originally intended. See my The Prajnaparamita Literature, 1960, p. 11 n. 16.

7 Its use seems not to have been confined entirely to the Mahayana, as it is mentioned in the Dharmaguptavinaya, T 1428 xix, in connection with the 6th pacittiya, as a type of joint collective recital.

8 e.g. shanga for sanga at no. 10 is also found in the Kharoshthi Dharmapada. J.As. IX, xii, 1898, pp. 229 v. 3; 245 v. 37. – YSA was introduced between 100 B.C. and A.D. 100 for foreign words. It is akin to the Z of Iran, and is found also in Khotan and Kucha. 12

9 at no. 9, DA – “they do not burn”. See my The Prajnaparamita Literature, 1960, p. 11 n. 17.

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number of cases the Chinese and Tibetan version. The Arapacana is found also in the Gandavyuha,130 but there the explanation of the letters is quite different. The use of the Arapacana continues to the present day, and in later literature it is always connected with the Bodhisattva Manjusri.131 Images of an Arapacana-Manjusri are fairly common.132

The idea of connecting the letters of the alphabet with points of the doctrine is at least as old as the Lalita Vistara,133 where, when the Bodhisattva as a child learns the Sanskrit alphabet, the enunciation of each syllable evokes the miraculous sound, or audition, of a corresponding doctrinal term. The principle is the same as in “A for apple, C for Cat.” It has been reproduced in English only occasionally, as in B for “bond”. The present scheme is in many points dependent on that of the Lalita Vistara.

CIII, 1f. Next, the 10 stages of a holy life. Mystics of all ages have never tired of mapping out the steps of the spiritual ladder. The present arrangement becomes more intelligible when considered as the result of two trends of Buddhist tradition. On the one hand, there was a scheme of the four Paths – Streamwinner, Once-returner, Never-returner and Arhat – elaborated by the Sarvastivadins into a scheme of 7 stages, also mentioned in this Sutra (P 225, 230). On the other hand, the development of a Jataka literature focussed attention on the past lives of the Bodhisattva who became later on the Buddha Sakyamuni. Four fixed points stood out in that career: 1. The prediction by Dipankara; 2. the stage of becoming irreversible; 3. the sojourn in the Tushita heavens, and, of course, 4. the attainment of Buddhahood. When the career of this Bodhisattvas, but even of everyone who followed the doctrine of the Mahayana, it became natural that one should wish to alter the tradition about the stages of the Path, which had been elaborated on the assumption that Arhatship was the goal. The old scheme was not entirely abandoned, but in some way integrated with the six perfections.

It is likely that originally seven stages only were assumed, and that the number was raised to ten when the decimal system

0 ch. 45, pp. 448-51. Each letter is called a prajnaparamitamukha.

1 e.g. T 1171-1174.

32 B Bhattacharya, The Indian Buddhist Iconography, 1958, 120-121. – Filchner p. 441. Tib. A-ra-ba-rtsi-na, connected with Manjughosha. Waddel. Lamaism 151, Arapacana dhi as mantra of Manjughosha.

3 ch. 10 pp. 127 – 128.

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became popular.134 Since Buddhahood is the goal of a Bodhisattva, the very last stage (10) was obviously that of a Buddha, or Tathagata. The one before (9) would be that of a Bodhisattva’s last birth. Prediction and irreversibility – both linked together – would then go into the 7th and (or) 8th stage. The first stage would be that of the “thought of enlightenment”, with which the career of a Bodhisattva properly begins. Another fixed point would be the stage on which the perfection of wisdom in its specific doctrines is fully understood. In this Sutra it is the seventh.135 The correspondence of stages 2 to 6 with the first five perfections does not appear to me to be clearly marked here, but perhaps it was intended.

The Mahasamghikas worked out a primitive, and rather unsystematic, scheme in the Mahavastu.136 Later the Dasabhumika, c. A.D. 100, the Bodhisattvabhumi, c. 400, and the Madhyamakavatara, c. 650, worked out a neater arrangement, which has become classical in Mahayana tradition. Our Sutra stands halfway between the earlier and the final arrangement, and, according to Rahder, it seems to correspond closely to a treatise on the “stages” which is preserved only in the Chinese translation of Fo Nien (383 – 417).137

The text gives, first of all, a simple enumeration of the items. It then repeats them, and adds an explanation to each. The second list often differs verbally from the first, but there are few material discrepancies. In other schemes names are attached to the stages. There are none here.

CIII, 3. Next, we hear why the “great vehicle” is so called. In this part, the Sutra first simply repeats the answer, or rather the five answers, as found in the Ashta (I, 24), and then considers each one of them in detail.

Haribhadra sees here a discussion of “going forth”, which was fore-shadowed in CIII, 2, and which continues until the end of D. “Going forth” (nir-yana) may mean also “marching out of”, or “issuing from”, and there is, of course, in the Sanskrit the connection with “vehicle” (yana). “Progress in going forth” (see at CII, 4) brings about, in the end, the attainment of the omniscience of a Buddha.

4 Hara Dayal, The Bodhisattva Doctrine, 1932, p. 271.

5 In Bodhisattva-bhumi and Dasabhumika it is, however the 6th.

6 I, 76 sq.

7 T 309.

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D

D. We reach now the climax of the argument, i.e. the dialetics of attainment. First of all we are assured (D1) that the Bodhisattva reaches his goal, and attains to all-knowledge. I do not understand, however, what contribution the remarks on “expounding the great vehicle in agreement with the perfection of wisdom” – with which chapter 12 of S begins – make to the progress of the argument.

D2. The impossibility of any kind of attainment is then demonstrated in 3 steps. D2a and D2b employ the same literary device as C did. First, Subhuti gives his answers in brief, and then they are amplified bit by bit. It is rather confusing that one of the remarks here attributed to Subhuti (P 250, ch. 20 n. 6) has in fact been made by Sakra in another, later, part of the Sutra.138

D2a and 2b both begin with the same statement about what a Bodhisattva should do, i.e. not “approach” (upaiti = upa-eti), not “go to”, not “move in the direction of” form, and of the other elements which constitute a Bodhisattva as he is when he has attained. The word “approach” seems synonymous with “get at”,139 and even with “obtain”.140 According to Haribhadra141 one must insert at P 244 after “approach” (cf. ch. 20n. 1): “a Bodhisattva as something that should be attained, and that in its own-being consists of form, etc. Because that Bodhisattva, who should be attained, does not exist”.142 He does not approach the condition of a being who is perfectly identified with enlightenment. The remainder of both D2a and 2b is occupied with the ontological reasons for this practical attitude.

D2a. First of all, nothing is really ever brought forth. The translation here makes clumsy reading, because the words abhi-nir-vritti, abhi-nir-vritta (abhinibbatta in Pali) can, as far as I can see, not be rendered by one single English word. It have

8 i.e. A ii 47 = P f. 219.

9 cf. A xxvi 439: yas ca-atyanta-vivikta dharmo na so’stiti va nastiti va upaiti (“is got at”, “is applicable”).

0 Rgs I 22 = labhyate; Rgs I 23 = upalabhyate. H 114 upaiti = pratipadyate, “go to, arrive at, obtain, gain, receive, perceive, ascertain, consider”; ibd. the synonym upagacchati = svikaroti, “make his own”, “appropriate”.

1 p. 109.

42 nopaiti-iti bodhisattvam kamcit prapyam rupa-adi-svabhavam iti seshah. tasyaiva prapyasya bodhisattvasya-avidyamanatvad iti bhavah.

45

translated “is not really a created thing”. “Reproduced”, or “re-existence”, or “is really there” would also have been possible. The idea is akin to “produced”, “born”, and its negation (an-abhinirvritti) is explained by Haribhadra as “unborn”,143 or as “without own-being”.144 It has the traditional connotation of “produced in dependence on craving”.

D2b. The argument here assumes that what has never been brought forth, is “nonproduction”, or “the unproduced”. The dialetics of that concept is now investigated, and leads to the nonduality of all features of existence. An attainment obviously requires not only one, but quite a number of dualisms.

D2c. Thirdly,145 nonproduction is brought into direct relation with attainment. The sequence of the argument seems to be fairly clear:

1.

Sariputra points out that, if everything is “unproduced” and if “nonproduction” is equivalent to attainment, then everybody has already attained, without any effort, everything that can be attained. So what is the use of any spiritual striving? One must here bear in mind that the “cognition of nonproduction” is traditionally one of the chief attributes of an Arhat. Originally it meant that an Arhat perceives that unwholesome states will no more be produced in him. In the Mahayana the term acquires an ontological meaning.

2.

Subhuti, in reply, points out that

(a)

one should not “wish” for any spiritual results, and

(b)

that a sense of effort would not help the actual work of a Bodhisattva.

As to (a) one must remember that in Buddhist Sanskrit “to wish” (icchati), also “to desire”, “to expect”, is confused with eshati, “to strive”, “to seek for”, “to search”.146 The connectin between (a) and (b) is therefore clearer in Sanskrit than it is in English. The idea itself is similarly expressed in the Tathagataguhya147: “There is no production of a Buddha for those who wish for (icchanti) the production or stopping of

3 p. 617.

4 nih-sva-bhavah, to A ix, 206.

5 properly begins at P 257 = S fol. 100a.

6 To some extent the term was apparently confused even with ricchati = appeta,arpayati to procure.

7 Prasannapada 540 – 541.

46

any dharma. Nor do those rise above birth-and-death who search for (paryeshanti, desire) a realistic (bhavatah) Nirvana”.

3. One then discusses the degree of fact there can be in the relation of the production of an attainment to the “unproduced”.

4. The argument ends with an indication that all this does not touch ultimate reality and ultimate truth, but is mere conventional talk.

D3. The Sutra concludes with a description of the practical attitude which alone can solve the logical difficulties advanced. We should not lean on anything.

This is first explained from an ontological angle (D3a), i.e. it is said of dharmas that they do not lean on anything. The nonleaningness is said to be in the nature of things. The term “not-leaning” (a-nisrita) can be applied to dharmas (1) either in their relation to our practical demands on them, or (2) in their relation with each other, or (3) it can be applied to persons in their relation to dharmas.148

In the first sense, it refers to the “unreliability” of dharmas which give our practical activity nothing to lean upon. As Haribhadra explains, “dharmas, because of the lack of either single or manifold own-being, are unworthy of reliance.”149

The second meaning is that of “independence” in connection with the analysis of causation. It occurs in such passages as: “That consciousness-element does not lean150 on the eye-organ, nor has it come from the stimuli, nor does it stand in the middle between them – not within, not without, not between both”.151 Or in the Vimalakirtinirdesa152: “What foundation153 is there for an imagination of what is unreal (abhuta-parikalpa)?” – “The foundation is a perverted (viparyasta) perception” – “What is the foundation of that?” – “The fact that it has no support

8 Sometimes all three meanings are intended, as in Dharmasangiti (Si 285, 11): “The teacher of emptiness is not captivated (samhriyate) by worldly dharmas, because of non-leaningness (a-nisritatvad).” 1

49 H 123: a-nisraya-arhtvad. nisraya = home, to reside in, to dwell in. asrayati = to take refuge in. – Also A xxx, 490: sarva-dharmeshv anisrita-samjna, where H comments: mayo-pama-samjna.

0 nisrito, is (not) dependent on.

1 Pitriputrasamagama, Si 250, 7.

2 Si, 264, 4. A more elegant rendering in Buddhist Texts, 1954, no 153.

3 lit. “root”, mula.

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(a-pratishthanam)” – “What is the foundation of that?” – “This standing without support, of that there is no foundation at all. For all dharmas are supported (pratistishthita) on standing without support as their foundation”.

In the third meaning, persons, i.e. the Saints and Buddhas, are people who do not lean on anything. Haribhadra154 explains “not leaning” as “not inclined towards”, “not settled down in” (an-abhinivishta). This meaningo f the term prevails in the Pali Scriptures,155 where it is connected with the loss of lust and hate,156 with absence of clinging, grasping and attachment,157 with independence from the authority and guidance of others,158 and with absence of wavering.159 The scholastics of the Abhidhamma defined this state by the freedom from two “supports” (nissaya), i.e. craving and false views.160 Just as in this Sutra the discussion of “approaching” in P 244 sq. leads up to the “nonleaningness” of P 263, so also the Pali texts connect the two ideas.161 In a

een ni-sri-ta, “leaning”, and nih-sri-ta, “to find a way out”, which is fairly common in Buddhist literature.162 The connection

4 H 123.

5 cf. CPD.

6 anissito chetva sinehadosam, Sn (Pj).

7 anupadaya anissito kuhinci Sn 363 (Pj). – anissito anupadano Sn 753. – anissito viharati na ca kinciloke upadiyati D.N. II 292 = M.N. I 56. – Also Nd. and Pj to Sn 1069 syn. an-allino, not clinging, and so in A xxi, 393. 5

8 anissito ananna-neyyo Sn 364. In Prajnaparamita = a-paraprajneya in A xvii 329, 337, trsl. “others cannot lead him astray”. 15

9 anissitassa calitam n’atthi Ud. 81; anissito na calati Sn 752; Pts. II 206; anissitam cittam ditthiya na injati, quot. Ud-A 186, VM 386. – Also Si 285, 11 acalita anisritatvad. – Also in A I 31 dharmatayams ca na calati, and in A xii 273. 16

0 e.g. Niddesa. Sv to D.N. II 292.

1 pubbam antam anissito Sn 849 = P 244 sq. – tesu dhammesu anupayo anapayo anissito M.N. III 25, anupaya, from upa-I, like upaiti, means “without going near, without having a propensity for”, anapayo, “going away, lapse”. Also Nd. syn. an—upa-gata, as in A I 31. 16

2 e.g. Lankavatara 145: dvaya-nisrito’yam Mahamate loko yaduta astitvanisritas ca nastitva-nisritas ca bhava-abhavac-chanda- drishti- patitas ca anihsarance (V.R.: anihsritasya) nihsarana-buddhih. “People in the world depend on two things, i.e. on ‘it is’ and ‘it is not’; they fall into views through which they become keen on existence and non-existence. They imagine an escape where there is none.” - The beginning is an echo of S.N. II 17: dvaya-nissito … loko yebhuyyena atthitan ceva natthitan ca. – Nd gives as synonym of nissito nikkhanto from KRAM, gone away, departed. 48

was probably suggested by the assonance of the words,163 but, though etymologically false, it is metaphysically and religiously sound. “Nih-sarana” means “escape”,164 issuing from, flight to salvation. The term is analogous to Nirvana, and is closely connected with nir-yana, “going forth”,165 a synonym of the Path, which is discussed in this part of the Sutra. At the same time the word “Nihsarana” is loaded with associations with saranam “refuge”, which again implies a seeking for support,166 a place which one can flee to, on which one can rely, or in which one can find a refuge. When it is said that the Disciples “find a way out”, it means not only that “they are saved”, but also denotes a capacity to make the Dharma prevail in the face of any audience whatsoever.167

D3b. The practical side of this “nonleaning” is then explained in more detail relation to the practice of the six perfections.168 The translation follows P, which gives only the first and last perfections in detail. S, on the other hands, teats also the other four perfections in detail, but omits here the detailed account of the perfection of wisdom, which occurs elsewhere. It will be notice that at this point the Sutra develops more fully the theme which began the discussion at P 17.

D3c. Finally,169 the achievement of perfect wisdom, and the dwelling in it. In P and in S, D3b begins and ends with a reference to the “path of enlightenment” (bodhi-marga), which somewhat obscures the course of the argument. In A I 31, where the whole of D3b is missing, the connection of D3c with D3a is clearer and more explicit. It is there effected by the sentence: “Sariputra: Whish is, in the Bodhisattvas, this perfection of the nonleaning on

3 The namuscripts regularly confuse nisrit(y)a with nihsrit(y)a, often written nihsrit(y)a or nisrit(y)a. 6

4 so A xxiv 421. Mhv I 433. – (Lal. Vist.) Si 203, 16: bhava-nihsarane, in fleeing from becoming; 205, 12 and 18 speaks of jara-n. and duhkha-n., fleeing from old age and ill. – Sutralamkara p. 87: klesa-n., and ragasya-n., escape from defilements and greed. A.N. I 260 loke nissaranam, escape from the world. def. S.N. III 62, as forsaking of greed etc. – Si 236, 7 nihsaranam = buddhadharma = bodhi = marga. – cf. A.K. III 10, 200; VI 239; VII, 32-3, 37; VIII 140-1. 16

5 cf. H. 23: niryayur = niscitya prapnuyur.

6 in P 216 nisraya is used for “refuge”, and H 208 connects sarana with asraya. – A xvii 329 dharmatam eva pratisarati.

7 cf. Mpp-s. 354-6. H 123 connects with parihara, the ability to protect, guard or look after. 16

8 S fol. 137b (35) – 140a.

9 From S xiii, 140 (36) to S xiii, 144a.

49

all dharma?” to which Subhuti replies: “Just this perfection of wisdom”, etc. as D3c.

The reward of accepting these teachings is that the Bodhisattva “dwells in the dwelling of the perfection of wisdom”. It is one of the paradoxes of the Prajnaparamita literature that the relation of “support” which was rejected for the unconverted man in relation of “support” which was rejected for the unconverted man in relation to his environment, is now used to describe the relation of the wise to wisdom. The wise “rely on” wisdom, are supported by it.170 Although they are “unsupported”, although they do not “dwell on” anything, do not “stand” anywhere, have no “home” anywhere, yet they “dwell” in perfect wisdom as their “dwelling”> The phrase, “he dwells in the dwelling of the perfection of wisdom”, occurs frequently in this Sutra, and we have met it before.171 Haribhadra explains it to mean “the acquisition of wieldiness of thought in the four postures”.172 Wieldiness (Pali: kammannatta) can also be rendered as “adaptability”, “readiness for, flexibility”, and even by “an active mind”. “Wieldiness” is associated with “luminosity of mind”,173 and its opposite is also in the Pali Scriptures a mind that is “cowed”, stolid, stiff, rigid, inflexible, and which resists attempts to move it in a certain direction, or to certain actions. To “dwell” is a technical term which is regularly connected with the “four postures”,174 and it seems to indicate a condition, attitude, or state of mind, which is kept up in whatever position the body may find itself. One can therefore render the idea of “dwelling in the dwelling of perfect wisdom” by saying that “he adjusts himself, his whole personality, to perfect wisdom.”

170 Rgs IV 2: prajnaparamita-nisrita Buddha-dhatuh. – xii 7, prajnaparamita-nisrita dharma-rajo. – The Bodhisattvas and Buddhas as prajnaparamitam asritya in Hridaya. Synonyms for asritya are a-GAM-ya (in A) and adhisthaya (A.K. III 113). – Si 32, 4: sarvasattva buddhopanisraya-viharino bhavantu: may all beings come to dwell depending on the Buddhas. – prajnaparamitam upanisritya in A xii 274 (= Pali upanissaya, “resorting to” = arammanam alambanam karitva Nd II 368. – P 207: “based upon” viveka viraga nirodha. Sumangalavilasini 1019 says on that: viveko virago nirodho ti, tini pi nibbanassa namani … Tasma vivekanissitan ti adisu arammana-vasena va adhigantabbavasena va nibbana- nissitan ti attho. – It-A to It. 38: nibbana-dhatu nissitena tadina.

1 e.g. P 60, where S I 266 has – yogena for – viharena.

2 caturbhir iryapathais citta-karmanyatapadanat, H 125.

3 A.N. I 257. cf. P 121-2.

4 e.g. Asl. 167, VM 145.

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In addition, he will “never cease from taking it to heart”. Literally, the text says, “he is not lacking in this attention”. This attitude is often coupled with the first, because of the assonance of the sounds involved, i.e. vharaty… viharena, aviharhitas ca… manasikarena. “Attention” can also mean “mental activity”, “mind work”, “action in the mind” (manasikara). Although a special mental function – the fixation of the mind on an object – it is nevertheless coextensive with all mental activity, and inseparable from it. An act of consciousness requires three conditions: an inward sense organ, an outward sense-object, and an act of attention.175 The difference between wholesome and unwholesome actions is due to the difference in the quality of the attention, which is either unwise (ayoniso),176 or wise (yoniso). The first, in conflict with the truth,177 turns to “signs”; the second is directed to Nirvana.178 The Sutra now considers the problem of the mutual relation of these two kinds of attention:

The difficulty which Sariputra raises in this respect is expressed more clearly in the Ashta. It is this: “Attention” is defined as a turning-towards of a mind-in-action and it makes thought support itself in the object”.179 Attention and perfect wisdom are therefore incompatible and mutually exclusive,180 and the presence of attention in perfect wisdom would pervert its essential being.181 One has either mental activity and no wisdom, or wisdom and no mental activity. Because, if one could have both, one and the other, then all beings would, without any effort (cf. P 258), have wisdom, because they all mental acitivity. On the

5 samanvahara. Prasannapada p. 553-5. M.N. 28, I. 190 and cy. Cpd 282 compares it to a charioteer who harnesses two horses (mind and object) into one pair. 17

6 ye keci bhikkave akusala dhamma, subhe te ayoniso- manasikara-mulaka: whatever unwholesome dharmas there are, they are all rooted in unwise attention S.N. I 91; VM 542. – D.N. III 273: eko dhammo hanabhagiyo: ayoniso-manasikaro. eka dhammo visesa-bhagiyo, yoniso-manasikaro. 7

7 sacca-vippatikulena Vbh. 373 = saccanam anuloma-vasena Vbh-A.

78 dve paccaya animittaya cetovimuttiya samapattiya: sabbanimittanan ca amanasikaro, animittaya ca dhatuya manasikaro. Two are the conditions of the attainment of the signless deliverance of the heart: nonattention to all signs, attention to the signless element. M.N. I 296. 1

79 H 125: manaskaras cetasa abhoga alambane citta-dharana- karmakah. Vasubandhu, A.K. II 154: alambane cetasa avarjanam avadharanam. – Vbh. 373: cittassa avattana anvattana abhogo samannaharo manasikaro. 18

0 H 125: paraspara-virodha: as we saw at B6a.

1 H 125: prajnaparamita-viharas ca tad-viparita-svabhava iti. 51

other hand, if we may complete the argument with a reflection from Asanga182: perfect wisdom “is not lack of mental activity because then it would be found in sleep and madness, where one does not think at all, and that cannot be, because then one would without effort arrive at the loss of perverted views”. Wise attention is indeed the cause of perfect wisdom.183

The answer is that no reality should be considered as identical and as consistent with itself, and that mental activity is in reality no mental activity.184 The difficulty arise only when one assumes that words refer to real entities. When one does not, all perverted views are avoided,185 and the problem disappears.

The Epilogue requires no comment.

2 Mahayanasamgraha VIII, 2, p. 233 – cy.

3 ib, VIII, 4.

4 H 126: kim tv amanaskara eva manaskaro’ bhipretah.

5 H 127: aviparyasa-pravrittatvad.

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Outline of Chapters 1 – 21

A. PREFACE

1. THE SCENE AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE SERMON Ad-ch. 1

2. THE AIMS IN CULTIVATING PERFECT WISDOM AA I 1. Ad-ch. 2

3. VARIOUS PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS AA I 2. Ad-ch. 3

(a) Short outline of method of coursing in perfect wisdom. AA I 2, 1

(b)

Superiority of Bodhisattvas over Disciples

(c)

The Yoga of perfect wisdom. AA I 2, 2

(d)

Varieties of Bodhisattvas

i.

According to the circumstance of their rebirth. AA I 2, 3c

ii.

According to their practices.

1.

Perfect Purity. AA I 2, 4

2.

All-knowledge. AA I 2, 5

3.

Cognition of the All-knowing. AA I 2, 6

4.

The Five Eyes. AA I 2, 7

5.

The Six Superknowledges. AA I 2, 8

6.

Emptiness, No-minding and Sameness.

4. INTERLUDE (Ad-ch. 4, 5)

B. PHASES OF EXTINCTION OF SELF AND OF ANYTHING IT MAY BE BASED ON

1. THE PROCEEDS FROM THE BUDDHA’S MIGHT AA I 2, 9a. 1.Ad-ch. 6

2. THE BODHISATTVA, A MERE WORD, INACCESSIBLE AS DHARMA AA I 2, 9, 1

3. DEGREES OF RIPENESS IN INSIGHT AA I 2, 10. 1.Ad-ch. 7

4. THOUGHT TRANSPARENTLY LUMINOUS AA I 3d

5. HOW THE IRREVERSIBLE BODHISATTVA VIEWS THINGS AA I 3f. 1.Ad-ch. 8

6. PERFECT WISDOM OPPOSED TO

(a) Formative Influences. AA I 3h

(b) The Sign. AA I 3i

(c) What Exists. AA I 3k

7. THE BODHISATTVA, WISDOM, AND ENLIGHTENMENT AA I 3l. 1.Ad-ch. 9

8. THE BODHISATTVA AND HIS PREDICTION AA I 3p

9. ALL IS IGNORANCE AA I 3s

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10. ALL IS ILLUSION AA I 3v. 1.Ad-ch. 10

11. TWO FACTORS COUNTERACTING THE DEMORALIZING EFFECT OF THIS TEACHING

(a) Skill in Means. AA I 3w

(b) Good Friends, as contrasted with Bad Friends. AA I 3x

C. WHAT TO BECOME

I. THE MEANING OF “BODHI-BEING” AA I 4. Ad-ch. 11

CLASSES OF DHARMAS AA I 5

II.THE MEANING OF “GREAT-BEING”

1. A Saviour of Many. AA I 6, 1

2. He forsakes all false views. AA I 6, 2. Ad-ch. 12

3. Unattached to even the highest thought. AA I 6, 3.

4. Armed with the great armour. AA I 7. Ad-ch. 13

5. Set out in the great vehicle. AA I 8, 1

6. Mounted on the great vehicle. AA I 8, 6

7. Emancipation a Mock Show. AA I 9, 1. Ad-ch. 14

III. THE MEANING OF “GREAT-VEHICLE”

1. Its Constituents:

(a) Six Perfections. AA I 9, 11. Ad-ch. 15

(b) 20 Kinds of Emptiness. AA I 9, 12

(c) 112 Concentrations. AA I 9, 13

(d) 21 Practices. AA I 9, 14. Ad-ch. 16

(e) 43 Dharani-doors. AA I 9, 15.

(f) 10 Stages. AA I 9, 16. Ad-ch. 17

2. Three questions concerning the great vehicle.

AA I 9, 17. Ad-ch. 18

3. Why the “Great Vehicle” it so called.

AA I 10, 1. Ad-ch. 19

D. ATTAINMENT

1. The Bodhisattva goes forth to attainment. AA I 10, 6a. Ad-ch. 20

2. Impossibility of Attainment.

(a) Nothing is really ever brought forth. AA I 10, 6b

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(b) Nonduality. AA I 10, 6d

(c) Nonproduction. AA I 10, 7. Ad-ch. 21

3. No Leaning on Anything. - AA I 10, 8

EPILOGUE

In Chapters 1-21 three systems of division were used: (a) the chapters of Ad, (b) the divisions of AA which are an integral part of P, and (c) my own subdivisions, explained in detail in the ‘Introductory Remarks’. In the later chapters the third system has been dropped. Whereas I believed to discern an architectonic unity in chapters 1-21, there seems to be no such unity in the remainder of the sutra.

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TRANSLATION OF THE SUTRA

56

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

A.

PREFACE.

(1.

The Scene and Circumstances of the Sermon.)

Thus have I heard at one time. The Lord dwelt at Rajagriha, on the Vulture Peak, together with a large gathering of monks, with 1250 monks, all of the Arhats – their outflows dried up, undefiled, fully controlled, quite freed in their hearts, well freed and wise, thoroughbreds, great Serpents, their work done, their task accomplished, their burden laid down, their own weal accomplished, with the fetters that bound them to becoming extinguished, their hearts well freed by right understanding, in perfect control of their whole minds –

With 500 nuns, laymen, and laywomen, all of them liberated in this present life –

And with hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of Bodhisattvas – (1) all of whom had acquired the Dharanis; (2) dwellers in emptiness, their sphere in the sign-less, who had not fashioned any desire for the future; (3) who had acquired sameness and patience186; (4) who had acquired the Dharani of nonattachment; (5) who had imperishable super-knowledges; (6) were of acceptable speech; (7) not tricksters; (8) not chatterers; (9) with thoughts that had left behind all desire for reputation and gain; (10) disinterested demonstrators of the spiritual dharma; (11) ready to accept deep dharmas without reserve; (12) who had obtained the grounds of self-confidence; (13) had transcended Mara’s deeds; (14) were free from obstacles caused by their (past) deeds; (15) and skilful in expounding the analysis of investigations

86 So Nagarjuna (pp. 325-7) seems to have understood this attribute. The Bodhisattva has won insight into two kinds of “sameness”, i.e. he knows that all beings are the same, and that all dharmas are the same. He also possesses two kinds of “patience”, - he is patient towards all beings, and he patiently accepts the Prajnaparamita teaching about the true nature of all dharmas – The Tibetan seems, however, to interpret as “he acquires the patient acceptance of the sameness of all dharmas”. 57

into dharmas; RIRI who had formed their vows incalculable aeons ago; (17) who address others with smiling countenances; (18) without a frown on their faces; (19) skilful in songs, chants and benedictions; (20) with thoughts free from sluggishness; (21) with their flashes of ideas uninterrupted; (22) endowed with self-confidence when engaged in overpowering endless assemblies; (23) skilled in going forth during endless kotis of aeons; (24) resolutely intent on dharmas which they held to be like an illusion, a mirage, a reflection of the moon in water, a dream, an echo, an apparition, an image in the mirror, a magical creation; (P5) (25) skilful in understanding the destiny of beings, their subtle thoughts, their conduct and intentions187; (26) with unobstructed thoughts188; (27) endowed with extreme patience; (28) skilful in teaching others how to penetrate to the true character of reality; (29) acquiring through their vows and their setting-out the endless harmonies of all the Buddha-fields; (30) always face to face with the concentrated recollection of the Buddhas of countless world systems; (31) skilful in soliciting189 innumerable Buddhas; (32) skilful in appeasing the various views, biases, prepossessions, and defilements; (33) and in producing a hundred thousand concentrations and in playing with them. They are the Bodhisattva Bhadrapala, the great being, the Bodhisattvas Ratnakara, Sarthavaha, Naradatta, Varunadatta, Subhagupta, Indradatta, Uttaramati, Visheshmati, Vardamanamati, Amoghadarsin, Susamprasthita, Suvikrantavikramin, Nityodyukta, Anikshiptadhura, Suryagarbha, Anupamacintin, Avalokitesvara, Mahasthamaprapta, Manjusri, Varamati, Ratnamudrahasta, Nityokshiptahasta and Maitreya the Bodhisattva, the great being, at the head of many hundred thousands of niyutas of kotis of Bodhisattvas.

(I)

Thereupon the Lord, having himself arranged the Lion Seat, sat down with his legs crossed; holding his body erect, intent on fixing his mindfulness, he entered into the concentration – “King

7 So I understand after the Tibetan of S. But Nagaruna (pp. 389-90): “Knowing the course of the thought and conduct of beings, they are skilful in saving them through their subtle wisdom”.

8 Or, alternatively, “their thought is free from hostility”. See also Nag 391-4.

9 “Soliciting”, or “invitation”, adhyeshana: This means that one asks the Buddhas (1) to preach the Dharma, (2) to postpone their entry into Nirvana, so that they may stay in the world and save beings. For the details see Nag 415-422.

58

of Concentrations” by name – in which all concentrations are included, comprehended and come to meet.

Thereupon the Lord, mindful and self-possessed, emerging from this concentration, (P6) surveyed with the Heavenly Eye the entire world system. His whole body became radiant. From the wheels with a thousand spokes (imprinted) on the soles of his feet issued 60 hundred thousand niyutas of kotis of rays, and so from his ten toes, and similarly from his ankles, legs, knees, thighs, hips and navel, from his two sides, and from the sign “Srivatsa”190 on his chest, a mark of the Superman. Similarly from his ten fingers, his two arms, his two shoulders, from his neck, his forty teeth, his two nostrils, ears and eyes, from the hair-tuft in the middle between his eye-brows, and from the cowl on the top of his head. And through these rays this great trichiliocosm191 was illumined and lit up. And in the East world systems as numerous as the sands of the Ganges were, by this great illumination of rays, lit up and became illumined. So in the South, the West, the North, the North-East, the South-East, the South-West, the North-West, below and above. And the beings who were lit up and illumined by this great illumination of rays, they all became fixed on192 the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment. (P7)

(II)

Thereupon all the Lord’s hair-pores became radiant, and from each single pore issued 60 hundred thousand of niyutas of kotis of rays through which this great trichiliocosm was illumined and lit up. And in the East world systems as numerous as the sands of the Ganges were, by this great illumination of rays, lit up and illumined. And so in the other nine directions. And the beings, who were lit up and illumined by this great illumination of rays, they all became fixed on the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment.

(III)

Thereupon, the Lord again, with the natural splendour of the Buddhas, the Lords, illumined the great trichiliocosm. And so on, up to: In all the ten directions, in each single direction, world systems as numerous as the sands of the Ganges were illumined by His splendour. And the beings who were touched by this splendour, they were all fixed on the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment.

0 i.e. the Svastika.

1 See my Buddhist Wisdom Books, 1958, p. 40.

2 = definitely oriented towards. “Intent on”, “focused on”, “set on” might be more elegant renderings.

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(IV)

Thereupon the Lord on that occasion put out his tongue. With it he covered the great trichiliocosm193 and many hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of rays issued from it. From each one of these rays there arose lotuses, made of the finest precious stones, of golden colour, and with thousands of petals; and on those lotuses there were, seated and standing, Buddha-frames194 demonstrating dharma, i.e. this very demonstration of dharma associated with the six perfections. They went in all the ten directions to countless world systems in each direction (P8), and demonstrated dharma to beings, i.e. this very demonstration of dharma associated with the six perfections. And the beings who heard this demonstration of dharma, they became fixed on the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment.

(V)

Thereupon the Lord, seated on that very Lion Seat, entered into the concentration called “The Lion’s Play”. With his supernatural power he shook this great trichiliocosm in six ways – it moved, moved back, trembled, trembled from one end to another, tossed, tossed along. At the sides it rose up, in the middle it sank down; in the middle it rose up, at the sides in sank down; it became soft and pliable, and all beings came to be at ease.

Thereupon, at that moment, minute and second, in this great trichiliocosm the hells, and the animal world, and the world of Yama,195 they all were abolished and became empty, and all the places of untoward rebirth disappeared. And the beings who had deceased in these destinies – i.e. the hells, the animal births, and the world of Yama – they all, through their very joy and rejoicing, were reborn among men, and also among the six kinds of gods (of the realm of sense desire). (P9)

Thereupon these men and gods, through the very might of the Lord recalled their former lives. In their great joy and rejoicing they then approached the Lord, saluted his feet with their heads, raised their folded hands to the Lord and paid homage to him. And so in each one of the ten directions, in world systems countless

3 The Buddha’s tongue symbolizes his veracity, or the truth of what he says. In the Rig Veda already Agni’s tongue, the priestly voice, “touches heaven”. S. Thomas Acquinas has a similar idea when he says: “The tongue of an angel is called metaphorically the angel’s power, whereby he manifests his mental concepts. Since the intellectual operations of an angel have no reference to here and now, in angelic speech distance is no impediment”.

4 A “Buddha-frame” is the figure of a Buddha, magically conjured up by the real Buddha.

5 Yama is the Judge of the Dead, and the king of the underworld. 60

as the sands of the Ganges, all the hells, animal births, and worlds of Yama were abolished and became empty, and all untoward moments196 disappeared. And the beings who deceased in these three destinies, they all, through their very joy and rejoicing, were reborn among men, and also among the six kinds of gods (of the realm of sense desire). And those who were thus reborn among gods and men, through the might of the Lord, recalled their former lives. They then, in their great joy and rejoicing, went each to his own Buddha-field and approached the presence of the Buddha, the Lord who had arisen therein, saluted his feet, and they all raised their folded hands and paid homage to the Lord.

Thereupon in this great trichiliocosm the beings who were born blind saw forms with their eyes; the deaf heard sounds with their ears; the insane regained their mindfulness; those with distracted thoughts became one-pointed in their thoughts. The hungry were fed, the thirsty found their thirst stilled, the sick were healed and the crippled made whole. Those with unwholesome deeds of body, word and mind, and with unwholesome livelihood gave up their unwholesome habits. (P10) All beings considered each other as one considers one’s mother, father, brother, sister, friends, companions, kinsmen; and relations; and they tended the ten wholesome paths of action. Guarding their chastity197, pure, they lived in the odour of sanctity. And all beings, possessed of all happiness, acquired the ease which a monk feels when immersed in the third Trance.198 And at that very time they were endowed with such wisdom that the Buddhas and Lords in other Buddha-fields cried out: “Good is self-discipline! Good is quietude! Good is self-mastery! Good is it to have observed the practice of the religious life!199 Good is the non-harming of living beings!”

(VI)

Thereupon the Lord, seated on this very Lion Seat, over-towered this great trichiliocosm. There the Tathagata stood in all his glory, shone forth, gleamed and shed light, surpassing with his splendour, lustre, brilliancy, and beauty world systems as numerous as the sands of the Ganges in each of the ten directions. He did so in the same way in which Sumeru, king of mountains, over-towering all mountains, stands, shines forth, gleams, and

6 Or: places of unpropitious rebirth. If a man is born at an “untoward moment”, it is the concentration of the misfortunes which result from the bad deeds of his past.

7 brahmacarya

8 See my Buddhist Meditation, 1956, p. 117.

9 brahmacarya 61

sheds light, surpassing them with its splendour, lustre, brilliancy, and beauty.

(VII)

Thereupon the Lord exhibited His own natural body in this great trichiliocosm. The gods of the world of sense desire and of the world of form, in this great trichiliocosm (P11), saw that glorified body of the Tathagata. They took celestial flowers, incense, perfume, garlands, ointments, powders, robes, parasols, flags, banners, and streamers; they took celestial lotuses – blue lotuses, night lotuses, water lilies, white lotuses- they took Kesara flowers and Tamala leaves; and they approached with them the glorified body of the Tathagata. Likewise the human beings in this great trichiliocosm took land and water flowers and approached the Tathagata’s glorified body. Both gods and men then strewed these flowers, etc., over the body of the Tathagata. By the sustaining power of the Buddha all these flowers, etc., formed high in the firmament one single pointed tower, which had the dimensions of the great trichiliocosm. And from this tower the celestial flowers and silken tassels hung down and were suspended, and they made this great trichiliocosm look very beautiful. And because the brightly shining golden colour of the Lord streamed forth in the ten directions, in each direction countless world systems were (P12) lit up and illumined. In this great trichiliocosm, and in all the world systems, the same thought occurred to each one of these gods and men: “It is for me that the Tathagata, seated there, demonstrates Dharma”.

(VIII)

Thereupon the Lord, seated on this very Lion Throne, smiled once again. Through the illumination from that smile this great trichiliocosm, and the innumerable world systems in the ten directions, were lit up. And all the beings in this great trichiliocosm saw the Buddhas, the Lords, and their assemblies of disciples in countless world systems in the East. And conversely, all the beings in countless world systems in the East saw this Saha200 world system, and Sakyamuni, the Tathagata, together with his community of monks.

(IX)

In the East, beyond countless world systems, at the very limit of these world systems, there is a world system called Ratnavati.201 In it the Tathagata Ratnakara202 stands, holds and

0 This is the name of the world in which we live.

1 “Thick with jewels”, “Jewel mine”.

2 “Thick with jewels”, “Jewel mine”. 62

maintains himself.203 He demonstrates to the Bodhisattvas this very perfection of wisdom as the Dharma. Now, in that world system a Bodhisattva, a great being, called Samantarasmi204 saw this great illumination, and this great shaking of the earth, and this glorified body of the Lord, and he approached the Lord Ratnakara, the Tathagata, saluted his feet with his head, and said to him: “What is the cause, O Lord, (P13) what is the reason for this great illumination being manifested in the world, and for this great shaking of the earth, and for the exhibition of the glorified body of that Tathagata?”

The Tathagata Ratnakara replied: “There is, O son of good family, from here in the Western direction, beyond countless world systems, a world system called Saha. There the Tathagata Sakyamuni stands, holds, and maintains himself he reveals the perfection of wisdom to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. This is his doing.”

Samantarasmi replied: “I will go to that Saha world system, to see, salute, and honour that Tathagata Sakyamuni, and those Bodhisattvas, great beings, for the most part candidates to Buddha-hood, who have acquired the Dharanis, are skilful in the consummation of the concentrations, and have reached the highest control over all the concentrations.”

Ratnakara said: “go then, you son of good family, for the right time has come.”

Thereupon the Tathagata Ratnakara gave to the Bodhisattva Samantarasmi lotuses made of manifold jewels, shining like gold, each with thousands of petals. “These lotuses, O son of good family, scatter over the Tathagata Sakyamuni! And say to him: ‘The Lord Ratnakara hopes that the Lord Sakyamuni is well and free from sickness, alert and buoyant, strong, happy and comfortable. And these lotuses have been sent to the Lord by this Lord Ratnakara, the Tathagata’! Act with full self-possession in that Buddha-field! For the Bodhisattvas who are reborn in that Saha world system are difficult to deal with.” (P14)

Thereupon the Bodhisattva Samantarasmi took from the Tathagata Ratnakara those lotuses made of manifold jewels, shining like gold, each with a thousand petals. He was surrounded

3 This is a cryptic phrase for describing a Buddha's presence in this, or any other, world system.

4 “Rays-all-round”.

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and accompanied by many hundred of thousands of niyutas of kotis of Bodhisattvas, both householders and recluses, and by young men and women. And before they left they honoured, worshipped, and revered the Buddhas and Lords in the world-systems of the East.

(X)

With the flowers, etc., he reached the Saha world system, approached the Tathagata Sakyamuni, salted the Lord’s feet with his head, and stood on one side. The Bodhisattva Samantarasmi then said to the Lord Sakyamuni: “The Lord Ratnakara hopes that the Lord Sakyamuni is well and free from sickness, alert and buoyant, strong, happy and comfortable. It is the Tathagata Ratnakara who has despatched to the Lord these lotuses made of manifold jewels, shining like gold, with thousands of petals.”

Thereupon the Lord Sakyamuni, the Tathagata took up these lotuses, and threw them in the Eastern direction into countless world systems, which were lit up by these lotuses. Buddha-frames were seated on those lotuses. In those Buddha-fields they demonstrated dharmas, i.e. this very demonstration of dharma associated with the perfection of wisdom. And the beings who heard that dharma became fixed on the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment.

Thereupon those Bodhisattvas, both the householders and recluses, and the young men and women who had come from that world system Ratnavati with Samantarasmi, the Bodhisattva, the great being, each on by virtue of his own wholesome roots205 revered, respected, honoured and worshipped the Lord Sakyamuni, and sat down on one side.

So far about the East (P15). From all the ten directions Bodhisattvas came to the Lord Sakyamuni. The same scene took place, but the names of the world system, the Tathagata, and the Bodhisattva differ in each case. They are: for the South Sarvasokapagato, Asokasri, and Vigatasoko respectively; for the West Upasanta, Ratnarcis, Caritramati; for the North Jaya, Jayendra, Jayadatta; (P16) for the North-East Samadhyalankrita, Samadhihastyuttarasri, Vijayavikramin; for the South-East Bodhimandala- karasurucira, Padmottarasri, Padmahasta; for the South-West Vigatarajahsancaya, Suryamandalaprabhasottamasri,

5 I.e. the merits they had acquired in the past enabled them to perform this act of reverence. Without them they would neither have seen the Buddha, nor felt the urge to worship Him.

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Surya- prabhasa; for the North-West Vasibhuta, Ekacchattra, Ratnottama; (P17) for the region below Padma, Padmasri, Padmottara; and for the region above Nanda, Nandasri, Nandadatta.

Thereupon at that moment, minute and second, this great trichiliocosm became composed of206 the seven precious substances207, and was over-strewn with flowers. Bundles of silken tassels were affixed to it, and it was adorned with Kalpa trees208 – manifoldly ornamented with branches bending down with fruits – with trees with flowers and fruits, with perfumes and garlands. Just like the world system Padmavati, the Buddha-field of the Tathagata Samantakusuma, where Manjusri the Crown the Prince resides, and the Bodhisattva Susthitamati, and other very powerful Bodhisattvas.

6 = was changed into.

7 See my Buddhist Wisdom Books, 1958, p. 40.

8 This seems to refer to the fabulous trees of Indra’s paradise, which are said to grant all wishes.

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CHAPTER 2 THE THOUGHT OF ENLIGHTENMENT

(2. The Aims in Cultivating Perfect Wisdom.)

THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL MODES

I 1. The Varieties of the Thought of Enlightenment.

I 1a. THE THOUGHT OF ENLIGHTENMENT CONNECTED WITH THE DESIRE FOR FULL ENLIGHTENMENT, IN GENERAL

When the Lord saw that the whole universe, with the world of the gods, the world of Mara, the world of Brahma, with its sramanas and brahmanas, had assembled, and also the Bodhisattvas who would one day reach the state of a Buddha, he said to the Ven. Sariputra: A Bodhisattva, a great being who wants to fully know all dharmas (P18) in all their modes209 should make endeavours in the perfection of wisdom.

I 1b. THE THOUGHT OF ENLIGHTENMENT, CONNECTED WITH THE DESIRE FOR FULL ENLIGHTENMENT, IN DETAIL.

Sariputra: How then should he make endeavours in the perfection of wisdom?

The Lord: Here, Sariputra, a Bodhisattva, a great being, having stood in the perfection of wisdom, by way of not taking his stand on it, should perfect the perfection of giving, by way of seeing that no renunciation has taken place, since gift, giver, and recipient have not been apprehended. He should perfect himself in the perfection of morality, through not transgressing into either offence or non-offence. He should perfect the perfection of patience and remain imperturbable. He should perfect the perfection of vigour, and remain indefatigable in his physical and mental vigour. He should perfect the perfection of meditation, and derive no enjoyment (from transic meditation). He should perfect the

9 or “aspects’. See also Nag. 640-2.

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perfection of wisdom, on account of the fact that he apprehends neither wisdom nor stupidity.210

I 1c. THE THOUGHT OF ENLIGHTENMENT, WHICH HAS THE WELFARE OF OTHERS FOR ITS OBJECT, IN GENERAL.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who wants to lead to Nirvana, into the realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind, all the beings who are in each of the ten quarters, in world systems as numerous as the sands of the Ganges – he should train in Perfect Wisdom.

I 1d. THE THOUGHT OF ENLIGHTENMENT, WHICH HAS THE WELFARE OF OTHERS FOR ITS OBJECT, IN DETAIL.

Likewise, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train himself in perfect wisdom if he desires to establish niggardly beings in giving, the immoral in morality, those abounding in ill will in patience, the slothful in vigour, those with distracted thoughts in concentrated meditation (P19) and the stupid in the achievement of wisdom.

I 1e. THE 22 VARIETIES OF THE THOUGHT OF ENLIGHTENMENT.

I 1e,1. ASSOCIATED WITH DETERMINATION, AND LIKE THE EARTH.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great beings who wants to know fully all dharmas in all their modes should stand in Perfect Wisdom.

I 1e,2. ASSOCIATED WITH EARNEST INTENTION, AND LIKE BRIGHT GOLD.

Thus the Bodhisattva, the great being should here, having stood in the perfection of wisdom, by way of not taking his stand on it, perfect the perfection of giving, on account of the non-apprehension of gift, giver, and recipient. And so with the perfection of morality… perfection of wisdom, on account of the non-apprehension of either wisdom or stupidity (see I,1b).

I 1e,3. ASSOCIATED WITH RESOLUTE INTENTION, AND LIKE THE NEW MOON.

Thus having stood in the perfection of wisdom, a Bodhisattva, a great being should fulfil the four stations of mindfulness; the four right efforts; the four bases of psychic power; the five dominants; the five powers; the seven limbs of enlightenment; the eightfold

0 This definition of the six perfections is so important that it is repeated at P 26 and 89. Nearly the who second volume of E. Lamotte’s translation of Mpp-s (pp.650-1013) is devoted to its elucidation.

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Path. He should develop the emptiness concentration, the sign-less concentration, the wish-less concentration. So he should develop the four trances, the four Unlimited, the four formless attainments, the eight deliverances, the nine attainments of successive stations, and the nine unlovely perceptions. Which nine? I.e. he perception of a swollen corpse, a worm-eaten corpse, a festering corpse, a bloody corpse (P20), a bluefish corpse, a corpse being devoured, a scattered corpse, a burned corpse, a corpse of only bones. He should develop the perception of revulsion from food. He should develop the recollection of the Buddha, of the Dharma, of the Sangha, of morality, of renunciation, of the Gods, of breathing, of agitation, of death, of what belongs to the body; the perception of impermanence, of ill, of not-self, un-loveliness, death, lack of delight in anything in the world, distrust for every thing in the world; the cognition of ill, origination, stopping, path; the cognition of extinction, of non-production, the cognition of dharma, the subsequent cognition, the cognition conforming to worldly convention, the cognition of mastery, the cognition according to the letter. He should develop the concentration with thoughts adjusted and discursive; the concentration without thoughts adjusted, and with only discursive thoughts; the concentration without either thought adjusted or thoughts discursive. He should develop the dominant “I shall come to understand the not yet understood”, the dominant of understanding, the dominant of one who has understood. He should develop the stations of mastery, the all-bases, the cognition of the all-knowing, both calming-down and insight, the three knowledges, the four analytical knowledges, the four grounds of self-confidence, (P21) the five imperishable super-knowledges, the six perfections, the seven prizes, the eight discoursings of the Superman, the ten powers of a Tathagata, the eighteen Buddha-dharmas; the great friendliness, the great compassion, the great pathetic joy, the great even-mindedness.

I 1e,4. ASSOCIATED WITH EXERTION, AND LIKE A BLAZING FIRE.

A Bodhisattva, a great being who wants fully to know the cognition of the All-knowing, which is furnished with the best of all modes, should develop the perfection of wisdom.211 A Bodhisattva, a

1 The translation here follows S 67, instead of P. The phrase “furnished with the best of all modes” is explained in Sikshasamuccaya, p. 272.

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great being who wants to fulfil the knowledge of the paths, to reach the knowledge of all modes, to fulfil the cognition of the thoughts and doings of all beings, to tear out the defilements and all the residues relating to them, should make efforts in the perfection of wisdom. Thus should a Bodhisattva, a great being be trained in perfect wisdom. Likewise he should train in perfect wisdom if he wants to enter into the fixed condition of a Bodhisattva, to pass beyond the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, to stand on the irreversible stage, completely to pass beyond the stave of a Crown Prince, to attain the six super-knowledges, to become aware of the restless thoughts and doings of all beings, to surpass the cognition of all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, to acquire the Dharani-doors and the concentration-doors,

I 1e,5. ASSOCIATED WITH THE PERFECTION OF GIVING, AND LIKE A GREAT TREASURY.

to establish stingy beings in giving, desirous of surpassing the gifts which are given by all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas by means of one single production of a thought associated with Rejoicing,212 (P22)

I 1e,6. ASSOCIATED WITH THE PERFECTION OF MORALITY, AND LIKE A JEWEL MINE.

to establish the immoral in morality,

I 1e,7. ASSOCIATED WITH THE PERFECTION OF PATIENCE, AND LIKE THE GREAT OCEAN.

those with angry thoughts in patience,

I 1e,8. ASSOCIATED WITH THE PERFECTION OF VIGOUR, AND LIKE A THUNDERBOLT.

the slothful in vigour,

I 1e,9. ASSOCIATED WITH THE PERFECTION OF MEDITATION, AND LIKE A MOUNTAIN.

those with distracted thoughts in trance,

I 1e,10. ASSOCIATED WITH THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM, AND LIKE A

2 For a description of Rejoicing see A chapter 6. 69

REMEDY.

the stupid in wisdom,

I 1e,11. ASSOCIATED WITH SKILL IN MEANS, AND LIKE A TEACHER.

A Bodhisattva, a great being who wants to make by skilful conversion213 one single production of thought, directed to the knowledge of all modes, into an immeasurable and incalculable one, should also train in perfect wisdom. Having given but a little gift, having guarded but a little morality, having developed but a little patience, having exerted but a little vigour, having entered trance but a little, having developed wisdom but a little, a Bodhisattva, a great being, who wants by skilful conversion to make (this small amount) for all beings on account of the knowledge of all modes214 into an immeasurable and incalculable one, should train in perfect wisdom.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who wants to course in the perfection of giving, should train in perfect wisdom; and so (2) – (6) with the other five perfections.

A Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (7), for the sake of all (P23) beings, patiently to endure the sufferings of the hells, of animal births, and the world of Yama; (8) out of regard for beings to renounce *the merit gained from) morality, though it had been piled up for hundreds of aeons; (9) to be reborn in the family of the Buddha; (10) to achieve the eighty minor characteristics and (11) the thirty-two marks of a Superman;

I 1e,12. ASSOCIATED WITH THE VOW, AND LIKE A WISHING JEWEL.

(12) to achieve the body of a Buddha; (13) to step on to stage of a Crown Prince; (14) never to be without the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being, should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (15) with one single voice to instruct countless world systems in each one of the ten directions; (16) to ensure the unbroken tradition of the Triple Jewel; (17) to foster in himself all the wholesome roots which will enable him to respect, honour, revere, and worship the Tathagatas.

3 Or “dedication”, “transformation”. See A ch. 6.

4 The meritorious actions enumerated above are dedicated to the aim of making all beings win the knowledge of all modes. If directed to this purpose, they automatically become infinitely more effective, because more and more selfless. 70

I 1e,13. ASSOCIATED WITH THE POWERS, AND LIKE THE SUN.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (18) to fulfil the wishes of all beings for food, drink, garments, perfumes, garlands, flowers, incense, medicinal powders, ointments, beds, seats, houses, money, grain, ornaments, jewels, gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, shells, quartz, coral, gold, silver, groves, kingdoms, etc.; (P24) to establish in the six perfections all beings in the world which has as its highest (development) the Dharma-element, and the space element as its terminus (limit)215; (20) to make one single production of a skilful thought unfailing until the time when full enlightenment is reached on the terrace of enlightenment; (21) to be praised by the Buddhas and Lords in the ten directions;

I 1e,14. ASSOCIATED WITH COGNITION, AND LIKE A SWEET SONG.

(22) to be trained in the eighteen kinds of emptiness, i.e. the emptiness of the subject, etc.; (23) to look through to the Suchness of all dharmas, (24) to the Suchness of all dharmas; (24) to the Suchness of the Dharma-element, etc. to; (25) the Suchness of all reality limits;216 (P25), (26) to cognize in the great trichiliocosm the atomic entities217 of earth, water, fire, and air.

(27) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being, when coursing in perfect wisdom, knows that a gift thus218 given is fruitful. When he has thus given a gift, he is reborn in good families, i.e. among warriors, Brahmins or householders; or among various kinds of gods. Such a gift is also conducive to the acquisition of the first trance, and so on to the eight trance, to the acquisition of the thirty-seven dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment, of the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc. to: to acquisition of Pratyekabuddha-hood, of full Buddha-hood.

Moreover, (28) a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, should know that gift thus given with skill in means fulfils the perfection of giving. And so with the other five perfections. (P26)

Sariputra: How is the perfection of giving fulfilled by a Bodhisattva, a great being who gives a gift, and how the other five

5 This somewhat obscure phrase also occurs at p 87, s 1444.

6 S “the reality-limits of all dharmas”.

7 This means the atoms of which all material things are composed.

8 i.e. in the spirit of perfect wisdom, or, as at (28), “with skill in means”. “Fruit” means “reward”.

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perfections?

The Lord: the perfection of giving is fulfilled when gift, giver, and receiver are not taken as a basis; the perfection of morality through not transgressing into either offence or non-offence; the perfection of patience through imperturbability; the perfection of vigour through indefatigability of body and mind; the perfection of meditation by the absence of distractions and representation; the perfection of wisdom by wisely knowing all dharmas without looking for definite facts. In this way are the six perfections fulfilled by a Bodhisattva, a great being who gives a gift. In the same way are all the six perfections fulfilled in the perfection of morality, etc. to the perfection of wisdom. (P27)

I 1e,15. ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUPERKNOWLEDGES, AND LIKE A GREAT KING.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (29) to transcend, through the production of one single thought, countless world systems in each of the ten directions; (30) to lift, with the fine point of the tip of a hair split a hundredfold, all the watery element in the great trichiliocosm, that there is in the great oceans, in rivers great and small, in ponds and pools, without, however, wanting to hurt the beings inhabiting it; (31) to blow out with one mighty breath from his mouth the fires in the great trichiliocosm which is all aflame with the universal conflagration raging at the end of an aeon;219 (32) to cover with the tip of the joint of one single finger the all-shaking whirlwind which, when it proceeds, shakes, disperses, and reduces to dust the entire earth and all the mountains, beginning with Sumeru, the great Sumeru, the mountain rings, the great mountain rings; (P28) (33) to irradiate during one single session of cross-legged meditation the entire space-element in the great trichiliocosm; (34) after he has, with one single hair, tied up and uplifted the mountains in the great trichiliocosm, i.e. Sumeru, the great Sumeru, the mountain rings, the great mountain rings, etc., to hurl them forth beyond countless world systems.

Moreover, (35) a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants, in each of the ten directions, in all Buddha-fields, to see the Buddhas and Lords with the heavenly eye;

9 Three catastrophes, due to water, fire, and wind, mark the end of a “great aeon” See A.K. III 184, 215.

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to hear their demonstration of Dharma with the heavenly ear; to know the thoughts and doings of all beings, to remember their former lives, to call forth the super-knowledge of the cognition of the extinction of the outflows, and to realize the Reality limit.

I 1e,16. ASSOCIATED WITH THE EQUIPMENT WITH COGNITION AND MERIT, AND LIKE A STOREHOUSE OF JEWELRY.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (36) to present with one single alms bowl all the Buddhas and Lords, together with their congregations of disciples, as many as there are in the worlds systems countless as the sands of the Ganges, in each single direction; and equally so a Bodhisattva, a great being who wants to honour respect, revere, and worship those Tathagatas with showers of flowers, incense, perfumes, garlands, unguents, aromatic powders, strips of cloth, parasols, flags and streamers. Moreover a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (37) to establish all beings in countless world systems, in each one of the ten directions, in the five portions220 of the Dharma, i.e. in morality, concentration, wisdom, liberation, the vision and cognition of liberation; in the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc. to: in Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment, etc., to: in the realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind. (P29)

I 1e,17. ASSOCIATED WITH THE WINGS OF ENLIGHTENMENT, AND LIKE A HIGHWAY.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (38) to gain the Buddha-qualities of the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords; (39) to go beyond (the contrast of) conditioned and unconditioned dharmas; (40) to look through to the Suchness of all dharmas, past, future, and present, and to reach the non-production limit;

I 1e,18. ASSOCIATED WITH CALMING-DOWN AND INSIGHT, AND LIKE A CHARIOT.

(41) to win precedence over all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas; (42) to become an attendant of the Buddhas and Lords; (43) to belong to the intimate retinue of the Buddhas and Lords; (44) to have a great retinue, and to acquire a retinue of Bodhisattvas; and (45) to purify the donations made by others. Moreover, a

0 Or “constituents”, skandha. 73

Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (46) to suppress all thought of meanness; (47) to prevent all thought of immorality and (48) of ill will from ever recurring; (49) to abandon all thought of indolence; (50) to prevent all distracted thoughts and (51) all stupid thoughts from ever recurring.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants to establish all beings (52) in the foundation of meritorious work consisting in giving, (53) in the foundation of meritorious work consisting in morality (P30); (54) in the foundation of meritorious work consisting in meditational development; (55) in the foundation of meritorious work connected with the service; (56) in the foundation of meritorious work derived from material gifts given in faith to the Tathagata.221

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (57) to produce the five eyes, i.e. the fleshly eye, the heavenly eye, the wisdom eye, the Dharma-eye, the Buddha-eye; (58) to see, in each of the ten directions, with the heavenly eye the Buddhas and Lords, countless like the sands of the Ganges; to hear, with the heavenly ear, the dharmas which those Buddhas and Lords teach; to comprehend, with his heart, as it really is, the thought of those Buddhas and Lords; to recall the Bodhisattva-hood, connected with their previous lives, of those Buddhas and Lords; and to see the display of their wonderworking power.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (59) to keep in mind, until he fully awakens to enlightenment, by the assumption of the power of unbroken memory, all the dharmas which the Buddhas, the Lords teach in all the ten directions in all the world systems, after he has heard them; (60) to see the Buddha-fields of the past Buddhas and Lords, of the future Buddhas and Lords (P31), and of those Buddhas and Lords who just now in the world, in all the ten directions, stand, hold, and maintain themselves;

I 1e,19. ASSOCIATED WITH THE INSPIRATION OF THE DHARANIS, AND LIKE UNTO A FOUNTAIN.

(61) to learn whatever has been taught, or is being taught, or

1 This list of five punyakriyavastuni differs at (55) from that in Mhvy. 1699-1703. The “service” is understood to be rendered to the Buddha, or to monks and holy men.

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will be taught, by the Buddhas, the Lords in the ten directions – i.e. the Discourses, Discourses in Prose and Verse Mingled, Predictions, Verses, Summaries, Origins, Thus-was-said, Birth Stories, Expanded Texts, Marvels, Tales, Expositions, and what has not been heard by the Disciples – to bear it in mind, to preach it, to progress to its Thusness,222 and to illuminate it in detail for others.

I 1e,20. ASSOCIATED WITH THE BESTOWAL OF DHARMA AND LIKE A DELIGHTFUL SOUND.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants (62) to illuminate, in each one of the ten directions, in world systems countless like the sands of the Ganges, all the regions of darkness which the light of sun and moon cannot reach; (63) to proclaim, in each of the ten directions, in countless world systems, the message of the Buddha, of the Dharma, of the Sangha, to all the beings who are reborn in the various Buddha-fields, and to establish all those beings in right view. (P32)

I 1e,21. ASSOCIATED WITH THE PATH OF THE ONE VEHICLE, AND LIKE A RIVER IN FULL SPATE.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wishes (64) that all the beings who are blind, in each one of the ten directions, in countless world systems, should, by his might, see forms with their eyes; that the deaf should hear sounds with their ears; the insane regain their mindfulness, the naked obtain clothes, and the hungry be fed; that those beings who were reborn in the states of woe should be freed from all the states of woe and acquire human bodies; that he will help to establish the immoral in morality, the unconcentrated in concentration, the stupid in wisdom, those unliberated in liberation, those who have no vision and cognition of liberation in the vision and cognition of liberation,223 those who do not see the Truths in the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc., to: in the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, in the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment.

2 The word tathatva occurs often in these Sutras, but to my knowledge it is nowhere explained either in the text or the commentaries. The Tibetan equivalent is the same as that for tathata, “suchness”. The phrase probably means, “to arrive at an understanding of what it really means”.

3 This again is the list of the five “portions” of the Dharma; see note 220.

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I 1e,22. ASSOCIATED WITH THE DHARMA-BODY, AND LIKE A GREAT RAIN CLOUD.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being should train in perfect wisdom if he wants to (65) train himself in the bearing224 of a Tathagata. (P33) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, should consider (a) “Where then will I (immediately before my Parinirvana) cast back the elephant look?”225 He should consider that he should train in perfect wisdom, (b) so that, his feet may glide at least four inches above the ground; (c) so that, surrounded by all the gods, revered by many hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of gods, he may approach the foot of the tree of enlightenment; (d) so that those same gods may spread out a carpet at the root of the tree of enlightenment; (e) so that, when he has fully known the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment – whether he walks, stands, sits, or lies down – that spot of earth may become Adamantine;226 (f) so that he may know full enlightenment of the very day that he leaves home, and on that very same day turn the wheel of Dharma; (P34) so that, when he turns the wheel of Dharma, countless beings purity the dispassionate unstained Dharma-eye in regard to dharmas, are freed from the outflows without further clinging, and become irreversible from full enlightenment; (g) so that he may have a community of disciples that can neither be measured nor calculated – countless beings, through one single demonstration of Dharma, becoming austere and solitary Arhats,227 or Bodhisattvas,

4 irayapatha, lit. “postures”, a term pregnant with meaning and not yet fully explored. S 110 explains to some extent by adding: “if he wants to train in the purity of the conduct and practices of a Tathagata, in the perfect purity of His deeds of body, speech and mind, which are always preceded and controlled by His cognition”. 22

5 See my Buddhist Scriptures, 1959, p. 60. – This refers to the occasion when the Buddha cast a last look a Vaisali before he left that city to go to his Parinirvana. On that occasion He turned round his entire body, as a elephant does when he gazes at something, for the bones in a Buddha’s neck are more firmly fixed than those of ordinary men. Hence one speaks of an “elephant look”. Cf. also Mil. 398: “As the elephant turns his whole body when he looks, always looking straight before him, not glancing round this way or that, just so should the Yogi, etc.”

6 Ordinary earth or rock cannot possibly support a fully enlightened Buddha at the time of his enlightenment. In consequence, the “terrace of enlightenment”, i.e. the place where he sits, etc., when becoming enlightened, must be made of the indestructible substance known a vajra. 2

27 The translation here follows S against P. “Austere and solitary” renders ekasanika, taking the word to refer to hermits who avoid society, in contrast to 76

great beings who are irreversible from the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment; so that he may have a community of Bodhisattvas that can neither be measured nor calculated, so that the measure of his life span may be measureless, and he may achieve a measureless splendour; (h) so that, when he has known full enlightenment, in his Buddha-field there may be no occasions whatsoever for greed, hate, and delusion; (i) so that, when he has known full enlightenment, beings become endowed with such a wisdom that the Buddhas and Lords in other Buddha-fields will be moved to breathe forth this shout of triumph: “Good is quietude! Good is self-discipline! Good is self-mastery! Good is it to have observed the practice of the religious life! Good is the non-harming of all living beings!”; (k) so that, when he has passed away into Nirvana, there may be no disappearance of the true Dharma, and so that, when they merely hear his name, the beings in the world systems countless as the sands of the Ganges, in the ten directions, will become fixed on the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. (P35)

At the time, when a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, brings forth these virtuous qualities, the four Great Kings in the great trichiliocosm reflect as follows: “We will give the four bowls to this Bodhisattva, this great being, as the Great Kings of the past have done to the Tathagatas of the past”.228 And the Gods of the Thirty-Three are enraptured, the Yama gods, the Tushita gods, the Nirmanarata gods, and the Parinirmitavasavartin gods are delighted, and decide to arrange for service to that Bodhisattva, that great being. The hosts of the Asuras are derided, and the heavenly hosts in the great trichiliocosm wax strong and rejoice. And the higher gods decide to invite229 this one, when he has been fully enlightened, to turn the wheel of Dharma.

At the time when a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, grows in the six perfections, at that time the sons and daughters of good family who belong to the Bodhisattva vehicle become enraptured and will want to become his mother and father, his wife and sons, his kinsmen and relations. The gods, right up to the Akanishtha gods, are enraptured, (P36) because the Bodhisattva shuns sexual intercourse. From the first thought of

Bodhisattvas who live in it. Normally it is a technical term for one of the 12 “austere practices”, and refers to someone who eats his meal in one sitting. 22

8 For the story of the four bowls see my Buddhist Scriptures, 1959, pp. 52-3.

9 Or “solicit”, as in ch. 1 note 189.

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enlightenment onwards the Bodhisattva is chaste. He is not conjoined with fettering dharmas. He reflects that “one who is not chaste, who pursues sensuous pleasures, he causes an obstacle to rebirth even in the Brahma world, how much more then to supreme enlightenment”. Therefore a Bodhisattva, chaste, not unchaste, should having left his home, know full enlightenment.

Sariputra: Does then the Bodhisattvas in all circumstances have parents, wives, sons, paternal and maternal relatives?

The Lord: Some Bodhisattvas do. Some of them, from the first thought of enlightenment onwards, take chastity upon themselves, and, course in the course of a Bodhisattva always as Crown Princes until they know full enlightenment. Some Bodhisattvas taste the five sense qualities through their skill in means, and afterwards leave home and know full enlightenment. Just as a clever (P37) magician or magician’s apprentice, well trained in magical illusions, would conjure up the five sense qualities, delight in them, play with them, minister to them. What do you think, Sariputra, would that magician, or magician’s apprentice, have actually tasted and relished those five sense qualities?

Sariputra: No, O Lord!

The Lord: Just so do Bodhisattvas, through their skill in means, taste the five kinds of sense qualities, for the sake of maturing beings, but without being stained by those sense qualities. Sense desires are disparaged by the Bodhisattva with the words: “All ablaze are sense desires, disgusting, murderous, inimical!” It is in such a spirit that a Bodhisattva, for the sake of maturing beings, lays hold of the five sense qualities.

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CHAPTER 3 OBSERVATIONS

(2. Various preliminary instructions:

(a) Short outline of method of coursing in perfect wisdom.)

I 2. Instructions.

I 2,1. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE PROGRESS.230

Sariputra:231 How then should the Bodhisattva, the great being, course in perfect wisdom?

The Lord: Here232 the Bodhisattva, the great being, coursing in the perfection of wisdom, truly a Bodhisattva, does not review233 a Bodhisattva, nor the word “Bodhisattva”, nor the course of a Bodhisattva, (nor the perfection of wisdom, nor the word “perfection of wisdom”. He does not review that “he courses”, nor that “he does not course”). He does not review form, feeling, perception, formative forces, or consciousness. (P38) And why? Because the Bodhisattva, the great being, is actually empty of the

0 H comments: In progressing in the acquisition of the virtuous qualities which characterize the 22 forms of the thought of enlightenment, one must train oneself in such a way that one deviates from neither conventional nor ultimate truth, and that one employs the method of the nonapprehension of separate entities. This method, peculiar to Bodhisattvas, is not shared by the Disciples.

31 The “Instructions” are addressed to Sariputra, who was the unexcelled protagonist of Abhidharma wisdom. Highly skilled in manipulating a multiplicity of dharmas, he felt slightly out of his depth when confronted with the Prajnaparamita doctrine which admits no distinction between dharmas. Sariputra being the interlocutor here, the “Instructions” are held to be of a fairly elementary nature. 23

2 This passage, P 38-39, became for the Yogacarins the basis of their doctrine of the 10 “discrimination”, and of the 10 “antidotes” to them, which are said to be enumerated here. In my Prajnaparamita Literature, 1960, pp. 98-100 I have collected a number of different versions of this section from various recensions. The additions in brackets are from S I 118-120. 23

3 “Sees repeatedly.” Most people do not review “Bodhisattva”, etc., for they have no idea what it is. But theirs is not the supreme wisdom. The Sutra assumes that we have done a lot of “reviewing” in the Abhidharma sense, and now tells us to cease doing so. But it does not tell us to stop doing something which we have never started to do.

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own-being of a Bodhisattva, and because perfect wisdom is by its own-being empty. And why? That is its essential original nature. (For it is not through emptiness that form, etc. is empty.) Nor is emptiness other than form, etc.

And why? The very form, etc., is emptiness, the very emptiness is form, etc. And why? Because “Bodhisattva”, “perfect wisdom”, “form”, etc. are mere words. Because form, etc., are like an illusion, Illusions and mere words do not stand at any point or spot; they are not, do not come into being, are false to behold. For of what the own-being is seen to be an illusion, of that there is no production or stopping, no defilement or purification. Thus a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in the perfection of wisdom, also does not review the production (of any dharma); nor its stopping (or abiding, its decrease or decrease), defilement or purification. (He does not review form, etc., nor “enlightenment”, nor what is called an “enlightenment-being”.) And why? Because words are artificial. People have constructed a counter-dharma.234 The express it conventionally by means of an adventitious designation (which is imagined and unreal, and they settle down in that conventional expression). A Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, does not review (that which is said to correspond to) all those words, (does not get at them). Not reviewing them, (not getting at them, he does not mind them), does not settle down

Furthermore, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in the perfection of wisdom, does not consider236 the fact that these are mere words, i.e. this “Bodhisattva”, this “enlightenment”, this “Buddha”, (P39) this “perfection of wisdom”, this “coursing in the perfection of wisdom”, this “form”, etc. Just as one speaks of a “self” , and yet no self is got at, and no being, soul, personality, person, individual, or man, etc., on account of unascertainable

4 prati-dharma. This means something which looks like a reality, but is in fact the very opposite of one. Words mislead, and far from expressing the reality of what they refer to, they in fact run counter. The passage may, however, be corrupt, and S as well as S-Tib. Differ.

5 This passage, P 38-39, became for the Yogacarins the basis of their doctrine of the 10 “discrimination”, and of the 10 “antidotes” to them, which are said to be enumerated here. In my Prajnaparamita Literature, 1960, pp. 98-100 I have collected a number of different versions of this section from various recensions. The additions in brackets are from S I 118-120.

6 lit. investigate. 80

emptiness.237 And why? Because there a Bodhisattva does also not review that by means of which he would settle down. Coursing thus, a Bodhisattva, a great being courses in perfect wisdom.

((b)) Superiority of Bodhisattvas over Disciples.)

If this Continent of Jambudvipa were filled with monks similar in worth to Sariputra and Maudgalyayana – like a thicket of reeds, bamboos, or sugar cane, of tall grass,238 or rice, or sesamum plants – their wisdom does not approach the wisdom of a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom by one hundredth part, nor by one thousandth part, nor by a 100,000th part; it does not bear number, nor fraction, nor counting, nor similarity, nor comparison, nor resemblance. To such an extent does the wisdom of a Bodhisattva, who, coursing in perfect wisdom, develops it for one day only, surpass the wisdom of all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. And why? Because that wisdom of a Bodhisattva, a great being is concerned with (winning) Nirvana for all beings. And that would hold true even if not only Jambudvipa, but if the great trichiliocosm, or even if all the countless world systems in each of the ten directions were filled with monks similar in worth to Sariputra and Maudgalyayana. (P40)

Sariputra: The wisdom of the Stream-winners, the wisdom of Once-Returners, Never-Returners, Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas, the wisdom of a Bodhisattva, the wisdom of a Tathagata – all these kinds of wisdom are not differentiated, they are not isolated, un-produced, without own-being and empty. But no distinction or difference can be got at of that which is not broken apart, which is isolated, un-produced, without own-being and empty. But no distinction or difference can be got at of that which is not broken apart, which is isolated, un-produced, without own-being and empty. How then does the wisdom which a Bodhisattva has developed for one day only, that wisdom of one who is coursing in perfect wisdom, surpass the wisdom of all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas?

The Lord: When you consider, Sariputra, the task of a

7 no. 15 of P 197. Where there is no self, there can be no actual progress to Nirvana. To speak of “spiritual progress” usually smuggles in a “self” or a “being”, limits the field of the progress, and assumes that this person progresses, and that person does not. It is difficult to have progress without one who progresses, or to speak of “progress” when one cannot locate it anywhere.

8 lit. the Saccharum Sara reed.

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Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, for which the wisdom, developed for one day only, has been set up and furnished with the best of all modes239; the task of one who courses in all-knowledge and works for the welfare of all beings (in the sense that he has resolved that) “once having fully understood all dharmas in all their modes, one should lead all beings to Nirvana”; - is that also the task for which the wisdom of all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas has been set up?

Sariputra: No indeed, O Lord.

The Lord: What do you think, Sariputra, does it occur to any of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas that “after we have known full enlightenment, we should lead all beings to Nirvana, into the realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind”?

Sariputra: No, indeed, O Lord.

The Lord: One should therefore know that this wisdom of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas bears no comparison to the wisdom of a Bodhisattva even though developed for one day only. What do you think, Sariputra, does it occur to any of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas that “after I have practised the six perfections, matured beings, purified the Buddha-field, perfect the ten powers of a Tathagata, his four grounds of self-confidence, the four analytical knowledges and the eighteen special dharmas of a Buddha, having known full enlightenment (P41) i shall lead countless beings to Nirvana”?

Sariputra: No, O Lord.

The Lord: But such are the intentions of a Bodhisattva. A glow-worm, being a mere insect, does not think that its light could illuminate the Continent of Jambudvipa, or shine over. Just so the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas do not think, not even one of them, that they should, after winning full enlightenment, lead all beings to Nirvana. But the sun, when it has risen, sheds its light over the whole of Jambudvipa. Just so a Bodhisattva, after he has accomplished the practices which end in full enlightenment, leads countless beings to Nirvana.

Sariputra: How does a Bodhisattva, a great being, after he has stepped above the level of all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, reach the irreversible level, and purity the path to enlightenment?

The Lord: Here a Bodhisattva, a great being steps above the

9 See note 211, chapter 2.

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level of a Disciple and Pratyekabuddha, reaches the irreversible level and purifies the path to enlightenment, because from the first thought of enlightenment onwards he courses in the six perfections, taking his stand on empty, sign-less, and wish-less dharmas.

Sariputra: On which level does a Bodhisattva, a great being, become constantly and always worthy of the donations of all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas? (P42)

The Lord: He is constantly and always worthy of them during the period which begins with the first thought of enlightenment and ends with his arrival on the terrace of enlightenment, during which period a Bodhisattva, a great being courses in the six perfections. And why? Because it is thanks to the Bodhisattva, the great being, that all the wholesome dharmas are manifested in the world, i.e. the ten wholesome paths of action, the five moral rules, the eight Uposatha vows, the four trances, the four Unlimited, the four formless attainments, the five super-knowledge s, the four applications of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of psychic power, the cardinal virtues, the five powers, the seven limbs of enlightenment, the eightfold path; the four grounds of self-confidence, the four analytical knowledges, the six perfections, the ten powers of a Tathagata, the eighteen special Buddha-dharmas. It is a result of the manifestation of these wholesome dharmas in the world that good families are conceived, i.e. nobles, Brahmins and well-to-do householders; that the gods are conceived, from the four Great Kings to: (P43) the Gods of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception; and that Stream-winners arise in the world, etc. to: Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas and Tathagatas.

Sariputra: Does then a Bodhisattva, a great being, cleanse the donations he receives, or does he not?

The Lord: He does not cleanse them, because the donations of a Bodhisattva, a great being, are just absolutely pure. And why? A donor is the Bodhisattva, the great being. Of what is he a donor? Of wholesome dharmas, i.e. of the ten wholesome paths of action to the eighteen special Buddha-dharmas.

((c)) The Yoga of Perfect Wisdom.)

I 2,2. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE TRUTHS.240

0 In AA I2,2 a-c the translation follows S I 136-141, which is fuller than the corresponding text of P. 83

I 2,2a. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE TRUTH OF ILL.241

Sariputra: How is a Bodhisattva, a great being, who is joining (exerting) himself, to be called “joined to perfect wisdom”?

The Lord: (AI) Here, Sariputra, a Bodhisattva, a great being, who is joined to the emptiness of form is to be called “joined”. And so if he is joined the emptiness of feeling, etc.; (P44) of the eye to mind, of sight-objects to mind-objects, of eye-element, sight-object-element; eye-consciousness-element, etc. to: mind-consciousness-element; of suffering, origination, stopping, path; and of ignorance, etc. to: decay and death. (II) Joined to the emptiness of all dharmas242 is he to be called “joined”. Of whichever conditioned and unconditioned dharmas he may have formed a notion, joined to the emptiness of all those dharmas is he to be called “joined”. Moreover, Sariputra, a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom, should be called “joined” if he is joined to the emptiness of the essential original nature.243 It is thus, Sariputra, that the Bodhisattva, the great being who courses in perfect wisdom is, when joined to these seven244 emptinesses, to be called “joined”. It is thus, Sariputra, that he who courses in perfect wisdom by means of these seven emptinesses should, because of that, not even be called “joined” or “un-joined”. (III) And why? Because there he does not review form, etc., as “joined”, or as “un-joined”.

I 2,2b INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE TRUTH OF ORIGINATION.245

1 The reader will do well to consult Prasannapada XII on duhka, if possible in Schayer’s translation. It is also useful to compare the exact wording of the four holy Truths, e.g. in my Buddhism, 1951, p.43.

2 no. 13 at P 197.

3 no. 12 at P 197.

4 “seven in S and S-Tib; “ten” in Gilgit P; “all” in P. The seven emptinesses are probably: 1, form, etc.; 2, eye, etc.; 3, sight-objects, etc.; 4, sight consciousness, etc.; 5, suffering, etc.; 6, ignorance, etc.; 7, all dharmas. 24

5 Here one should compare Prasannapada XIV on the impossibility of a cooperation (samsarga) between distinct entities, on the ground that they have no independent existence. Also Dharmasangiti in Si 263 sq.: “No dharma is ever produced or stopped. In actual fact the eye does not make contact with form, the ear with sounds, etc. Because there can be no union between them, and the eye cannot intimately unite with form, etc., and therefore cannot come into contact (or: collide) with it. There can be no contact (rana, also: collision, strife, contamination!) with a dharma which is single, and has no second. All dharmas, in fact, are single, they do not cognize or discern one another, they cannot construed or deconstructed, do not combine or dissolve, cannot grow or diminish.”

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(B1) He does not (P45) review form, etc., as either subject to production, or as subject to stopping. (II) He does not review form, etc., as either subject to defilement, or as subject to purification. (III) He does not review form as connecting with feeling; feeling as connecting with; feeling as connecting with perception; perception as connecting with feeling; perception as connecting with impulses; impulses as connecting with perception; impulses as connecting with consciousness; consciousness as connecting with impulses. And why? Because no dharma connects with any other dharma, nor does it disconnect; it is not joined nor disjoined – on account of the emptiness of their essential original nature.246 (IV) That which is emptiness, that is not form, etc. (V) Because the emptiness of form does not molest,247 the emptiness of feeling does not feel, the emptiness of perception does not perceive, the emptiness of impulses does not put together, the emptiness of consciousness is not aware. (P46) (VI) And why? Form is not one thing, and emptiness another; emptiness is not one thing, and form another. The very form is emptiness, the very emptiness is form. And so for feeling, etc.

I 2,2c. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE TRUTH OF STOPPING.

(C1) And that emptiness, that is neither produced nor stopped, it is neither defiled nor purified, does not decrease or increase; and that which is neither produced nor stopped, neither defiled nor purified, neither decreased nor increased, that is not past, future, or present. (II) There is no form in it, no feeling, etc.; no eye, etc. to : no mind; no form, etc. to : no mind-objects; no eye-element, etc. to : no mind-consciousness-element; no ignorance, no stopping ignorance, etc. to : (P47) no decay and death, no stopping of decay and death; no suffering and no comprehension of suffering; no origination and no forsaking of origination; no stopping and no realization of stopping; no path and no development of the path; no attainment, and no reunion; no Stream-winner, and no fruit of a Stream-winner; etc. to : no Bodhisattva, and no knowledge of the modes of the path; no

6 S-Tib. Seems to understand this sentence quite differently.

7 This is a play on words: rupam (form) rupayati (molests). On the face of it that seems to mean that “form has no figure” (cf. P Dc s.v.), but S-Tib. has thogs-par byed-pa, “strike, run against, impede”. In A.K. I 24,45 rupam is derived from rupayate, “breaks up” (rumpere), “changes in form” , “is brittle”, and that is the meaning of rupana (‘jig-pa) at P 197.

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Buddha, and no enlightenment. (III) It is in this sense, Sariputra, that a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, is to be called “joined”.

I 2,2d. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE TRUTH OF THE PATH.248

(D1) One who courses in perfect wisdom does not review himself as “joined” to the perfection of giving, nor as “not joined” to it. And so with the other perfections, with form (P48), etc., to: the cognition of the All-knowing. Also by this method should it be known that a Bodhisattva, a great being, who has been thus joined to perfect wisdom, is to be called “joined”. (II) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, does not join emptiness with emptiness, nor is emptiness a matter for joined; he does not join the sign-less with the sign-less, nor is the sign-less a matter for joining; he does not join the wish-less with the wish-less, nor is the wish-less a matter for joining. And why? Because emptiness is not a matter for joining, or disjoining. When he thus joins himself a Bodhisattva, a great being, is to be called “joined, joined to perfect wisdom”. (III) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, plunges into the own-mark emptiness of dharmas. But when he does so, he does not join with form, etc., nor disjoins (himself) from it. He does not join with form, etc. at the beginning, or at the end, or in the present. He truly does not review the beginning, end, or present. When he thus joins himself, a Bodhisattva, a great being, is to be called “joined, joined to perfect wisdom”. (P49) (IV) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, does not join the beginning with the end, nor the end with the beginning, nor the present with the beginning or end, nor the end with the beginning or present, nor the beginning with the end or the present. And that is on account of the emptiness of the (three) periods of time. When he thus joins himself, a Bodhisattva, a great being, is to be called “joined, joined to perfect wisdom”.

8 Obermiller well sums up I2, 2d after H: A Bodhisattva cannot be really endowed with the six perfections, nor can he be devoid of them. The emptiness of internal constituents, to the emptiness of his external environment, which constitutes the sphere of his actions; at the same time such a relation cannot be entirely absent, because otherwise there could be no skill in means and no spiritual progress. - It is noteworthy that the eight steps of the “holy Path”, i.e. right views, etc., are nowhere even alluded to.

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I 2,3. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE THREE TREASURES.

I 2,3a. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE TREASURE OF THE BUDDHA.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, is “bound” thereby to join himself thus that he does not join the knowledge of all modes to the past, the future, or the present. He just does not review the past, future, or present; how can he join the knowledge of all modes to them? When he thus joins himself, a Bodhisattva is to be called “joined, joined to perfect wisdom:. (P50) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, does not join form, or any other dharma, to the knowledge of all modes. Form, or any other dharma, he just does not review. When he thus joins himself, a Bodhisattva is to be called “joined, joined to perfect wisdom”. Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom does not join the perfection of giving, or any other wholesome,249 to the knowledge of all modes. The very perfection of giving, or any other wholesome dharma, he does not review. When he thus joins himself, a Bodhisattva is to be called “joined, joined to perfect wisdom”. (P51) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being does not join the Buddha to the knowledge of all modes; the very Buddha he does not review; nor does he join the knowledge of all modes to the Buddha; the very knowledge of all modes he does not review. He does not join enlightenment to the knowledge of all modes; the very enlightenment he does not review. Nor does he join the knowledge of all modes to enlightenment; the very knowledge of all modes he does not review. And why? The very Buddha is the knowledge of all modes, the very knowledge of all modes is the Buddha. The very enlightenment is the knowledge of all modes, the very knowledge of all modes is enlightenment. When he thus joins himself a Bodhisattva is to be called “joined, joined to perfect wisdom”.

I 2,3b. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE TREASURE OF THE DHARMA.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, does not join up with the conviction that “form is a positive existent”, or that “form is not a positive existent”; that “form is permanent or impermanent”; that “form is ease of suffering”; (P52) that “form is the self, or not the self”; that “form is calm or un-calm”.

9 The usual list up to the Buddha-dharmas.

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And so for the other skandhas. He does not join up with the conviction that “form is empty or not empty”, that “form is with sign, or sign-less”, that “form is with wish, or wish-less”. And so for the other skandhas. One who courses thus does not approach the ideas that “he courses”, “he does not course”, “he both courses and does not course”, “he neither courses nor does he not course”. A bodhisattva, a great, who courses thus, is to be called “joined to perfect wisdom”. (P53)

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom, does not course in perfect wisdom for the sake of the perfection of giving, or any other perfection, nor for the sake of the irreversible stage, nor for the purpose of maturing beings or of purifying the Buddha-field, nor for the sake of the ten powers of a Tathagata, etc., to : the Buddha-dharmas; nor for the sake of the emptiness of the subject, et .; nor for the sake of Suchness, of the realm of Dharma, of the reality limit, etc. And why? Because a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom, does not review the differentiation of any dharma whatsoever. A Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses thus, is to be called “joined to perfect wisdom”. He does not course in perfect wisdom for the sake of the heavenly eye, or the heavenly ear, or the cognition of others’ thoughts, or the recollection of former lives. Or for the sake of wonderworking powers. And why? Because there one who courses in perfect wisdom (P54) does not even review the perfection of wisdom; how then (could he review) a Bodhisattva, or how could apprehend all the super-knowledge s in all their modes? It is thus that a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, is to be called “joined”.

Moreover, it does not occur to a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom, that “I know with the heavenly eye the decease and rebirth of beings in world systems as numerous as the sands of the Ganges in each one of the ten directions; with the heavenly ear I hear their sounds; I know their very thoughts; having also recollected their former lives, and having travelled (to them) with the help of my wonder-working powers, I will demonstrate Dharma (to them)” (P55). It is thus that a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom and leads countless beings to Nirvana, is to be called “joined”.

In this way Mara, the Evil One, does not get a chance to harm the Bodhisattva, the great being who courses in perfect wisdom. And all the other worldly defilements he may still have will burst

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asunder. And this Bodhisattva will be protected by the Buddhas, the Lords who, in all the ten directions, stand, hold, and maintain themselves in world systems as numerous as the sands of the river Ganges, and demonstrate Dharma; and also by their Disciples, and also by Pratyekabuddhas, and by the gods, from the Four Great Kings to the Highest Gods. And they will see to it that that Bodhisattva will meet with no impediments at all. If he has any physical defect it will completely cease in this very life. And why? Because he radiates friendliness over all beings. (P56)

Moreover, a Bodhisattva a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, comes with little trouble face to face with the Dharani-doors and the concentration-doors. Wherever he is reborn, he pleases the Tathagatas and is not deprived anywhere of the Buddhas, the Lords, until he has known full enlightenment. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom, is to be called “joined”.

Moreover, it does not occur to a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom that “there is some dharma which is conjoined with or disjoined from (other) dharmas”. Nor does he wish that “he might more quickly fully know the Realm of Dharma, or not fully know it at all”. (P57) And why? Because the Realm of Dharma is not fully known by means of the Realm of Dharma. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, is to be called “joined”. Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom, does not review anything as separate from the Realm of Dharma, or distinguish any dharma from the Realm of Dharma. It also does not occur to him that “this Realm of Dharma has been penetrated”,250 or “this Realm of Dharma has not been penetrated”. For he does not review any dharma by means of which he could penetrate to that Realm of Dharma. Because he does not join up the Realm of Dharma with the idea that it is empty, or with the idea that it is not empty. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom, is to be called “joined”.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom, does not join up the eye-element, or any of the 18

0 “Realm of Dharma”, dharmadhatu, “element of Dharma” is a Mahayana word for the Absolute. To “penetrate” to it means that the thick membrane of ignorance must first be pierced. In order to see the Dharmadhatu one must have the equivalent of an operation for cataract of the eyes.

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elements (P58), or any of the 18 elements.251 And why? This is the foremost “undertaking” of the Bodhisattva, i.e. the endeavour about emptiness. When he courses in emptiness, a Bodhisattva does not fall on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, but purifies the Buddha-field, matures beings, and quickly knows full enlightenment. Among the “endeavours” of a Bodhisattva the “endeavour” about the perfection of wisdom is declared to be the highest, the best, the choicest, the most excellent, the utmost, the unsurpassed, the peerless, the unequalled, the most sublime. And why? There is nothing above (P59) the “endeavour”, i.e. above the “endeavour” about perfect wisdom, about emptiness, the sign-less, the wish-less. A Bodhisattva who is “endeavouring” (joining himself) thus, should be borne in mind as predicted (to Buddha-hood), as one who has come near the prediction. He will work the welfare of countless beings, but it will not occur to him that “the Buddhas, the Lords will predict me; I have come near the prediction; I will purify the Buddha-field; I will mature beings; I will, after I have known full enlightenment, turn the wheel of Dharma”. And why? Because he does not set apart the Realm of Dharma, nor does he review any dharma as other than the Realm of Dharma, e.g., him who would course in perfect wisdom, or who would be predicted by the Buddhas, the Lords, to full enlightenment. And why? Because no perception of a being is produced in a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses perfect wisdom. And why? Because absolutely no being is produced or stopped, since a being has the nature of non-production and of non-stopping. And that of which there is neither production nor stopping how will that course in perfect wisdom? Thus coursing, a Bodhisattva courses in perfect wisdom through the fact of the non-production of a being, of the emptiness of a being, of the inaccessibility of a being, of the isolated-ness of a being. It is thus that one abides in the foremost “endeavour” of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, i.e. in the “discipline” in emptiness, which has surpassed all other “disciplines”. (P60) For a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in this “discipline”, aspires to the great friendliness, and he does not produce a thought of meanness, or of immorality, ill will, sloth, distraught-ness, or stupidity.

1 One cannot join any of the 18 elements to emptiness because one has not got the eye-element here and emptiness there. In fact, the eye-element is indissolubly identical with emptiness.

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((d)) The Varieties of Bodhisattvas

I. According to the Circumstances of their Rebirth.)252

2 The classification of the Saints given here presents many difficulties. It is not at all easy to grasp the scheme of AA, which is taken straight from A.K. VI pp. 193-240. In addition its relation to the text of the Sutra is sometimes rather obscure. The reader will also do well to refresh his memory of the stages of the Path, as well as of the 28 classes of gods (see the Numerical Lists), for, as he will see, a Bodhisattva, once he has reached a certain stage of perfection, ceases to live on earth and dwells for long periods among the devas.

A few remarks are necessary on the method of classification adopted here. The scheme concerns “all the holy irreversible Bodhisattvas (see I2, 3c, c) who are still in training” (H), but the Mahayanistic Arhat is omitted from the list, because he belongs to the Treasure of the Buddha (I2, 3a). The 20 types are subdivisions of the traditionally well-known “holy persons”. The text of P gives 24 headings, of which A, B, C and D represent four of these “holy persons”, i.e. I, IV, VI, and VII. In the Numerical Lists I have tried to clarify the situation by a diagram. Some light is also thrown on the subject by the comments of AAA (35-36, Ob. 51-56), which I reproduce here in a none too elegant English translation:

“The following varieties of the Congregation of the Bodhisattvas are here considered:

I. The Candidate for the first Fruit. He has realized the first 15 moments of the Path of Vision, and may be either 1, a Faith-follower, if of feeble intellectual faculties, or 2, a Dharma-follower, if of acute intellectual faculties and capable of an intuition of the Truth.

II. The Stream-winner, who through the 16th thought moment on the Path of Vision has turned away from the passion that is peculiar to the world of sense desire.

III. The Candidate for the Second Fruit, who has attained this state through the removal of five varieties of defilement peculiar to the world of sense desire. Depending on whether his intellectual faculties are more dull or more acute, he may be 3, one who attains the fruit by faith, or 4, one who attain it by correct views. Another variety of the same are the saints who, abiding on the Path of Development, have removed the defiling forces up to the 4th degree. Owing to this they secure a succession of rebirths in either a 6, godly or 5, human form.

IV. The Once-Returner has forsaken 6 forms of defilement peculiar to the world of sense-desire. One variety of IV is 7, the saint with one single interval, for whom one single birth among the gods is to be undergone before he attain Arhat-ship.

V. The Candidate for the third Fruit has removed 7 or 8 forms of defilement belonging to the world of sense-desire. He may attain this position either by faith or by correct views, as at I and III.

VI. The Never-Returner has removed all 9 forms of defilement belonging to the world of sense-desire. He can be of five kinds, as follows: (A) 8. The saint who attains Nirvana in an intermediary state of existence, between the world of sense desire and that of pure form. He has forsaken the fetters which bind him to a future rebirth in the world of form, but not those which lead to his reproduction in the existence intermediary between this sphere and that of sense-desire. Whilst he is reproducing himself there, he comes face to face with the Path and thereby reaches the end of ill. (B) 9. The saint who attain Nirvana as soon as he has been reborn, and since he has not forsaken either of these two kinds of fetters, reaches

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I 2,3c. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE TREASURE OF THE SAMGHA.

I 2,3c. A. THE EIGHTH LOWEST BODHISATTVA. (= CANDIDATE FOR STREAMWINNERSHIP)

Sariputra: The Bodhisattva, the great being who dwells in this dwelling of perfect wisdom, deceased where, is he reborn here, or deceased here where will he be reborn?

The Lord: The Bodhisattva, the great being who dwells in this dwelling of perfect wisdom, deceased in this world, he is reborn here in this very Buddha-field, or, deceased in other Buddha-fields, or among the Tushita Gods, he is reborn here.

I 2,3c,1. THE BODHISATTVA AS FAITH-FOLLOWER.

Among these a Bodhisattva, the great being who, deceased among men, is reborn among them, has dull253 faculties – except when he is irreversible – he does not immediately make “endeavours” about perfect wisdom, and does not come face to face with the Dharani-doors or the concentration-doors. If again, Sariputra, you say, “the Bodhisattva, the great being who makes this ‘endeavour’ about perfect wisdom, when he is deceased here,

the end of Ill after having been reborn in the sphere of pure form. (C) 10. the saint who, born in the world of pure form, wins Nirvana with great effort, and (D) 11. the reverse of him, the saint who wins it without effort. (E) The fifth variety of Never-returners are those who rise up to the highest regions of the phenomenal world to attain Nirvana there. They again are of two kinds: (x) 12. the saint who has gone up to the Akanishta gods to win Nirvana there, and (xx) 16. the saint who has gone up to the highest sphere of phenomenal existence. (Ex) No. 12 is of three kinds: (Ex 1) 13. The one who moves along by leaps, who from the lowest heaven of the world of pure form jumps straight to the highest, i.e. to the Akanishta heavens: (Ex 2) 14. the “Half-precipitant”, who from the Brahmic worlds rises higher up, living among the Gods of the Pure Abode. Having passed through some of the intermediate worlds, he finally enters the Akanishta heaven in two leaps. (Ex 3) 15. the saint who, having deceased in all stations on his way through the heavens of pure form up to the Akanishta heaven, has lived on each of these stations and deceased in each one of them. E xx) No. 16, who 17, is devoid of greed for the world of pure form, is of two kinds, i.e. 18. the saint who has won peace in this very life, and wins Nirvana in the highest of the immaterial spheres, and 19. the saint who has witnessed cessation with his body.

VII. The Candidate for Arhat-ship has removed 8 of the forms of defilement peculiar to the culminating point of phenomenal existence and applies his energy to the removal of the 9th form.

The Arhat – 20. The Pratyekabuddha who acts on the basis of the Disciple Code, and comes face to face with his own Path at the time when no Buddha arises in the world”.

3 or: slow, weak, sluggish.

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where will he be reborn?” When he is deceased in this Buddha-field here (P61), he will then pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field. In each Buddha-field he will please the Buddhas, the Lords, and nowhere will he be without them.

I 2,3c,2. THE BODHISATTVA AS DHARMA-FOLLOWER.

Moreover another Bodhisattva, one who is deceased in other Buddha-fields and reborn here, has keen faculties. He quickly makes this “endeavour” about perfect wisdom. When he has passed through this present birth, he will still remain face to face with these very deep dharmas and will continue to make endeavours about perfect wisdom. In whichever Buddha-field he may be reborn, there he will please the Tathagatas. Moreover, the Bodhisattva, who, deceased among the Tushita gods, is reborn here, also has sharper faculties, and comes face to face with the six perfections of which he never loses sight, and with all the Dharani-doors and concentration-doors.

I 2,3c,3. THE CANDIDATE TO THE SECOND AND THIRD FRUIT WHO IS INTENT ON FAITH.

There are Bodhisattvas who course in perfect wisdom, working and exerting themselves in order to mature beings, and who through the power of skill in means realize the fruit of a Stream-winner. And yet they do not fancy themselves for being Stream-winners.

There are Bodhisattvas who without being skilful in means, accomplish the four trances and course in the perfections. Through their acquisitions of trance they are reborn among the Long-lived gods. If, after they have deceased there, they are reborn among men or gods, they will please the Buddhas, the Lords. (P62) Their faculties also will be dull and not keen.

There are Bodhisattvas who both enter into the trances and course in perfect wisdom. But, owing to their lack of skill in means, they, having abandoned the trances, are reborn in the world of sense desire. Their faculties also are dull and not keen.

I 2,3c,4. THE CANDIDATE TO THE SECOND AND THIRD FRUIT WHO HAS ATTAINED CORRECT VIEWS.

There are Bodhisattvas who, after they have produced the four trances enter into the four Unlimited, the four formless attainments, 93

the applications of mindfulness, the right efforts, the bases of psychic power, the (five) dominants, the (five) powers, the (seven) limbs of enlightenment, the Paths. Greatly compassionate, they are reborn through skill in means, and not through the influence of the trances, Unlimited, or formless attainments. And they are reborn where they can please the Tathagatas. Since they do not lack dwelling in the perfection of wisdom, they will know full enlightenment in this very Bhadrakalpa.

I 2,3c,B. THE ONCE-RETURNER.

There are Bodhisattvas, bound to one more birth who, coursing in perfect wisdom with skill in means, enter into and develop the four trances, the four Unlimited, the four formless attainments, the applications of mindfulness, right efforts, bases of psychic power, the dominants, powers, limbs of enlightenment and Paths. They enter into the concentration on Emptiness, on the Sign-less, on the Wish-less (P63). But it is not through the influence of the trances, etc. that they are reborn. When they have, face to face, pleased the Buddhas, the Lords, and (for a long time) have led a holy life under them, they are again reborn among the Tushita gods, where they remain until the end of their lifespan. Thereafter, with non-defective sense-organs, mindful and self-possessed, surrounded and accompanied by hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of gods, having here254 exhibited a rebirth, they know full enlightenment in various Buddha-fields.

I 2,3c,C. THE NEVER-RETURNER.

There are Bodhisattvas who are recipients of the six super-knowledges, and who are not reborn in the world of sense desire, or the world of form, or the formless world; but they pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, honouring, respecting, revering and worshipping the Tathagatas.

There are Bodhisattvas, recipients of the six super-knowledges, who, playing with these super-knowledgs, pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field; in those Buddha-fields one has not even a conception of the vehicle of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, and in them the lifespan (of beings) is measureless. (P64)

There are Bodhisattvas, recipients of the six super-knowledges,

4 among the gods, or in this world of ours? ici-bas (Lamotte)

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who pass on from world system to world system. They go to where the message of Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha is unknown and abiding there they make beings hear the message of Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha, speaking in praise of the Triple Jewel. As a result of this message of Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha, those beings when they heave deceased from there, are reborn where there are Buddhas and Lords.

I 2,3c,5. THOSE WHO ARE REBORN SUCCESSIBELY IN THE FAMILIES OF MEN.

There are Bodhisattvas who, having produced the four trances, enter into the four holy Unlimited, and the four formless attainments. And yet, endowed with skill in means, having turned away from (the reward which follows the) concentrations and attainments, they are reborn in the world of sense desire, are reborn in good families, i.e. among nobles, Brahmins and well-to-do householders, for the sake of maturing beings.

I 2,3c,6. THOSE WHO ARE REBORN SUCCESSIVELY IN THE FAMILIES OF GODS.

There are Bodhisattvas who enter into the four trances, the four Unlimited, and the four formless attainments. Through the power of their skill in means, and not through the influence of the trances, the Unlimited or the attainments, they are reborn among the Gods of the Plane of Sense Desire (P65). Abiding among them, they mature beings, purify the Buddha-fields, and please the Buddhas, the Lords.

There are Bodhisattvas who, deceased among those gods, are, through their skill in means, reborn in the Brahma-world, up to the Highest Gods. Therein they become Brahma gods or Mahabrahma gods. They abide in those realms of Brahma, and then pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, and entreat the Tathagatas who are in those Buddha-fields to turn the wheel of Dharma.

I 2,3c,7. THOSE WITH ON SINGLE INTERVAL (OF REBIRTH AMONG THE GODS).

There are Bodhisattvas who are recipients of the four trances, etc. to: of the eighteen special Buddha-dharmas, and who course in compliance with them. They are recipients of the four Holy Truths and yet they do not penetrate them. And these Bodhisattvas should be known as bound to one more birth.

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I 2,3c,8. THOSE WHO ATTAIN NIRVANA IN AN INTERMEDIATE STATE.

There are Bodhisattvas who from the production of the first thought of enlightenment onwards become recipients of the four trances, the four Unlimited, and the four formless attainments. They develop the applications of mindfulness, the right efforts, the bases of psychic power, the dominants, the powers, the limbs of enlightenment, and the Paths. They acquire the (ten) powers (of a Tathagata), the grounds of self-confidence, the analytical knowledges and the (18) special Buddha-dharmas. (P66) Through skill in means they are reborn among the gods of Brahma’s group, etc. up to : the Highest Gods. When they have known full enlightenment, they work for the weal of beings.

I 2,3c,9. THOSE WHO ATTAIN NIRVANA AS SOON AS THEY HAVE BEEN REBORN (IN THE SPHERE OF PURE FORM).

There are Bodhisattvas who, simply through the production of the first thought of enlightenment, fully know full enlightenment, turn the wheel of Dharma, and, having worked the weal of countless beings, enter into the realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind. Their good Dharma abides for an aeon or more, after their attainment of final Nirvana.

I 2,3c,10. THOSE WHO ATTAIN WITH GREAT EFFORT.

There are Bodhisattvas who, coursing in the six perfections, pass on from world system to world system and there establish beings in enlightenment. Always energetic they never, for the sake of beings, speak an unprofitable word. Always energetic for the sake of beings, they pass on from one Buddha-field to another. Also those Bodhisattvas know full enlightenment in various Buddha-fields, during incalculable, immeasurable aeons, for the sake of beings.

I 2,3c,11. THOSE WHO ATTAIN WITHOUT EFFORT.

There are Bodhisattvas who, simply through the first production of the thought of enlightenment, enter into the fixed condition of a bodhisattva, or abide on the irreversible state, or procure all the Buddha-dharmas. (P67)

There are Bodhisattvas, who, from the production of the first thought of enlightenment onwards, make endeavours about perfect wisdom. Together with hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis 96

of Bodhisattvas they pass from one Buddha-field to another, always purifying their own Buddha-field; and in various Buddha-fields they know full enlightenment.

I 2,3c,12. THOSE WHO HAVE GONE TO THE HIGHEST GODS TO WIN NIRVANA THERE.

There are Bodhisattvas who, coursing in the six perfections, have become Universal Monarchs. Having taken the perfection of giving for their guide they will provide all beings with everything that brings ease – food to the hungry, drink to the thirsty. They will provide perfumes, garlands, ointments, medicinal powders, incense, beds, seats, asylum, homes, money, grain, jewels, pearls, gold, silver, coral, ornaments, and the means of life – until, having established beings in the ten ways of wholesome action, they are reborn among the gods of Brahma’s group, etc. to: up to the Highest Gods, and know full enlightenment in the various Buddha-fields.

I 2,3c,13. THOSE WHO MOVE ALONG BY LEAPS.

There are Bodhisattvas who, having accomplished the four trances, are, when the trances have faded away, in consequence of the first trance reborn among the gods of Brahma’s group. Having again accomplished the trances, having been reborn among the Highest Gods, they know full enlightenment in the various Buddha-fields. (P68)

I 2,3c,14. THE HALF-PRECIPIENT.

There are Bodhisattvas who, deceased from the Brahma-world, are reborn among the Gods of the Pure “Abode. Having jumped over one or two classes of the Gods of the Pure Abode, they are reborn among the Highest Gods, and then know full enlightenment in the various Buddha-fields.

I 2,3c,15. THOSE WHO, ON THEIR WAY THROUGH THE HEAVENS OF FORM, HAVE DECEASED IN ALL STATIONS.

There are Bodhisattvas who have conjured up a body like that of a Tathagata, purified the Tushita-realm, been reborn among the gods of Brahma’s group, etc. up to: the Highest Gods, and who, through their skill in means, demonstrate Dharma to beings in the hells, in the animal world, and in the world of Yama.

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There are Bodhisattvas who have stood in the six perfections, conjured up a body such as that of a Tathagata, visited countless Buddha-fields and world-systems in all the ten directions, in each single direction, and there demonstrate Dharma to beings, honour the Tathagatas, perfect the Buddha-fields, and hear the Dharma. Having created for those Buddha-fields illusory magical creations,255 they perfect the best, the most distinguished, the utmost Buddha-fields. (P69) And, bound to one more birth, these Bodhisattvas, reborn in those Buddha-fields, know full enlightenment in the various Buddha-fields.

I 2,3c,16. THOSE WHO HAVE GONE UP TO THE HIGHEST SPHERE OF PHENOMENAL EXISTENCE.

There are Bodhisattvas who, in consequence of the trances and formless attainments, are reborn among the gods of Brahma’s group, etc. up to: the Subhakritsna Gods. Thereafter they are reborn in the station of endless space, etc. up to: in the summit of existence. Then they are reborn in various Buddha-fields.

I 2,3c,17. THOSE WHO HAVE FORSAKEN THE GREED FOR THE WORLD OF FORM.

There are Bodhisattvas, recipients of the trances and formless attainments, who are reborn in the station of endless space, etc. to: in the summit of existence. Then they are reborn in the various Buddha-fields.

I 2,3c,18. THOSE WHO ATTAIN NIRVANA IN THIS VERY LIFE.

There are Bodhisattvas who, coursing in the six perfections, their bodies adorned with the 32 marks of the Superman, become endowed with the most excellent perfectly pure organs, and who therefore become dear and pleasant to the many-folk. And the beings who see those Bodhisattvas, do, through just that serene faith in their hearts gradually attain full Nirvana through the three vehicles. It is thus that a Bodhisattva should train himself in the perfect purity of body, speech and mind.

There are Bodhisattvas who, from the first production of the thought of enlightenment onwards, have stood in the six perfections and are never reborn anywhere in the states of woe

5 The text is here corrupt. S i 277 and P-Tib. Differ. Tib., like one of Dutt’s MSS, read “signs” instead of “illusory magical creations”.

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even before they have reached the irreversible stage.

There are Bodhisattvas who, from the first production of the thought of enlightenment onwards, never abandon the ten ways of wholesome action until they have reached the irreversible stage.

There are Bodhisattvas who, after they have stood in the perfection of giving, have become Universal Monarchs and, having given gifts to beings, establish them in the 10 ways of wholesome action.

There are Bodhisattvas who, having stood in the perfection of giving, etc., gain many hundreds, many hundreds of thousands of world-wide kingdoms. Having stood therein, they please hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of Buddhas, honour, respect, revere and worship those Buddhas and Lords, and thereafter win full enlightenment.

I 2,3c,19. THOSE WHO HAVE WITNESSED (CESSATION) WITH THEIR BODY.

There are Bodhisattvas who, coursing in perfect wisdom, recipients of the four trances and the four formless attainments, enter, playing with them, into the first trance. Emerged therefrom, they enter into the attainment of (the trance of) Cessation. And so with the second trance, etc. to: the fourth formless attainment. (P71) It is thus that these Bodhisattvas, coursing in perfect wisdom, endowed with skill in means, having entered on the concentration which jumps at will from one station to any other,256 know full enlightenment in the various Buddha-fields.

I 2,3c,20. THE PRATYEKABUDDHA.

There are Bodhisattvas who, in Buddha-less world-systems where there are no Disciples, fully know the Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment. Having matured, through skill in means many hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of living beings in the three vehicles, they know full enlightenment.

I 2,3c,a. THE FRUITS WHICH CAN BE OBTAINED ON THE PATH OF THE DISCIPLE AND PRATYEKABUDDHA.

There are Bodhisattvas who are recipients of the applications of mindfulness, the right efforts, the bases of psychic power, the dominants, the powers, the limbs of enlightenment and the Path, recipients of the ten powers, the grounds of self-confidence, the

6 This concentration is described in detail at AA V 24-25, and in Ad ch. 62.

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analytical knowledges, and the 18 special Buddha-dharmas, but they do not attain the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc. to: (P72) the fruit of an Arhat, or Pratyekabuddha-hood. Coursing in perfect wisdom they show, through their skill in means the eightfold path to all beings, and thereby make them attain the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc. to: Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment. They themselves do not realize (these), but they establish others in them.

I 2,3c,b. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF OTHERS IN THE DHARMA ONE DOES NOT ONESELF OBTAIN.

The Bodhisattva, the great being patiently accepts the cognition which leads to the attainment of the fruit of all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas.257

I 2,3c,c. ELUCIDATION OF THE COMMUNITY OF IRREVERSIBLE BODHISATTVAS.

Those Bodhisattvas who dwell in this perfection of wisdom should be known as irreversible.

There are Bodhisattvas who, having stood in the six perfections, purify the Tushita-realm. These Bodhisattvas should surely be known as living in the “Auspicious Aeon”. Those, Sariputra, are irreversible Bodhisattvas who thus rise up to the Buddha-dharmas.

(II. According to their practices. 1. Perfect Purity.)

Therefore then, Sariputra, a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom, should give no occasion for faulty deeds of body, speech or mind, and he should train in view of the perfect purity of the deeds of body, speech and mind. (P73)

I 2,4. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT NONATTACHMENT.

Sariputra: What is a faulty deed of body, speech, and mind?

The Lord: Here it occurs to a Bodhisattva to ask “what is the body by which deeds of the body could be undertaken, what the voice by which deeds of speech could be undertaken, what the mind by which deeds of mind could be undertaken?” Thus investigating, he gets at body, speech, and mind. For a Bodhisattva such an undertaking of deeds of body, speech, and mind is faulty. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect

7 So S i 274. P I do not understand, and P-Tib. Differs from it. There is a parallel in Ad ch. 69, f. 261a (see my Rome edition).

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wisdom does not get at258 such a kind of body, speech or mind, by which he would produce a thought of meanness, immorality, ill will, sloth, distraction, or stupidity. It is impossible, it cannot be, that a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom, could produce wickedness259 of body, speech, or mind. That is quite impossible. And why? Because a Bodhisattva, who courses in the six perfections, cleanses away the wickedness of body, speech, and mind.

Sariputra: How then does he cleanse away that wickedness?

The Lord: When he does not get at body, speech, or mind. (P74) If, moreover, a Bodhisattva, account of the first thought of enlightenment, complies with the ten ways of wholesome action, produces no Disciple-thought or Pratyekabuddha-thought, but constantly and always sets up a thought a great compassion for all beings, it is then that I say that a Bodhisattva’s wickedness of body, speech, and mind is perfectly purified. There are Bodhisattvas, great beings, who, coursing in perfect wisdom, and purifying the path to enlightenment, course in the perfection of giving, etc. to: in the perfection of wisdom.

Sariputra: What is a Bodhisattva’s path to enlightenment?

The Lord: When a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, does not get at body, speech, or mind, at any of the six perfection, at the idea of Disciple, Pratyekabuddha, Bodhisattva, or Buddha, then that is a Bodhisattva’s path to enlightenment, i.e. the non-apprehension of all dharmas. The Bodhisattva who walks by that path and courses in the six perfections, cannot possibly be crushed.260

I 2,5. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT PERSISTENT INDEFATIGABILITY.

(2. All-knowledge.)

Sariputra: Coursing how do Bodhisattvas become un-crushable?

The Lord: When a Bodhisattva, who courses in the six perfections, does not put his mind to form (P75), etc. to: to the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment, it is then that he grows in the six perfections and that he cannot be crushed by anything.

8 or: does not take notice of, does not apprehend. 1, they do not, objectively speaking, exist; 2. they are completely unimportant in any case.

9 daushtulya, may either mean “depravity” in a general sense; or, more specifically, lewdness, or luxurious living (H).

0 for the simple reason that is not there, and no one can find him.

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There are Bodhisattvas, great beings, who, having stood imperfect wisdom, fulfil all-knowledge. Al doors to the places of woe are closed to those who are endowed with that knowledge, they do not, among men, experience the misfortunes of poverty261 (P76) and they do not take hold of such a personality by which they would become blameworthy in the world with its gods.

I 2,6. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE FULL ACCEPTANCE262 OF THE MAHAYANISTIC PATH.

(3. Cognition of the all-knowing.)

Sariputra: What is, on the part of a Bodhisattva, the cognition of the all-knowing?

The Lord: Endowed with that cognition a Bodhisattva sees, in each of the ten directions, Tathagatas as many as the sands of the river Ganges, hears their demonstration of Dharma, honours their Community, and sees the purity of their Buddha-fields. But Bodhisattvas who are endowed with that cognition have no notion of a Buddha, or of enlightenment, or of Disciples or Pratyekabuddhas, or of self or other, or of a Buddha-field. A Bodhisattva who is endowed with that cognition courses in each one of the six perfections, but he does not get at any of them. He develops the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas, but he does not get at any of them. Endowed with this cognition a Bodhisattva fulfils all Buddha-dharmas, but he does not put his mind to any of them. (P77)

I 2,7. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE FIVE ORGANS OF VISION.

(4. The five Eyes.)

There are Bodhisattvas who acquire and cleanse the Five Eyes. Which five? The fleshly eye, the heavenly eye, the wisdom eye, the Dharma-eye, the Buddha-eye.

Sariputra: What is a Bodhisattva’s perfectly pure Fleshly Eye?

The Lord: There is the fleshly eye of a Bodhisattva which sees for a hundred miles, for two hundred miles, across Jambudvipa, a four continent world-system, a world-system consisting of 1,000

1 Bodhisattvas are usually reborn in well-to-do families. Poverty is a punishment for meanness, or lack of generosity, in a past life. Wealth is a reward for generosity, but unless wisely used it may undo much of the good accumulated in past lives. The Scriptures often refer to practitioners of the Dharma as “sons and daughters of good family”.

2 or: indispensable factors for mastering. 102

worlds, a world-system consisting of 1,000,000 worlds, a world-system consisting of 1,000,000,000 worlds. This is a Bodhisattva’s perfectly pure Fleshly Eye.

Sariputra: What is a Bodhisattva’s perfectly pure Heavenly Eye?

The Lord: A Bodhisattva wisely knows263 the Heavenly Eye of the gods, beginning with the Four Great Kings; (P78) but the gods do not wisely know a Bodhisattva’s Heavenly Eye. With his perfectly pure Heavenly Eye he wisely knows, as it really is, the decease and rebirth of all beings in the world systems numerous as the sands of the river Ganges, in each of the ten directions. This is a Bodhisattva’s perfectly pure Heavenly Eye.

Sariputra: What is a Bodhisattva’s perfectly pure Wisdom Eye?264

The Lord: A Bodhisattva who is endowed with that Wisdom Eye does not wisely know any dharma – be it conditioned or unconditioned, wholesome or unwholesome, faulty or faultless, with or without outflows, defiled or undefiled, worldly or supramundane.265 With that Wisdom Eye he does not see any dharma, or hear, know, or discern one.266 This is the perfectly pure Wisdom Eye of a Bodhisattva. (P79)

Sariputra: What is a Bodhisattva’s perfectly pure Dharma-Eye?267

The Lord: Here a Bodhisattva knows, by means of the Dharma-Eye, that “this person is a Faith-follower, that person a Dharma-follower. This person a dweller in Emptiness, that person a dweller in the sign-less, that person a dweller in the Wish-less. The five cardinal virtues will arise in this person by means of the emptiness-door to deliverance, in that person by means of the sign-less door to deliverance, in that person by means of the wish-less door to deliverance. By means of the five cardinal

3 = knows by virtue of his wisdom.

4 Acc. To Mpp-s 439, the wisdom eye knows the true mark (satyakalshana) of all dharmas. 26

5 Then follow two words I have omitted as duplicating “defiled or undefiled”.

6 However, before he can cease to know them, he must first have known them exactly.

7 Acc. to Mpp-s 439 the Dharma-eye sees persons, and knows by which means or device, or through which teaching (dharma) they will find the Path. It differentiates between individual types, and is akin to what Christians call “the gift of spiritual discernment”.

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virtues this one gazes upon the unimpeded concentration.268 By means of the unimpeded concentration he will produce the vision and cognition of emancipation. By means of the vision and cognition of emancipation he will forsake three fetters, i.e. the view of individuality, the contagion of mere rule and ritual, and doubt. He then is the person who is called a Stream-winner. After he has acquired the path of development, he attenuates sensuous greed and ill will. He is then the person who is called a Once-Returner. Through making just this path of development preponderant and developing it, he will come to the forsaking of sensuous greed and of ill will. He is then the person who is called a Never-Returner. Through making just this path of development preponderant and developing it, he will forsake greed for the world of form, greed for the formless world, ignorance, conceit and excitedness.269 He is then the person who is called an Arhat”. This is the perfectly pure Dharma-Eye of the Bodhisattva, the great being. (P80) Moreover, a Bodhisattva knows wisely that “whatever is doomed to originate, all that is also doomed to stop”.270 Coursing in perfect wisdom, he attains the five cardinal virtues. This is the perfectly pure Dharma-Eye of a Bodhisattva.

Moreover, a Bodhisattva knows that this Bodhisattva, who has had his first thought of enlightenment, who courses in the perfection of giving or in the perfection of morality, thereby acquires the virtues of Faith and Vigour; that, endowed with skill in means he acquires a personality at will,271 and becomes firmly based on his wholesome roots. This Bodhisattva will be reborn among Brahmins, that one among nobles, that one among wealthy householders, and that one among the gods. He knows that, having abided among them, he will mature beings, present then with everything that makes for happiness and purify the Buddha-field, and that he will please the Tathagatas, honour,

8 See the scheme of the Path in the Numerical Lists. It takes place immediately one enters the Path of Development.

9 According to V.M. 469 and Vasubandhu’s Trimsika p. 31 this is clearly the meaning of auddhatya, and the alternative suggestions of Edgerton and others must be rejected. It is the attitude of a man who loses his peace of mind by getting quite excited over what he is doing; “full of himself”, he dwells in his mind on how well things have been going for him, and on how well he is doing for himself.

0 This is an echo of the first Sermon of Benares, S.N., V 423 – “doomed to”, dharmin, elsewhere translated as “subject to”. Whatever has the dharmic nature of originating has the dharmic nature of stopping.

1 Cf. P 187 and stage VIII B4, at P 224.

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respect and revere them and will not fall on the level of a Disciple or the level of a Pratyekabuddha. He knows that this Bodhisattva will not turn back until he has known full enlightenment. This is the Bodhisattva’s perfectly pure Dharma-Eye. (P81)

Moreover, a Bodhisattva knows that “these Bodhisattvas have been predicted to full enlightenment, and those have not. These Bodhisattvas are irreversible, and those are not. These Bodhisattvas are in full possession of their super-knowledges, and those are not. This Bodhisattva, in full possession of his super-knowledges, goes, in each of the ten directions, to world-systems numberless as the sands of the Ganges, and there he honours, respects, reveres and worships the Tathagatas; go to numberless Buddha-fields, and does not there honour, respect, revere and worship the Tathagatas; that Bodhisattva, not in full possession of the super-knowledges, does not go to numberless Buddha-fields, and does not there honour, respect, revere and worship the Tathagatas. This Bodhisattva will become a recipient of the super-knowledges, that one will not. This Bodhisattva will have a perfectly pure Buddha-field, that one will not. This Bodhisattva has matured beings, that one has not. The Buddhas and Lords praise this Bodhisattva; that one they do not praise. These Bodhisattvas will stand near the Buddhas, the Lords; those will not. This Bodhisattva will have a limited congregation, that one an unlimited one. This Bodhisattva, after he has known full enlightenment, will have a congregation of Bodhisattvas; that one will not. This Bodhisattva is in his last rebirth; that one is not. This Bodhisattva will have a Mara; that one will not”. This is the perfectly pure Dharma-Eye of a Bodhisattva.

Sariputra: What is a Bodhisattva’s perfectly pure Buddha-Eye?

The Lord: The Bodhisattva, when immediately after272 the thought of enlightenment he has, with a wisdom conjoined with one single thought-moment, entered on the adamantine concentration,273 reaches the knowledge of all modes. He is endowed with the ten powers of a Tathagata, the four grounds of self confidence, the four analytical knowledges, the 18 special Buddha-dharmas, the great friendliness, the great compassion, the great sympathetic joy, the great even-mindedness, and the

2 This is not clear to me. P has bodhicitta-anantaram; S reads: anuttaram?

3 See the scheme of the Path in the Numerical Lists.

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unhindered deliverance of a Buddha. And that Eye of the Bodhisattva does not meet with anything that is not seen, heard, known or discerned – in all its modes. That is the Bodhisattva’s perfect Buddha-Eye.

It is thus that a Bodhisattva who wants to cleanse the five Eyes should make endeavours about the six perfections. And why? Because in the six perfections all wholesome dharmas are contained, all Disciple-dharmas, (P83) all Pratyekabuddha-dharmas, and all Bodhisattva-dharmas. When those who speak the Truth have spoken of “that which comprehends all wholesome dharmas”, they have spoken of the perfection of wisdom. For perfect wisdom is the genetrix of all the perfections, and also of those five Eyes of a Bodhisattva. Having trained themselves in those five Eyes of a Bodhisattva, the Bodhisattvas know full enlightenment.

(5. The six super-knowledges.)

I 2,8. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE SIX SUPER-KNOWLEDGES.274

The Bodhisattva, the great being who courses in this perfection of wisdom, develops the perfection of super-knowledge. (1) He experiences psychic power in its various aspects. He shakes this very earth. Having been one, he becomes manifold; having been manifold, he becomes one. He can make himself visible or invisible. Right through a wall, a- rampart, or a hill, he glides unhindered, as though through empty space. Cross-legged he floats along, like a bird on the wing. He plunges into the earth and shoots up again, as if in water. He walks on water275 without sinking into it, as if on solid ground. With his body he emits smoke and flames of fire, like a great mass of fire, and at the same time releases streams of cold water, like a great rain-cloud. (P84) Even the sun and the moon, powerful and mighty though they be, he touches and strokes with his hands. Even as far as the Brahma world he has power over his body. – But he does not fancy himself for that psychic power. For he does not get at that psychic power, which would allow him to mind (it) – on account of the emptiness, the isolated ness, the in-apprehensibility of its own-being. He does not, apart from his attention to the state of all-knowledge, produce a will for psychic power, nor a will for calling forth psychic

274 For further details see my Buddhist Scriptures, 1959, p

per-knowledges, five are occult, and the sixth spiritual. 275 cf. N

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power. It is thus that a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom calls forth the cognition of the realisation of the super-knowledge of psychic power.

(2)

With the heavenly ear-element, perfectly pure and surpassing that of man, he hears sounds, celestial as well as human. – But he does not, by means of that heavenly ear, fancy that he hears sounds. For he does not get at that sound, because its own-being is empty, isolated, cannot be apprehended. Outside his attention to the knowledge of all modes he does not produce a will for the heavenly ear. It is thus that a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom calls forth the cognition of the realisation of the super-knowledge of the heavenly ear. (P85)

(3)

With his heart he wisely knows, as it really is, the thought of other beings and persons. He wisely knows, as it really is, a greedy thought as a “greedy thought”, a greedless thought as a “greedless thought”; a thought with hate as a “thought with hate”, a thought without hate as a “thought without hate”; deluded thought as “deluded thought”, un-deluded thought as “un-deluded thought”; thought with craving as “thought with craving”, thought without craving as “thought without craving”; thought with grasping as “thought with grasping”, thought without grasping as “thought without grasping”; composed thought as “composed thought”, disturbed thought as “disturbed thought”; limited thought as “limited thought”, extensive thought as “extensive thought”, lofty thought as “lofty thought”; concentrated thought as “concentrated thought”, un-concentrated thought as “un-concentrated thought”; detached thought as “detached thought”, un-detached thought as “un-detached thought”; thought with outflows as “thought with outflows”, thought without outflows as “thought without outflows”; thought with blemish as “thought with blemish”, thought without blemish as “thought without blemish”; thought with something above it as “thought with something above it”, thought with nothing above it as “thought with nothing above it”. – But he does not, because of that, fancy himself. Because that thought is no-thought, on account of its un-thinkability. He does not imagine that he knows wisely. And that very thought he does not get at, on account of the emptiness, isolated-ness, and in-apprehensibility of its own-being. He does not, apart from his attention to the knowledge of all modes, produce a will for the cognition of others’ thoughts. It is thus that the Bodhisattva who courses in perfect

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wisdom calls forth the cognition of the realisation of the super-knowledge of the thoughts and actions of all beings. (P86)

(4)

With the cognition of the recollection of his past lives he remembers one birth, two births, three births, up to one hundred thousand births. He also remembers one thought, etc. up to one hundred thoughts; one day up to one hundred days; one month up to one hundred months; one year up to one hundred years; one aeon up to one hundred aeons, many hundreds of aeons, many hundreds of thousands of aeons, many hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of aeons; up to the limit of the beginning he remembers. “There I was, that was my name, that was my family, that was my caste, such was my food, such was the length of my life, such was the extent of my lifespan. Deceased from there I was reborn here; deceased from here I was reborn there.” It is thus that he recollects his various previous lives with all their modes, details and occasions. – But he does not fancy himself for that super-knowledge of the recollection of his former lives. Because that cognition is a non-cognition, on account of its un-thinkability. He does not imagine that he knows wisely. And that very thought he does not get at, on account of the emptiness, isolated-ness and in-apprehensibility of its own-being. (P87) He does not, outside his attention to the knowledge of all modes, produce a will for the knowledge of his past lives. It is thus that the Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom calls forth the cognition of the realization of the super-knowledge of the recollection of his former lives.

(5)

With the heavenly eye, pure and surpassing that of men, he sees beings, as they die and arise (again). He wisely knows that “those beings, whether beautiful or ugly, low or exalted, undergo a happy or wretched destiny according to karma. Here are the beings who are endowed with good conduct of body, speech and mind, who have not reviled the holy men, who have right views, and who, with this good conduct of body, speech and mind for cause, are reborn in a happy place, in Heaven (among the gods). There, on the other hand, are the beings who are endowed with bad conduct of body, speech and mind, who have reviled the holy men, who have wrong views, and who, because they have acquired the karma of evil views, are reborn, upon the breaking up of the body, after death, in the states of woe, in a wretched destiny, in great distress, in the hells.” It is thus that he wisely knows with the heavenly eye, pure and surpassing that of men, as it really is, the decease and rebirth of beings in the six places of rebirth – in the

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universe in all the ten directions, in all the world-systems, with the Dharma-element as the highest (development), and the space element as the terminus. But he does not fancy himself for that. For this eye is no eye, on account of its un-thinkability. (P88) He does not fancy himself for the fact that he sees. That very eye he does not get at, on account of the emptiness, isolated-ness and in-apprehensibility of its own-being. He does not, apart from his attention to the knowledge of all modes, produce a will for the heavenly eye. It is thus that the Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom calls forth the super-knowledge of the heavenly eye.

(6)

He calls forth the super-cognition of the realisation of non-production, but he does not fall on the level of Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. Nor does he see any dharma which knows full enlightenment.276 He does not put his mind to the wholesomeness of the achievement of the cognition of the super-knowledge of the realisation of the extinction of the outflows. For that cognition is a non-cognition, on account of its un-thinkability. He does not put his mind to the fact that he knows wisely. It is thus that the Bodhisattva, who course in perfect wisdom, calls forth the cognition of the realisation of the super-knowledge of the extinction of the outflows. (P89)

It is thus again that the six super-knowledges of the Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, are fulfilled and purified. These super-knowledges, when perfectly pure, procure the knowledge of all modes.

(6. Emptiness, No-minding and Sameness.)

There are Bodhisattvas, great beings who, coursing in perfect wisdom, and having stood in the perfection of giving, cleanse the roadway to the knowledge of all modes because by means of absolute emptiness they have grasped at nothing at all. There are others who, having stood in the perfection of morality, cleanse it on account of committing no offence. Others, having stood in the perfection of patience, cleanse it on account of their imperturbability. Others, having stood in the perfection of vigour, cleanse it on account of the indefatigability of their bodily and mental vigour. Others, having stood in the perfection of concentration, cleanse it on account of the un-distracted state of their thought. Others, having stood in the perfection of wisdom,

6 So S. P: Nor does he strive for any dharma except for “I will awake to full enlightenment”. 109

cleanse it on account of their having expelled all stupid thoughts. It is thus that the Bodhisattvas who course in perfect wisdom, having stood in the six perfections, cleanse the roadway to the knowledge of all modes, on account of absolute emptiness.

A gift is conceived on account of taking; morality on account of immorality; patience on account of impatience; vigour on account of sloth; concentration on account lack of concentration; wisdom on account of stupidity.277

The Bodhisattva does not put his mind to such ideas as “I have crossed over”, or “I have not crossed over”;278 giver or no giver; one of good conduct, one of bad conduct; one who has achieved patience, one who is angry;279 one who exerts vigour, one who is slothful; (P90) one who is concentrated, one who is not concentrated; one who is wise, one who is stupid; “I am abused’, “I am praised”, “I am treated with respect”, “I am not treated with respect”. And why? Because the perfection of wisdom cuts off all mindings.

All the virtuous qualities which come to a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom are not found in the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. Perfecting these virtuous qualities, he matures beings, purifies the Buddha-field, and reaches the knowledge of all modes.

A Bodhisattva, Sariputra, who courses in perfect wisdom, produces an even state of mind towards all beings. As a result he acquires insight into the sameness of all dharmas, and learns to establish all beings in this insight. In this very life he becomes dear and pleasing to the Buddhas, the Lords, and to all Bodhisattvas, Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. Wherever he may be reborn he will never again see unpleasant forms with his eyes, nor hear unpleasant sounds with his ears (P91), nor smell unpleasant smells with his nose, nor taste unpleasant tastes with his tongue, nor feel unpleasant sensations with his body, nor become aware of unpleasant dharmas with his mind. Nor does he fail of full enlightenment.

Interlude

When this exposition of perfect wisdom was being expounded, three hundred nuns, wearing their religious garments in a proper

7 Virtues are nothing in themselves. They are merely antidotes to undesirable stages. 27

8 The translation here follows S.

9 In P this passage is not quite clear. For the Tibetan see BLSOAS xxv, 377.

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and correct manner,280 made offerings to the Lord, and raised their thoughts to the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment. Thereupon the Lord smiled on that occasion. The Venerable Ananda rose from his seat, put his upper robe over one shoulder, placed his right knee on the earth, stretched forth his folded hands towards the Lord, and said to the Lord: “What is the cause, what the reason, for the manifestation of this smile? It is not without cause, not without reason, that the Buddhas, the Lords, manifest a smile”.

The Lord: These three hundred nuns will, Ananda, appear in the world in the sixty-first aeon from now as Tathagatas by the name of Mahaketu. Having deceased there in the Star-like aeon, they will be reborn in the Buddha-field of Akshobhya, the Tathagata. And sixty thousand gods, matured through this demonstration of Dharma (P92), will win final Nirvana in the presence of Maitreya, the Tathagata.

Thereupon, through the might of the Lord, the four assemblies of the Lord Sakyamuni saw, in each one of the ten directions, a thousand Buddhas, all visible from the circle of the assembly, and they also saw they cannot see a glory as splendid as that of the Buddha-fields of the those Buddhas and Lords in the ten directions. Ten thousand living creatures from the circle of the assembly of the Lord Sakyamuni thereupon made the vow: “We shall bring about enough merit to be reborn in those Buddha-fields!”

Thereupon the Lord, seeing the resolution of those sons of good family, smiled on that occasion.

Ananda: What is the cause, what the reason for the manifestation of a smile?

The Lord: Do you see, Ananda, those ten thousand living creatures?

Ananda: I do, O Lord.

The Lord: These ten thousand living creatures, deceased here, will be reborn in the ten directions in one thousand Buddha-fields, and nowhere will they be deprived of the Tathagatas. Afterwards they will appear in the world as Tathagatas, Vyuharaja by name. (P93)

0 In P this passage is not quite clear. For the Tibetan see BLSOAS xxv, 377.

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CHAPTER 4 EQUAL TO THE UNEQUALLED

Thereupon the Ven. Sariputra, the Ven. Mahamaudgalyayana, the Ven. Subhuti, the Ven. Mahakasyapa, and many other well-known monks and Bodhisattvas, nuns, laymen and laywomen spoke thus to the Lord:

This perfection of wisdom is a great perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the foremost perfection, the most distinguished perfection, the most excellent perfection, the supreme perfection, the highest perfection, the unequalled perfection, a perfection like space, a perfection with an emptiness of own-marks, a perfection endowed with all qualities, an un-crushable perfection. For the Bodhisattvas, who course in this perfection of wisdom, have given a gift which equals the unequalled, and they have fulfilled the perfection of giving which equals the unequalled. They have acquired a personality which equals the unequalled. They will become recipients of the dharma which equals the unequalled, i.e. of the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. They have guarded a morality which equals the unequalled, developed a patience which equals the unequalled, exerted a vigour which equals the unequalled (P94), brought forth a concentration which equals the unequalled, and developed a wisdom which equals the unequalled. Coursing in just the perfection of wisdom You, O Lord, have become a recipient of a form which equals the unequalled, of feelings, perceptions, impulses and consciousness which equal the unequalled. You have known an unequalled full enlightenment, you have turned the unequalled wheel of dharma. Likewise the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords, coursing in just this perfection of wisdom, have known full enlightenment, will know, do know it. Therefore a Bodhisattva who wants to go to what is the Beyond of all dharmas, should make endeavours in the perfection of wisdom. By the world with its gods, men, and Asuras, should homage be paid to those Bodhisattvas, those great beings, who course in this perfection of wisdom!

Thereupon the Lord said to these many Disciples and 112

Bodhisattvas: So it is, sons of good family, so it is. The world with its gods, men, and Asuras should pay homage to those Bodhisattvas, those great beings, who course in the perfection of wisdom. And why? Because it is thanks to the Bodhisattvas that there takes place in the world the manifestation of the world of men, of the world of gods, of good families, i.e. of nobles, Brahmins and well-to-do householders; of Universal-Monarchs, of the various classes of gods; (P95) of Streamwinners, Once-Returners, Never-Returners, Arhats, Prayekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas and Tathagatas. It is thanks to the Bodhisattvas that there takes place in the world the manifestation of the Triple Jewel. And wherever there appear in the world the worldly means of life – food, drink, clothes, dwelling places, medicinal appliances for sickness, gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, conch shells, camphor, coral, gold and silver, etc. to: all that bestows ease in the realms of gods and men, and the ease of Nirvana – that everywhere is due to the Bodhisattvas. And why? Because the Bodhisattva, coursing on his course, enjoins the six perfections on beings – causes gifts to be given and morality to be undertaken, establishes them in patience and enjoins vigour, establishes them in trance and enjoins wisdom. And it is thanks to the Bodhisattva that anyone ever courses in the perfection of wisdom. In that way does the Bodhisattva practice for the benefit and ease of all beings.

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CHAPTER 5 THE TONGUE

Thereupon the Lord on that occasion put out his tongue, and with it He covered this great trichiliocosm. Lights of many different colours issued from that tongue, and darted in all the ten directions to world-systems countless as the sands of the Ganges, and caused a great illumination. (P96) In all the ten directions, in Buddha-fields countless as the sands of the Ganges, countless Bodhisattvas who had seen this glorious splendour questioned the Buddhas, the Lords, each one in their own Buddha-field: “whose is this might through which this splendour and illumination are shown forth?”

The Buddhas and Lords replied: “In the Saha world-system, in the West, etc. to: below, there stands, holds and maintains himself a Tathagata called Sakyamuni. As a result of his putting out his tongue the world-systems countless as the sands of the Ganges have in all direction everywhere been irradiated with illumination, so as to help the Perfection of Wisdom to be demonstrated and revealed to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings”.

The Bodhisattvas then said to the Tathagatas: “We will go to that Saha world-system, in order to see, salute, and honour that Lord Sakyamuni, the Tathagata and the Bodhisattvas assembled from the ten directions, and to listen to that Perfection of Wisdom”.

The Buddhas, the Lords replied: “Go then, sons of good family, as you see fit”.

Those Bodhisattvas, those great beings, from all the ten directions, having taken flowers, incense, perfumes, garlands, unguents, powders, robes, parasols, flags, banners and streamers, having taken jewels, gold, silver and flower-buds, approached the Lord Sakyamuni with the music of turyas and cymbals. And the various classes of gods (P97) having taken heavenly flowers, incense, perfumes, garlands, unguents, powders, robes, parasols, flags, banners, blue lotuses, night lotuses, white lotuses, Mandarava flowers, Kesara flowers and Tamala leaves, also approached the Lord. The Bodhisattvas and gods scattered those

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flowers, etc. over the Tathagata. Thereupon those flowers, etc., rose into the intermediate space, and above this great trichiliocosm a pointed Tower of flowers shaped itself, with four pillars, quadrangular, well proportioned, enjoyable, pleasing to the mind.

Hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of living creatures from that assembly thereupon rose from their seats, put their upper robes over one shoulder, placed their right knees on the earth, stretched forth their folded hands to the Lord, and said to the Lord:

“We, O Lord, will in a future period become recipients of such dharmas as the Tathagata is a recipient of, and thus will we foster the community of the disciples and thus will we demonstrate dharma to the assembly, just as now the Tathagata, the Lord demonstrates Dharma here”.

The Lord then knew the resolution of those sons of good family, he knew their patient acceptance of the non-production of all dharmas, of their non-stopping, of their not being brought about, of their non-manifestation – and He smiled. Various-coloured rays issued from his mouth, circulated round the whole world, and then returned to the Lord, and disappeared in his head.

The Venerable Ananda thereupon rose from his seat (P98), put his upper robe over one shoulder, placed his right knee on the earth, stretched forth his folded hands towards the Lord, and said to the Lord: “What is the cause, what the reason for the manifestation of a smile?”

The Lord replied: “These hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of living creatures will, after sixty-eight kotis of aeons, appear in the world as Tathagatas, Bodhyangapushpa by name, in the Pushpakara aeon”. 115

CHAPTER 6 SUBHUTI

B. PHASES OF THE EXTINCTION OF SELF.

(1. The teaching proceeds from the Buddha’s might.)

I 2,9. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE PATH OF VISION.

I 2,9a. SURVEY OF THE INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE PATH OF VISION.

The Lord : Make it clear then, Subhuti, regarding281 the perfection of wisdom of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, how the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, may go forth to the perfection of wisdom!

Thereupon those Bodhisattvas, great beings, those great Disciples and those gods thought to themselves: will the Ven. Subhuti expound perfect wisdom to the Bodhisattvas by exerting his own power of revealing wisdom, or through the Buddha’s might?

The Venerable Subhuti, who knew, through the Buddha’s might, that those Bodhisattvas, Great Disciples, and Gods were in such wise discoursing in their hearts, said to the Ven. Sariputra: Whatever Sariputra, the Lord’s Disciples teach, demonstrate, and expound, all that is to be known as the Tathagata’s work. And why? Because in the demonstration of dharma, as demonstrated by the Tathagata, they train themselves, and they realize its true nature.282 (P99) After they have realized its true nature,

1 arabhya. The exact force of this “preposition” at this point, which coincides with the beginning of the argument in A, has puzzled me for a long time. It may also mean “starting from”.

2 dharmata. The teachings of the Buddha have become an object of spiritual realization (adhigama, H) in disciples like Subhuti, who are not Bodhisattvas, and who can therefore, anomalous as it may seem, appear to teach Bodhisattvas who are their spiritual superiors in the Mahayana hierarchy. In fact they are just the mouth-pieces of the Buddha, channels through which the Dharma flows into this world.

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whatever they may teach, demonstrate and expound, all that does not contradict the true nature of dharma. It is just the Tathagata who, by skilful means, will expound (through the Disciples) the perfection of wisdom to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. (Without inspiration from Him) it is outside the province of all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas to expound the perfection of wisdom to the Bodhisattvas, the

(2. The Bodhisattva, a mere word, inaccessible as dharma.)

I 2,9,1. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERING.

Subhuti : One speaks, O Lord, of “Bodhisattva”. What dharma does this word “Bodhisattva” denote? I do not see that dharma “Bodhisattva”. Since I do not see a Bodhisattva and fail to apprehend a Perfection of Wisdom, which Bodhisattva shall I instruct in which perfection of wisdom?*

The Lord : “Perfect Wisdom” and “Bodhisattva”, mere words are these. And the reality which corresponds to the word “Bodhisattva” cannot be apprehended, either inwardly, or outwardly, or between the two. Just as one speaks of a “being” although no being can be apprehended in actual reality; and that word “being” is a mere concept, a conceptual dharma and has the status of a concept.

I 2,9,2. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERING.

Except in so far as it is conventionally expressed by means of a mere conventional term, there is no production or stopping of this conceptual dharma. And the same holds good of such terms as “self”, “soul”, “personality”, etc. to: “one who sees”. (P100) In the same way, that which corresponds in reality to such words as “perfect wisdom” or “Bodhisattva”, that is a mere conceptual dharma which is neither produced nor stopped, except for its conventional expression by means of a mere conventional term. Such ideas as “this is inward form, etc.” merely refer to conceptual dharmas, and of these conceptual dharmas there is no production or stopping, except in so far as they are conventionally expressed by means of mere conceptual terms. (P101) And what holds good of the skandhas, that is also true of the 18 elements. On the 117

subject-side283 this body is conventionally called a “body” and also the head, neck, belly, muscles, shoulders, arms, hands, ribs, hips, thighs, legs, and feet are conventionally expressed in those terms; but they are only conceptual dharmas, and of these conceptual dharmas there is no production or stopping, except in so far as they are conventionally expressed by means of mere conceptual terms. On the object-side, such things as a bunch of grass, a branch, a leaf, a petal, etc., are conventionally expressed by manifold designations; but of those words there is no production or stopping, except in so far as they are conventionally expressed by means of mere conventional terms, and the reality corresponding to those words cannot be apprehended inwardly, outwardly, or between the two. Just so “perfect wisdom” and “Bodhisattva” are mere conceptual dharmas, and there is no production or stopping of them except in so far as they are conventionally expressed by means of mere conventional terms. It is thus that a Bodhisattva should train in perfect wisdom.

Just as a dream, an echo, a mirage, a reflected image, a mock show, a magical creation of the Tathagata, are all conceptual dharmas, and of these conceptual dharmas there is no production or stopping, except in so far as they are conventionally expressed by means of mere conceptual terms, just so “perfect wisdom” and “Bodhisattva” are mere conceptual dharmas, and they are neither produced nor stopped, except in so far as they are conventionally expressed by means of mere conventional terms. (P102) It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, should train in (the insight that) words and conventional terms are but concepts, and that also the instruction and dharmas are but concepts.

I 2,9,3. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERING.

Therefore a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, does

3 This is a somewhat clumsy attempt to render adhyatmikam, which elsewhere occurs as “inwardly”, and is contrasted with “outwardly”, or here “on the subject-side”, Abhidharmic exercises deal with the distribution of the contents of experience between those facts and events which are “interior to a person” and those which are “exterior to a person”. The “person”, though implied, must, however, never be mentioned, and so a certain amount of circumlocution is unavoidable. In this example the surface of the skin is taken as the dividing line between “inward” and “outward”, but that is not necessarily always the case. 118

not review that “form”, etc. as permanent or impermanent, ease or ill, self or nor-self, calm or un-calm, empty or not empty, sign or sign-less, wish or wish-less, conditioned or unconditioned, produced or un-produced, stopped or not stopped isolated or not isolated, wholesome or unwholesome, faulty or faultless, with or without outflows, defiled or undefiled, worldly or supra-mundane, defilement or purification, Samsara or Nirvana. (P103) (P104) And the same consideration applies to the 18 elements, and to the feelings of ease, etc., which are produced from contact between eye, form, and eye-consciousness as their condition. And so for the other senses. (P105)

I 2,9,4. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF SUFFERING.

And why? Because a Bodhisattva, though he courses in perfect wisdom, does not see the perfection of wisdom or the word “perfection of wisdom”, the Bodhisattva or the word “Bodhisattva”, in either the conditioned or the unconditioned element. For a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom does not construct or discriminate all these dharmas. Having stood in the un-discriminated dharma, he develops the applications of mindfulness. Coursing in perfect wisdom, he reviews neither the perfection of wisdom no the word “perfection of wisdom”, neither a Bodhisattva nor the word “Bodhisattva”. Thus he develops the right efforts, etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas. And yet, except through his attention to the knowledge of all modes, he reviews neither the perfection of wisdom nor the word “perfection of wisdom”, neither a Bodhisattva nor the word “Bodhisattva”, neither the Buddha nor the word “Buddha”.

I 2,9,5. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION.

For that Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom penetrates to the dharmic mark of dharmas which is neither defiled nor purified. It is thus that a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom should learn to recognise the concept of dharma as a word and as a conventional term.

I 2,9,6. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION.

He then will not settle down in form, or in any of the other skandhas. (P106)

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I 2,9,7. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION.

Not in any of the perfections, not in their name or their mark, not in the body of a Bodhisattva,284 nor in any of the Five Eyes, or the super-knowledges, or the 18 kinds of emptiness; (P107) not in Suchness, the Reality Limit, or the Element of Dharma; not in the maturing of beings, the purification of the Buddha-field, or in skill in means. And why? Because he who could settle down, whereby or wherein he could settle down, all these dharmas do not exist.

I 2,9,8. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF ORIGINATION.

It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, not having settle down in all-dharmas, grows in the perfection of giving, and the other perfections. He enters into the Bodhisattva’s special way of salvation.

I 2,9,9. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN STOPPING.

and into the irreversible stage.

I 2,9,10. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN STOPPING.

Coursing thus, a Bodhisattva fulfils the super-knowledges, and then passes on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, matures beings, and honours, respects and reveres the Buddhas, the Lords; and by means of that wholesome root he is reborn near those Buddhas and Lords, he hears the Dharma (from them) and never again forgets it until he reaches the seat of enlightenment; he will acquire the Dharani-doors and the concentration-doors.285 It is thus that a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom should learn to recognise the concept of a dharma as a word and as a conventional term. (P108)

I 2,9,11. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION IN STOPPING.

What do you think, Subhuti – one speaks of a “Bodhisattva”. Is a Bodhisattva form, or is he other than form? Is he in form, or is form in him, or is he without form? (P109) An the same questions can be asked about the Bodhisattva’s relation to the other skandhas, to the 18 elements, the 6 physical elements, and the 12

4 So Gilgit-P f. 45a. S ii 380 bodhikaye, P kaye.

85 The Dharanis (P212) will help him to remember the teaching, and the concentrations enable him to contemplate it with inward calm.

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links.

Subhuti : “No, O Lord”, is the answer in every case. (P110)

I 2,9,12. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF STOPPING.

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, is the Suchness of form, etc., the Bodhisattva, or is the Bodhisattva other than the Suchness of form, etc.? Is the skandhas-Suchness the Bodhisattva, or is the Bodhisattva other than the skandha-Suchness? (P111) Moreover, Subhuti, for what reason do you say that “form, etc., is not the Bodhisattva”, and that “the Suchness of form, etc., is not the Bodhisattva”? (P112)

Subhuti : Absolutely a Bodhi-being does not exist, is not got at. Then how can a Bodhisattva be form, or anything else, until we come to : decay and death? And further, how then can that Suchness of his form, etc., be got at? That is not possible. (P113)

The Lord : Well said, Subhuti. Just so should a Bodhisattva be trained through the non-apprehension of the perfection of wisdom.

I 2,9,13. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH.

What do you think, Subhuti, does the word “Bodhisattva” denote form, etc.?

Subhuti : No indeed, O Lord.

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, does that word “Bodhisattva” denote the permanence of form, etc., or its impermanence, its ease or ill, etc. to : its emptiness or non-emptiness, etc.?

Subhuti : No indeed, O Lord.

The Lord : For what reason do you say that? (P114)

Subhuti : Absolutely form, etc., does not exist and is not got at, and so also permanence, etc. How then could the word “Bodhisattva” denote form, etc., or the permanence of form etc., or its impermanence, etc.?

The Lord : Well said, Subhuti. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, and who does not apprehend anything that is denoted by the words form, etc., or permanence, etc., should train in the perfection of wisdom. (P115)

I 2,9,14. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH.

As you said, Subhuti, “I do not see (when reviewing it) that

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dharma ‘Bodhisattva’”. For a dharma cannot review the Dharma-element,286 nor can the Dharma-element review a dharma.

I 2,9,15. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH.

The element of form, etc., does not review the Dharma-element, and vice versa. And equally so for the element of feeling, etc.

I 2,9,16. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH.

The conditioned element does not review the unconditioned element, and vice versa.

I 2,10. INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT.

The Unconditioned cannot be made known287 through the exclusion of the conditioned, nor the conditioned through the exclusion of the Unconditioned.

A Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, does not review any dharma. In consequence he does not tremble, is not frightened, nor terrified. No dharma can cow his mind, and he knows no regrets. And why? Because this Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom does not review form, etc., nor the links, nor greed, hate or delusion, nor self, a being, a soul, etc. (P116)

Subhuti : For what reason does the thought of a Bodhisattva not become cowed, or stolid?

The Lord : Because he does not apprehend or review the dharmas which constitute thought and its concomitants.288

Subhuti : How is it that his mind does not tremble?

The Lord : He does not get at mind or mind-element and does not review them. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, through the non-apprehension of all dharmas should course in perfect wisdom. If the Bodhisattva, the great being, who follows the perfection of

6 At this point one must clearly distinguish between the “dharma-element” in the Hinayana sense, where “dharma” means the objects of the sixth sense-organ, i.e. mind, and the “Dharma-element” in the Mahayana sense, where “Dharma” means Truth, ultimate and absolute Reality. 28

7 or : conceived separately from.

8 Thought, citta, refers to the mind-organ and the six kinds of consciousness. For Dhs 1189-90 the cetasika are the skandhas of feeling, perception and impulses, whereas for the Sarvastivadins, the “concomitants” of thought are 46 mental factors “associated with” consciousness, either invariably or only occasionally.

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wisdom, does not apprehend that perfection of wisdom, nor a Bodhisattva, nor the word “Bodhisattva” – then this is truly his instruction and admonition in the perfection of wisdom.

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CHAPTER 7 ENTRANCE INTO THE CERTAINTY OF SALVATION

(3. Degrees of Ripeness of Insight.)

Subhuti : A Bodhisattva should train in perfect wisdom if he wants to fulfil the six perfections, to comprehend form, etc. (P117), to forsake greed, hate, and delusion, the fetters, unwholesome tendencies and obsessions, the yokes, the four floods, the four bonds, the four graspings, the four perverted views; to forsake the ten un-wholesome ways of acting and to fulfil the ten wholesome ways of acting (P118), etc. to : if he wants to fulfil the intentions of all beings. When he has fulfilled all these wholesome roots, he will as a result not fall into the states of woe, is not reborn in low-class families (P119), does not abide on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. In addition such a Bodhisattva does not fall from the Summits.289

Sariputra : How does a Bodhisattva fall from the summits?

Subhuti : When he courses without skill in means in the six perfections. One speaks of the Rawness of a Bodhisattva if, having entered on the concentrations of Emptiness, the Sign-less, and the Wish-less, he does not fall on the level of a Disciple or a Pratyekabuddha, but, being unskilled in means, also does not enter into a Bodhisattva’s (distinctive) Way of Salvation.

Sariputra : For what reason is that called a Bodhisattva’s “Rawness”?

Subhuti : A Bodhisattva’s craving for (separate) dharmas is called “Rawness”.

I 3. The Aids to Penetration.

9 For the sake of simplicity I read murdhanam, although most documents seem to have something like mu(r)dhanam. See Edgerton s.v. 124

I 3a. WEAK HEAT WITH REGARD TO THE TRUTH OF ILL.290

Sariputra : What is the craving for (separate) dharmas?

Subhuti : Here a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, settles down in the idea that “form, etc., is impermanent”, insists on it and holds it to be true. This is called the Rawness of Adaptable Craving for separate dharmas on the part of a Bodhisattva. And the same holds good when he settles down in such ideas as “form, etc., is ill, not self, empty, sign-less, wish-less”.

I 3b. WEAK HEAT WITH REGARD TO THE TRUTH OF ORIGINATION.

Or in : “This is form, etc., should be forsaken, by him form, etc., should be forsaken”. (P120) “This ill should be comprehended, by him ill should be comprehended.” “This origination should be forsaken, by him origination should be forsaken”

I 3a. WEAK HEAT WITH REGARD TO THE TRUTH OF STOPPING.

“This stopping should be realised, by him stopping should be realised.” “This is defilement, this purification.” “These dharmas should be tended, those should not be tended.” “Here a Bodhisattva should course, there he should not course.” “This is the path of a Bodhisattva, that is not” “This is the training of a Bodhisattva, that is not.” “This is a Bodhisattva’s perfection of giving, etc., that is not.” That is the Ripening291 of the Bodhisattva, the great being. If a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, settles down in these dharmas, insists on them, holds them to be truly real, that is the Rawness of his acting in conformity with the craving292 for separate dharmas.

Sariputra : What is the Ripening of a Bodhisattva?

Subhuti : Here a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, does not review the subjective-objective emptiness in the subjective emptiness,293 nor the subjective in the objective, nor the subjective-objective in the objective, nor the objective in the subjective, nor the emptiness of emptiness in the subjective emptiness, (P121) and so on for all the kinds of emptiness. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, enters into the Ripening of a Bodhisattva.

0 In I 3a-c the translation follows S iii 486-490.

1 lit. De-rawing, ny-ama; also: his specific way of winning salvation.

92 anulomiki, very often used in connection with “Patience”, as the “patient acceptance” which conforms, or adapts itself to, the actual nature of dharmas.

3 see P 195 no. 1 sqq.

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I 3d. WEAK HEAT WITH REGARD TO THE TRUTH OF THE PATH.

(4. Thought transparently luminous.)

A Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, should train himself to cognize form, etc., to develop the limbs of enlightenment, etc., and to cognize the 18 Buddha-dharmas. But he should not fancy himself for any of this. *It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, should cognize his thought of enlightenment, should cognize his even thought,294 should cognize his exalted thought, but should not, because of that, fancy himself. And why? Because that thought is a non-thought, since in its essential original nature it is transparently luminous.295*

Sariputra : What is the transparent luminosity of thought?

Subhuti : It is a thought which is neither conjoined with greed, nor disjoined from it (P122), which is neither conjoined with hate, delusion, obsessions, coverings, unwholesome tendencies, fetters, or what makes for views, nor disjoined from these.

*Sariputra : That thought which is a non-thought, is that something which is?

Subhuti : Does there exist, or can one apprehend, in this state of absence of thought either a “there is” or a “there is not”?

Sariputra : No, not that.

4 S: “unequalled thought”, which seems more suitable. The Bodhisattva is a being who has formed the “thought of enlightenment” and that, as stated expressly in A i 5, is the thought which is here referred to. A fine description of the attributes of the bodhicitta can be found in the Nairatmyaparipriccha. It ends with the verse:

“Not subject to modifications, essentially inactive, unoccupied, unfettered,

Immaterial, like unto the firmament, these are the marks of the thought of enlightenment.

It has transcended spiritual development, lies outside the range of the outsiders,

And its nature is that of Perfect Wisdom.

Incomparable, non-appearing, invisible and quite calm

Perfectly pure and insubstantial, these are the marks of the thought of enlightenment”.

5 prabhasvara. Samadhiraga xxii 14: “Issued from so much merit, the Buddha’s body is pure and transparently luminous”, and xxii 27: “When it is no longer eager for name-and-form, then thought becomes transparently luminous” – The “thought which is no-thought” is what we would the “Spirit”. It is easy to see that it is not thought, more difficult to understand how it resembles thought sufficiently to be called “thought”, and still more difficult to grasp how its two contradictory attributes are combined in a dialectical unity. It is “Pure Thought”, a “mere shine”, without an object, and yet it somehow differs from the Thought of Aristotle’s Unmoved Mover who contemplates his own Thought.

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Subhuti : Was it then a suitable question when the Ven. Sariputra asked whether that thought which is a non-thought is something which is?

Sariputra : What then is this state of absence of thought?

Subhuti : It is without modification or discrimination. It is the true nature of all dharmas.296 This is called the unthinkable297 No-thought-hood.*

Sariputra : And just as that no-thought-hood is without modification or discrimination, in the same way also form, and all dharmas up to enlightenment, are without modification or discrimination?

Subhuti : So it is, Sariputra.

*Sariputra : Well said, well said, Subhuti, for you are the Lord’s legitimate son, born from his mouth, a child of the Dharma (P123), conjured up by the Dharma, an heir to the Dharma, not an heir according to the flesh, an immediate eyewitness of these dharmas.298 Your exposition is that of the one whom the Lord has declared to be the foremost of the Disciples who dwell in Peace.299 Thus, as you say, Subhuti, should a Bodhisattva train in perfect wisdom. This is the reason300 why a Bodhisattva should be considered as incapable of turning away from full enlightenment, and be known as one who is not lacking in perfect wisdom.

I 3e. THE DISTINCITVE CAUSALITY FOR ALL (the vehicles and degrees).301

Whether he wants to train on the level of a Disciple, a Pratyekabuddha or a Buddha – a Bodhisattva should listen to this Perfection of Wisdom, learn it, bear it in mind, recite, study, and wisely consider it. And why? Because here in this Perfection of

6 dharmata, “Dharmahood”. S and Gilgit-P have “Suchness” instead.

7 in S and Gilgit-P, but not in P or A.

8 “an immediate eye witness of these dharmas”, literally : “the dharmas are directly before his eyes, and he witnesses them with his body” (personally, in the flesh). In V.M. 659-60 the “bodily witness” is one of the seven kinds of “holy persons” who have all achieved the “cognition of even-mindedness as regards conditioned things”.

9 See my Buddhist Wisdom Books, 1958, p. 45.

0 i.e., because he does not pride himself on his thought of enlightenment, H 41.

1 This cryptic phrase means: All the degrees of the Aids to Penetration act as a “cause” (hetu) which brings about the attainment, on the Mahayanistic Path of Vision, of the specific spiritual realization which is characteristic of the persons who follow any of the three vehicles (see H 43, AA I 27, my translation p. 41, Ob. P.62). 127

Wisdom are expounded in detail the three careers in which the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, as well as the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas should train.302*

2 The translation follows Gilgit P 53a.

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CHAPTER 8 SRENIKA THE WANDERER

(5. How the irreversible Bodhisattva views things.)

I 3f. THE OBJECT, ASPECT, AND DISTINCTION FOR MEDIUM HEAT.303

Subhuti : I who do not find or apprehend anything to correspond to the words “Bodhisattva” and “perfect wisdom” – which Bodhisattva should I then instruct and admonish in which perfect wisdom? (P124) It would surely be regrettable if I, unable to get at the arising and passing away of any dharma, should merely in words cause a Bodhisattva and a perfection of wisdom to arrive and to pass away. Moreover, what is thus designated is not continuous nor discontinuous, and it has not stability anywhere.304 And why? Because of the fact that it does not exist (apart from ignorance). That is why it is not continuous or discontinuous, and has no stability anywhere.* I do not get at the arising and (P125) passing away of form, etc., nor do I see it when reviewing. And so for the other dharmas (P126) up to: the Suchness of all dharmas. To what then could that word “Bodhisattva” refer? And what is thus designated is not continuous or discontinuous, it has no stability anywhere. Because apart from ignorance, it does not exist.

I 3g. THE OBJECT, ASPECT, AND DISTINCTION FOR STRONG HEAT.

Moreover, the reality corresponding to “Bodhisattva” taken as a conventional term for a dharma, as a concept of a dharma, cannot be expressed by anything, from form to (P127) the

3 The translation of I3f-h follows S iv 504-613.

4 na sthitam, it has no lasting continuous existence (H). na visthitam, it is likewise untrue to say that there are breaks or interruptions in its continuous existence, that it does not remain the same, is dissimilar to itself at different times. na-adhisthitam, nor is there a constant factor which, standing above all changes, over-towering and outlasting the, sustains it as a durable substance or invariable essence. An alternative translation would be: “It is not self-identical or disparate, and it does not remain substantially the same”.

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Buddha-dharmas. (The reality corresponding to) space, earth, and the other physical elements, to Suchness, No-falsehood, unaltered Suchness, Dharma-Suchness, Dharma-element, the Constant Sequence of Dharma, the Reality Limit, the perfection of giving and the other perfections, to morality, concentration, wisdom, emancipation, the vision and cognition of emancipation, to the Stream-winner, etc. to: to the Fully Enlightened One, cannot be expressed by anything, be it wholesome or unwholesome, faulty or faultless, permanent or impermanent, ease or ill, self or not self, calm or un-calm, isolated or not isolated, existent or non-existent. For this reason I say that “it would surely be regrettable if I, unable either to apprehend or review the arising and passing away of any dharma, would bring about (only) the designation of something, i.e., of “Bodhisattva” and “perfect wisdom”. Moreover, that designation is not continuous or discontinuous, and it has no stability anywhere. And why? Because of the fact that it has no existence (apart from ignorance).

I 3h. THE OBJECT, ASPECT, AND DISTINCTION FOR LOW SUMMITS.

(6. Perfect wisdom opposed to:

(a) Formative Influences.)

*Moreover, a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom should not stand in form, etc. to : in decay and death. *And why? Because form is empty of form. What is the emptiness of form, that is not form; nor is emptiness other than form; the very form is emptiness and very emptiness is form. And so for the other skandhas. By this method a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom should not stand in form, etc. to: consciousness. And the same method should be applied to the other dharmas, (P129, 130) from the eye to the six perfections and the eighteen Buddha-dharmas, to the syllables, to single utterances, double utterances, and separate utterances,305(P131) to the super-knowledges, all concentrations, and all Dharani-doors; to the conviction that “form, etc. is permanent or impermanent, ease or ill, self or not self, calm or not calm, empty or not empty, sign or sign-less, wish or wish-less, isolated or not isolated” (P132); to Suchness, the true nature of Dharma, the Realm of Dharma, the

5 The exact meaning of these terms is not clear to me.

130

Fixed Sequence of Dharma and the Reality limit.

*If a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom stands in form, etc. with a mind devoid of skill in means and prone to I-making and Mine-making, then he courses in the formative influence of form, etc. and not in perfect wisdom. And why? Because while coursing in formative influences, a Bodhisattva cannot gain perfect wisdom, nor make endeavours about, or fulfil it. When he does not fulfil perfect wisdom, he cannot go forth to the knowledge of all modes. And why? Because form cannot be appropriated. But the non-appropriation of form is not form, on account of the emptiness of its essential original nature. And that applies to all dharmas, including perfect wisdom itself. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, should investigate all dharmas as empty in their essential original nature. (P133) He should survey them in such a way that there is no mental apperception of any dharma. This is the concentration circle of the Bodhisattva which is called “The non-appropriation of all dharmas” – vast, noble and fixed on infinitude, to which all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas have no claim, and in which they have no share.306 Dwelling in this concentration circle, a Bodhisattva will go forth to the knowledge of all modes. But also that knowledge of all modes cannot be appropriated, on account of the emptiness of the subject, and all the other kinds of emptiness.

I 3i. THE OBJECT, ASPECT, AND DISTINCTION FOR MEDIUM SUMMITS.

(6. Perfect wisdom opposed to:

(b) the Sign.)

And why? Because the knowledge of all modes should not be seized through a sign; for sign is defilement.* What again is “sign”? Form, etc. to: the Reality Limit are “signs”, and they all are called “defilement”.* If, again, perfect wisdom could be seized through a sign, then Srenika Wanderer would not have gained faith in this our religion and in the cognition of the * “Faith” here

6 The name of the samadhi can also be interpreted as “that which cannot be appropriated, or seized upon, by any dharma” (H 49). It is as “vast” as the Realm of Dharma; the “infinitude” is that of the number of beings whose welfare is promoted by this trance.

131

means the believing in perfect wisdom, the trusting confidence, the resoluteness, the deliberation, the weighing up, the testing – and that in the absence of any sign. Thus should ((perfect wisdom)) be taken up through the signless. (P134)

*When Srenika the Wanderer had faith in that cognition of the All-knowing, he entered as a Faith-follower on a cognition with a limited scope. Having entered on it, he did not take hold of form, or any other skandha.* And why? Since all dharmas are empty of their own marks, there was no dharma which he could take hold of, on account of his non-attention to a sign. And why? For he did not review that cognition as due to an attainment and reunion which is inward, or outward, or both inward and outward, or elsewhere. And why? For he did not review that dharma which he could have known wisely, or by which he could have known wisely.* And why? He did not review that cognition as inside form, or as outside form, or as both inside and outside form, or as something other than form, on account of subjective-objective emptiness.

According to this Scripture passage, Srenika the Wanderer, after he had resolutely believed in the cognition of the All-knowing, entered as a Faith-follower on a cognition with a limited scope, and then made the true dharmic nature of the cognition of the All-knowing into his standard, by way of his non-apprehension of all dharmas. Putting his trust in his faith, he took hold of no dharma whatsoever, on account of his non-attention to all signs. He also apprehended no dharma which he might take hold of, or which he might set free, on account of the fact that no dharma can be appropriated or abandoned. (P135) He did not even care about Nirvana. And why? The non-appropriation and the non-abandonment of all dharmas, that is perfect wisdom.

This is also of a Bodhisattva the perfection of wisdom, which has gone to a Beyond which is no Beyond,307 that he does not take hold of form and the other skandhas, because no dharma has been appropriated. Nor does he enter final Nirvana prematurely, i.e. before he has fulfilled the Vows, etc to: the powers of a Tathagata, the four grounds of self-confidence, the four analytical knowledges and the eighteen special Buddha-dharmas. And why? Because all the dharmas, including the Buddha-dharmas, are no dharmas. In fact they are neither dharmas nor no-dharmas. This is the

7 prajnaparamita aparaparagamanatamupadaya; pha-rol ma mchis-pa’i pha-rol-tu phyin-pas. 132

perfection of wisdom of a Bodhisattva who has not appropriated any dharma whatsoever.

I 3k. THE OBJECT, ASPECT, AND DISTINCTION FOR HIGH SUMMITS.

(6. Perfect wisdom opposed to:

(c) What exists.)

Moreover, a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom should investigate what this perfection of wisdom is and shoes, how, and whereby it is. If again a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom meditates on perfect wisdom as a dharma which does not exist and which cannot be apprehended, then he courses (not?) in perfect wisdom.

Sariputra : Which are the dharmas that do not exist and that cannot be apprehended? (P136)

Subhuti : The perfection of wisdom, and the other perfections, the emptinesses, skandhas, Suchness, etc. – on account of the 18 kinds of emptiness. And if the thought of a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom and investigates and meditates in such a way does not become cowed or stolid, does not tremble, is not frightened or terrified, then that Bodhisattva should be known as not lacking in perfect wisdom.

I 3l. THE OBJECT, ASPECT, AND DISTINCTION FOR WEAK PATIENCE.

(7. The Bodhisattva, wisdom, and enlightenment.)

(a) Sariputra : For what reason should a Bodhisattva be known as not lacking in perfect wisdom?

Subhuti : Form, etc., is lacking in the own-being of form, etc.

Sariputra : What then is the own-being of form, etc.? (P137)

Subhuti : Non-positivity is the own-being of form, etc. By this method one should know that form, etc., is lacking in the own-being of form, etc. Moreover, form, etc. Moreover, form, etc. does not posses the mark of form, etc. The mark does not possess the own-being of a mark, and the own-being does not possess the mark of (being) own-being.

Sariputra : A Bodhisattva who trains in this will go forth to the

133

knowledge of all modes?

I 3m. THE OBJECT, ASPECT, AND DISTINCTION FOR MEDIUM PATIENCE.

Subhuti : He will. And why? Because all dharmas are unborn (P138) and do not go forth.

Sariputra : For what reason are all dharmas unborn and do not go forth?

Subhuti : Form is empty of the own-being of form; one cannot apprehend any birth or going-forth with regard to it. And so for all dharmas, up to: the Reality Limit. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, comes near to the knowledge of all modes. To the extent that he comes near it, he obtains the perfect purity of body, thought and marks. To the extent that he obtains the perfect purity of body, thought and marks, he produces no thought accompanied by greed, hate, or delusion, or by conceit, cupidity, or bad views. Owing to the non-production of such thoughts he is never again reborn in the belly of a mother, but constantly and always he is reborn apparitionally.308 From Buddha-field he passes on to Buddha-field, honours the Buddhas, the Lords, matures beings and purifies the Buddha-field. Until the time that he knows full enlightenment he is never again deprived of those Buddhas and Lords. It is thus, Sariputra, that a Bodhisattva come near to full enlightenment.*

8 see my Buddhist Wisdom Books, 1958, p. 25. – This occurs on the 9th Stage, see P 224.

134

CHAPTER 9 THE SIGN

I 3n. THE OBJECT, ASPECT, AND DISTINCTION FOR STRONG PATIENCE.

*(c) If, O Lord, a Bodhisattva, who is unskilled in means, coursing in perfect wisdom courses in form, etc., or in any idea about form, etc., being permanent or impermanent, etc., then he courses in a sign, (P139) and not in perfect wisdom. If a Bodhisattva, who is unskilled in means, coursing in perfect wisdom thinks that “I course in perfect wisdom”, then he courses in a basis,309 then he courses in a sign; and likewise when it occurs to him that “he who courses thus, courses in perfect wisdom and develops it”. This should be known as a Bodhisattva’s lack of skill in means.*

Sariputra : For what reason should that be known as a Bodhisattva’s lack of skill in means?

Subhuti : Because such a Bodhisattva, when coursing in perfect wisdom, insists on form, etc., perceives it, is intent on it, and in consequence he courses in the formative influence of form, etc. I know that he is not released from birth, decay and death, sorrow, sickness, lamentation, pain, sadness and despair, that he is not released from the great suffering. (P140) And if a Bodhisattva is unable even to realize the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, how much less can he know full enlightenment! That is impossible. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, should be known as unskilled in means.

Sariputra : What should be known as his skill in means.

Subhuti : A Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, does not insist on form, etc., does not perceive it, is not intent on it. He does not course in form, etc., nor in the sign of form, etc., nor in the conviction that “form, etc., is permanent, etc.” (P141) And why? For what is the emptiness of form, not that is form; and no other than form is emptiness, no other than emptiness is form, etc. It is

309 upa

135

A Bodhisattva, who courses thus in perfect wisdom, is able to know full enlightenment. Furthermore, a

approaches any dharma, or does not approach it, or both approaches and does not approach it, or neither approaches nor does not approach it. Sariputra : For wha

ct wisdom, not approach (any dharma)? Subhuti : Because the own-being of per

hended. And why? Because perfect wisdom has non-existence for own-being. In this way a Bodhisattva does not approach the idea that “I course in perfect wisdom”, or the idea that “I do not course in it”, or “I course and I do not course”, or “I neither course nor do I not course”. And why? For he has approached all dharmas as having non-existence for their own-being, and has not appropriated them. If the thought of a Bodhisattva, who is thus coursing in perfect wisdom, does not become cowed or stolid, does not tremble, is not frightened or terrified, then it should be known that that Bodhisattva is near to the knowledge of all modes. (P142)

DHARMAS. (d)

ed, on account of all dharmas having non-existence for their own-being. This is the concentrated insight of the Bodhisattva which is called “non-genesis of the own-being of all dharmas” – vast, noble, and fixed on infinitude, to which no Disciple or Pratyekabuddha can lay claim. When he dwells in this concentrated insight, a Bodhisattva will quickly win full enlightenment.* Sariputra : Dw

ly know full enlightenment? Subhuti : gives a list a Conc

1c (=P198-203).

MUNDANE DHARMAS.

136

*This Bodhisattva has surely been pre

ntain themselves in this world, they also predict (the enlightenment of) such a Bodhisattva, such a great being. One who dwells in these concentrations does not, however, review them. He does not think with regard to any concen

m concentrated”, “I will enter into concentration”, “I have entered into concentration”, “I am entering into concentration”. All these discriminations the Bodhisattva does not have, does not get at.* I 3q.

(P145) Sariputra : Is then a Bodhisattva, who has stood in these concentratio

agatas? Subhuti : No indeed, Sariputra. And why? Because perfect wisdom is

isattva another. The Bodhisattva is precisely the concentration, the concentration is precisely the Bodhisattva. And both Bodhisattva and concentration are (identical with) perfect wisdom. *Sariputra : If concentration is not one thing and the Bodhisatt

hisattva and the Bodhisattva precisely the concentration – on account of the sameness of all dharmas – is it then possible to show forth any of these concentrations? Subhuti : Indeed not. Sariputra : Again, does that son

e concentrations?

Subhuti : No, Sariputra. Sariputra : How is i

Subhuti : Since he does n

Sariputra : How does he not discriminate it?

Subhuti : Because no dharma has existence

a Bodhisattva does not perceive any of these

Sariputra : How is it that he does not perceive it? Subhuti : Because of the non-discrimination of any of these

entrations.

I 3r. THE CONNEC

137

The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well said, you whom

red to be the foremost of those who dwell in Peace. It is in such a way that a Bodhisattva should train in the perfection of wisdom, and in the other perfections, (P146) in the 37 dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment, etc. to: in the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha. Sariputra : When he

om? The

ehend it as a basis.* Sariputra : What does

he Lord : He does not apprehend a self,

who sees; the skandhas, the elements, suffering, origination, stopping, the Path, the triple world, the Unlimited, the trances, the formless attainments, the pillars of mindfulness, etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas, the Stream-winner, etc. to: the Buddha – and all that on account of (the) absolute purity (of these dharmas). Sariputra : What then is that purity?

The Lord : The Un-produced,

ascertainable, the In-effective310 – that is called “purity”.

(a) *Sariputra : Wh

hisattva train himself in?

0 anabhisamskara, an almost untranslatable term. At P 149 it is rendered as the “Un-effected”. A.K. III 191 explains as “effortless”, without a special act of attention (anabhogena), but H 603 as “like the firmament it is self-luminous throughout in its essential nature”. 31

1 Pras. xvi 296 gives an interesting parallel to I 3s. “Beings cannot transcend Samsara because they base themselves on ideas about a self and what belongs to a self. For if someone reviews self and other, then his karma-formations are activated. A foolish, untaught, common person, who does not wisely know that absolutely all dharmas are completely nirvanized, apprehends self and other. He then settles down in this apprehension, and in consequence he becomes greedy, filled with hate, and confused, with the result that he brings about the triple activity by body, speech and mind. Super-imposing his discrimination over that which does not exist, he imagines ‘I am greedy, I hate, I am confused’.” I 3s obviously deals with some of the chief links of conditioned co-production.

138

The Lord : He does not trai

? Because these dharmas do not exist in such a way as the foolish common people are wont to suppose. Sariputra : How then do they not exist?

The Lord : They do not exist in such a w

mon people are wont to suppose. Sariputra : How then do they exist?

The Lord : As they do not exist, so t

e they do not exist except for ignorance, they are called (the result of) ignorance.

Sariputra : For what reason is that which does not e

ignorance called (the result of) ignorance? The Lord : Form, etc., do not exist, on accou

tiness.

But foolish people have settled down in ignorance and cravi

y have constructed (dharmas out of their) ignorance and craving, have settled down (in these results of) ignorance and craving, have become attached to the two extremes (of existence and non-existence), and both extremes they do not know or see. After they have constructed those dharmas which yet do not exist, they have settled down in name-and-form, etc. to: in the Buddha-dharmas.

After they have settled down in dharmas, they construct the t

remes which yet do not exist, and as a result they neither know nor see. What do they neither know nor see? Form, etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas. (P148) For that reason they come to be styled “fools”.

PURIFICATION. Conditione

at) “form is defiled”, or that “form is purified”. They will not go forth. Wherefrom will they not go forth? From the triple world, and from the dharmas of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha.

139

I 3s,6. THE DISCRIMINATION OF THE NON-ESTABLISHMENT IN

They have no faith. What do they have no faith in? in the doctrin

pty of enlightenment. They do not stand firmly. What do they not stand firmly in? In the perfection of giving, etc. to: in the Buddha-dharmas. For these reasons are they called “fools”. They have settled down. What have they settled down in? In form, etc. to: enlightenment. (b) Sariputra : When he trains thus, is a Bodhisattva trained in perfect wisdom, and will he go

The Lord : A Bodhisattva who trains thus is not trained in perfect wisdom, and will not go forth to the knowledge of all modes.*

e, Sariputra, a Bodhisattva, unskilled in means, constructs the perfection of wisdom, and settles down in it. He constructs the other perfections, all dharmas, and the knowledge of all modes. In that case a Bodhisattva is not trained in perfect wisdom, and will not go forth to the knowledge of all modes. Sariputra : A Bodhisattva, who is trained thus, is not trained in perfect wisdom, and will not go forth to

es? The Lord : So it is, Sariputra. (P149)

7. THE DISCRIMINATION OF THE BASIS.

so that as a result he goes forth to the kn

The Lord : When a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, neither apprehends nor reviews Perfect Wisdom, when he thu

rses and trains in perfect wisdom, then he will go forth to the knowledge of all modes, in consequence of his non-apprehension. In the same spirit he should course in the other perfections, and he should also neither apprehend or review enlightenment, nor the knowledge of all modes. I 3s,8. THE DISCRIMINATIO

(does he achieve this result)?

The Lord : He does not apprehend or review a self, on account of its absolute purity.

140

I 3s,9. THE DISCRIMINA

that is purity.

I 3t. THE SEC

I 3t,1. CONCERNING THE HEAP

consciousness:

I 3t,2. CONCERN

I 3t,3. CONCERNING THE ELEMENTS AS ENTITIES

mind-element, mind-objects-element, min

element; I 3t,4. CONCERNING

I 3t,5. CONCERNING EMPTINESS AS AN EN

I 3t,6. CONCERNING THE PER

I 3t,7. CONCERNING T

I 3t,8. CONCERNING THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT.

I 3t,9. CONCERNING THE PATH OF THE ADEPTS.

(P150)

2 or “imagines”.

141

I 3u. THE FIRST DISCRIMINATION OF THE SUBJECT, REFERRING TO IT AS A SUBSTANT

I 3u,1. CONCERNING THE SELF AS AN INDEPENDENT REALITY. (The Bodhisattva) does not get

one who knows, one who sees. And why? Because, a

does not exist and cannot be apprehended. I 3u,2. CONCERNING THE SELF AS A UNITY. He also does not get at form, etc. to: conscio

I 3u,3. CONCERNING THE SELF AS A CAUSE.

, etc. to: mind; form, etc. to: dharmas;

I 3u,4. CONCERNING THE SELF AS A SPECTAT

eye, form, eye-consciousness, etc.;

I 3u,5. CONCERNING THE SELF AS THE RECEPTACL

conditioned co-production;

I 3u,6. CONCERNING THE SELF AS THE RECEPTACLE OF DISPASSION.

the formless attainments;

I 3u,7. CONCERNING THE SELF AS THE RECEPTACLE OF THE PATH OF V

the holy truths;

I 3u,8. CONCERNING THE SELF AS THE RECEPTACLE OF THE PATH OF

DEVELOPMENT.

stations;

I 3u,9. CONCERNING THE SELF AS THE FOUNDATION OF THE STATE OF ONE WHO HAS A

not get at them? Through their connection with selfhood. And why? On account of the absolut

142

143

Wish-less;

I 3v,7. THE CONCEPT OF THE PATH OF DEV ENT.

the trances and the formless attainments;

I 3v,8. THE CONCEPT OF THE DISTINCTIVE PATH.

the 18 kinds of emptiness;

THE PATH OF THE ADEPTS.

owers, the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha, and

n is not one thing and

form another. But the very form is illusion, the very illusion is form.

in the other perfections, and can

that e, can that reach the knowledge of all

modes?

tion, that concept, that conventional

expression – in the five grasping skandhas?

conventional expression,

apprehend the production or stopping, the defilement or

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, could someone, after

orth to the knowledge of all

nation, concept, conventional

expr o body, speech, or mind, and

duction or stopping, no

ELOPM

I 3v,9. THE CONCEPT OF

the ten penlightenment itself? (P153) Subhuti : Yes, it does, O Lord. *Illusio

And so for all other dharmas.*

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, is there a production or stopping of illusion? Subhuti : No, Lord. The Lord : Is there a defilement or purification of illusion? Subhuti : No, Lord.

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, that which is without production or stopping, without defilement or purification, can that train itself in perfect wisdom or

go forth to all-knowledg

Subhuti : No, Lord.

*The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, is that notion “Bodhisattva”, that denomina

Subhuti : No, Lord.*

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, can one through what is merely a notion, denomination, concept,

purification of the five grasping skandhas?

Subhuti : No Lord.

he has trained in perfect wisdom, go fmodi

es, if he had no notion, denomession, name or verbal concept; n

no deeds of body, speech or mind; no prodefil

ement or purification?

144

Subhu

imperfect wisdom, goes forth to the knowledge

equence of the fact that there is noth

*Subhuti : Therefore a Bodhisattva, wwisdr full enlightenmen

om, should train himself fo. And why? Because he, or r

skandhas, should be known as just like an illusory m

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, do the five grasping skandhas after they have trained in perfect wisdom, go forth to the know

ledge of all modes? Subhuti : No, Lord. And why? (P154) Because the own-being of the five grasping skandhas is nonexistent. The five skandarsimilar t

has e o a dream. A dream cannot be apprehended, because its own-being does not exist, and in the same way the five skand

has cannot be apprben

own-ig. you think, Subhuti, could the five skandh

The Lord : What do ha

they ve trained in perfect wisdom, go forth to the knowledge of all modes, if they were similar to an echo, to an apparition, to a magical creation, to an image of the moon reflected in the water? Subhuti : No, Lord. And why? For the own-being of an echo, of an

apparition, of a mandj

xistent, ust so the five skandhas can, because of the non-existence of their own-being, not be apprehended. And form is like an illusion, and so the other skandhas, and likewise all dharmis being taught, a

as. If, when this d

me cowe or stolid, has no regrets, does not tremble, is not frightened or terrified, then one should know that he will go forth to all-knowledge, and will reach the knowledge of all modes. I 3w..

SKILL IN MEANS, TH

(11a. Skill in means.) Subhuti : Will not Bodhisattvas, who have newly set out in the vehicle, become cowed, stolid and regretful when they hear this exposition, will they not trem

145

The Lord : They will t

course in perfect wisdom while still unskilled in means, or if they have not got into the hands of a good spiritual friend.* Subhuti : What is of a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, the sk

The Lord : Here a Bodhisattva, by means of a thought associated with the knowledge of all modes, contemplates form as impermanent, ill, etc. to: wish-less, and so also the other skandhas, and yet he does not apprehend any real fact.

should be known as the skill in means of a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom. Furthermore, a Bodhis

knowledge of all modes carries out the demonstration of Dharma, without taking anything as a basis. This is his perfection of giving. His perfection of morality consists in the fact that he remains untarnished by those very attentions; his perfection of patience in the ability to endure those very attentions, his willingness to find

erfection of vigour in the non-abandonment of those very attentions; his perfection of concentration in that he gives no opportunity to attentions associated with Disciples or Pratyekabuddhas, or to any other unwholesome dharmas. It is thus that a Bod

aid. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva, who courses imperfect wisdom, contemplates the fact that form, etc., is not empty of the emptiness of form, etc., but that form, etc., is just emptiness, and the very emptiness is just form, etc. This is a Bodhisattva’s perfection of wisdom. (P156) It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, will remain unafraid. I 3w. THE GOOD SPIRITUAL FRIEND, THE SECOND ASSISTANCE.

(11b. The Good Friend.)

*Subhuti : Who the

raid on hearing this exposition of perfect wisdom? The Lord : Were the good friends of a Bodhisattva those who demonstrate to him the dharma that “form, etc., is imperma

146

etc.”

else

than

ledge of all modes, develops the

perf

taught by the Tathagatas”, “it is mere poetry made by

poe

he Evil One, approaches the

Bodhisattva in the guise of a Buddha and dissuades him from the

of good

family, develop the perfection of wisdom, and the other

he Evil One, will, in the guise of the

, analyse, amplify and illuminate the

scrip

, without taking anything as a basis. He does not, however, dedicate the wholesome roots (which he gains from such teachings) to the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, but to nothing

to the knowledge of all modes. These are a Bodhisattva’s Good Friends who help him to remain unafraid.* (P157)

Subhuti : How does it come about that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, becomes unskilled in means, get into the hands of the Bad Friend, and becomes afraid when he has heard this exposition of the Perfection of Wisdom? The Lord : Here a Bodhisattva, having left behind the attentions associated with the know

ection of wisdom, gets at it, and fancies himself for it. And so for the other perfections. And again a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, leaves behind the attentions associated with the knowledge of all modes, and then he attends to the fact that “form, etc., is empty of a subject” (and so for all the 18 kinds of emptiness), but gets at that emptiness, puts his mind to it, as a result of assuming an objective basis. Subhuti : How does it come about that a Bodhisattva is being taken hold of by a Bad Friend, and that (P158) is consequence he becomes afraid when he hears this exposition of Perfect Wisdom? The Lord : Here a Bodhisattva is dissuaded from Perfect Wisdom by such words as, “One should not train in that! This has not been

ts, and one should not listen to it, learn or study, bear it in mind, preach it, attend to it or demonstrate it to others!” This is what Bad Friends do to a Bodhisattva. *Furthermore, someone is a Bad Friend to a Bodhisattva if he does not point out to him the deeds of Mara, does not describe to him the faults of Mara.* Here Mara, t

six perfections, with the words: “What for do you, son

perfections?” Or Mara, tBuddha, expound, reveal

tures associated with the level of a Disciple, i.e. the Discourses, Discourses in Prose and Verse Mingled, Predictions, Verses, Summaries, Origins, Thus-was-said, Birth-Stories, Expanded Texts, Marvl

els, Taes, and Expositions. Or Mara, the Evil One, may approach the Bodhisattva and say, “You, son of good family, have never had the thought of enlightenment, nor are you irreversible,

147

nor will you be able to know full enlightenment”. Or Mara, the Evil One, may approach the Bodhisattva in the guise of the Buddha, and say to him, “The eye (P159), son of good family, the ear, and everything up to the Buddha-dharmas, (all this) is empty of self and of what belongs to a self. What can you possibly do to k

htenment?” Or Mara, the Evil One, may approach the Bodhisattva in the guise of a Pratyekabuddha, and say to him, “Empty, O son of good family, is each of the ten directions of Buddhas and Lords, of Bodhisattvas and Disciples,

uddha, and no enlightenment, no Bodhisattva and no Disciple”. Or Mara, the Evil One, approaches the Bodhisattva in the guise of a Disciple, dissuades him from attentions associated with the knowledge of all modes and instructs admonishes him in attentions associated with the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. Or Mara, the Evil One, may in the guise of his preceptor or teacher dissuade the Bodhisattva from the course of a Bodhisattva and from the attentions associated with the knowledge of all modes. With regard to the applications of m

paths, with regard to the Empty, the Sign-less, and the Wish-less, he will enjoin that, “after you have realised these dharmas, you should realise the level of a Disciple. What is there

ou in knowing the utmost, right and perfect enlightenment?” (P160) Or Mara, the Evil One, may approach the Bodhisattva in the guise of his father or mother and say to him, “Come on, son of good family, make efforts to win the realisation of the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc. to: the fruit of an Arhat! What is there for you in knowing full enlightenment

ntless aeons, wander about in Samsara, and experience the cutting off of hands and feet?” Or, finally, Mara, the Evil One, may approach the Bodhisattva in the guise of a monk, and demonstrate to him that “form is impermanent, ill, not the self”, and so for all the dharmas up to the Buddha-dharmas, but while assuming an objective basis. One who does not point out or describe such deeds of Mara, he should be known as a Bad Friend, and, once recognized as such, should be shunned.

148

CHAPTER 11 SIMILES 313 C. WHAT TO BECOME: (I. The meaning of “Bodhi-being”.) I 4. The Lineage or the Source of Progress.314 313 apatrāpya, the chapter heading in AdT, means “dread of blame”, often couple with hrī, “sense of shame”. The explanations of Buddhaghosa, V.M. 464-5 and Vasubandhu, Trimśīkā 26-7, agree on essentials. Motivated either by self-respect, or by fear for one’s reputation, one avoids doing that which one ought not to do. It is, however, difficult to see how this can be regarded as a suitable heading for chapter 11. A Central Asian Ms of Ad gives aupamya, “similes”, which seems to fit better, and may at some time have been corrupted into auttapya = apatrāpya. 314 I 4 is one of the more unintelligible parts of the Sutra. Since the ostensible meaning is not very satisfactory, it probably hints at some esoteric teaching. AA groups ! 4-6 as follows: “(The Bodhisattva who proceeds on the Mahayanistic path) of progress is thus able to attain the Aids to Penetration (as discussed in I 3) and also the path of vision, and so on. (I 4). His true own-being is the Dharma-element, which is the foundation of his activities, which (I 5) he exercises with all dharmas as the object of his meditation, and (I 6) with the triple aim which constitutes his program” (HI 6). This arrangement is not altogether implausible, although I am not sure that at I 4 it reflects the intentions of the original authors of the Sutra. According to AA, I 4 concerns the “lineage” (gotra) of a Bodhisattva, his true nature, which is nothing else but the Realm of Dharma which through progressive purification becomes fit for enlightenment and represents the source or substratum of the dharmas of a Buddha. It is the active element in the Bodhisattva which urges him on to enlightenment and which through cultivation by study, etc., has

Buddha-hood for its final metamorphosis, I 4, 1-13 follow the order of the isattva’s progress or his process of cognition. This is clear for no. 1-6, 7 and 8 are the results of the two supra-mundane paths of vision and development, “and resemble the expulsion ofwhile 9 removes all rea

149

I 4a. THE LINEAGE AS SUCH.

*Subhuti : A B lled a “Bodhisattva”.

“Bodhisattva”, what is m

The Lord : Nothing real 315 is meant by the word

“Bodhisattva”.* And d is enlightenment,

unproduced is a being, there is no trace 317 of

enlightenment, or of a being (anywhere). That is why nothing real

is meant by the word “enlightenment-being”.

word “Bodhisatta”,318 that does not exist,

that cannot be apprehended;

I 4, 1. AS THE SOURCE OF HEAT.

just as in space the track319 of a bird320 does not exist and cannot

be apprehended; just as the track of a dream, an illusion, a mirage,

a

d,

odhisattva is caeant by that word? why? Unproduce316 and so

What is meant by the

nd echo, an image, a reflection of the moon in water, a village of the Gandharvas, or a magical creation does not exist and cannot be apprehended; (P161) I 4,2. AS THE SOURCE OF THE SUMMITS. just as the track of the Reality Limit, of Suchness, No-Falsehoo

unaltered Suchness, the Dharma-element, the established order of Dharma, the fixed sequence of Dharma, the Truth, does not exist and cannot be apprehended. I 4,3. AS THE SOURCE OF PATIENCE. No entity corresponding to a Bodhisattva6 who courses in perfect wisdom does exist, or can be got at, any more than there exists or can be got at the track of the form, etc. of an illusory man; as the source of a variety of “lineages”, and the reader is referred for the answer to AA I v. 39, H 77 and Ob. 92. 315 a-pada-artha. 316 A “Bodhi-sattva” is an “enlightenment-being”. 317 padam. 318 bodhisattva-padārtha. 319 padam. 320 This is an allusion to Dhp. 92, 93, = Udānavarga XXIX 23 sq. “Those who never accumulate, Those who know what their food implies, Their range in the Void, in the Signless, detached, Their track (padam) is very hard to trace, Like that of birds which fly across the sky.”

150

I 4,4. AS THE SOURCE OF HIGHE

more than there exists or can be got at the entity which corresponds to the form, etc., of an illusory m

8 kinds of emptiness, in the perfections, in the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: in the Buddhadharmas; I 4,5. AS THE SOURCE OF THE PATH OF VISION. any more than there exists or can be got at

agata an entity which corresponds to his form, etc.; (P162) and any more than there exists or c

enlightenment, in the powers, et

as no trace of the unconditioned element exists or can be apprehended in the conditioned element, or vice versa; I 4,6. AS THE SOURCE OF THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. just as that which is

Nondefilement, Nonpurification” does not

at. And why? What is meant by the words “production, stopping, effected, manifested, basis, defilement, and purification”, that does not exist and cannot be apprehended. No trace of a real entity corresponding to a Bodhisattv

account of the applications of Bud

dhadharmas, exists or can be apprehended, on account of their absolute purity; just as in purity no trace of the self, of a being, a soul, etc. to: of one who sees, exists or can be apprehended, on account of the fact that the self, and its equivalents, have no real

being.

4,7. AS THE SO

No trace of a really existing Bodhisatt

hen he disk of the suing) darkness

t

e (preced

1 The illusory being who cognizes the nons

oes not exist as a separate reality. Ob.

2 so S vii 1253; P: “no trace of the light of t

, 10.

151

I 4,8. AS THE SOURCE OF THE FORSAKING OF DETRIMENTA

just as, when the universal conflagration at the end of an aeon has burned up everything, no trace of any conditioned thing is either found or got at;

ANTIDOTES AND HARMFUL STATES.

just as, with regard to the Tathagata, no trace of immortality is either found or got at in his morality, no trace of distraction in his concentration, no trace of stupidity in his wisdom, no trace of lack of emancipation in his emancipation, no trace of lack of vision and cognition of emancipation in his vision and cognition of emancipation. I 4,10. AS THE SOURCE OF WISDOM AND COMPASSION.

exist, and cannot be apprehended, just as one can

the track of the light of sun and moon; (P164) I 4,11. AS THE SOURCE OF THE VIRTUES (OF A BODHISATTVA) NOT SHARED WITH THE DISCIPLES. the track of the splendour of the planets and constellations, of jewels and of lightning flash,323 I 4,12. AS THE SOURCE OF THE SUCCESSIVE ACTIONS FOR THE WELFARE OF OTHERS. of the splendour of the gods, from the Four Great Kings to the Highest Gods, and of the Bodhisattvas,324 I 4,12. AS THE SOURCE OF THE ACTION OF THE COGNITION WHICH WORKS WITHOUT ANY E

or of the And why? For there, Subhuti, wh

at enlightenment is, what the Bodhisattva is, and what the “tracks”325 of the Bodhisattva are – all these dharmas are neither conjoined nor disjoined, immaterial, undefinable, nonresisting,ith one mark only, i.e. with

3 P couples this item with the “Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas” in a way which I do not understand. 32

4 so S, also S-Tib. Probably inadvertently omitted in Dutt’s edition of P. 325 padā

152

*A Bodhisattva should therefore be trained in nonattach

to all dharmas, and in their unreality – in the sense that he does not construct or discriminate them. In addition he should understand all dharmas.*

I 5. The Objective Supports.

(Classes of Dharmas.)326 I 5a. THE OBJECT IN GENERAL. Subhuti : What are all-dharmas? And how should a Bodhisattva be trained in their unreality? How should he understand all-d

unwholesome and (3) indeterminate; (4) w

amundane; (6) with outflows and (7) without outflows; (8) conditioned and (9) unconditioned; (10) common and (11) uncommon. These are called the all-dhar

the all-dharmas which a Bodhisattva should understand:

I 5, 1. WORLDLY WHOLESOME DHARMAS. Wholesome worldly dharm

Foundation of Meritorious Work consisting in Giving, in Morality, in (meditat

the one derived from material gifts given, in faith, to the Tathagata.327 The ten wholesome way

worm-eaten corpse, a festering corpse, a bloody corpse, a discoloured corpse,

bones, a burned corpse. The four w

ited, the four formless attainments, the five superknowledges. The ten worldly Recollections, i.e. the recollection of the Buddha, of the Dharma, of the Samgha, of morality, of renunciation, of gods, of breathing, of what concerns the body, of agitation, of death.

32

6 For a diagram of dharmas see Introduction p. 16.

7 The same list o

153

I 5, 2. W

Unwholesome worldly dharmas are: The ten ways of unwholesome actions, i.e. taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, slander, harsh speech, frivolous talk, covetousn

conceit, false pride.

I 5, 3. INDETERMINATE DHA

speech and mind; the indetindet

erminate five dominants, the indeterminate six sensefields, the indeterminate four formless attainments, the indeterminate skandhas, the indeterminate elements, the indeterminate sense fields

, and all karma result. (P166) I 5, 4. WORLDLY (WHOLESOME) DHARMAS. Worldly dharmas are: The five skandhas, the twelve sense fields, the eighteen elements, the ten ways of wholesome action, the four trances, the four holy Unlimited, the four formless attainments, the five superknowledges, and, except

are.

I 5, 5. SUPRAMUNDANE DHARMAS. Supramundane dharmas are: The four applications of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of psychic power, the five dominants, the five powers, the seven limbs of enlightenment, the holy eightfold path. The three doors to deliverance, i.e. emptiness, the signless, the wishless. The dominant of “I shall come to understand the not yet understood”, the dominant of understanding, the dominant of one who has understood. The concentration with thought adjusted and discursive; the concentration without thought adjusted, and only with thought discursive; the concentration without either thought adjusted or thought discursive. Science,328 Liberation, Mindfulness, Full awareness, wise attention. The eight deliverances, (P167) the nine attainments of su

8 vidyā, an untranslatable term, som

154

(P168) the four grounds of self-confide

ledges, the great friendliness, the great compassion, the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha. I 5, 6. DHARMAS WITH OUTFLOWS. Dharmas with outflows are: The five skandhas, the twelve sense fields, the eigh

superknowledges.

I 5, 7. DHARMAS WITHOUT OUTFLOWS. Dharmas without outflows are: The four applications of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of psychic power, the five dominants, the five powers, the seven limbs of enlightenment, the holy eightfold pat

successive stations, the three doors to d

signless, the wishless. The ten powers of a Tathagata, the four grounds of self-confidence, the four analytical knowledges, the great friendliness, the great compassion, the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha. I 5, 8

world of form, the formless wor

are included in the conditioned element, i.e. the 37 wings of enlightenment, etc.329 I 5, 9. UNCONDITIONED DHARMAS. Unconditioned dharmas are: That of which there is no production, passing away, or alteration. Extinction of greed, hate, and delusion. Suchness, No-falseness, unaltered Suchness, the true nature of Dharma, the Dharma-element, the established order of Dharma, the fixed sequence of Dharma, the unthinkable element, the Reality limit. I 5, 10. COMMON DHARMAS.

harani-doors.

155

Common dharmas are: The four trances, the four holy Unlimited, the four formless attainments, the five superknowledges.

I 5, 11. UNCOMMON DHARMAS.

Uncommon dharmas are: The four applications of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of psychic power, the five dominants, the five powers, the seven limbs of enlightenment, the

successive stations, the three doors t

signless, the wishless, all concentrations and all Dharani-doors. The ten powers of a Tathagata, the four grounds of self-confidence, the four analytical knowledges, the great friendliness, the great compassion and the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha. (P169) I 5, 11. THE OBJECTIVE SUPPORTS OF PROGRESS. A Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, should not become attached to any of these dharmas, which are empty of own-marks. And all dharmas should be understood in accordance with nondu

. The Program. I 6, 1. THE GREATNESS OF THE ASPIRATION TO RAISE ALL BEINGS TO THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE STATE.

(II. The meaning of “Great Bein

*Subhuti : A Bodhisattva is called a “great being”. For what reason is a Bodhisattva called a “great being”? The Lord : He is called a “great being” because here he will cause a great mass of beings, a great collection of beings, to achieve the highe

collection of beings?

clan, to those who have reached the eighth-lowest stage, to 156

Stre

il we come to: to the Bodhisattvas who stand on

the irreversible stage. That is the great mass and collection of

l cause to achieve the highest. And

he w

as.

With my thought exclusively set on the knowledge of all modes

where should I train

ances, the formless attainments, the

the ten powers, the grounds of

ecial Buddhadharmas”. This is the

an adamantine thought by the Bodhisattva, the great

achieve the highest; and that without

depending on anything.331

the

thought that “For the sake of as many beings as feel a painful

feelin

ise a Bodhisattva

shou

hells, of the animal world, of the world of

Yama

behind. Through this skill in means will I, for

amwinners, Once-returners, Arhats, to Pratyekabuddhas, to Bodhisattvas, great beings, who have had the first thought of enlightenment, unt

beings which a Bodhisattva wil

ill cause them to achieve the highest after he has produced an adamantine thought.330 The Lord : Here a Bodhisattva, a great being, produces a thought thus: “After I have in the measureless stream of Samsara put on the armour, I should become one who never abandons all beings. Towards all beings should I adopt the same attitude of mind. All beings should I lead to Nirvana, by means of the three vehicles. (P170) And even when I have led all beings to Nirvana, no being at all has been led to Nirvana. And why? I should look through to the nonproduction and nonstopping of all dharm

should I course in the six perfections. Everymys

elf to accomplish the penetration into all dharmas. To the consummation of the one principle of all dharmas should I penetrate, etc., until we come to: for the sake of the penetration to the consummation of the perfections should I be trained in all dharmas, for the sake of the penetration to the consummation of the Unlimited, the tr

superknowledges, of self-confidence, the sp

production of being. Supported thereon he will cause a great mass and collection of beings to

Furthermore, a Bodhisattva, a great being produces

g in the hells, among the animals, or in the world of Yama I will feel that (same) painful feeling!” Likew

ld produce a thought thus: “For the sake of each single being I will experience for hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of aeons the pains of the

, until those beings have won Nirvana in the realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing

330 vajropamam cittam. 331 anupalambhayogena.

157

the sake of all beings, experience that pain of the hells, of the animal world, of the world of Yama, until these beings have won Nirvana in the realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind. Afterwards I will, for the sake of my own self, know full enlightenment after I have planted wholesome roots for hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of aeons and become equipped for enlightenment with a ma

uction of an adamantine thought. Furthermore, in order to achieve the highest for all beings a Bodhisattva, should constantly have a sublime thought. The sublime state of his thought consists in that, on account of the first thought of enlightenment, in him no thought of greed is produced, nor of hate, delusion or harming, nor a Disciple-thought or Pratyekabuddha-thought. (P171) This is the sublime state of thought of a Bodhisattva by which he will achieve the highest for all beings. But he does not put his mind to that thought. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva should become one whose thought is unshakable. A Bodhisattva’s unshakable state of thought consists in his not putting his mind even to the mental activities associated with the knowledge of all modes. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva should become one whose thought is directed towards the benefit and ease of all beings consists in the sheltering of all beings, in not abandoning them. But he does not put his mind to that. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, coursing in perfect wisdom, will achieve the highest for all beings. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva should have a constant liking for Dharma, a delight in Dharma, fondness for Dharma, devotion to Dharma. What here is Dharma? The unbroken unity of all dharmas. What is the

rness for Dharma. What is delight in Dharma? The pleasure in Dharma. What is fondness for Dharma? The appreciation of its qualities. What is devotion to Dharma? The developing, the making much of that Dharma. It is thus that a Bodhisatva, coursing in perfect wisdom, should achieve the highest for all beings, and that without depending on anything. Moreover, a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom should achieve the highest for all beings after he has stood in the 18 kinds of emptiness, the 37 wings of enlightenment, the powers, etc. to:

oncentration which is,

158

and all that without depending on anything. Having stood in these dharmas, a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom should make a great mass and collection of beings achieve the highest. It is for this reason that a Bodhisattva is called a “great being”.

159

CHAPTER 12

160

*Subhuti : A Bodhisattva is called a “great being”, because he

remains unattached eve of enlightenment, the

thought which equals t thought which is not

shared by any of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. (P173)

And why? thought of

all-knowledge, which i ded in the

triple world.*

Sariputra : What then is the thought of a Bodhisattva that

by any of the Disciples or

Pratyekabuddhas?

on account of the production of

the first thought of enlightenment, does not review of any dharma

the p

r purification. And where there is neither

defilement n

decr

and un-included” – surely the

thou

mptiness of its

esse

s and un-included, on

account of the emptiness of its essential original nature, and so are

u say.

s said334 that “it is

n to his thought he unequalled, theBecause he remains unattached even to the s without outflows and un-inclu

equals the unequalled and is not shared

Subhuti : Here a Bodhisattva,

roduction or stopping, the decrease or increase, the coming or going, the defilement o

or purification, neither coming nor going, neither

ease nor increase, neither production nor stopping, that is not the thought of a Disciple or of a Pratyekabuddha. This is a Bodhisattva’s thought which equals the unequalled and is not shared by any of the Disciples or Pratyekabuddhas. Sariputra : With regard to what the Ven. Subhuti has said about the Bodhisattva being “unattached even to the thought of all-knowledge, which is without outflows and un-included in the triple world”,333 surely form, etc., is also unattached, on account of the emptiness of its essential original nature? Subhuti : So it is, Sariputra. Sariputra : When the Ven. Subhuti speaks of “that thought of all-knowledge, without outflows

ght of the foolish common people also (P174) is without outflows and un-included, on account of the e

ntial original nature, and the same holds good for the thought of all Disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, and fully enlightened Buddhas? Subhuti : So it is, Ven. Sariputra. Sariputra : Form is also without outflow

all other dharmas? Subhuti : So it is, Ven. Sariputra, as yo

Sariputra : When again the Ven. Subhuti ha

Pratyekabuddhas”. 334 This saying of Subhuti d

161

beca

, which equals the unequalled, which is not shared

by D

use that thought is no-thought that he remains unattached even to that thought”, is not also form unattached to no-form, and so for all other dharmas? Subhuti : So it is, Sariputra, as you say. It is thus that a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom does not because of that (P175) fancy himself for that thought (for enlightenment and all-knowledge)

isciples and Pratyekabuddhas, and he does not settle down in it, in consequence of taking no dharma as a basis. 162

CHAPTER 13

THE SIX PERFECTIONS I 7-10. THE PROGRESS AS SUCH.

163

Furthermore, Sariputra, the perfection of giving of a

Bodhisattva, who cour dom and gives gifts,

consists in that, with att with the knowledge of

all modes, he turns over to full enlightenment that gift which he

gives, after he results from

the act of giving) comm on of morality

consists in that, with his whole attention centred on the knowledge

of all modes, he shuns the attentions of Disciples and

n of patience in the enduring of

those dharmas, in his willingness to find pleasure in them, in his

perfection of vigour in the

indefatigability with which he continues to dedicate his wholesome

roots

n in his one-pointed-ness of

thou hen he dedicates that

who

o a Disciple-thought or

a Pr

tion that everything is made of

illusi

ll modes, a

Bodhisattva does not long for the level of a Disciple or

ses imperfect wisentions associated has made that wholesome root (whichon to all beings. His perfecti

Pratyekabuddhas; his perfectio

ability to tolerate them;335 his

to full enlightenment, after he has made them common to all beings; his perfection of concentratio

ght when he gives a gift, so that, w

lesome root to enlightenment, after he has made it common to all beings, he gives through keeping his whole attention centred on the knowledge of all modes, no opportunity t

atyekabuddha-thought. (P177) His perfection of wisdom consists in that he sets up the no

on,336 and in that he gets at no giver, recipient, or gift. With his thought associated with the knowledge of all modes, that Bodhisattva does not make these six perfections into a sign, and does not get at them. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, is armed with the great armour. I 7b. THE SECOND SEXTAD, CONNECTED WITH THE PERFECTION OF MORALITY. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfection of morality, gives a gift with attentions associated with the knowledge of all modes, dedicates it to full enlightenment, after he has made (the merit from) that gift common to all beings – and that without taking anything as a basis. This is the perfection of giving of a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of morality. With his whole attention centred on the knowledge of a

Pratyekabuddha, and much less still for the level of the common

so S, athese dharmas – as for “faith” at P 133. 336

164

peo

n the knowledge

of all modes, and not associated with Disciple or Pratyekabuddhas,

mmon to all beings; (P178) this is the perfection of giving

of a

Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of vigour,

NECTED WITH THE PERFECTION OF

ple. This is the perfection of morality of a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of morality. The enduring of those dharmas, the willingness to find pleasure in them, the ability to tolerate them, that is the perfection of patience of a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of morality. The indefatigability and un-cowed-ness with which he continues to dedicate his wholesome roots to full enlightenment, after he has made them common to all beings that is the perfection of vigour of a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of morality. The one-pointed-ness of thought of a Bodhisattva who practises morality, i.e. that he gives, through keeping his whole attention centred on the knowledge of all modes, no opportunity to production of thought associated with Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, when he dedicates that wholesome root to full enlightenment, after he has made it common to all beings. He sets up the notion that everything is made of illusion; he gets at no one who practises morality, and that morality he does not either mind or get at; this is the perfection of wisdom of a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of morality. It is thus that a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of morality takes hold of the six perfections. It is thus that he comes to be called “armed with the great armour”. I 7c. THE THIRD SEXTAD, CONNECTED WITH THE PERFECTION OF PATIENCE. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva, who courses in the perfection of patience, gives a gift; with his attention centred o

he dedicates that wholesome root to full enlightenment, having made it co

Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of patience, should be understood by analogy with what has been said before. A Bodhisattva, who courses in the perfection of patience, exerts himself through wisdom to procure all Buddha-dharmas, and to mature all beings; this is the perfection of wisdom of a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of patience. I 7d. THE FOURTH SEXTAD, CONNECTED WITH THE PERFECTION OF VIGOUR. By analogy one should understand the six perfections of a

I 7e. THE FIFTH SEXTAD, CON

165

MEDITATION. and concentration. I 7f. THE SIXTH SEXTAD, CONNECTED WITH THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva, who courses in the perfection of wisdom, gives a gift which is threefold pure;337 with his attention centred on the knowledge of all modes, he dedicates to full enlightenment that gift which he gives, after he has made that wholesome root common to all beings. This is the perfection of giving of a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of wisdom. Similarly should one understand the perfection of morality, patience, vigour, and concentration of a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom. (P179) With regard to all perfections, and to all dharmas, he sets up the notion that they are an illusion, a dream, a reflected image, an echo, a reflection, a magical creation; with his attention centred on all-knowledge, he dedicates to full enlightenment that wholesome root, after he has made it common to all beings. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, fulfils the perfection of wisdom. A Bodhisattva is then called “armed with the great armour”. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, having stood firm in e

. THE ARMOUR OF THE SKILL IN MEANS. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva enters into the trances, Unlimited, and formless attainments, but he does not relish them,338 is not captivated by them, is not reborn on account of them.339 This, Sariputra, is of a Bodhisattva, a great being, the perfection of wisdom which is associated with skill in means. A Bodhisattva furthermore dwells in the trances and formless attainments by way of the vision of detachment, of emptiness, of the sign-less, of the wish-less, and yet he does not realize the reality limit. This is the great armour of the skill in means of the Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of wisdom.

337 i.e. uncontaminated by any ideas about giver, gift, or recipient; cf. P 264.

ecause trances give a kind of superhuman bliss, a Bodhisattva might be tempted into seeking them from spiritual voluptuousness. 339 The trances correspond to a number of heavens (see: Numer

practise trance apermits,heaven. To avail himself of this possibility would for a Bodhisattva mean idle

166

I 7h. THE R

It is thus that a

ten directions utter a shout of triumph, proclaim his praise,

ounce his name, and make the pronouncement that “in this world system that Bodhisattva, that great being is armed with the great armour!” And he matures beings and purifies the Buddha-field. (P180) I 8. The Progress in Setting Out. (5. Set out in the great vehicle.) Sariputra : Through how much does the Bodhisattva become one who has set out in the great vehicle, one who has mounted on the great vehicle? I 8,1. THE ENTERING ON AND EMERGIN FROM THE TRANCES AND FORMLESS ATTAINMENTS.340 Purna : Here, coursing in the perfection of giving, a Bodhisattva dwells detached from sense desires, detached from evil and unwholesome

is with thoughts adjueof rapture and ease. And so for all the

four trances, and for the four formless attainments. These are a Bodhisattva’s trances and formless attainments. When a Bodhisattva courses in the perfection of giving through these trances and formless attainments, enters into and emerges from them, through the modes, characteristics and signs of space makes these wholesome roots common to all beings, and dedicates them to full enlightenment – then this is a Bodhisattva’s perfection of giving. Similarly he acts with regard to the perfections of morality, patience, vigour, and concentration. Moreover, a Bodhisattva, coursing in the perfection of wisdom, enters into th

and attainments in the perfection of wisdom, and, while ente

into and emerging from them attends to the modes, characteristics

and signs of space, and, coursing in the perfection of wisdom, 340 according to H, the Bodhisattva must at this stage first gain some proficiency in transic meditation so that his mind may be b

167

makes these, and other, wholesome roots com

ugh attentions connected with the knowledge of all modes, and dedicates them to full enlightenment – then this is a Bodhisattva’s perfection of wisdom. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in the six perfections, is called “one who has set out in the great vehicle”. I 8,2. THE SIX PERFECTIO

with his attention centred on the kn

“for the sake of the demolition of th

his untarnished perfection of morality if, with his attention centred on the knowledge of all modes, he enters into the trances, and, firmly grounded in them, does not give an opportunity (P181) to other production

Pratyekabuddhas. When it occurs to a Bodhisattva who, with his attention centred on the knowledge of all modes, dwells in the tranc

es and formless attainments, that “for the purpose of the extinction of the defilements of all beings will I demonstrate Dharma”, then the enduring of those attentions, the willingness to find pleasure in them, to test and understand them, and to meditate on them, that is a Bodhisattva’s perfection of patience. It is a Bodhisattva’s perfection of vigour that, through his attentions connected with the knowledge of all modes, he dedicates all wholesome roots to full enlightenment, and never relaxes his vigour. It is his perfection of concentration that, through his attentions connected with the knowledge of all modes, that, through his attentions connected with the knowledge of all modes, he enters into the trances and formless attainments, and yet does not apprehend them. It is his perfection of wisdom that he contemplates the limbs of the trances under the aspects of impermanent, ill, not-self, etc., to: wish-less, and yet does not apprehend them. This is the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva, the great being. I 8,3. THE PATH. ehicle of the Bodhisattva that, in

341 so S; P says that he demonstrates “Dharma”. 168

all their modes, he develops the dharmas which are the 37 wings of enlightenment, the concentrations which are the doors to freedom – Emptiness, the Sign-less, the Wish-less – the (ten) powers, the grounds of self-confidence, and the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha.

Furthermore, a Bodhisat

friendliness – a thought that is vast, extensive, non-dual, unlimited, free from hostility, rivalry, hindrance, or injury to anyone, extends everywhere and is well cultivated; he radiates friendliness in the ten directions of the world which has as its highest (development) the Dharma-element, and the space-element as its terminus. And so with compassion, sympathetic joy, and impartiality. These are called the four Unlimited of the Bodhisattva, the great being. (P182) A Bodhisattva enters the concentration on friendliness, and strives to save all beings. He enters the concentration on compassion, and directs pity and compassion towards beings. He enters the concentration on sympathetic joy, and resolves to make beings rejoice.342 He enters the concentration on impartiality, and “extends”343 to beings the extinction of the outflows. This is the perfection of giving of the Bodhisattva who courses in the Unlimited. When a Bodhisattva enters into the modes, characteristics and signs of the trances and Unlimited, and emerges from them, and yet does not dedicate (the resulting merit) to the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, but to nothing else than the knowledge of all modes – then this is the untarnished perfection of morality of the Bodhisattva who courses in the Unlimited. When he dwells in those trances, Unlimited, and formless attainments free from contamination, and does not long for the two levels of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, but just the knowledge of all modes seems good to him and pleases him – then this is the perfection of patience of the Bodhisattva who courses in the Unlimited. If, through the production of thoughts associated with the knowledge of all modes, he dwells as one who perseveres

rejoicings”, or “I wi(sam

adhayisyami) and in S-tib. (which read mocayishyami), the text is corrupt. irnamayati, rab-tu gshol-bar byed de. At P 7 it meant “put out” in connection

or that “he bends, or inclines, his thoughts to them

169

in forsaking unwholesome and in accomplishing wholesome dharmas – then this is the perfection of vigour of the Bodhisattva who courses in the Unlimited. If, although he enters into those trances, Unlimited, and formless attainments, he does not gain his rebirths throu

who courses in the Unlimite

knowledge of all modes, he enters into the trances, Unlimited and formless attainments and emerges from them, and contemplates them under the aspects of impermanence, ill, not-self, of quietude, emptiness, sign-less-ness and wish-less-ness, but does not go forward to the way of salvation of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas – then this is the perfection of wisdom of a Bodhisattva who courses in the Unlimited. This is the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva, the great being. I 8,5. ABSENCE OF DEVOTION TO A BASIS.344 Furthermore, also this is the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva, the great being: The cognition of the 18 kinds of emptiness, without taking them as basic facts. That, since his thought is undisturbed in all dharmas, his cognition is concentrated.345 That his cognition does not proceed through “this is permanent”, “this is impermanent”, “this is ill”, etc. to: “this is wish-less”. That his cognition does not proceed in the past, future, or present period; in fact his cognition does not proceed in the three periods, and takes nothing as a basic fact. That his cognition does not proceed in the world of sense desire, in the world of form, in the formless world; in fact he has no cognition of the triple world, and that because nothing can be apprehended in it. That his cognition does not proceed in worldly or supra-mundane dharmas, in dharmas with or without outflows, in conditioned or unconditioned dharmas; in fact he has cognition of any of these kinds of dharmas, and that because there is nothing to apprehend. This is the great vehicle of 344 H here comments: Thereupon he who acts for the sake of others comes to the

phenomenal world). He accordingly secures access to the state of transic meditation in which he takes no separate entities as a basis. 345 The Sanskrit text of P and of S vii 1328 seems to be corrupt, and I have transla

this sentence tentatively after S-Tib. In view of note10 it may perhaps be better to follow S-Skr, and to translate, :when it makes no distinctions with regard to dharmas” instead of “undisturbed in all dharmas”. 170

the Bodhisattva, the great being. I 8,6. THE THREEFOLD PURITY. (6. Mounted on the great vehicle.) Sariputra : Through how much, Ven. Purna, is a Bodhisattva called “mounted on the great vehicle”. Purna : Here a Bodhisattva, coursing in perfect wisdom, mounts on the perfection of giving. He does not get at the perfection of giving, or a giver, recipient, or gift – because there is nothing to get at. And so with the perfections of morality, patience, vigour, and concentration. Here a Bodhisattva, coursing in perfect wisdom (P184), mounts on the perfection of wisdom. He does not get at the perfection of wisdom, or a Bodhis

because ther

I 8,7. THE PROGRAM Furthermore, a Bodhisattva is called “mounted on the great vehicle” if, through an unmixed production of the thought of the knowledge of all modes, he develops the 37 wings of enlightenment, etc. to: the 18 special Buddha-dharmas, with a development in the sense of annihilation346 and that because there is nothing that can be got at. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva is called “mounted on the great vehicle” if he perceives that “Bodhi-being” is a mere conventional expression, since no being can be apprehended. In the same way also all dharmas, from form to the Buddha, are mere words, because the reality corresponding to them cannot apprehended. I 8,8. THE SIX SUPER-KNOWLEDGES. Furthermore, during the entire period from the first thought of enlightenment up to full enlightenment (P185) he matures beings

perfected his super-knowledges. In all Buddha-fields he treats the Buddhas, the Lords with respect, honours, reveres, and worships

346 bhavana-vibhavana-arthena. This rather mysterious phrase occurs frequently in the later parts of the Sutra. It may mean that “development”, like everything else, is as much its opposite as it is itself, and that therefore it must be taken to mean an “un-development”. “In the sense that he annihilates

171

them. Owing to his suitable wors

i.e. this great vehicle. Having

Buddha-fields, and matures beings.either of a Buield or

of non-duality, he acquires at will a personality which enables him to work for the welfare of beings. And, until he reaches the know

ledge of all modes, he is never again lacking in this great vehicle. I 8,9. THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL MODES. After he has reached the knowledge of all modes, he turns the wheel of Dharma, which cannot be turned by all the disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, in the world with its gods, Nagas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Garudas, Kinnaras, Mahoragas, and men. In each of the ten directions, in world sy

of the Ganges, the Bthe

praise, and reveal the glory of him who has known full enlightenment and they say of him that “in this world system that Bodhisattva, after mounting on the great vehicle, has reached the knowledge of all modes and thereafter turned the wheel of Dharma”. It is thus that a Bodhisattva is called “mounted on the great vehicle”.

172

CHAPTER 14 NEITHER BOUND NOR FREED I 9. The Equipment.

Emancipation a mock show.) Subhuti : Because he is “armed with a great armour” a Bodhisattva is called a “great being”. Armed with how much of an armour can he be called “armed with the great armour”? The Lord : He is armed with the great vehicle, the six perfections, the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. (P186) Armed with a Buddha-frame,347 he radiates light over the great trichiliocosm and shakes it in six ways. In all infernal becomings he extinguishes the (great) mass of fire, appeases the sufferings of beings in the hells, and places348 all of them face to fa

173

hells, from that animal world, from that world of Yama, and would

be reborn among gods then that magician, or

magician’s apprentice, ha s emerge from the hells,

from the animal world, from the world of Yama?

Subh

The Lor beings in

countless world systems from these three states of woe, no being

at all has been set free. And why? For such is the true nature of

ey are illusory. 349 It is thus that a

Bodhisattva, a great being, who has mounted on the great vehicle,

(P187)

RFECTION OF GIVING.

Furthermore, a Bodhisattva, armed with the great armour,

stan

es away

garm

Bod

and men. Would ve made any beinguti : No, O Lord. d : Even so, after a Bodhisattva has set free

dharmas that in fact th

is called “armed with the great armour”.*

I 9,2. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE PE

ds firm in the perfection of giving. By his magic he conjures up a trichiliocosm made of lapis lazuli, conjures up a display worthy of a Universal Monarch, and gives food to the hungry, giv

ents, vehicles, perfumes, garlands, flowers, incense, ointments, medicinal powders, houses, dwelling places, robes, the necessities of life, medicines, gold, silver, jewels, gems, coral, conch shells, quartz, pearls, etc. He then demonstrates Dharma to those beings, i.e. this very Dharma connected with the six perfections. And, after they have heard this demonstration of Dharma, those beings will never again be lacking in these perfections until they know full enlightenment. It is thus that a Bodhisattva is called “armed with the great armour”. It is just as if a clever magician, or magician’s apprentice, were to conjure up a great crowd of people, and give food to the hungry, and thing upon thing to those in need of it. What do you think, Subhuti, has this magician, or magician’s apprentice given anything to anyone? Subhuti : No, Lord. The Lord : Even so should one understand the actions of the

hisattva who has stood in the perfection of giving. And why? For such is the true nature of dharmas that in fact they are illusory. I 9,3. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE PERFECTION OF MORALITY. 349

grhitva H, S-Tib. ne-bar bzun-na) the fact that illusion is their dharmic nature”. Tib: sgyu-ma’I chos-nid ne-bar bzun na, chos rnams-kyi cho

te. The metaphysical subtleties involved ca

174

Furthermore, a Bodhisattva stands firm in the perfection of morality. Through his acquisition of the power to be reborn at will he is reborn in the family of a Universal Monarch. He then establishes beings in the ten ways of wholesome

es, etc. to: in the eighteen sp

ow full enlightenment, these beings will never again be lacking in this demonstration of Dharma. (P188) Just as if a magician, or magician’s apprentice, had conjured up a great crowd of people and had established them in all these wholesome practices; however many beings he had established in those practices, no being at all would have been estab

true nature of dharmas, that in fact they are illusory.

I 9,4. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE PERFECTION OF PATIENCE. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva stands firm in the perfection of patience. He instigates, exhorts, introduces beings to patience, in the following way: On account of his first production of the thought of enlightenment he puts on the armour thus: “If all beings were to hit me with sticks, clods, fists, or swords, not even one single thought of rage should be produced in me; and also all beings should I introduce to such patience!” Just as if a clever magician, or magician’s apprentice, were to conjure up a great crowd of people: if they all hit him with sticks, clods, fists, or swords, nevertheless, he would produce towards them not even a single thought of rage; and if he were to introduce these magically created beings to such patience, no being at all would have been introduced to it, however many he had introduced to it. The same is true of the Bodhisattva. And why? For such is the true nature of dharmas that in fact they are illusory

. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE PERFECTION OF VIGOUR. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva stands firm in the perfection of vigour. He instigates, exhorts, introduces all beings to the

through attentions connected with the knowledge of a

beings to physical and mental vigour. But all this is though done by a magician with regard to illusory beings, as said before.

175

I 9,

Furthermore, a Bodhisattva stands firm in the perfection of

(P190), a

Bod

a magician with

regard to illusory beings, as said before. Furthermore, a

ought

cen

I 9,9. THE EQUIPMENT WITH INSIGHT.

6. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE PERFECTION OF MEDITATION. Furthermore, a Bodhisattva stands firm in the perfection of concentration. Here a Bodhisattva, having stood in the sameness of all dharmas, does not review the disturbance or non-disturbance of any dharma. It is thus that a Bodhisattva becomes one standing in the perfection of concentration. And he likewise instigates, exhorts and introduces all beings to the perfection of concentration, with the result that never until the time that they know full enlightenment will they ever again lack in the perfection of concentration. But all this is as though done by a magician with regard to illusory beings, as said before. I 9,7. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM.

wisdom. When he courses in the perfection of wisdom

hisattva does not get at the Not-Beyond or at the Beyond of any dharma whatsoever. It is then that he is one who stands firm in perfect wisdom, and he likewise instigates, exhorts, and introduces all beings thereto. But all this is as though done by a magician with regard to illusory beings, as said before. I 9,8. THE EQUIPMENT WITH QUIETUDE. Furthermore, as a Bodhisattva, armed with the great armour, has himself stood in the six perfections, so he instigates, exhorts, and introduces to them as many beings as there are in each one of the ten directions in world systems numerous as the sands of the Ganges. He demonstrates Dharma to them, i.e. this Dharma connected with the six perfections, and they will never again be deprived of the six perfections until the time that they know full enlightenment. But all this is as though done by

Bodhisattva, armed with the great armour, dwells with his th

tred on the knowledge of all modes. He gives no room to other productions of thought, like “only so many beings should I establish in the perfections, in the wings of enlightenment, the Buddha-dharmas, the fruits of the Path, Pratyekabuddha-hood, or all-knowledge”. But on the contrary he resolves to establish countless beings in those practices and their fruits. (P191)

176

But all this is as though done by a magician with r

ory beings, as said before.* And why? For such is the true nature of dharmas that in fact they are illusory. Subhuti : As I understand the meaning of the Lord’s teaching, as certainly not armed with an armour should this Bodhisattva, the great being, be known, on account of the emptiness of own-marks. And why? Because there form is empty of form, and so for all dharmas up to the Buddha-dharmas. The Bodhisattva is empty of the Bodhisattva and the armour of the great vehicle is also empty of the armour of the great vehicle. By this method should a Bodhisattva be known as not armed with

the knowledge of all modes is not made or unmade,

effected.350 Those beings also, for the sake of whom a Bodhisattva is armed with the great armour, are not made or unmade, but are in fact un-effected.* Subhuti : For what reason is that so? The Lord : On account of the impossibility of apprehending a maker. For form, etc., does not make, nor unmake, nor effect (anything). Because absolutely all these dharm

person, personality, etc. to: one whorefl

ection of the moon in water, a reflected image, a mirage, and an apparition; of the eighteen kinds of emptiness, the thirty-seven wings of enlightenment, etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas, of Suchness, etc., and of the knowledge of all modes. It is for this reason that the knowledge of all modes is not made or unmade, but in fact unaffected; and so are those (beings) for whose sake a Bodhisattva is armed with the great armour. It is thus that a Bodhisattva is called “armed with the great armour”. I 9,10. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE COMBINATION OF INSIGHT AND QUIETUDE. *Subhuti : As I understand the meaning of the Lord’s teaching, form etc., is neither bound nor freed. Purna : You say, Subhuti, that form, etc., is neither bound nor 350 “not made”, because there is no maker; “not unmade”, because it canannihilated, since nothing that has not first been made ca

“un-effected”, it thought to bring it about. – cf. S. Augustine:

177

free

neither bound nor

freed

s, worldly or

supr

being is neither bound nor

freed etc. to: the knowledge

of all modes.

all dharmas,

on account of their non-being-ness, (P194) their isolated-ness, etc.

s, the great being’s, armour of the great vehicle, which

is ne

d? Subhuti : So it is Purna. Purna : What then is that form, etc., which is

? Subhuti : That form, etc., which is like a dream, like an echo, a mock show, a mirage, a reflection of the moon in water, an apparition, that is neither bound nor freed. (P193) Even so form, etc., which is past, future, or present, is neither bound nor freed. And why? Because of the non-being-ness of form, etc. Even so form, etc., whether it be wholesome or unwholesome, defiled or undefiled, tainted or untainted, with or without outflow

a-mundane, defiled or purified, is neither bound nor freed, on account of its non-being-ness, its isolated-ness, its quiet calm, its emptiness, sign-less-ness, wish-less-ness, because it has not been brought together or produced. And that is true of all dharmas.* It is thus that a Bodhisattva, a great

; and neither are the six perfections,

The beings also whom he will lead to Nirvana are neither bound nor freed; and neither are the Buddha-fields which he will purify, the Buddhas, the Lords whom he will honour, the Dharma which he will hear, and the fact that he will never again be deprived of the Buddhas, the Lords, or of the super-knowledges, the five Eyes, etc. – also that is neither bound nor freed. Neither bound nor freed, he will produce a knowledge of the modes of the Path which is neither bound nor freed, he will understand a knowledge of all modes which is neither bound nor freed, he will turn a wheel of Dharma which is neither bound nor freed, and he will, through the three vehicles, lead to Nirvana beings who are neither bound nor freed. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, neither bound nor feed by the six perfections, will fully know

to: their un-produced-ness. It is thus that one should know the Bodhisattva’

ither bound nor freed.

178

CH

APTER 15

THE CONCENTRATIONS I 9,11. THE EQUIPMENT WITH SKILL IN MEANS. III The meaning of “great vehicle”. 1. Its constituents. *Subhuti : What is the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva, the great being? How should a Bodhisattva be known as one who has set out in the great vehicle? Wherefrom will that vehicle go forth? Where will it come to a halt? Who will go forth by means of that great vehicle?* The Lord : With regard to what you say, “what is the great vehicle of a Bodhisattva?” The six perfections are the great vehicle of a Bodhisattva. Subhuti : What are a Bodhisattva’s six perfections? The Lord : A Bodhisattva’s perfection of giving consists in that, with productions of thought associated with the knowledge of all modes, he gives a gift, i.e. inward and outward things, makes these common to all beings and dedicates them to full enlightenment; and he instigates others also to do likewise; but always without basing himself on anything. The untarnished perfection of morality of a Bodhisattva consists that351 he himself undertakes to observe the ten ways of wholesome action in instigates others also thereto, but without basing himself on anything; his perfection of patience in that he himself becomes on who has achieved patience and also instigates others thereto, but without basing himself on anything (P195); his perfection of vigour in that he dwells persistently in the five perfec

179

anything. His perfection of wisdom consists in that he does not

settle down in any dharm e essential nature of all

dharmas, also instigates e contemplation of all

dharmas, but never bases himself on anything. This, Subhuti, is

the great vehi

I 9,12. THE EQUIPMENT WITH COGNITION.352

Moreover, Subhuti, the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva, the

subject, etc. to: the

emptiness of other-being.

on the

subject-side are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. Therein

the

forms, sounds, smells, tastes, touch objects, and

mind

re. And so for sounds, etc. to: mind-objects.

3 ? The six

subj

a, contemplates th other beings to thcle of a Bodhisattva, a great being.

great being, that is the emptiness of the

1. What is the emptiness of the subject? Dharmas

eye is empty of the eye, on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. And why? Because such is its essential nature. And so for the ear, etc. to: mind. 2. What is the emptiness of the object? Dharmas on the object-side are

objects. Therein form is empty of form, on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. And why? Because such is its essential natu

. What is the emptiness of both subject and object

ective sense fields and the six objective sense fields, these are the inward (=subjective) and outward (=objective) dharmas.353 How are the subjective empty of the objective dharmas? Eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind are empty of forms, sounds, smells, tastes, touch objects and mind objects. (P196) How are the objective empty of the subjective dharmas? Forms, sounds, smells, tastes, touch objects and mind objects are empty of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind, on account of their being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is their essential nature. 4. What is emptiness of emptiness? The emptiness of all dharmas is empty of that emptiness,354 on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. 352 For this extremely difficult and important section of the Sutra I have added a number of notes from AAA 95-96, Ob. 126 sq., and Mahayanasamgraha (=M-s) ch. 5.1 and its commentary. 353 The translation follows Ad and Da. In this interpretation no. 3 is similar to no. 15 of Pts, the visabhaga-sunna, according to which “the six inner sense fields are

4 Because it is merely the cognition of the emptiness of all dharmas. – Pras. XII: Emptiness is not a property, or

180

5. What is the great emptiness? The Eastern direction is empty of the Eastern direction, on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. And so for the other nine directions.355 6. What is the emptiness of ultimate realit

on account of its being neither unmoved n

s essential nature. 7. What is conditioned emptiness? “Conditioned” means the world of sense desire, th

Th

erein the world of sense desire is empty of the world of sense desire, on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. And so for the other two worlds. 8. What is unconditioned emptiness? “Unconditioned” means that of which there is not produc

st

ability, no alteration.357 The Unconditioned is empty of the Unconditioned,358 on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. 9. What is infinite emptiness? That of which no end is got at, that infinite is empty of the infinite,359 on account of its being

ne

ither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. substratum would be non-empty, and one would have a fixed conviction (drsti) about it. In fact it is a mere medicine, a means of escape from all fixed convictions. It is taught so that we may overcome attachment, and it would be a pity if we were to become attached to it. It is not a positive standpoint, but a mere turning away from all views and thought constructions. To treat it as an object, and to oppose it to emptiness, is to miss the point. 355 This refers to the Absolute, or Dharmadhatu, as all-pervading. No limitations, like “eastern”, “western”, etc., are admissible for it, but it is omnipresent, since no dharma is not anatman. 356 No objective entity “Nirvana” exists as such. Nirvana is in fact nothing b

me

re disconnection from all phenomenal elements. cf. A.K. I 6. – Nirvana is parama-artha, both as the ultimate reality and as the supreme goal. 357 So P and Ad, anyathatva. S: sthiter anyathatva, “alteration of its stability, or subsistence”. The difference reflects the uncertainties of the Abhidharma tradition

.N. i p, 152) speaks of sthity-anyathatva; some authorities interpret this as “the difference between preceding and succeeding moments”; others as “decay”. See P. S. Jaini in BSOAS. xxii. 19

8 The Un-produced, etc., has no correlation with the produced, etc., which is a mere sign and concept. – Here the Dharma-element is considered as “un-seizable”; one cannot conceive of it as one’s own, cannot imprison it, and when one has attained it one cannot say “it is min3

59 Ad; “That dharma of which absolutely (atyantato) no production can be apprehended. And why? Because such is its essential original nature”. – H “End” 181

10

. What is the emptiness without beginning or end?360 That of which no beginning or end is got at, of that the middle is non-existent. And that of which neither beginning nor middle nor end is got at, of that there is

mi

ddle, and end are also empty of beginning, middle, and end, on account of their being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is their essential nature. 11. What is the e

dh

arma there is no repudiation. “Repudiation” means (P197) casting off, spurning, letting go. The non-repudiation is empty of the non-repudiation,362 on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. 12. What is the emptiness of essential nature? The essential

(o

riginal) nature of all dharmas, be they conditioned or unconditioned, is not made by the Disciples, or by the Pratyekabuddhas, or by the Tathagatas,363 nor is it removed by them.13 The essential nature is empty of the essential nature, on account of its being neither unmoved nor de

it

s essential nature. 13. What is the emptiness of all dharmas? All dharmas means the five skandhas, the twelve sense fields, the six kinds of

conditioned by contact. Conditioned and unconditioned dharmas, (limit, anta) means “portioned out”. Now between the limits of eternity and annihilation (regarded as two portions) there exists absolutely nothing by which could be established an own-being

spective portions (Obermiller : which could draw a boundary between them, and thus make them appear as having each its separate essence) – aty-anta, “infinite”, “beyond end”, “beyond lim

0 an-avara-agra, Pali anantamagga, is normally used for Samsara. Nos. 10 and 11 belong together, in that 10 refers to birth-death, and 11 to Nirvana. – “A first beginning of suffering, i.e. of beings blinded by ignorance and cravin

nceived” (Divy. 197); there is no first and no last (Pras. xi). 361 Anavakara P, S: apratikara Ad., which has only: “wherein there is no rejection of any dharma”. The term “casting off” (vikiranam) occurs in the traditional formula of Arhat-ship. The dharma which is not repudiated is Nirvana, because in regard to it absolutely nothing needs removing. 362 H: Non-repudiation must be understo

epudiation” as defined in the Sutra. “Casting off” etc. are not real entities, because they are essentially non-activities, and therefore also the non-repudiation is no more than a sign and concept. 363 So P, but not so S. In no. 12 the

etween prakriti (essential nature), samskrta (conditioned), asamskrta (unconditioned) and akrta (not made).

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the

se are called “all-dharmas”. Therein all dharmas are empty of all-dharmas, on account of their being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is their essential nature. 14. What is the emptiness of own-marks? To be easily broken is the mark of form, experiencing that of feeling, taking up that of perception, together-making that of the formative forces, being aware that of conscious364

the

skandhas, resemblance to a venomous snake that of the elements, acting as a door of coming into being that of the sense fields; possessing the full complement of conditions that of conditioned co-production; renunciation that of the perfection of giving, celibacy that of the perfection of moralit

tha

t of the perfection of patience, un-crushability that of the perfection of vigour, comprehension that of the perfection of concentration, non-attachment that of the perfection of wisdom; un-shakability is the mark of the four trances, the four Unlimited, the four formless attainments; leading forth that of the thirty seven wings of enlightenment, detachment that of emptiness as a door to deliverance, quiet cal

rem

oval of suffering that of the wish-less as a door to deliverance; delivering that of the deliverances, to be well massed that of the powers, to be well established that of the grounds of self-confidence, to be indestructible that of the analytical

friendliness, protection that of the great compassion, rejoicing that of the great sympathetic joy, non-commingling that of the great impartiality, to be something to which no one else has a claim is that of the eighteen special Buddha-dharmas, and to be “before the eye” is the mark of the cognition of the knowledge of all modes.) W

hatever the mark of conditioned or of the unconditioned dharmas, all these dharmas are empty of their own-marks, on account of their being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is their essential nature.

15. What is unascertainable emptiness? Those dharmas which are past, future, and present, are not got at. And why? In a past (dharma) the future (dharmas)

cannot be got at: nor in a future the past; nor in a present (dharma) can the past and future (dharmas) be got at: nor in the past and future (dharmas) the

364 P adds here: this should be worked out indetail”. The following passage in brackets is from S corrected after Gilgit

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present ones. The unascertainable emptiness is the non-apprehension of these, because they are pure from the very beginning, on account of their being neit

des

troyed. For such is their essential nature. 16. What is the emptiness of the non-existence of own-being? There is no own-being of a dharma (acting) in causal connection, because of conditioned co-production.365 The (causal) connection is empty of the (causal) connection, on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. 17. What is the emptiness of existence? “Existence” means the five grasping skandhas. And that existence is empty of existence,366 on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. 18. What is the emptiness of non-existence? “Non-existence” means the Unconditioned. And that Unconditioned is empty of that Unconditioned,367 on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. 19. What is the emptiness of own-being? Because own-being is the un-perverted-ness of essential nature, that is empty of this, on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. And it is not made by cognition and vision.368 And why? Because this is its essential nature. 365 Indeed it has been said, what is a positive existent beyond, or apart from, the full complement of its causes and conditions? Functional interdependence makes it impossible for anything to have an independent existence. On analysis anything and everything is nothing more than a bundle of conditions, and the formula “this being, that is” binds it up inextricably with many factors outside itself. 366 A “skandha” means a “group, heap, assemblage, conglomeration”. But a conglomeration is not a real entity by itself, and can therefore not act as the basis for an existence which bears the mark of grasping. 367 It is a non-ens, devoid of an essence of its own. Its existence is merely nominal, because it is nothing but the negation of separate entities, which (usually) obstruct and cover it. 368

The

own-being which is understood as emptiness exists from the outset and is not the product of the perfection of wisdom, which is the same as the cognition and vision of the Saints. The knowledge and intuition of the Saints only illuminate the ultimately real principle of non-substantiality, but does not produce it. Considered as a fact it is therefore empty of itself. – Pras. vi 23: “The Buddhas teach that all dharmas, whether inward or outward, have a double nature. The one is that which is conventionally assumed, the other is that which ultimately real. The second,

ews of the common people, whose intellectual vision is covered up with the cataract of ignorance”.

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20. What is the emptiness of other-being?369 This true nature of dharmas, which is established whether Tathagatas are produced or not produced, the established order of dharmas, the fixed sequence of Dharma, Suchness, Not-falseness,

the

Reality Limit;370 the emptiness of this of that, on account of its being neither unmoved nor destroyed. For such is its essential nature. Nor is it made by something else.371 And why? Because this is its essential nature. This is called the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva, th

bei

ng. I 9,13. THE EQUIPMENT WITH MERIT.372 Moreover, Subhuti, the great vehicle of

gre

at being, i.e. the concentration called “Heroic Valour”, etc. to: the concentration called “Like Space, unshackled, free, and untainted”. 1. The concentration called “Heroic V

con

centration the range of all the concentrations is experienced. 2. The Jewel Seal: Through that concentration all concentrations are sealed. 3. The Lion’s Play: As a result of having stood firm in this concentration, one can play with all the concentrations. 4. The Beautiful Moon: As a result of having stood

s a Glorious Ensign: This concentration carried the Ensign of all concentrations (as a token of victory). 6. Exaltation above All Dharmas: As a result of having stood in this concentration one is elevated above all concentrations.

369 para-bhava. That which is produced by o

lation to another. Pras. 260: “Any own-being in relation to another is called ‘other-being’”. Warmth, for instance, as the own-being of fire, is “other-being” with reference to fluidity, w37

0 This formula also occurs in A.N. i 285 and very frequently elsewhere. See MCB v 207. The “true nature” (dharmata) of dharmas is the same as conditioned co-production, which operates quite irrespective of the appearance of non-appearance of the Tathagatas who alone are capable of discovering.; 371 Indeed it ahs been said: Human effort that is directed upon Emptiness will have for its result only useless toil. 372 The translation of this section is purely speculative. I have failed to understand a large number of the technical terms employed here, and just mechanically followed the dictionaries. S.P. and Ad often differ, and I have generally followed P, without, however, marking the occasions where I have adopted the reading of Ad or

185

(P1

99) 7. Surveying the summits:373 one surveys the Summits of all concentrations. 8. Fixed on the Element of Dharma: one moves towards certainty in one’s understanding of the Dharma-element. 9. The Glorious Ensign of Certainty: one carries the Ensign (which indicates) certainty about all concentrations. 10. Like a Thunderbolt:374 one is not broken by any concentration. 11. Seal of Entran

rs into the Seal of (all) dharmas. 12. The Well-established King o

of Rays: one emits the Rays of all co

er: one bring about the array of the power of all concentrations. 15. Arisen: To one who has stood in this concentration all concentrations rise up together. 16. The Definite Entrance into the (Expositi

th

e language of all concentrations. 17. Entrance into all Synonyms: one can enter into the designations and synonyms of all concentrations. 18. Surveying the Directions: one surveys the Directions of all concentrations. 19. Carrying the Seal: one carries the seals of all concentrations. 20. Unimpaired: one does not impair any of the concentrations. 21. The Seal of the Ocean of the Meeting of all Dharmas: as a result of his having stood inthis concentration all his concentrations assemble and meet.

ir

radiates all concentrations with a radiation like that of ether. 23. Sharp: one kindles all concentrations with flaming glory. 24.

luminates without covering. 26. Extermination of the Proceeding of all Dharmas: it exterminates the proceeding of all Dharmas. (P200) 27. Forsaking Impurity: one forsakes all signs, how much more so the signs of the d

efilements. 28. Like the Shining Sun: one illuminates all concentrations, warms them, shines upon them. 29. Desire-less-ness: one does not desire any dharma appertaining to the concentrations.

30. Utterly Homeless: one reviews in no concentration a

373 The explanation of nearly every item is from now on prefaced by the formula “as a result of having stood in this concentration”, which I have omitted in the translation. 374 Adamantine.

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dharma which is at home there. 31. Free from Thought: in that concentration no thought proceeds, and none of its concomitants. 32. Immaculate Lamp: it acts as an immaculate lamp for all concentrations. 33. Infinite Splendour: it brings about an infinite splendour. 34. Light-bringer: it throws light on all concentrations.

centration has been acquired, all concentration-doors are illuminated. 36. Pure Core: one reaches the pure sameness of all concentrations. 37. Immaculate Splendour: one removes the stains from all concentrations and give them a brilliant appearance. 38. Giving Delight: one experiences the delight of all concentrations. 39. Lightning Flash: all concentrations are set ablaze. 40. Inextinguishable: one reviews of all concentration neither the extinction nor the non-extinction. 41. Diamond Circle: one carries the Circles of all concentrations. 42. Extinction Left Behind: one reviews the non-extinction of all concentrations, and views them in such a way that one reviews not even the least dharma. 43. Immovable: one does not waver or vacillate in any of the concentrations, nor does not mind them, or have idle fancies about them. 44. It Cannot be Overturned: one does not review the overturning of any concentration.

inates all concentration-doors. 46. Immaculate Moon: one disperses the darkness in all concentrations. 47. Bright Appearance: one acquires the four analytical knowledges with regard to all concentrations. (P201) 48. Illuminator: one throws light on all concentration-doors. 49. Mode of the Doer: one brings about the work and performance of all concentrations. 50. The Ensign of Cognition: one reviews the Ensign of the cognition of all concentrations. 51. Like a Thunderbolt: one penetrates all dharmas, and yet does not review that concentration. 52. Stability of Thought: one’s thought does not waver, is not diverted or terrified; it never fails, but one remains unaware that “(this is) thought”. 53. Illumination All-round: one reviews in all concentrations the all-round illumination. 54. Well Established: one becomes well established in all concentrations. 55. Jewel Cusp: all concentrations appear bright all round,

Seal of the Best Dharma: it results in that all concentrations

ery beginning. 57. The Sameness of All Dharmas: one does not review any dharma as sundered from sameness. 58. Forsaking D

elight: one forsa

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all dharmas. 59. The Fullness of Ascent to All Dharmas: elevated above all dharmas one is nevertheless saturated with them. 60. Dispersing: one disperses and tears asunder all dharmas through all concentrations. 61. Cleaving the Verbal Expressions of All Dharmas: one cleaves the verbal expressions for all concentrations and dharmas. 62. Identifying the Letter: one understands the fact that all concentrations have the same letter. 63. All Letters Left Behind: one does not even get at one single letter for all concentrations. 64. All Letters Left Behind: one does not even get at one single letter for all concentrations. 64. Cutting off the Objective Support: the objective support of all concentrations is cut off. 65. Without Modification: one does not apprehend the alteration of any dharma. 66. Modeless: one does not apprehend even the specific constitution of any dharma. 67. Non-entrance into Name and Sign: one does not apprehend the name and sign of any concentration. 68. Wandering Without a Home: one does not get a home in any concentration. 69. All Darkness Left Behind: one removes all darkness from all the concentrations. 70. Possessing a Manner of Acting: one reviews the manner of acting of all concentrations. 71. Unshakable: one reviews all concentrations as unshakable. (P202) 72. Surpassing the Sphere: one transcends the sphere of all concentrations. 73. The Accumulation of All Qualities Takes Place: In this concentration one reaches the accumulation of all the qualities of all dharmas and of all concentrations. 74: The Stability of No-Thought: with regard to all concentrations one’s thought does not proceed. 75.

etly Blooming Purity: one acquires the sweetly blooming purity of all concentrations. 76. In Possessions of the Limbs of Enlightenment: one acquires, through all concentrations, the seven limbs of enlightenment. 77. Infinite Inspiration: one acquires in all concentrations a state of infinite inspiration. 78. Equal to the Unequalled: one acquires, through all concentrations, the state where one is equal to the unequalled. 79. Transcending All Dharmas: one transcends everything in the triple world. 80. Accurate Definer: one can delimitate all dharmas and concentrations. 81. Uncertainty: one reaches the dispersal of all uncertainty about all concentrations. 82. All Stability Stopped: one does not review the abiding of any dharma. 83. One Single Harmony: one does not review the duality of any dharma. 84. Consummation of the Modes: one does not review the

188

consummation of the modes of all concentrations and dharmas. 85. One Single Mode: one reviews the single mode

ations. 86. Non-repudiation of the Modes: one reviews (not) the non-duality of all dharmas. 87. The Penetration which Disperses the Base of All Becoming: one reaches the penetrating cognition of all concentrations; when that has been reached, there is no dharma that has not been pierced. 88. Entrance into the Meaning of Voices and Sounds: one enters into the meaning of the voices and sounds of all concentrations as freed from the letters which constitute speech. 90. Flaming Torch: With its Splendour it illuminates all concentrations, warms them, shines upon them. 91. Purification of Marks: the marks of all concentrations are purified. 92. Undistinguished: one reviews all concentrations as undistinguished. 93. Furnished with the Best of all Modes: To one who has stood in this concentration all concentrations are furnished with the best of all modes. 94. Not Rejoicing in All Ease or Ill: in all concentrations one does not review the ease or the ill. (P203) 95. Bringing About N

ll concentrations. 96. Wise Knowledge of Dharanis: it results in that one can bear in mind all the Dharanis. 97. Complete Removal of Rightness and Wrongness: one does not review the rightness and wrongness of all concentrations. 98. Appeasing All Obstruction and Stopping: one does not review the obstruction or stopping of all concentrations. 99. Compliance and Opposition: one does not review the compliance and opposition of all concentrations. 100. Immaculate Glory: one does not get at the glorious circle of all concentrations. 101. Possessing a Core: one does not review the substantiality of all concentrations. 102. The Stainless Full Moon: in this concentration all his concentrations are fully realized, just like the full moon. 103. Great Harmony: all his concentrations are endowed with great harmony. 104. Light Bringer in Every Way: it throws light on all concentrations and on all dharmas. 105. Concentration-sameness: in all conc

apprehends neither distraught-ness nor one-pointed-ness. 106. Assemblage of all Peace and Refuge: to one who has stood in this concentration, no concentration can cause strife. 107. Pleased with Being Independent of a Home: in this concentration one does not approach a settling place for all concentrations. 108. Stability of No-thought in Suchness: in this concentration one does 189

not depart form the Suchness of all concentrations. 109. Crushing the Misery of having a Body: it results in that one does not get a body for all concentrations. 110. Removing the Misery of Speech: it results in that one does not get at the speech-action of all concentrations. 111. Fashioned like the Firmament: it illuminates like the firmament. 112. Like Space, Unshackled, Free and Untainted: here one reaches the state where all dharmas are, like space, unshackled, free and untainted. This is the great veh

courses in the perfection of wisdom.

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CHAPTER 16

ENTRANCE INTO THE DHARANI-DOORS I 9,4. THE EQUIPMEN375

And further, Subhuti, the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva, the great being:

191

inhalation (P205) or a long exhalation, a short inhalation, or a short

exhalation. Just as a p pprentice, would whirl

round a wheel, and, whe irl, he would know, as it

really is “I make a long whirl”; and so also when he makes a short

w

non-appr

(I. Ad) Further, a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom,

contemplates this very body according to its elements as it really is:

earth, water, fire, and air.

Jus

ith a sharp knife, cuts it into four quarters, and then

exa

, a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom,

con

mu

ull of all

sort

. And that through

non

angled. And thus he compares his own body:

“This body al

nights dead and seven nights dead, being devoured by crows,

e wolves, dogs, or various other

otter, or potter’s an making a long whhirl. So also the Bodhisattva. And that throughehension.

there is, in this body, the element of

t as a skilful cows’ butcher, or cows’ butcher’s apprentice, having killed a cow w

mines it, as he stands or sits. Just so the Bodhisattva with regard to the four elements. And through non-apprehension. (I. Ae) Further

templates this very body as it really is, from the sole of the foot upwards, and form the top of the hair downwards, bounded by nails, down, and skin, and filled with manifold impurities. There are in this body: Hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, hide, flesh, tendons, blood, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, serous membranes, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach, urine, excrement, tears, grease, sweat, spittle, snot, pus, bile,

cus, lymph, fluid of the joints, dirt, brain, oozings of the eye, oozings of the ear. Just as a husbandman has a sack f

s of grain – sesamum, mustard seed, kidney beans, beans lentils, barley, wheat, rice, husked rice – and a man with eyes (P206) examining them, would know, “This is rice of such a sort, this is sesamum, these are the mustard seeds, etc.” Just so the Bodhisattva with regard to the parts of the body

-apprehension. (I. B) And how does the Bodhisattva dwell with regard to the outer body? (I) When he goes to the burial ground, a Bodhisattva sees all sorts of dead bodies thrown in the burial ground, flung in the charnel-field – one day dead, two days dead, or three days dead, or four days dead, or five days dead – swollen, dark blue, festering, eaten by worms, or m

so is of such a dharmic nature, of such an own-being, and it has not gone beyond this state of affairs”. (II) And so he reflects when he sees dead bodies cast into the burial ground, six

agles, and vultures, by jackals,

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kinds of animals; or (III) when he sees those dead bodies flung in the burial ground, mauled, repulsive, foul, and stinking; or (IV) when he sees in the charnel field a chain of bones, smeared with flesh and blood, joined together by tendons; (V) or when he sees those dead bodies, a mere chain of bones, with flesh, blood and tendons all gone (P2

in of bones, separated, not joined together, disjoined, like shells scattered anyhow on the ground; or (VII) when he sees in the charnel field bones scattered in all directions, i.e. here foot bones, there shin bones, there thigh bones, there a hip and pelvis, there the bones of the spine, there the ribs, there the neck bones, there the arm bones, there the skull; or (VIII) when he sees in the charnel field bones, several years old, several hundred years old,

d up by the wind and sunshine, white like conch shells; or (IX) when he sees in the charnel field bones, dark-coloured, black-blue, grey like pigeons, rotten, powdered into the likeness of dust upon the ground, he compares his own body, and thinks that “this body also is of such a dharmic nature, of such an own-being, and it has not got beyond this state of affairs”. (II.) A Bodhisattva dwells with regard to feeling, inward, outward, and both inward and outward, in the contemplation of feelings, ardent, clearly conscious, and mindful, after putting away all worldly covetousness and sadness. And that through non-apprehension. (III.) Likewise a Bodhisattva dwells in the contemplation of thought. (IV.) Likewise a Bodhisattva dwells in the contemplation of dharmas. This also is the

being. 2. An

at being, i.e. the Four Right Efforts. They are: Here a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, rouses his will, makes an effort, puts forth vigour, makes his thoughts tense, correctly exerts himself, 1. So as to bring about the (future) non-production of evil and unwholesome dharmas, which have not yet been produced; 2. So as to bring about the forsaking of evil and unwholesome dharmas which have been produced; 3. So as to bring about the production of wholesome dharmas which have not yet been produced; 4. So as to bring about the stability, increase, non-disappearance and completion of the wholesome

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dharmas which have been produced. And that through non-apprehension. This also is the great vehicle. 3. And again, the great vehicle: The Four Bases of Psychic Power. They are: 1. Here a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, develops the basis of psychic power which is endowed with concentration from desire-to-do, together with the formative forces of effort – based upon detachment, dispassion, and cessation, dedicated to self-surrender. And so with 2, 3, 4, where “desire-to-do” is replaced at 2 by “vigour”, at 3 by “thought”, at 4 by “exploration”. And that through non-apprehension. This also is the great vehicle. 4. And again the great vehicle: (P208) The Five Dominants, i.e. Faith, Vigour, Mindfulness, Concentration, and Wisdom. 5. And again the great vehicle: The Five Powers, i.e. Faith, Vigour, Mindfulness, Concentration, and Wisdom. 6. And again the great vehicle: The Seven Limbs of Enlightenment, i.e. Mindfulness, Investigation into Dharma, Vigour, Joyous Zest, Tranquillity, Concentration, and Even-minded-ness. What is mindfulness as a limb o

hisattv, who courses in perfect wisdom, develops the limb of enlightenment that is mindfulness, based upon detachment, dispassion, and cessation, dedicated to self-surrender. And so for the other six. And through non-apprehension. 7. And again

consis

ts of: Right View, Right Intention, Right Speech, Right Right Livelih

Conce

ntration. What is right View? Here a Bodhisattva, who urses in perfect wisd

, based upon detachment, dispassion, and cessation, dedicated elf-surre

hension. 8. And again the great vehicle: i.e. The Three Concentrations, i.e. the emptiness concentration, the sign-less concentration, the wish-less concentration. What is the emptiness concentration? The stability of through which contemplates all dharmas as empty of own-marks; emptiness as a door to deliverance. And so with the sign-less and wish-less concentration. These three doors to deliverance are the three concentrations. In them one should train. And through non-apprehension. 9. And again, the great vehicle, i.e. The Eleven Cognitions. They are: The cognitions of suffering, origination, stopping, path, of 194

extinction, of non-production, of dharma, the subsequent cognition, the cognition conforming to worldly convention, t

tery,he cognition according to fact.376 (P209) 1. The cognition of suffering the cognition of the non-production of suffering. 2. The cognition of origination is the cognition of the forsaking of origination. 3. The cognition of stopping is the cognition that ill has been stopped. 4. The cognition of the Path is the cognition of the Holy Eight-fold Path. 5. The cognition of extinction is the cognition of the extinction of greed, hate, and delusion. 6. The cognition of non-production is the cognition of the non-production of the

cogion of dharma is the cognition which determines the five skandhas as mere artificial constructs.377 8. The subse

s the cognition that the eye, and the other sense fields, as well as the physical elements and links are imper

on conforming to worldly convention is the cognition by the heart of the hearts of other beings and persons. 10. The cognition of mastery is the cognition of the path. 11. The cognition according to fact is the Tathagata’s cognition of the knowledge of all modes. And that through non-apprehension. 10. And again, the great vehicle, i.e. Three Dominants. They are: 1. The faculty “I shall come to understand the not yet understood”. 2. The faculty of “understan

lty of “one who has fully understood”. 1. The faculty “I shall come to understand the not yet understood” is the virtue of faith, vigour, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom of those persons who are learners and who have not yet completely mastered these virtues, do not entirely manifest hem, and need further disciplining. 2. The faculty of “understanding” is the virtue of faith, vigour, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom of persons who are learners and who h

376 The text of no. 9 has undergone some corruption in the various version of the Prajnaparamita, particularly at no. 7 and no. 9-11. At no. 9 samvrti is attested by S, S-Ti, Ad and Da, and there is no need to change it into paracitta. This cognition can well be called “conventional” because it refers to “beings” who have no more than a convention existence (cf. A.K. VII, 4). The explanation given at no. 10 is that of P. S has “cognition of the antidotes”, and S-Ti “cognition of the path and of purification”. So there is substantial, though not verbal, agreement. At no. 11 several sources have yatharuta, apparently an old misreading of yathabhuta. 377

In Adobably krtrima, to which also the sgyu-mar of S-Ti may correspond, as at S i 119. Sanskrit P and S are both corrupt. The apariksatima of S may have been originally something like pratikrti – “Artificial”, or “counterfeit”; see P 39.

195

who has fully understood” is the virtue of faith, vigour, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom of the persons who are adepts – of Arhats, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas and Tathagatas. – And that through non-apprehension. 11. And again, the great vehicle, i.e. Three Concentrations. They are: 1. The concentration with thought applied and discursive; 2. The concentration without thought applied, and with only thought discursive; 3. The concentration without either thought applied or thought discursive: 1. Is identical with the first trance (see no.13,1). (P210) 2. Is the interval between the first and the second trance. 3. Covers the trances form the second to the attainment of the trance of the cessation of perception and feeling. And that through non-apprehension. 12. And again, the great vehicle, i.e. the Ten Recollections. They are: The recollection of the Buddha, the Dharma, the Community, of morality, renunciation, the gods, of agitation, of death, of that which concerns the body, of breathing. And that through non-apprehension. And again, the great vehicle, i.e. 13. the Four Trances, 14. the Four Unlimited, 15. the Four Formless Attainments, 16. the

erances, and 17. the Nine Attainments of Successive Stations. 13.378 The Four Trances. 1. Here a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, dwells, detached form sense desires, detached form evil and unwholesome dharmas, in the attainment of the first Trance, which is with thoughts applied, and discursive, born of detachment, full of rapture and ease. 2. Through the appeasement of thoughts applied and discursive, through inward serenity, through the unification of his heart, he dwells in the attainment of the second Trance, which is without thoughts applied and discursive, born of concentration, full of rapture and ease. 3.

s with the body that ease of which the Holy Ones declare: “He that is even-minded and mindful dwells at ease”; and thus he dwells in the attainment of the third Trance. 4. From the forsaking of ease, from the forsaking of ill, and from the previous going to rest of gladness and sadness, he dwells in the attainment of the fourth Trance, which is neither painful nor pleasurable, (but) is utter purity of e

378 The detailed description of 13-17 is omitted in P and added from S. 196

and mindfulness. And that through non-apprehension. 14. The Four Unlimited: 1. Here a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, dwells with a thought connected with Friendliness, a thought which is va

from hostility, rivalry, hindrance or injury to anyone. He radiates friendliness in the ten directions of the world, which has as its highest development the Dharma-element, and the space element as its terminus. 2. 3. 4. And so similarly with Compassion, Sympathetic Joy, and Impartiality, - and that through non-apprehension. 15. The Four Formless Attainments: 1. By completely overcoming all perceptions of form, by the going to rest of the perceptions of impact, by not attending to the perceptions of

ifoldness, on thinking “Endless Space”, he dwells in the attainment of the station of endless space. 2. By completely overcoming the station of endless space, on thinking “Infinite Consciousness”, he dwells in the attainment of the station of infinite consciousness. 3. By co

nite consciousness, on thinking that “there is not anything”, he dwells in the attainment of the station of nothing whatever. 4. By completely overcoming the station of Nothing Whatever, he dwells in

ception. And that through non-apprehension. 16. The Eight Deliverance: 1. Having form, he sees form. 2. Not perceiving inward form he sees outward forms. 3. He becomes resolved on emptiness. 4 – 7. are identical with the four formless attainments. 8. Through having in every way overcome the station of neither perception nor non-perception, he dwells in the attainment of the trance of the cessation of perception and feeling. And that through non-apprehension. 17. The Nine Attainments of Successive Stations: They are: 1 – 4, the four trances; 5 – 8, the four formless attainments; 9, the trance of the cessation of perception and feeling. 18. And again, the great vehicle, i.e. the Ten Powers of a Tathagata. They are: Here, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom, 1. Wisely knows, as it really is, what can be as what can be, and what cannot be as what cannot be. 2. He wisely knows, as they really are, the karmic results of past, future, and present actions and undertakings of actions, as to place and

lements in the world. 4. He wisely knows, as they real

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the various dispositions of other beings and persons.

ely kns, as they really are, the higher and lower faculties of other beings and persons. 6. He wisely knows, as it really is, the Way that leads everywhere. 7. he wisely knows, as they really are, the defilement and purification of all trances, deliverances, concentrations, and meditational attainments, as well as the emergence from them. 8. He recollects his various previous lives. 9. with his heavenly eye he knows the decease and rebirth of beings as it really is. 10. Through the extinction of the outflows, he dwells in the att

dom,ich is without outflows, and which he has, in this very life, well known and realized by himself. He wisely knows that “Birth is exhausted for me; the higher spiritual life has been lived. I have done what had to be done. After this becoming there will be none further”. And all that without any apprehension whatever. (P211) 19. And again the great vehicle, i.e. The Four Grounds of Self-confidence. They are: 1. That I who claim to be fully enlightened am not fully enlightened in those dharmas – I see nothing to indicate that anyone, be he recluse, Brahmin, god, Mara, or Brahma, or anyone else in the whole world, can with justice make this charge. And, as I see nothing to indicate this, I dwell in the attainment of security, of fearlessness, of self-conf

m myxalted place as leader of the herd, rightly roar the lion’s roar in the assembly, and set rolling the sacred wheel which cannot with justice be set rolling by any recluse, Brahmin, god, Mara, or Brahma, or anyone else in the world. 2. That I, who claim to have dried up the outflows, have not completely dried them up, that charge is impossible. I see nothing to indicate, etc. as at. 1. 3. That those dharmas which I have describe a

ve no power to impede him who pursues them, that charge is impossible. I see nothing to indicate, etc. as at 1. 4. That he who progresses on what I have described as th

leadig to going forth, to the right extinction of ill for him whodoes so, should not go forth to the right extinction of ill, that charge is impossible. I see nothing to indicate, etc. as at 1. And all that without any apprehension whatever. 20. And again, the vehicle, i.e. the Four Analytical Knowledges. They are the analytical knowledge of the Meaning, of the Dharma, of Languages, of Inspired Speech. Also they should be practiced without taking anything as a basis.

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21. And again the great vehicle, i.e. the Eighteen Special Dharmas of a Buddha. From the night when the Tathagata knows full enlightenment, to the day when he becomes extinct in Nirvana, during all this time the Tathagata 1. does not trip up,379 2. is not rash or noisy in his speech, 3. is never robbed of his mindfulness. 4. He has no perception of difference, 5. His thought is never unconcentrated. (P212) 6. His even-mindedness is not due to lack of consideration. 7. His zeal, 8. vigour. 9. mindfulness, 10. concentration, II. wisdom and 12. deliverance never fail. 13. All the deeds of his body, 14. voice and 15. mind are preceded by cognition, and continue to conform to cognition. 16. His cognition and vision regarding the past, 17. future and 18. present period of time proceeds unobstructed and freely. And all that without taking anything as a basis. I 9,1

THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE DHARANIS And again, Subhuti, the Dharani-doors are the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva. the great being. Which are they? The sameness of all letters and syllables, the sameness of all spoken words, the syllable-doors, the syllable-entrances. What then are the syllable-doors, the syllable-entrances? 1. The syllable A is a door to the insight that all dharmas are un-produced from the very beginning (ady-anutpannatvad); 2. RA is a door to the insight that all dharmas are without dirt (rajas) ; 3. PA is a door to the insight that all dharmas have been expounded in the ultimate sense (paramartha); 4. CA is a door to the insight that the decease (cyavana) or rebirth of any dharma cannot be apprehended, because all dharmas do not decease, nor are they reborn; 5. NA is a door to the insight that the Names of all dharmas have vanished; the essential nature behind names cannot be gained or lost. 6. The syllable LA indicates that all dharmas have transcended the world (loka); because the causes and conditions of the creeping plant (lata) of craving have been utterly destroyed; 7. DA is a door to 379 The Syadvadamanjari, a Jain work, explains on p. 13 the word as follows : “‘Trip-up’ — they fall from the path of logical reasoning. The meaning is that they beco

me unable to reply. And here by ‘tripping’ a ridiculousness in the eyes of oritative people is suggested”. “He never makes a false step” is the probable meaning in the Pali texts (CPD). 380 My translation generally follows the Gilgit P, which is our oldest Sanskrit document. It differs in many details from the translation I gave in SS no. 127, at a time when I had no access yet to a microfilm of the Gilgit MS.

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all d a

because of the non-apprehension of

Mine-making (mamakara); 18. GA because of that of motion

(ga tence (sthana).

harms because "tamed" and "taming" (dantadamatha) have been circumscribed; 8. BA indicates that the Bonds have departed from all dharmas; 9. DA that the tumult (damara) of all dharmas has vanished; 10. SHA that no attachment (shanga) in any dharma is apprehended; they are neither attached nor bound. 11. The syllable VA is a door to all dharmas because the sound of the paths of speech (vakpalhaghosha) has been quite cut off; 12. TA because all dharmas do not depart from Suchness (tathata) ; 13. YA because of the non-apprehension of any fact (yalhavad); 14. SHTA because of the non-apprehension of a support (shtambha); 15. KA because of the non-apprehension of an agent. 16. The syllable SA is a door to all dharmas because of the non-apprehension of sameness (samata); they never stray away from sameness; 17. MA

mana)381; 19. STHA because of that of subsis

20. JA because of that of birth (jati); 21. The syllable SVA is a doorway to all dharmas because of the non-apprehension of a principle of life (svasa)382; 22. DHA because of that of the Realm of Dharma (dharmadhatu); 23. SA because of that of calming-down (samatha); 24. KHA because of that of the sameness of383 space (kh

a); 25. KSHA because of that of extinction (kshaya). 26. The syllable STA is a door to all dharmas because each dharma is fixed (stabdha?) in its place, and never leaves it384; 27. JNA because cognition (jnana) cannot be apprehended (P213) 28. RTA because mortality (martya)385 cannot be apprehended; 29. HA because a root-cause (hetu), and 30. BHA because breaking-up (bhanga) cannot be apprehended. 31. The syllable CHA is a door to all dharmas because glamour (chaver apy); 32. SMA because remembrance (smarana); 33. HVA bec

ause true appellations (ahvana); 34. TSA because will-power (utsaha) cannot be apprehended: 35. BHA because things and persons are not apprehended each as one solid mass (ghana).

1 gamana in S. S-Ti and P-Ti. P: gagana. Gilgit P differs from both, but the microfilm is somewhat illegible here. Perhaps grahana, like Mokshala, who says “to seize on dharmas is no way of seeing them”. 382 So P. S, S-Ti. - P Gilgit svada? “taste, flavour”? 383 Gilgit P omits “the sameness o

84 The explanation is from Mokshala, who had astitva or stabdha. Also Yuan-tsang agrees to some extent with it. 385 Mokshala has here artha. 200

36. The syllable THA is a door to all dharmas because of the non-apprehension of fabricated appearances (vithapana); 37. NA because strife (ranu) has departed, no one goes or comes, stands, sits or lies down. or makes any discriminations of this kind: 38. PHA because no fruit (phala) is apprehended: 39. SKA

ndhas are apprehended; 40. YSA because no decay (ysara=jara)is apprehended.386 41. The syllable SCA is a door to all dharmas. because of the non-apprehension of good conduct (scarana)387; 42. TA because of the non-apprehension of the other shore388; 43 DHA because of the non-apprehension of unsteadiness. In their ultim

ion dharmas neither decrease nor are they reborn.389 No letters or syllables are in conventional use except the foregoing. Any why? For no word that is not composed of them is used when aything is conventionally expressed, talked about, pointed out, written about, made manifest or recited. Simply lik

ce should one pursue all dharmas. This, Subhuti, is called the entrance into the door of the Dharanis, the entrance into the exposition of the letters A, etc. Any Bodhisattva who cognizes this skill in the letters A, etc. will not be tied down by any sounds, he will accomplish everything through the sameness of all dharmas, and he will acquire the skill in the cognition of sounds.

Twenty advantages should be expected for a Bodhisattva who, after having heard this Seal of the entrances into the letters A, etc., will learn it, bear it in mind, recite it, study it and methodically demonstrate it to others. Which are the twenty? 1. He will be mindful, clever, intelligent, steadfast, modest, wise, and inspired. 2. He will acquire the Dharani-doors with

ssailed by doubts. 4. he will have no uncertainties. 5. Soft ords do not win him over, harsh words do not upset him, and he will be neither haughty nor dejected. 6. He will act properly in ccordance with circumstances. 7. He will be skilled in sounds;

7 so P and Kumarajiva. S carya, S-Ti spyod-pa. But P Gilgit: “Because the letter CA cannot be apprehended”. 388 talo? After Kumarajiva who says: “the o

oes not exist” - S-Ti has sdug-bsnal, usually duhkha.

9 Here the original text cannot easily

n S, S-Tib, Gilgit P and Mokshala. “Unsteadiness” occurs only in S-Ti as gYo-ba, I have collected 14 Sanskrit equivalents for it, but no

nal station” is paryanta-nistha-s

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8.

of the recollection of former births; 15. in

the

he will

acq

in the skandhas, elements, sense fields, Truths, and conditioned co-production; 9. in the root-cause, in conditions, in the true nature of dharmas; (P214) 10. in the cognition of the higher and lower faculties of others; 11. in the cognition of the thoughts of others; 12. in the cognition of the various kinds of wonderworking powers; 13. in the cognition of the heavenly ear; 14. in the cognition

cognition of decease and rebirth; 16. in the cognition of the extinction of the outflows; 17. in the exposition of what can be and what cannot be; 18. in going out and coming back; 19. in the postures; and 20. he will also become skilled in sense of shame and dread of blame. These twenty advantages

uire.390 Also this entrance into the Dharani-door of the letters A, etc. is the great vehicle of the Bodhisattva, the great being, and that also in consequence of taking nothing at all as a basis.

390 The numbering of the 20 items is my own. The text itself gives no clue as to which items belong together, and which ones are reckoned separate

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CHAPTER 17 THE PREPARTIONS FOR THE STAGES I 9,16. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE STAGES. As Subhuti has said, “How does a Bodhisattva become one who has set out in the great vehicle?” Here, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva, coursing in the six perfections, passes on from stage to stage. How? In the sense that no dharma ever passes on.391 And why? Because no

es near. A Bodhisattva does not mind the stages of dharmas, does not reflect on them. He sets to work on each stage, but does not review392 that stage. Which then are the pr

harma-element is eternally stable. 392 Nag: does not seize on its characteristics.

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3. Firm grounding in the power of patience. 4. The experience

of joy and zest. 5. (a ment of all beings, (b)

The manifestation of the 6. Respect and faith

for the instructors. 7. Reverence for the instructors through the

fact he

perfections

III. Furthermore, on the third stage, one should stand in five

dharmas. They are: 1. An insatiable desire to learn much, but

2. The disinterested

reve

. Contentment. 4. The

B. Another six dharmas should be avoided. They are:

renounce all things. 6. Distraction by beggars.

t views, 6. eternalist views,

) The non-abandon great compassion. that he identifies them with the Teacher. 8. Search for texclusively and entirely.

without settling down in the words.

lation of the gift of Dharma, but without conceit about that. 3. The dedication of the wholesome roots to the purification of the Buddha-field, but without conceit about that. 4. Indefatigability in measureless birth-and-death, but without conceit about that. 5. Establishment in a sense of shame and a dread of blame, but without conceit about that. IV. Furthermore, on the fourth stage, one should stand in ten dharmas, and not abandon them. They are: 1. Dwelling in the forest. 2. Fewness of wishes. 3

no

n-abandonment of the austere penance of the ascetic practices. 5. The non-renunciation of moral training. 6. Loathing of sensuous qualities. 7. Production of a thought connected with disgust. 8. Renunciation of all that is (his). 9. An un-cowed attitude of mind. 10. Disregard for all things. V. Furthermore, on the fifth stage, on should avoid ten dharmas. They are: 1. Intimacy with householders and wandering mendicants. 2. Jealousy about the families of the faithful. 3. The places where on meets society. 4. Exaltation of self. 5. Depreciation of others. 6. The ten ways of unwholesome action. 7. (a) Conceit, and (b) arrogance. 8. Perverted views. 9. Doubt. 10. Toleration of greed, hate, and delusion. (P216) VI. A. Furthermore, on the sixth stage, six dharmas should be fulfilled. They are the six perfections. VI.

1.

Disciple-thought. 2. Pratyekabuddha-thought. 3. Worrying thought. 4. Annoyance about beggars when one sees them. 5. A thought of sadness, in spite of the fact that one must

VII. A. Furthermore, on the seventh stage twenty dharmas do not become. One does not seize on 1. a self, 2. a being, 3. a liv

ingsoul, 4. a person, 5. annihilationis

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7. the notion of a sign, 8. views about causes. One does not settle down in 9. the skandhas, 10. the elements, 11. the sense fields, 12. what belongs to the triple world. 13. One does not attempt to do something about what belongs to the triple world, 14. one does not hang on to what belongs to the triple world. One does not settle down in views which 15. regard the B

the

Dharma as a refuge, 17. regard the Samgha as a refuge, 18. regard morality as a refuge. There are 19. no contentions about “empty are the dharmas”, and 20. no obstructions to emptiness. VII. B. One who stands on the seventh stage should fulfil twenty dharmas. They are: 1. Penetration into emptiness, 2. realisation of the sign-less, 3. cognition of the wish-less; 4. the threefold perfect purity, 5. pity and compassion for all beings, 6. no contempt for them, 7. a vision of the sameness of all dharmas but without settling down in it, 8

but

no conceit through that, 9. patient acceptance of non-production, 10. cognition of non-production, 11. exposition of the one single principle, 12. the uprooting of the imagination of all dharmas, 13. turning away from perception and views, 14. turning away from defilement, 15. pacification through calming-down, coupled with skill in insight, 16. a mind completely tamed, 17. the state of thought in which cognition is nowhere obstructed, 18. no ground for fawning, 19. going to the field one wis

20

. having stood there in the circle of the Buddha-assembly, exhibiting a body. (P217) VIII. A. Furthermore, on the eighth stage four dharmas should be fulfilled. They are: 1. entrance into the thought of all beings, 2. playing with the super-knowledges, 3. the vision of Buddha-fields, and the creation, in accordance with what one has seen, of those Buddha-fields, and 4. honouring the Buddhas, and the contemplation o

VII

I. B. Another four dharmas should be fulfilled on the eighth stage: 1. The cognition of the hig

thers 2. the purification of the Buddha-field, 3. the perpetual attainment of the concentration on (everything) as an illusion, 4. as the wholesome roots of beings reach consummation, so he conjures up a personality, producing a (new) becoming at will. IX. Furthermore, on the ninth stage twelve

be f

ulfilled. They are: 1. The acquisition of infinite resolve: just as he resolves, so he succeeds; 2. the cognition of the speech of gods, Nagas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Garudas, Kinnaras, and

205

Mahoragas. 3. The cognition of the exposition of ready speech. The accomplishment of 4. the descent into the womb, 5. the family, 6. the birth, 7. the clan, 8. the retinue, 9. the manner of birth, 10. leaving home, 11. the miraculous harmony of the tree of enlightenment, 12. the fulfilment of all virtuous qualities. X. When he proceeds on the tenth stage, a Bodhisattva, a great being is verily to be called a Tathagata. I

1. T

he preparation of resolute intention393 consists in that the Bodhisattva procures all wholesome roots, through attentions connected with the knowledge of all modes.394 2. He supplies with beneficial things in the sense that, for the weal of all beings, he undertakes the search for the cognition of the great vehicle. 3. The same attitude of mind to all beings395 consists in his aspiring for the four Unlimited,396 i.e. friendliness, compassion, 393 adhyasaya. At this point the Bodhisattva has already had his first “thought of enlightenment”, and achieved a great deal. Nag: He has cut himself off from the world which he detests, and is automatically drawn towards Buddha-hood. His five spiritual faculties, faith, etc., are sufficiently matured to enable him to distinguish between what is and what is not conducive to emancipation. Because he has previously had a taste of Perfect W

isdom

, he can now proceed with “resolute intention”. Enclosed by his former deeds in the dark prison of the twelve sense fields, all that he sees and knows is false. But once he has heard the Perfection of Wisdom being preached, and has appreciated it to some extent, he thinks deeply about omniscience and resolves by all means (upaya) to escape from his prison, as the Buddhas and Aryas did before him. – Before I 1 was reached, he had made his Vow to become a Buddha. Now he begins to act on it. – cf. Si 284 sq. 394 Nag: (1) As soon as a Bodhisattva produces the thought of en

the vow, “In a future existence I will be a Buddha”. Because it is linked to the vow to become a Buddha, this thought is connected with omniscience. A Bodhisattva of keen faculties, who has accumulated much merit, whose passions are weak and whose past sins are few, obtains “resolute intention” at the very moment of his first thought of enlightenment. (2) The “thought of enlightenment” consists in desiring enlightenment wholeheartedly. The attenuation of worldly thoughts in the course of successive lives constitutes the “attentions, etc.” All the qualities whichodh

a

Bisattva acquires no longer contribute to his present or future happiness, longevity or security; they exclusively have all-knowledge in view. Just as a miser for no particular reason refuses to part with even a penny, and economises and accumulates with the sole aim of augmenting his treasure, so the Bodhisattva, whether he has many merits or few, seeks for nothing else than to economise and accumulate them with a view to omniscience.

206

sympathetic joy and impartiality, and that through attentions associated with the knowledge of all modes. (P218) 4. His renunciation397 means that he gives gifts to all beings without discrimination. 5. In tending the good friends he knows that his goo

ar

e those who instigate him to the knowledge of all modes. Those friends he tends, he resorts to them, honours

7.

He again and again leaves home, i.e. in all his births he leaves home life,399 uncontaminated (by other religious systems) he goes out into the religion of the Tathagata, and nothing comes to hi

im

n between to hinder him. 8. The preparation of longing for the body of a Buddha consists in that, after he has seen a Buddha-frame, he never again

395

y, and makes a vow that he will lead all beings to the happiness of Buddha-hood. 2. When he sees them unhappy, he exercises Compassion, and makes a vow to remove the unhappiness of all beings. 4. When he sees them neither happy nor unhappy, he produces Impartiality, and makes the vow to induce all beings to renounce all affection and aversion. – “Aspires for” can also mean “achieves”. 397 Nag: The giving up of material objects serves to counteract the desire to keep, hoard, and posses them. When practiced long enough, it lead on the seventh stage to the second kind of renunciation, which consists in giving up the “bonds” so as to be able to win enlightenment. 398 H: “he searches for Dharma” as an objective support for his activities. Nag: “Dharma” here means the holy Scriptures. To “search for Dharma” means to copy, recite, and study them, to meditate on them, and to be willing, if nece

crifice one’s life for them. 399 Nag: The Bodhisattva knows that home life causes and occasions many sins. “If I remain in the home life, I shall myself be incapable of observing the pure practices: how then can I lead others to practice them? If I follow the rules which govern life in a household. I will need a whip, stick, etc., and will torment beings. On the other hands, if my mode of life conforms to the Good Law, I must violate the rules of life in a household. A choice between the two ways of life is therefore inevitable. If I do not abandon my home now, I will nevertheless be compelled to do so at the time of my death; if I renounce it today on my own, my merit will be great”. The Bodhisattva also reflects: “Kings and noblemen, as powerful as the gods, seek for happiness, but never find it. Death brutally takes them away. Today I will, for the sake of beings, leave home life, in order to observe the perfectly pure morality (of a monk), to seek the enlightenment of a Buddha, and to fulfil the causes of the perfection of morality”.

207

becomes lacking in attention to the Buddha,400 until he becomes one who has reached the knowledge of all modes.

9.

The preparation of the unveiling of Dharma consists in that the Bodhisattva, whethe

wh

ether he has gone into Parinirvana, demonstrates to beings the Dharma – helpful401 in the beginning, helpful in the middle, helpful at the end, good in sense, well-phrased, perfect, and complete

an

d in that he reveals the holy life, perfectly pure and highly cleansed – i.e. the Discourses, Discourses in Prose and Verse Mingled, Predictions, Verses, Summaries, Origins

Bi

rth Stories, Expanded Texts, Marvels, Tales and Expositions. 10. His preparation of truthful speech consists in that as he speaks so he acts.402

II

non-attention also to other dharmas which make for bad behaviour, o

r cause delays on the road to enlightenment. 2. A Bodhisattva’s gratitude and thankfulness consists in that, (P219) coursing in the Bodhisattva-course, he does not, throughout the round of birth-and-death, forget a small kindly action (done to him), much less a big one.404

400 The “longing” results from “resolute intention”, and leads to a meeting with the Buddha in each life (Nag). 401 “helpful”, also “lovely, beau40

2 Nag: If he lived as a householder, a Bodhisattva would often have to lie. In the Buddha’s Dharma, Truth is held in great honour, and it is through Truth that Nirvana is gained. At this early stage Truth is honoured by “truthful speech”, which can be believed and accepted by o

orality, and spiritual knowledge. 403 The Disciples, etc., are condemned for the traces of self-seeking in them. 404 Nag: Some believe that they owe their present enjoyments and advantages to their former merits and say to their benefactors: “I have my own merit; what benefitg have you bestowed on me?” To counteract this false view, the Buddha here enjoins them to feel “gratitude”. Although beings have in their former lives acquired a right to happiness (sukha-hetu), they could not enjoy this happiness if present circumstances, among them the generosity of the benefactors, did not contribute something also. The seed of the corn is in the earth; but without rain it could not germinate. One cannot say that the rain renders it no service on the pretext that it is the seed which produces the corn. Although the benefits which we reap now have been planted by us in the course of our former lives, yet the respectful and affectionate disposition

208

3. He is firmly grounded in the power of patience because his mental attitude to all beings is free from ill will and

4.

The experience of joy and zest405 consists in the maturing of all beings. 5. This is the manifestation of the great compassion that a Bodhisattva, who course on the pilgrimage of a Bodhisattva, thinks that “for the sake of the weal of every single being will I roast in the hells for aeons countless as the sands of the Ganges, until that being has been established in the Buddha-cognition”.406 This fortitude, this indefatigability, for the sake of even one single being, that is the manifestation of the great compassion.

6.

A Bodhisattva’s respect through faith407 consists in that, through being always

urc

do

or to wholesome actions. A grateful person is loved and esteemed by men, and his reputation spreads far and wide; after his death he is reborn in the heavens, and finally he reaches enlightenment. The ungrateful are, however, reborn as animals. Moreover the Bodhisattva reflects: “If I want to save even those who have done me harm, why not those who have helped me?” 405 Nag: II 4 follows directly on II 1-3. The Bodhisattva sees that m

or

ality has won him purity of body and speech, that gratitude and patience have won him purity of thought. So he “feels joy”, like a man who has bathed in perfumed water, put on new clothes and now regards himself in a mirror. Just so the bodhisattva congratulates himself on having won such excellent qualities. “Morality”, he says to himself, “is the root of trance and wisd

atience, the Bodhisattva converts beings and causes them to be reborn in the presence of a Buddha of anot

here they enjoy happiness. Or he causes the

hat is hwy he is said to “feel joy”. 406 “manifestation” = “presence”. Nag. Raises an objection: “Since one cannot take upon oneself the punishment due to someone else, why does the Bodhisattva make such a vow?” The Bodhisattva, in his great resoluteness, loves all beings deeply, and if he could possibly do

oreover he notices that among men in some sacrifices to the gods substitutes of

ne person by another are permitted. He then says to himself, “in the hells also there will be substitutions of this kind, and I will take the place of other men”. Beings honour and respect the Bodhisattva for his resolution since his profound solicitude for beings surpasses even that of a loving mother. 407 This refers to faith in the teachers without whom no one could possibly gain enlightenment. Nag: To have a proper attitude to the teacher one must discard all conceit and arrogance, and become respectful and docile. The rain of the Dharma is like the rain which falls from the sky; it does not stay on the summits of the mountains, but is bound to flow down to the more low lying country. So, if a man exalts himself, the Dharma and spiritual virtues will remain outside him. 408 nihata-mana, “with his pride slain”.

209

7.

His reverence for, and faith in, the instructor comes from the fact that in his instructors he sees the Teacher.409

8.

The search for the perfections exclusively and entirely is the state of se

el

se.410 III 1. The insatiable desire to learn much411 is the insatiableness which thinks that, whatever has been taught by the Buddhas, the Lords, either here in this world system

,

or in the world all round in the ten directions, all that I will retain in mind.412 2. The disinterested revelation of the gift of Dh

expect for himself even enlightenment as a reward for that gift of Dharma.413 3. The dedication of the wholesome roots to the purification of the Buddha-field is the dedication of the wholesome roots by which, purifying the Buddha-field, he purifies the thought o

f himself and of others. 4. His indefatigability in measureless birth-and-death consists in that, supported by his wholesome roots, he matures beings and purifies the Buddha-field, but never feels any fatigue, until he has fulfilled all dharmas and the knowledge of all modes. 5. The establishment in a sense of shame and a dread of blame means (P220) the shunning of the thought of all Disciples 409 Nag: It is not difficult for the B

e Buddha, because, in possession of wisdom, the guru can do a Buddha’s work. 410 P-Ku and S speak of an “energetic search”. Nag: Single-mindedly the Bodhisattva cultivates the six perfections, which are the cause of a Buddha’s enlightenment. So he cannot fail to succeed. 411 Nag: That is an indispensable condition of wisdom, and with its help one can practice the path with discernment, like a man with eyes who travels along without knocking into obstacles all the time. 412 so S. – Nag : Just as the great ocean can retain all the water of the ten regions, so the Bodhisattva can receive and retain all the Dharmas p

uddhas of the ten regions, and that through the force of the Dharani of memory, of the perfectly pure heavenly ear and of the Dharani which suppresses forgetfulness. 413 Nag: A Bodhisattva who practices the gift of Dharma expects no profit or fame in this, or any reward in a future life. In the interest of beings he does not even desire for himself the Nirvana of the Little Vehicle. It is only out of his great compassion for living beings that, following the Buddha, he turns the wheel

harma.

210

an

d Pratyekabuddha.414

IV

1.

n for enlightenment.416 3. He has contentment, in that he does not put his mind even to the knowledge of all modes.417 4. He does not abandon the austere penance of the as

ctices, that is his patient acquiescence in the deep dharmas which his meditation discloses to him.418 5. His non-renunciation of moral training consists in the non-observa

6. The loathing for sensuous qualities is the non-production of a sensuous thought. 7. The production of a thought connected with disgust consists in that he does no

414 Nag: II 5 envisages only one of the many kinds of the sense of shame, etc., i.e. the one directed towards the ideas of the Disciples, etc. Having resolved to save all beings, a Bodhisattva would be ashamed to live for the purpose of avoiding personal

as isciples do, or to go alone to Nirvana. A man who had prepared a

5 The connection between the first and the second part of this sentence is rather obscure. To “dwell in the forest” is one of the austerities mentioned in IV 4. Nag:

consists in removing oneself from the multitude and living in solitude. When the Bodhisattva rejects the ideas of the Disciples, etc., he removes himself from the multitude. 41

6 Nag: For he realizes that all dharmas are non-existent and empty. 417 Obermiller: absence of conceit even when he has secured the most sublime objects. 41

8 Nag: The twelve ascetic practices produce the purity of morality. That in its turn produces dhyana, and that again wisdom. The patient acceptance, in meditation, of dharmas which fail to be produced, is the reward of the ascetic practices, and the two are related like cause and effect. 419 apracara

ightly different text, says: One sees neither morality nor immorality, and yet one does not violate morality. Far more important to a Bodhisattva than morality is his entry into Emptiness as a door to deliverance. 420 anabhisamskara, also “loses interest in”. Nag: As a reward for his disgust for the world he can

211

8. His renunciation of all that is his consists in the absence of seizing on inward and

e fo

1a. He avoids intima

Buddha-field to Buddha-field, is reborn apparitionally, and appears with the shaven head, yellow rob

k.41b. He avoids intimacy with423 nuns, i.e. he does not stay with a nun even for the time of a finger s

troubled on that account. 2. A Bodhisattva avoids jealous

hful when he thinks to himself, “I should bestow that makes them happy. But if those

ply by their own merits, then I should not grudge them that.”

421 vijnana-sthiti. This seems to refer to the objects and sense organs on which the six kinds of consciousness are based. 422 Nag: By avoiding the company of householders a Bodhisattva can accumulate pure qualities. In his solitude he plunges himself into the recollection of the Buddha, transforms his body, betakes himself to the Buddha-fields, leav

aves his head, and puts on the yellow robe. Why? Because he is satisfied with being a wanderer, and detests the company of householders. – Most texts are corrupt here, Yuan-tsang’s being probably the best. Instead of “is reborn apparitionally” he has “wherever he is reborn, he always leaves home”. 423 P here adds “mo42

4 Nag: Why, if all beings are considered alike, should he not be with

ecause a Bodhisattva who has not yet gained the irreversible stage, who has not yet destro

ved and desired women. He also must avoid the calumnies of other men, for anyone who would calumniate him would go to hell. 425 This is not very clear. Nor is Nag: The Bodhisattva reflects: “I myself have left home, without greed or regret; why should I feel gree

f others (parakula)? It is a rule among Bodhisattvas that they want to lead beings to happiness; these persons help me to give happiness to beings, why be jealous of them? The beings who thanks to the merits of their former lives enjoy some power in their present existence, will pay me their hom

212

thoughts connected with them.

4. He avoids self-exaltation by the non-reviewing of inward dharmas, and, 5. the depreciation of other

utward dharmas.426 6. He should avoid the ten ways of unwholesome action

ause they cause obstacles to a happy destiny, how much more so to the ho

sup

7b. He avoids arrogance because he does not review that entity with regard to which arrogance could arise. 8. He avoids perverted views through his non-apprehension of all entities.

9. He avoids doubt because he reviews all dharmas free from the doubts engendered by the view of individuality.427 10. He avoids the toleration of greed, hate, and delusion bec

ause he reviews no objective cause for greed, hate, and delusion. VI. A

satva should fulfil the six perfections. (Because having stood in these six perfections, the Buddhas and Lords, and

and Pratyekabuddha, have gone, do go and will go to the other shore of the flood of the

the future, the present, the inexpressible, the unconditioned.)428 VI. B 1. A Bodhisattva should Disciple-thought and 2.

atyekabuddha-thought, because it is not

enlightenment.429 426 Nag: Inward dharmas are the appropriated, outward dharmas the un-appropriated skandhas.

7 No. 9 is missing in S and P-Ku (but see not 41). H explains as the avoidance of false opinions, such as the view of individuality. P: sandeha-apagatan, sandeha may mean “doubt”, or “accumulation, the human body”. 428 The passage in brackets is found in S and P-Ti only. 429 Nag: At this stage, the Bodhisattva contemplates the emptiness of all dharmas. But since he does not yet possess the pow

213

3. He should not raise a worrying thought,430 because that is not the path to enlightenment. 4. He should not produce a thought of annoyance when he sees beggars, because that is no

5. He does not become sad even when he has renounced all that he had, because that is not the path to enlightenment. 6. He should no

th to enlightenment.431 VII. A

A Bodhisattva does not seize on: 1. a sel

f, or 2. a being, or 3. a soul, or

4. a person, because, absolutely, they do not exist. 5. He does not seize

on annihilationist views, for no dharma (P222) is ever annihilated, since all dharmas are absolutely un-produced.

6. He does not seize on eternalist views, because a dharma that has not been produced cannot become eternal. 7.

alse vie

9. He does not settle down in skandhas, 10. elements, or 11. sense-fields, because through their own-being these dharmas do not exist. 12. He does not settle down in that which belongs to th

ongs o the triple world, because such an entity cannot

eir manner of thinking. 430 or “a thought of regret”.

odhisattva loves beings deeply, has a thought of great compassion, and knows the absolute emptiness of all dharmas. When he gives he spares nothing. H: a thought afraid of the idea that there is no own-being on which it co

1 so P, and H 214

apprehended. 14. He does

erything in it is without own-being. 15. He should not take refu

16. Dharma, and 17. Samgha, because it is not from taking refuge in the

uddha, Dharma, and Samgha, that there is a vision of Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha.

18. He should not take refuge in the view of morality,432 because perfect purity of moralit

no co

ugh emptiness.433 ctio

20.No obstru

har are empty,

VII. B

1. Emptiness should be fulfilled through the fulfilment of the emptiness of o

2. The sign-less should be realized through non-attention to all signs.

3. The wish-less is cognized when his thought is no longer firmly grounded in anyth

3) 4. The threefold perfect

s of wholesome action.

5. e fulfilment

ieved by acquiring the great compassion.434 6. He should des

ome perfect.

e adds nothing to all dharmas, and subtracts nothing from them. 432 Ob. 169: This refer

lvation. 433 cf. Madhyamakavatara 118, in the discussion of the paratantra of the Yogacarins: “in their system it is through emptiness that all dharmas are empty, and not through their own-being”. – cf. Pras. 370. 434 Th

exts, no.168.

215

8. His penetration to the really true principle is the non-penetration of all dharm

9. His patient acceptance of non-production is the patient acceptance of the fact that all dharmas are not produced, stopped, or put together.

10. His cognition of non-production is the cognition of the non-production of name and form.

11. The exposition of the one single princip

ence all notions of

12. uprooting of the imagination435 of all dharmas is the non-discrimination of all dharmas. 13. His turning away f

y from the perceptions and views of the level of all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. 14. His turning away from

defilements, and of the residues relating to them.436 15. The stage where quietude and insight are in equilibrium is the cognition of the kno

16. His mind is completely tamed, for he feels no delight for the triple world.

ev

en-mindedness concerning everything that belongs to the six sense fields.

435 an

ka

lpa, their fashioning by thought-constructions. 436 Nag: The Bodhisattva, by the power of his merits and of his morality, has already subdued the gross passions, and practices the path in full security. He is left with o

th

em. In addition, the Bodhisattva, making use of true wisdom, sees in all passions their true character (bhutanaya). He is like a man, endowed with the super-knowledges, who can transform

r

epulsiveness into loveliness. 437 Nag: In the first three stage insights predominated over quietude, because the Bodhisattva was still incapable of intense concentratio

quilibrium is reached between quietude and the insight which he turns on the emptiness

odhisattva. From the seventh stage onwards, the stage from which no reversal is possible, he obtains the knowledge of all modes successively and by degrees. 438 anumaya. With its opposite, pratigha, “ave

ust be overcome. It means that one is “led along” by somebody, “won over” by him.

216

19

. His going to the field he wishes to go to consists in that, without his stirrin

Bu

ddha-fields, and yet has no notion of a Buddha-field. 20. The exhibiting of a body everywhere refers to the

ex

hibition of a body in the circle of the assembly.439

VI

II. A 1. His entr

anc

e into the thoughts and conduct of all beings consists in that, with one single thought he cognizes the thoughts and conduct of all beings.440

2.

He plays with the super-knowledges in the sense that, playing with them (at will), he

can

pass from Buddha-field to Buddha-field for a vision of the Buddha, but he does not become one who has a notion of the Buddh

a.

3. The creation of Buddha-fields in accordance with what he has seen441 consists in that, after he has occupied in the great trichiliocosm the p

osi

tion of its Ruler, or that of a Universal Monarch,442 he renounces all world systems and yet does not fancy himself for that. (P224)

4a.

He honours the Buddhas, i.e. honours the Dharma in order to help all beings.

4b.

His contemplation of the Buddha-body as it really is, is the contemplation

of

the Dharma-body as it really is.

wn body in different ways according to the body-modifica

spositions and intentions. In an assembly of Brahmins he looks like a Brahmin, etc. So Dasabhumika, of the 8th bhumi (M). 440 Nag: The Bodhisattva is like a good physician who has learned how to examine his patients, and knows whether they can be cured or not, and whether their cure is far off or near. He can penetrate the thought-currents of all beings, knows which ones are devoid of the conditions of salvation and which o

r it, and also knows when and by which means of method they will be saved. 441 i.e. in those other Buddha-fields. 442 Nag: The eighth stage is called “the stage of the Universal Monarch”. Just as the precious wheel of a Universal Monarch goes everywhere without meeting with any obstacle, hindrance or foe, just so the Bodhisattva who dwells in this stage causes the jewel of the Law to rain down, satisfies the wishes of beings, and no one can hinder him. He can also seize on the characteristics of the Pure Lands he has seen, and, taking them as his model, perfect his own field.

217

1.

His cognition of the higher and lower faculties of others, consists in that, as a result of having stood in the ten power,443 he has a wise co

bei

ngs are perfected. 2. He purifies the Buddha-field by purifying the thought of all beings.

3a.

His concentration on everything as an illusion has the result that he does all deeds, and yet no actual performance t

inment o

go

od deeds of his past. 4. He gains a personality at will, i.e. as the wholesome roots of beings come to completion, so a Bodhisattva takes hold of a pen445

rs

oality at will. IX. A

1.

The Bodhisattva’s infinite resolve consists in that, as a result of having fulfilled the six perfections, whatever he resolves upon that he accomplishes. 2. His cognition of the speech of all beings consists in that, through the analytical kno

speech of the gods, etc.

nalytical knowledge of ready speech, he penetrates to the 44

3 This cognition is mentioned at P 210 as the fifth of the powers of a Tathagata. Through it the Tathagata, and also to a lesser degree the Bodhisattva, knows to what extent a person’s spiritual faculties, or organs, are developed, whether they are dull or keen, and which one of them predominates. This knowledge help him to save beings.

4 Nag: He fills the universe with his magical creations, and there is no beneficial activity which he does not accomplish. “But the thought of the Bodhisattva remains immobile, and he does not seize the marks of his thought.” - He never leaves his concentrated trance, indulges in no mental activity whatsoever, and performs all his world-saving actions spontaneously and without any effort, as a kind of magi

ay. – H, however: “a firm stand in the

very separate entity”. S: but his mind does not proceed with regard to any dharma. 445 samcintya. (1) He has sovereignty in the choice of his rebirth. (2) He is reborn with the set purpose of doing some good in the world, whereas most of us are forced into a definite rebirth by the effect of our former deeds. (3) He adopts a form of existence which is most suitable to serve the needs

218

cognition which e

ctively. 4. He accomplishes the descent into the womb

amily by44

fa

milies, or in good Brahmin families. 7. He accomplishes the clan by being reborn in that clan from which the former Bodhisattvas have come. 8. He accomplishes the retinue by being endowed with a retin

ue

of Bodhisattvas,447 after he has established beings in enlightenment.

9. He accomplishes the manner of birth: even when just born, a Bodhisattva irradiates all world systems with his splendour, and shakes them all in six ways. (P225)

10. He accomplishes the leaving of his home by leaving home together with many hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of beings.

11. A Bodhisattva’s accomplishment of the miraculous harmony of the Bodhi-tree consists in that the root of his Bodhi-tree is made of gold, the trunk of Vaidurya, the branches of all kinds of jewels, the leaves of all kinds of pr

mplish

X. How should a Bodhisattva, a great being, who has stood on the tenth stage, be called a Tathagata?

When in a Bodhisattva the ten perfections, etc. to: the eighteen special Buddha-dharmas are fulfilled, and when there is the cognition of the knowledge of all modes, and a forsaking of all defilements and of the residues relating to them, and when the 446 or “caste”. 447 Nag: All those who sur

e to another, have accumulated virtuous qualities. Here the Buddha says that he is surrounded only by Bodhisattvas. But through the wonder-working power of his concentration on skilful means also other men and women are created who appear to surround him. 219

gr

eat compassion and all Buddha-dharmas have been fulfilled? It is then that a Bodhisattva, a great being, after the tenth Bodhisattva-stage, is verily to

Wh

ich are the ten stages of a Bodhisattva, a great being? A Bodhisattva, coursing through skill in means in all the perfections, having been trained in the

co

ursing in the Unlimited, the trances, and the formless attainments, coursing in the ten powers of a Tathagata, the analytical knowledges, the eighteen special Buddha-dharmas, having pass

th

e stage of becoming one of the clan, the eighth-lowest stage, the stage of vision, the stage of r

fr

om passion, the stage of him who has done, the stage o

Pr

atyekabuddha, the stage of a Bodhisattva, is established on the Buddha-stage. This is the tenth stag

be

ing. It is thus, Subhuti, that the Bodhisa

be

comes one who has set out in the great vehicle.

220

GOING FORTH ON THE STAGES OF THE GREAT VEHICLE I 9,

17. THE EQUIPMENT WITH THE ANTIDOTES. I 9,16. ANTIDOTE TO THE FIRST DISCRIMINATION OF THE OBJECT ON THE PATH OF VISION. (2. Three questions concerning the “great vehicle”.) As again, Subhuti, you say, “from where will that vehicle go forth?”* It will go forth from what belongs to the triple world. Where the knowledge of all modes is, there it will come to a stand.* And that again in consequence of non-duality. And why? Because those two dharmas, i.e. the great vehicle and the knowledge of all modes, are neither conjoined nor disjoined, immate

rk. And why? Because unmarked dharmas do not go forth, (P226) will not go forth, have not gone forth. T

221

dream, etc., is empty of the own-being of a dream, etc.

I 9,17b. ANTIDOTE TO THE SECOND DISCR TION OF THE OBJECT ON

THE P .

of

mindfulness, etc. to: Buddha-dharmas,

I 9,17c. ANTIDOTE T F THE SUBJECT ON THE

PATH OF VISION.

of the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc. to: (P228) the knowledge of all

erfections, etc. to: the

OTE TO THE SECOND DISCRIMINATION OF THE SUBJECT ON

a sign, an agreed

symbol

IMINAATH OF VISIONThe own-being of the perfections, emptiness, applications O THE FIRST DISCRIMINATION O

modes, is empty of the own-being of the pknowledge of all modes.

I 9,17d. ANTID

THE PATH OF VISION. He would wish for the going forth of a word,

, a conventional expression, a (mere) concept, who could wish for the going forth of unmarked dharmas. And why? Because that which is the own-being of a word, sign, agreed symbol, conventional expression or concept, that will not go forth from what belongs to the triple world, nor will it come to a stand in the knowledge of all modes. And why? Because the own-being of a word, sign, agreed symbol, conventional expression or concept is empty of the own-being of a word, sign, agreed symbol, conventional expression or concept. And the same holds good of Non-production, Non-stopping and the In-effective. It is thus that the great vehicle will not go forth from what belongs to the triple world, and will not come to a stand in the knowledge of all modes. That vehicle has not started off448 (even). I 9,17e. ANTIDOTE TO THE FIRST DISCRIMINATION OF THE OBJECT ON THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. As again Subhuti has said, “where will that vehicle stand?” This vehicle will not stand anywhere. (P229) And why? Because all dharmas nave no stand. But that vehicle will stand by way of not taking its stand anywhere. Just as the Dharma-element neither stands nor does not stand, just so the great vehicle. Just as non-production, non-stopping, 448 acalitam. 222

non-defilement, non-purification, and the Un-effected d

Dharma-element is empty of the Dharma-element. And why? Because the own-b

s not stand. And why? Because the own-being of the Dharma-element is empty of the own-be

vehicle does not stand anywhere, but it will stand by way of not taking a stand,

moved about.449 I 9,17f. ANTIDOTE TO THE SE

As Subhuti has said, “who will go forth by means of this vehicle?”* No one will go forth by means of that vehicle. Bec

ause that vehicle, and that by which he would go forth, and he who would go forth, and that from which he would go forth – all these dharmas do not exist. Since all these dharmas do not exist, which dharma could go forth by means of which dharma?* And why? Because a self, a being, etc. to: one who sees, is not got at, on account of the fact that a self, etc., are absolutely pure. And similarly with the Dharma-element, the Un-produced, etc., the Un-effected, etc., the skandhas, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes; the joyous stage, the immaculate stage, the light-giving stage, the brilliant stage, the stage which is very difficult to conquer, the stage which is face to face, the far-reaching stage, (P230) the immovable stage, the stage of unerringly effective intentions, the stage of the cloud of Dharma;450 the beginning, the end, and the present; coming, going, and stability; decease and rebirth, decrease and increase – on account of their absolute purit

Because of the non-apprehension of what is everything not got at? Because of the non-apprehension of the Dharma-element. And

why? Because of the non-apprehension of the Dharma-element is the Dharma-element not got at. And so with Non-production, etc. to: the Un-effected, etc. to: Suchness, etc. to: the perfections, etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas. 449 acalyayogena.

223

I 9,17g ANTIDOTE TO THE FIRST DISCRIMINATION OF THE SUBJECT ON THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. The Stream-winner is not got at because of the non-apprehension of a Stream-winner. And why? A Steam-winner cannot be got at on account of this absolute purity. And so with the Once-returner, etc. to: the Tathagata, I 9,17h ANTIDOTE TO THE SECOND DISCRIMINATION OF THE SUBJECT ON THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. with: the fruit of

and likewise the ten stages, from the stage of bright insight, the stage of becoming on

stage of one who has done, the stage of a Pratyekabuddha, the stage of a Bodhisattva, the stage of a Buddha. It is because of the 18 kinds of emptiness that the stages are not got at, (P231) nor the maturing of beings, nor the purifying of the Buddha-field, nor the five Eyes, etc. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, a great being, in consequence of taking in all dharmas nothing at all as a basis, will go forth by means of the great vehicle to the knowledge of all modes.

224

CHAPTER 19 SURPASSING

I 10. The Progress wh

(3. Why the “Great Vehicle” is so called.) *Subhuti : The great vehicle is called a “great vehicle”. Surpassing the world with its gods, men, and Asuras, that vehicle will go forth. That is why it is called a “great vehicle”. It is like space. As in space, so in this vehicle there is room for countless beings. In this way is this the “great vehicle” of the Bodhisattvas, the great being

pace, so one cannot get at the coming, going or abiding of this great vehicle. Just as one cannot get at the beginning of space, or its end, or its middle, on account of the sameness of the thr

225

not non-existence, then that great vehicle would not go forth, after

having surpassed world en, and Asuras. But

because the world of s orld of form and the

formless world have been constructed by thought, fabricated from

fictions and feigned, b reality really is, but

entirely impermanent, un reversal, and

non-existence, therefore this great vehicle will go forth, after

having surpassed the world with its gods, men, and Asuras. And

formula

should be applied to the skandhas, the 20 kinds of emptiness, the

Limit, the unthinkable

element, etc. to: (P233) the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the

Budd

hisattva would not, having known all

defil

gata possesses were existents and not

non-existent, then the Tathagata would not outshine the world with

endour and majesty; but he

outshines it because the thirty-two marks are non-existent and not

ith which he

irrad

cannot, with justice, be turned by any recluse, Brahmin, god, Mara,

with its gods, mense desire, the wecause they are not asstable, not eternal, liable to

this holds good not only of the triple world, but the same

Dharma-element, Suchness, the Reality

ha-dharmas, I 10,1b. GOING FORTH WHICH CONSISTS IN FORSAKING. the stages, the fruits of a holy life, from Stream-winner to Buddha, the world with its gods, men, and Asuras, I 10,1c. GOING FORTH WHICH LEADS TO ACHIEVEMENT. and the thoughts which a Bodhisattva produces form the first thought of enlightenment up to his arrival at the terrace of enlightenment. If the adamantine cognition were an existent and not non-existent, then the Bod

ements and their residues as non-existent, reach the cognition of the all-knowing which is furnished with the best of all modes; but he reaches it because the adamantine (P234) cognition is non-existent and not an existent. If the thirty-two marks of a superman which the Tatha

its gods, men, and Asuras with his spl

existents. And the same applies to the light w

iates countless world systems. If the Tathagata’s voice, which has sixty special qualities, were an existent and not non-existent, then the Tathagata would not make his voice resound through countless world-systems in the ten directions; but he makes it resound because it is non-existent and not an existent. If the Tathagata’s wheel of Dharma, with its three revolutions and its twelve spokes, were an existent and not non-existent, then the Tathagata would not have turned this wheel of Dharma which 226

Brahma, or anyone else in the world; but he has turned it because it is non-existent and not an existent. If the beings for whose sake the Tathagata has turned the wheel of Dharma were existents and not non-existent, then surely he would not have led those beings to Nirvana in the realm of Nirvana which leaves has turned the wheel of Dharma are non-existent and not existents, therefore beings have been led to Nirvana, are being led to Nirvana, and will be led to Nirvana. I 10,2. SAMENESS. Sariputra: As Subhuti , you have said, “the same as space is this vehicle”, so it is: the same as space is the great vehicle. For these are the feat

short, round or square, even or uneven; not blue, yellow

crimson, or crystalline; not past, future, or present. No decrease, increase, or loss can be conceived of th

alteration of stability. They are not wholesome, un

indeterminate. They are not seen, heard, known, or discerned. They are not cognisable or uncognizable, not discernable or comprehensible, not to be realised, forsaken or developed, not karma results or liable to lead to karma results. They are not included in the world of sense desire, the world of form, or the formless world. They are not with or without greed, with or withour hare, with or without delusion. In them there is no first thought of enlightenment, no second, etc. to: no tenth; none of the stages and none of the fruits. They are not material or immaterial, (P236) definable or undefinable, resisting or non-resisting, conjoined or disjoined; not permanent or impermanent, at ease or ill, self or not-self, lovely or repulsive, empty or not empty, with sign or sign-less, with wish or wish-less, calm or un-calm, isolated or un-isolated. And in both of them there is no light or darkness, both cannot be seized or apprehended, and in both of them there is no utterance or non-utterance. In these ways is the great vehicle the same as space. I 10,3. (THE ACTIVITY FOR) THE WEAL OF BEINGS. As again Subhuti you have said, “as in space, so in this vehicle there is room for immeasurable, incalculable, and innumerable beings”, so it is. And why? Because from the non-beingness of 227

beings should the non-beingness of space be known, and form the non-beingness of space should the non-beingness of the great vehicle be known. In this way there is in this great vehicle room for immeasurable, incalculable, and innumerable beings. And why?Because what the beings are, and what space is, and what the great vehicle is – all that is not got at. Moreover, from the non-beingness of beings should the non-beingness of space be known; fro

non-veingness of the

easurable, the incalculable, the innumerable be known. And why? Because, what the beings are, and what space is, and what the great vehicle is, and what is the immeasurable, the incalculable (P237), the innumerable – all that is not got at. Moreover, from the non-veingness of beings should the non-beingness of space be known; from the non-beingness of space should the non-beingness of the great vehicle be known; from the non-beingness of the great vehicle should the non-beingness of the Un-conditioned be known; from the non-beingness of the Unconditioned should the non-beingness of the immeasurable, the incalculable, the innumerable be known; from the non-beingness of the immeasurable, the incalculable, the innumerable should the non-beingness of all dharmas be known. And why? Because what the beings are, and what the Tathagata is, and what space is, what the great vehicle is, and what the Unconditioned is, what is the the immeasurable, the incalculable, the innumerable, and what all dharmas are – all these are not got at. Moreover, from the non-beingness of self and beings should be known the non-beingness of being, soul, person, personality, individual, man, youth, doer, feeler, begetter, and of one who sees; from their non-beingness should be known the non-beingness of the Reality limit and of the un-think-able element; from their non-beingness should the non-beingness of the immeasurable, the incalculable, the innumerable be known; from their non-beingness should the non-beingness of all dharmas be known; from their non-beingness should the non-bein

done with the skandhas, etc., the six perfectioemp

tiness, the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas, the stages, (P239) fruits, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. Just as in the Nirvana-element there is room for

228

countless beings, so also in this great vehicle. It is in this sense that in this great vehicle, as in space, there is room for immeasurable, incalculable, and innumerable beings. I 10,4. THE ABSENCE OF EXERTION. Again, as Subhuti has said, “of this great vehicle no arrival, departure, or abiding can be seen”, so it is. And why? Because dharmas do not move about. They do not go anywhere, do not come from anywhere, do not abide anywhere. Because the essential original nature of form, etc., does not come from anywhere, nor go to anywhere, nor abide anywhere. And that is true of all dharmas. (P240) I 10,5. BEYOND THE EXTREMES. Again, as Subhuti has said, “of this great vehicle no initial limit is got at, no final limit, no middle. Self-identical in the three periods of times is that great vehicle. That is why it is called the ‘great vehicle’,” so it is. And why? Because the past period of time is empty of the past period of time, the future empty of the future, the present of the present. The sameness of the three periods of time is empty of the sameness of the three periods of time. The great vehicle is empty of the great vehicle, the Bodhisattva empty of the Bodhisattva. But emptiness is not one, not two, not three, etc. to: not ten. That is why owing to sameness of the three periods of time this vehicle of the Bodhisattva, the great being, is self-identical. But therein one cannot apprehend “the same” or “not the same”, greed or dispassion, hate or its absence, delusion or its absence, conceit or its absence, the wholesome or unwholesome, what has outflows or what has none, what has blemishes or what has none, defilement or non-defilement, extinction or non-extinction of defilement, the worldly or the supra-mundane, defiling or purification, Samsara or Nirvana, permanence or impermanence, ease or ill, self or not self, calm or uncalm, the world of sense desire or the transcending of the world of sense desire, the world of form or its transcending, the formless world or its transcending. And why? Because the own-being of all that cannot be apprehended. Past form, etc., is empty of past form, etc. And so is future, and present form, etc. And why? In emptiness (P241) one cannot get at past, future or present form, etc. The very emptiness, how ever empty, cannot be got at in emptiness, how much less past, future, and present

229

form, etc.! One cannot get at the initial limit of the perfection of giving, etc., nor at its final limit, nor can one get at it in the present, owing to the sameness of the periods of time. Nor ca

periods of time; the very samene

eness; how again could one, in sameness, get at the past, future, present perfection of giving, etc.? And what is true of the perfections, that holds good also of the applications of mindfulness, (P242) etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas. Moreover, the common people cannot be got at, in their initial limit, their final limit, or in the present, owing to the sameness of the periods of time. And why? On account of the fact

and Tathagatas. It is thus thain p

erfect wisdom and has trained himself in the three periods of time, should fulfil the knowledge of all modes. This is of the three periods of time. Having stood firmly therein the Bodhisattva, surpassing the world with its gods, men, and Asuras, will go forth to the knowledge of all modes. I 10,6. ATTAINMENT. I 10,6a. GOING FORTH TO ATTAINMENT. D. ATTAINMENT. (1. The Bodhisattva goes forth to attainment.) Subhuti : Well said, O Lord. Well has the Lord taught this great vehicle of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. In the past period, the Bodhisattvas, who have trained in this great vehicle, have reached the knowledge of all modes. Future Bodhisattvas also, by training in this great vehicle, will reach the knowledge of all modes. And those Bodhisattvas also who, in this world in all the ten directions, are present in innumerable world systems, they, having trained in this great vehicle, do reach the knowledge of all modes. This therefore is the great vehicle of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, owing to the fact that they are the same in the three periods of time. *The Lord : So it is, Subhuti. Having trained in this great

230

vehicle, past, future, and present Bodhisattvas have reached the knowledge of all modes, will reach it, do reach it.*

231

CHAPTER 20

232

(a) Nothing is ever really brought forth.)

*Subhuti : Furtherm sattva (who sets out on

this journey) does not approach (the goal of full Bodhisattva-hood)

from where it begins, nor from where it ends, nor in the middle

either. From the b , etc., should the

bound-less-ness of a B A Bodhisattva’s form,

etc. does not exist, cannot be apprehended. Since in each and

every way I do not get at a Bodhisattva, or see him, what

Bodh

k of a “self”,

yet a

h is something

uncr

regr ghtened, nor

terri

Because form, etc., cannot be

ated-ness, or in

ng, emptiness

of own-being another, a

ore, O Lord, a Bodhiound-less-ness of formodhisattva be known.

isattva should I instruct and admonish in what perfection of wisdom? (P245) Moreover, this “Bodhisattva” is a mere designation. It is as with the self. Although we spea

bsolutely the self is something uncreated. Since therefore all dharmas have no own-being, what is that form whic

eated? What is uncreated, that is not form etc. How shall I instruct and admonish a non-creation in a perfect wisdom which is also a non-creation? And yet, one cannot apprehend as other than uncreated (the dharmas of) a Bodhisattva who courses towards enlightenment. If, when this is being expounded, the though of a Bodhisattva does not become cowed, stolid, or

etful, and if his mind does not tremble, is not fri

fied, then that Bodhisattva, that great being courses in perfect wisdom.* Sariputra : For what reason, Ven. Subhuti, do you say that “a Bodhisattva does not approach from the beginning, end or middle”? Subhuti : It is because of the non-being-ness, the emptiness, the isolated-ness of a being, because of the absence of an own-being in it, that a Bodhisattva does not approach (a Bodhi-being) at the beginning, at the end, or in the middle. And why? Because as a result of the non-being-ness of a being, its emptiness, its isolated-ness, and the absence of own-being in it one cannot apprehend its beginning, etc. Nor is the non-being-ness of a being, (P246) its isolated-ness, it emptiness, the absence of own-being in it, one thing, and a Bodhisattva another, and beginning, middle, and end again another; for all these are not two nor divided. It is because of the non-being-ness of form, etc. its emptiness, its isolated-ness, its lack of own-being, that a Bodhisattva does not approach (a Bodhi-being) from either beginning, end, or middle.

apprehended in non-being-ness, emptiness, isollack of own-being. Nor is non-being-ness one thi

another, isolated-ness another, lack

233

Bod

hisattva another form, etc., another, b

le another; but all these are not two nor divided. And that should be done for all dharmas. (P247) I 10,6c. NEGATION OF SOMEONE WHO ATTAINS. *Sariputra : As again, Subhuti, you say: for what reason “should the boundless-ness of a Bodhisattva be known from the boundless-ness of form, etc.”? Subhuti : Form, etc., is the same as space. And why? (P248) Of space one cannot apprehend a beginning, end, or middle, but it is because of its endlessness and boundlessness that one speaks conventionally of “space”. Just so one cannot apprehend a beginning, end, or middle form, etc. And why? On account of the emptiness of form, etc. Of emptiness one cannot apprehend a beginning, end, or middle, and yet one nevertheless speaks conventionally of “emptiness”. And so for all dharmas. It is by this method that the boundlessness of a Bodhisattva should be known from the boundlessness of form, etc. Sariputra : For what reason do you say that “a Bodhisattva’s form does not exist, cannot apprehended”? Subhuti : Form, etc., is empty of form, etc. And why? Because in emptiness form, etc., as well as the Bodhisattva, does not e

xist (and cannot be found). And so for all dharmas. (P249) The Disciple is empty of Discipleship, the Pratyekabuddha of Pratyekabuddha-hood, the Tathagata of Tathagata-hood. And

why? For in emptiness the Tathagata does not exist, nor does a Bodhisattva. It is in this way that a Bodhisattva’s form, etc., does not exist, cannot be apprehended. Sariputra : For what reason do you say that “since in each and every way I do not get at a Bodhisattva, or see him, what Bodhisattva should I instruct and admonish in what perfect wisdom? Subhuti : In form, form cannot exist or be apprehended. In feeling form cannot exist or be apprehended, nor can feeling in feeling, feeling in form, form and feeling in perception, perception in perception, perception in form, perception in feeling, form in feeling and perception and impulses, impulses in impulses, impulses in form and feeling and perception (P250), consciousness in form and feeling and perception and impulses. And so for the other dharmas. In Bodhisattva-hood the Bodhisattva cannot exist or be apprehended, nor can the Tathagata in Tathagata-hood, the

234

perfection of wisdom in the perfection of wisdom, the perfection of wisdom in the instruction and admonition, or the instruction and admonition in the perfection of wisdom.

dharmas do not exist and are baseless, that the Bonot e

xist and cannot apprehended. I 10,6d. NEGATION OF BOTH OBJECT AND SUBJECT OF ATTAINMENT. Sariputra : For what reas

hisattva’ is a mere designation”? And why do you say that “the word ‘Bodhisattva’ has been added on as an adventitious designation”? Subhuti : Because words do not come from anywhere in the ten directions, nor do they go to anywhere, nor do they stand anywhere. And that holds good of the words applied to all dharmas and also those applied to the Bodhisattvas. For “form”, etc., are adventitious designations, and what is a designation that is not actually form, etc. And why? For words are empty of the own-being of words, and what is empty, that

his reason that the word “Bodhisattva” is said to be a mere designation. (P251)

Sariputra : For what reason, Subhuti, do you say that “although we speak of a ‘self’, yet absolutely the self is something uncreated”? Subhuti : Absolutely a self does not exist; how then could its real creation take place? And that is true also of the synonyms of ‘self’, like being, soul, etc.; and also of form, etc., and all dharmas. (P252) Sariputra : For what reason has the Ven. Subhuti said that “all dharmas have no own-being”?

Subhuti : Because an own-being acting in causal connection does not exist. Sariputra : Of what is there no own-being acting in causal connection?

Subhuti : Of form, etc. By this method all dharmas are without own-being. Moreover, Sariputra, all dharmas are impermanent, but not because something has disappeared. Sariputra : Which are those all-dharmas which are impermanent, but not because something has disappeared? Subhuti : Form, etc., is impermanent, but not because something has disappeared. And why? For what is impermanent that is non-existence and extinction. Likewise all-dharmas are ill, not-self, calm, empty, sign-less, wish-less, but not because 235

something has disappeared; they are wholesome, faultless, without outflows, undefiled, supra-mundane, non-purified, un-conditioned. And why? Because the Un-conditioned is non-existence and extinction. By this method all dharmas are without own-being, but not by the disappearance of anyth

dharmas are neither unmoved nor destroyed.

Sariputra : For what reason? (P253) Subhuti : Form, etc. is neither unmoved nor destroyed. And why? Such is its essential original nature. The same is true of all that is wholesome or unwholesome, faulty or faultless, with or with

out outflows, defiled or undefiled, worldly or supra-mundane, conditioned or un-conditioned, defilement or purification, Samsara or Nirvana. By this method all dharmas have no own-being. Sariputra : For what reason, Subhuti, have you said that “form, etc., is not brought about”? Subhuti : Form, etc., is not a really created thing. And why? Because there is no agent who could bring them about, nor can such an agent be apprehended. Sariputra : For what reason, Subhuti, is “that which is uncre

ated not form, etc.”? Subhuti : Because form, etc., is empty in its essential nature. And

what is empty in its essential nature, of that there is no production or passing away, and in consequence also no alteration can be conceived of it. (P254) Sariputra : For what reason, Subhuti, do you say, “how shall I instr

uct and admonish a non-creation in a perfect wisdom which is also a non-creation?”

Subhuti : Because, as a non-creation, so is perfect wisdom, and what is perfect wisdom that is a non-creation. Perfect wisdom and a no

n-creation are therefore not two not divided. Sariputra : For what reason “can one not apprehend as other than

uncreated (the dharmas of) a Bodhisattva who courses towards enlightenment”? Subhuti : Because a Bodhisattva, who courses imperfect wisdo

m, does not review a non-creation as one thing, and a Bodhisattva as another. A Bodhisattva and a non-creation are not two

nor divided. Nor does he review form, etc. as other that a non-creation. For a non-creation, and form, etc., are not two nor divided. Sariputra : For what reason, Ven. Subhuti, do you say that “if when this is being expounded, the though of a Bodhisattva does 236

not become cowed, stolid, or regretful, and if his mind does not tremble, is not frightened or terrified, then that Bodhisattva courses in perfect wisdom”? Subhuti : Because there a Bodhisattva reviews all dharmas as without inward striving, as similar to a mock show, a dream, a mirage, an echo, an image, a reflection of the m

ical creation, a village of the Gandharv

(2a. Non-duality.) *At the time when a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom investigates those dharmas, at that time he does not approach form, etc.,* does not grasp at it, does not take his stand on it, does not settle down in it, does not make it known as “form, etc., is that”. For a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisd

om, does not review form, etc.* And why? Because the non-production of form, etc

., is not form, etc. Form, etc., and non-production are not two nor divided. *what is the non-production of the Dharma-element, that is not the Dharma-element. What is the

non-production of Suchness, the space-element, the Reality Limit, the un-think-able element, enlightenment and the kn

owledge of all modes, that is not Suchness, etc., to: not the knowledge of all modes. It is thus that the Dharma-element and non-production are not two or divided. It is thus that Suchness, etc. to: not the knowledge of all modes. It is thus that the Dharma-element and non-producti

on are not two or divided. It is thus that Suchness, etc to: not the knowledge of all modes and non-production are not two or divided. And why? Because no

n-production is not one or two, not many or single. Therefore the non-production of the knowledge of all modes is not the knowledge of all modes.* The passing away of form, etc., is not form, etc. It is thus that th

e skandhas and passing-away are not two or divided.* And why? Because passing-away is not one or two, not many or single. Therefore, what is the passing-away

of the five skandhas, that is not the five skandhas. And so far all dharmas. (P256) *Inasmuch as one calls anything “form”, etc., one makes a count of what is non-dual.* 237

CHAPTER 21

SUBHUTI THE ELDER

I 10

,7. THE GOING-FORTH TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL MODES. Sariputra : How, Subhuti, does a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, investigate these dharmas? What is a “Bodhisattva”, what “perfect wisdom”, what the “investigating”? Subhuti : You ask, “what is a Bodhisattva?” Just enlightenment is his substance, therefore is he called a “Bodhi-sattva”. But though that enlightenment allows him to know the modes of all dharmas, he does not settle down in them. The modes of which dharmas does he know? He knows the modes of form, etc. to: Buddha-dharmas, but does not settle down in them. Sariputra : What are the modes of all dharmas? Subhuti : Those modes, those characteristics, those signs, by which dharmas are made known, those are called the modes of all dharmas. Again, Sariputra, you ask, “what is perfect wisdom?” (P257) She has abstained, she has caused to abstain. That is why she is called perfect wisdom. From what has she abstained, from what has she caused (others) to abstain? From the skandhas, sense fields, and elements, from conditioned co-production, from the perfections, the 20 kinds of emptiness, the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: from the Buddha-dharmas, and all-knowledge. Again, Sariputra, you ask, “what is the investigating?” Here a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, investigates form, etc., as not permanent or impermanent, not at ease or ill, etc. to: not isolated or un-isolated. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, investigates all these dharmas.

238

Sariputra : For what reason, Subhuti, do you say that “the

passing-away of form, e .”?

Subhuti : Because t away, and that form,

etc., and the fact of their being undivided – all these dharmas are

neither conjoine l, un-definable,

non-resisting, with one o mark.

Sariputra : For what reason, Subhuti, do you say that,

“inasmuch as one calls anything form, etc., one makes a count of

Disciple has

alrea

tc., is not form, etchese – that passingd nor disjoined, they are immateriasingle mark only, i.e. with n

what is non-dual”?

Subhuti : Because non-production is form, etc., the very form, etc., is non-production. (2c.

Non-production.) *At the time, O Lord, when a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom investigates those dharmas, at that time he reviews the non-production of form, etc. to: the Buddha-dharmas, on account of their absolute purity. Sariputra : As I understand the meaning of the Ven. Subhuti’s teaching, everything from form to the Buddha-dharmas is non-

production. But is that is so, then surely a

dy attained the enlightenment of a Disciple, one who follows the career of a Pratyekabuddha has already attained the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, and a Bodhisattva has already atta

ined the knowledge of all modes. *There will then be no distinction of the five places of rebirth. If all dharmas are non-production, a Bodhisattva has already attained the five-fold enlightenment. For what purpose should the Stream-winner (P260) develop the Path for the sake of forsaking the three fetters? Or the Once-returner for the sake of attenuating greed, hate and delusion? Or the Never-returner for the sake of forsaking the five lower fetters? Or the Arhat for the sake of forsaking the five high

er fetters? Or those who belong to the vehicle of the Pratyekabuddhas for the sake of the attainment of the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha? For what reason does a Bodhisattva go on the difficult pilgrimage, and experience all those sufferings (which he is said to undergo) for the sake of beings? For w

hat reason has the Tathagata known full enlightenment, and turned the wheel of Dharma?

*Subhuti : I do not wish or look for the attainment of an unproduced dharma, or5 for reunion with one. I do not look for the Stream-winner-ship of non-production, or for the fruit of a 239

Strea

ual attainments, up

to

cause

one

ings are like his parents and children, that they

are l

hat “just as one speaks of a ‘self’, and yet,

roduced, so also all inner and outer

on

m-winner in non-production. I do not, on the part of non-production, wish or look for any of the spirit

the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha and Pratyekabuddha-hood. I do not look for a Bodhisattva who has gone on the difficult pilgrimage. In any case, a Bodhisattva does not course in the perception of difficulties. And why? Be

who has generated in himself the notion of difficulties is unable to work the weal of countless beings. On the contrary, he forms the notion that all be

ike himself, and then he is able to work the weal of countless beings. He also thinks t

absolutely, a self is un-pdha

rmas are un-produced”. If he forms such a notion, then he will not have a notion of difficulties. And why? Because Bodhisattvas will in each and every way not produce any dharma or apprehend one. I do not look in non-productifor a Tathagata, not for his turn

ing of the wheel of dharma. nor do I look for an un-produced attainment which is being attained by an un-produced dharma. Sariputra : Is then an un-produced attainment attained through an un-produced dharma, or through a produced dharma? (P261) Subhuti : I do not look for an un-produced attainment which is being attained through an un-produced dharma, nor for a produced attainment which is being attained through an un-produced dharma. Sariputra : Do you look for an attainment by an un-produced, or by a produced dharma? Subhuti : I do not look for either.* Sariputra : Is there then no attainment, is there no reunion? Subhuti : There is attainment, there is reunion, but not in ultimate reality. It is through worldly conventional expressions that attainment and reunion are conceived, that Stream-winners, etc. to: Buddhas are conceived. But in ultimate reality there is none of all this. *Sariputra : Is it intelligible to talk of an “un-produced dharma”? Subhuti : As you say, Sariputra, it is intelligible to talk of an “un-produced dharma”, and likewise of “Non-production”. And why

? Because the un-produced dharma, the intelligibility, the talking, and the non-genesis – all these dharmas are neither conjoined nor disjoined, they are immaterial, un-definable, non-resisting, with one mark only, i.e. no mark.

240

Sariputra : The talking also is non-production, and so is the intelligibility, and so is the dharma – and un-produced are those dhaas about which one can talk intelligibly.* Subhuti : So it is, Sariputra. And why? Because everything from form to the knowledge of all modes is non-production. (P262) Sariputra : So it is. Moreover, as attainment and reunion take place only by way of worldly conventional expression, does also the differentiation of the five destinies take place only by way of conventional expression, and not in ultimate reality? Subhuti : So it is, Sariputra. And why? Because in ultimate reality there is no karma or karma result, no production or stopping, no defilement or purification. Sariputra : Furthermore, Subhuti, is an un-produced dharma produced, or is a produced dharma produced? Subhuti : I do not look for the production of a produced dharma, and I also do not look for the production of a n un-produced dharma.

Sariputra : Or which un-produced dharma do you not look for the production?

Subhuti : I do not wish for the production, which is empty of own-being, of the un-produced dharma of form, etc. to: Buddha-dharmas. I do not wish even for the production of enlightenm

Sariputra : And again, Subhuti, is production, or non-production produced?

Subhuti : Neither. And why? Bec

uction and non-production, are neither conjoined nor disjoine

are immaterial, un-definable, non-resisting, with one mark only, i.e. with no mark. In this way neither production nor non-production is produced. Talk is therefore non-production, and so is intelligible speech, and so is a dharma, and also those dharmas are un-p

3) *Sarip

en. Subhuti be placed! And why? For from whatever angle he may be questioned, he always finds a way out. (3. No leaning on anything.) (a) Subhuti : This is the true nature of the Tathagata’s Disciples that they do no lean on all dharmas. From whatever 241

angl

ean on anything?

ehended anywhere between both. In this manner all

dhar

I 10,

is is the worldly perfection of giving: Here a

Bodh

rs,

incen

ngs, and medicines. Likewise

he g

nment, and that without basin myself on anything. By

mea

ch three? The

ers, the notion of a gift. To give a

e they may be question, they always find a way out. And why? Because no dharma ever leans on another.* Sariputra : In what way do all dharmas not l

Subhuti : Form, etc., is empty in its essential original nature. It is not inwardly supported, not outwardly supported, and it cannot be appr

mas do not lean on anything, on account of the empti8ness of their essential original nature. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who courses in the six perfections, should fully cleanse all dharmas, from form to the knowledge of all modes.

I 10,8. GOING-FORTH ON THE PATH. (b) Sariputra : How does a Bodhisattva, who courses in the six perfections, cleanse the pa

th to enlightenment? Subhuti : There is a worldly perfection of giving, and there is a supra-mundane perfection of giving.

Sariputra : What is the worldly, and what the supra-mundane perfection of giving?

8a. THE WORLDLY PERFECTION OF GIVING. Subhuti : Th

isattva gives, and gives liberally, to recluses, Brahmins, the poor, mendicants, travellers, and beggars. (P264) He gives food to those who are hungry, and to those who desire them he gives drinks, vehicles, garments, perfumes, garlands, ointments, flowe

se, aromatic powders, homes, asylum, shelter, the requirements of life, services, lodgi

ives his sons, daughters, and wife, kingdoms, as well as his head, limbs, flesh, blood, and marrow to those who desire them. But he renounces all that while leaning on something. It occurs to him, “I give, that one receives, this is the gift. I renounce all that I have without any niggardliness. I act as the Buddha commands. I practice the perfection of giving. I, having made this gift into the common property of all beings, dedicate it to the supreme enlighte

ns of this gift and its fruit, may all beings in this very life be at their ease, and may they without any further clinging enter the final Nirvana!” Tied by three ties he gives a gift. Whi

notion of self, the notion of othgift tied by these three ties, tha

t is called the worldly perfection of giving, and it is call “worldly” because one does not swerve away from the world, does not depart from it, does not pass beyond it.

242

I 10,8b. THE SUPRA-MUNDANE PERFECTION OF GIVING. The supra-mundane perfection of giving

sts in the threefold purity. What is the threefold purity?

a Bodhisattva gives a gift, and he does not apprehend a self, a recipient, or a gift; also no reward of his giving. He surrenders that gift to all beings, but does not apprehend those beings, or himself either. And, although he dedicates that gift to the supreme enlightenment, he does not apprehend any enlightenment. This is called the supra-mundane perfection of giving, (P265) and it is called “supra-mundane” because one s

world, departs from it, passes beyothe

difference between the worldly and the supra-mundane perfections of morality, patience, vigour, and concentration be unde

rstood. Sariputra : What is the worldly, and what the supra-mundane perfe

ction of wisdom? I 10,8c. THE WORLDLY

Subhuti : This is the worldly perfection of wisdomBodh

isattva gives a gift, leaning on a basis, i.e. he thinks that “I should suppress all niggardly thought in myself”. Leaning on the notions of self, being, and gift, he renounces all that he has, all inner and outer things, appropriated and un-appropriated, and there is nothing that he does not renounce. And that wholesome root (which results from this act of renunciation) he dedicates to the supreme enlightenment, after he has made it common to all beings, - but leaning on a basis. – He tends morality, and is established in the ascetic practices, while leaning on the body, speech, and thought as a basis. While he tends those ten ways of wholesome action, leaning on the views of self, a being and wholesomeness, he dedicates those moralities, made common to all beings, to an enlightenment which he has apprehended, and throughout basing himself on something. – He exalts not himself, nor depreciates others, and endures being ill-treated by all, while leaning on the views of self, a being, a patience. That wholesomeness he dedicates to the supreme enlightenment, after he has made it common to all beings, but leaning on a basis. – He exerts vigour, while apprehending body, thought, the equipment with merit, the equipment with cognition, a self and enlightenment, and he fancies himself for that exertion in vigour. Having made that (merit) common to all beings, he dedicates it to the supreme

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enlightenment, while basing himself on something.

dliness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and impartiality. He enters into the trances and attainments and again emerges from them. But he derives relish from them and in consequence fancies himself for them. He makes the wholesome roots common to all beings and dedicates them to enlightenment, but always having some basis in view. – He develops emptiness, and he apprehends that everything from form to the enlightenment of a Buddha is empty, always basing himself on something. Those wholesome roots he makes common to all beings and dedicates them to the supreme enlightenment (P266), but by way of assuming a basis. – He confesses all the evil he has done, by way of assuming a basis, and rejoices at his own merit and that of others. For his own sake and

while basin himself on something. Without skill in means he dedicates the merit (fro

all-knowledge, having first made it common to calle

d the worldly perfection of wisdom. I 10,8d. THE SUPRA-MUNDANE PERFECTION OF WISDOM. What, on the other hand, is the supra-mundane perfection of wisdom? Through his non-apprehension of self, beings, gift, or enlightenment, and through the threefold purity, he cleanses the perfection of giving for enlightenment. Through his non-apprehension of self, being, morality, or enlightenment he cleanse the perfection of morality for enlightenment; and likewise the perfection of patience by the non-apprehension of self, beings, enduring, and enlightenment; the perfection of vigour by the non-apprehension of self, physical and mental vigour, merit and cognition, and enlightenment; the perfection of concentration by the non-apprehension of self, beings, trances and concentrations and attainments, and enlightenment; the perfection of wisdom by the non-apprehension of self, beings, all-dharmas, and enlightenment. He dedicates all wholesome roots to the supreme enlightenment, by means of a dedication which is undifferentiated, supreme, equal to the unequalled, unthinkable, incomparable, and measureless. This is called the supra-mundane perfection of wisdom. I 10,8e. CONCLUSION. Sariputra : What is a Bodhisattva’s path to enlightenment? (P267)

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Subhuti : The four applications of mindfulness, and so on (all the 21 practices described in AA I9,14). *Sariputra : Of which perfection is that the doing? Subhuti : Of the perfection of wisdom. For the perfection of wisdom is the genetrix and recipient of all wholesome dharmas, be they the dharmas of Disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas or Buddhas.* After training in perfect wisdom the Tathagatas of the past have known full enlightenment. The Tathagatas of the future will know full enlightenment after training in perfect wisdom. And those Tathagatas who at present in the world in the ten directions stand, hold, and maintain themselves, and demonstrate Dharma, all these also have known full enlightenment after training in just this perfection of wisdom.* If, when this perfection of wisdom is being taught, a Bodhisattva is not perplexed or stupefied, then one should know that he dwells in this dwelling, and that he is not lacking in this attention, i.e. in the attention which does not abandon all beings in order to protect them, and in the attention of the great compassion.

Sariputra : So it is, as you say. Such a Bodhisattvthis

dwelling, and is not lacking in this attention. This being so, Ven. Subhuti, all (P268) beings must already be Bodhisattvas. And why? Because all beings are not lacking in attention. Subhuti : Well said, Sariputra. And yet I must reprove you, for the Ven. Sariputra has grasped the matter correctly only as far as the words are concerned. And why? One should understand that the non-being-ness of attention results from that of beings; that the emptiness of attention, its lack of own-being, and its isolated-ness result from the emptiness of beings, their lack of own-being, their isolated-ness; that acts of attention do not undergo the process which leads to enlightenment in the same way in which beings do not undergo that process. Similarly one should understand that the non-being-ness, emptiness, etc. of attention results from the non-being-ness, emptiness, etc. of form, etc. It is by this method that a Bodhisattva, a great being, should be known as not lacking in this dwelling and in this kind of attention, which is the attention of the great compassion.* The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well said. The perfection of wisdom of th

as you have, through

ou described it, so should a Bodhisattva, a great being course in the perf

245

Epil

Wisdom had been taught

by t six ways.

And

ogue. When this chapter of the Perfection of

he Ven. Subhuti, the great trichiliocosm shook in

the Lord smiled on that occasion. Subhuti : What, O Lord, is the cause, what the reason for the manifestation of a smile? The Lord : Just as in this world system the Tathagata expounds the Perfection of Wisdom, so the Tathagatas in all the ten directions, in incalculable and immeasurable world systems, also teach the Perfection of Wisdom to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. (P269) When the Ven. Subhuti expounded this Perfection of Wisdom, twelve myriads of gods and men acquired through wisdom the patient acceptance of dharmas which fail to be produced. And when the Buddhas and Lords in the world systems in the ten directions all round taught this Perfection of Wisdom to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, the hearts of countless beings were raised to full enlightenment.

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CHAPTER 22

THE FIRST SAKRA CHAPTER

II. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PATHS. II 1. The Eclipsing, etc. The Limbs of the Knowledge of the Paths. II 1,A. THE ECLIPSING OF THE GODS. Thereupon all the great kings in this great trichiliocosm were, together with many thousands of gods, present in that assembly. And so was Sakra, Chief of Go

247

exposition of the perfection of wisdom. How, then, Ven. Subhuti,

should a Bodhisattva, a d in the perfection of

wisdom, and what is the m of the “Bodhisattva,

the great being?

II 1,2. DEFINITION OF THE OBJECT.

Subhuti : Let me then, Kausika, through the Buddha’s might,

through the Buddha’s sustaining power, explain to you the

as, the great beings, and

how a Bodhisattva, a great being, should stand in perfect wisdom.

ghtenment, they should do so now. But those again

who have entered on the certainty of definite salvation (i.e. the

birth and think that they have

don

ASED ON THE FOUR

TRUTHS AS A PART OF THE PATH OF THE DISICPLES

at is the perfect wisdom of a Bodhisattva, a

origination), as (1) a thorn, (4) a

great being, stan perfection of wisdo

perfection of wisdom of the Bodhisattv

And those gods who have not yet raised their thought to the supreme enli

Arhats who have reached their last

e with it all), they are unable to raise their thought to the supreme enlightenment. And why? The flood of birth-and-death hems them in. II 1,3. PERVASION. And yet I confirm them also, if they also will raise their thought to the supreme enlightenment. II 1,4. OWN-BEING. I shall not obstruct them when they adopt this wholesome idea. II 1,5. ACTIVITY. For among distinguished dharmas one should uphold the most distinguished ones. II 2. The Knowledge of the Paths which Consist in the Cognition of the Path of the Disciples. II 2,1. THE DEFINITION OF THE SIXTEEN ASPECTS B,.

Therein, Kausika, whgrea

t being? (II 2, 1A The aspects of the truth of ill.) Here the Bodhisattva, the great being, with his production of thought associated with all-knowledge, attends to form, as (1) impermanent, (2) ill, (3) not-self, (4) quiet calm: (II 2, 1B Aspects of the truth of

disease, (2) a boil, (3) a

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misfortune: (II 2, 1C. Aspects of the truth of ill and origination, taken separately, so as to arouse aversion) as (1) foreign, (2) by its nature a disturbance,; (II 2, 1D, as II 2, 1C, but so as to arouse dispassion) as (1)

calamity; and that without taking

ing, etc. As impermanent, etc. do come about the consciousness which is conditioned by the formative forces, the name-and-form which is conditioned by consciousness, etc. It is thus that the origination of all this great mass of ill takes place, and he attends to that as impermanent … a calamity, without however taking it as a basis. (II 2, 1F. Aspects of the truth of cessation.) With a production of thought associated with all-knowledge he attends to stopping of the formative forces which results from the stopping of ignorance, and that as (1) the absence of quiet calm, (2) isolated, (3) empty, signless, wishless, and unaffected. Because of the stopping

of ill takes place and he una

ffected, but without taking it as a basis, and with his attentions associated with all-knowledge. (II 2, 1G. Aspects of truth of the Path. (1) the Path, (2) the correc

(4) that which allows to go forth to deliverance.) MoreoverKau

sika, the Bodhisattva, the great being, with a production of ught associated with all-knowledge develops the applications of

mindfulness, he develops the Bu

ddha-dharmas in the same way; and so likewise he courses in the six perfections. Moreover, Kausika, the Bodhisattva, the gr

of Dharma softens the dharmas, moistens the, perfects, and augments them, he contemplates: withou

For what is, on the part of the Bodhisattva, the great being, the thought of a wholesome root that is not in tou

nlightenment. What is the thought of dedication that is not in touch with the thought of enlightenment or with the thought of the wholesome root; what is the thought of enlightenment that is not in touch with the thought of dedication. And why? That which is the thought of enlightenment that does not exist in the thought of dedication and cannot be apprehended in it; that which is the

249

thought of dedication that does not exist in the thought of enlightenment and cannot be apprehended in it. This, Kausika, is the perfection of wisdom of the Bodhisattva, the great being, that he thus contemplates all dharmas and yet he does not settle down in any dharma or apprehends one. Sakra : How, Ven. Subhuti, is the thought of dedication not in touch with the thought of enlightenment? How is the thought of enlightenment not in touch with the thought of dedication? And how does in the thought of dedication the thought of enlightenment not exist, and cannot be apprehended in it? How does in the thought of enlightenment the thought of dedication not exist, and cannot be apprehended in it? Subhuti : What is the thought of dedication (or, of turning over) that is no thought, what is the thought of enlightenment, that is no thought. For no-thoughtness is not turned over into no-thoughtness. Thus what is no-thought, that is unthinkable, and what is unthinkable, that is no-thought, and therefore no-thoughtness is not turned over into no-thoughtness. This is the perfection of wisdom of the Bodhisattva, the great being. II 2,2. THE AIDS TO PENETRATION. II 2,2,1. HEAT. The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well said by you, Subhuti, you who expound the perfection of wisdom to the Bodhisattva, the great beings and encourage them. Subhuti : Grateful should I be, O Lord, not ungrateful. For the Lord, in the past, when he coursed in the course of a Bodhisattva, has in the presence of the Tathagatas of the past been instructed and admonished in the six perfections by the Disciples, they have been shown to him, he has been initiated into them, made to rejoice at them, has been encouraged by them, introduced to them, established in them; and in consequence the Lord has, after he had definitely become a Bodhisattva, trained in the six perfections and fully known the supreme enlightenment. Just so, O Lord, we also should instruct and admonish the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, in the six perfections, should show them to them, encourage and impel them, make them rejoice in them, introduce them to them and establish them in them. And by us also instructed and admonished, etc., the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, will fully know the supreme enlightenment.

250

Subhuti then said to Sakra: Therefore then, Kausika, listen and attend well. I will teach you how a Bodhisattva should stand in perfect wisdom, i.e. how he should not stand in it. Form is empty of form; feeling, etc. The Bodhisattva is empty of the Bodhisattva. It is thus that the emptiness of for

ings-perception-impulses-and-consciousness, and the emptiness of the Bodhisattva are not two nor divided. It is thus that the Bodhisattva, the great being, should stand in perfect wisdom. Moreover, the eye is empty of the eye, the ear, etc. It is thus that the emptiness of the eye, etc. to: the emptiness of the Bodhisattva are not two nor divided. It is thus that the Bodhisattva, the great being sh

or the physical elements, the 12 links, the 6 perfections, the 18 kinds of emptiness, the applications of mindfulness, etc. Moreover, concentration is empty of concentration, the dharani-doors are empty of the dharani-doors, the Bodhisattva is empty of the Bodhisattva. It is thus that … Moreover, the disciple vehicle is empty of the disciple vehicle, etc. etc.

Sakra : How then, Ven. Subh

Subhuti : He

ing, etc. By way of making nothing into a basis. He should not stand in the eye, in sight, objects, in sight consciousness, in sight contact, nor in the feeling born from

etc., to: the Buddha-dharmas. He should not stand in the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc. to: in Buddha-hood, by way of making nothing into a basis. II 2,2,3. PATIENCE. He should not take his stand on the idea that ‘form is permanent or impermanent’, ‘ease’ etc. to: ‘not isolated’, ‘form is empty or not empty’. So for feeling, etc. for everything up to: the knowledge of all modes. He should not take his stand on the notion that the fruit of a Stream-winner, etc. to: Buddha-hood derives its dignity from the Unconditioned. He should not take stand on the idea that the Stream-winner, etc. to: the Tathagata is worthy of gift, by way of making nothing into a basis.

251

II 2

: the Buddha-eye I shall

produce’. ‘All concentrations I shall perfect’. ‘I shall play with

tion I may desire’. ‘All dharani-doors I shall

perf

of a Tathagata I shall

acco

ctively in the families of gods or men, or of

those who proceed with a single interval … He should not stand in

tream-winner is no longer doomed to fall into

in the cognition of the

knowledge of the paths, by not making it into a basis. He should

,2,4. HIGHEST MUNDANE DHARMAS. Moreover, the Bodhisattva, the great being, should not stand in the first, etc. to: the tenth stage, by way of making it into a basis. He also should not stand in the following ideas: ‘having stood in the first thought of enlightenment I shall fulfil the six perfections, etc. to: the paths, and I shall enter on the certainty of a Bodhisattva’. ‘I shall enter on the certainty of a Bodhisattva, and, having listened to the Buddhas and Lords, so as to see, praise, worship, and honour them and so as to hear the Dharma from them, I shall make progress in fathoming its Thusness and shall demonstrate the Dharma to others’. ‘Whichever Buddha-fields of those Buddhas and Lords there may be, I shall perfect them’. ‘I shall mature beings for the supreme enlightenment’. ‘Having gone to innumerable and incalculable world systems, I shall honour and serve the Tathagatas there and shall worship them with flowers, incense, perfumes, garlands, etc.’. ‘Countless beings I shall establish in the supreme enlightenment’. ‘The five eyes I shall produce’. ‘The fleshly eye, etc. to

whichever concentra

ect’. ‘The Unlimited, the trances, the formless attainments I shall accomplish’. ‘The ten powers

mplish, etc. to: the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha, the great friendliness, the great compassion’. ‘The thirty-two marks of a superman I shall accomplish in my body’. ‘The eighty subsidiary marks I shall accomplish’. He should not stand in the idea of faith-follower, dharma-follower, the eighth-lowest saint, or that the Stream-winner will be reborn seven times at the most, or of those who are reborn respe

the ideas that ‘the Sthe

states of woe’, ‘as a Once-Returner I will, after I have once more come back into this world, make an end of ill’, ‘the Never-Returner has progressed to the realization of the fruit of never-Returner’, ‘the Arhat has progressed to the realization of the fruit of an Arhat’. He should not stand in the idea of a ‘Pratyekabuddha’. He should not stand in the idea that ‘as a Bodhisattva, having transcended the level of the Disciples and the level of the Pratyekabuddhas, I shall stand on the level of a Bodhisattva’. He should not stand

252

not stand in the idea that ‘having fully

des, having made an end of all defilements and the residues relating to them, I will having as a Tathagata, etc. fully known the supreme enlightenment, turn the wheel of Dharma’. ‘Having done a Buddha’s work, I shall lead countless beings to Nirvana’, also therein he should not stand. And also not in the idea that ‘having stood in the four roads to psychic power and in the faculties, I shall enter on such a concentration that through it I shall abide for aeons countless as the sands of the Ganges’; ‘an unlimited lifespan I shall have’; ‘the 32 marks of a superman, each single mark …’; ‘my single Buddha-field shall be as large as countless world systems, in all the ten directions, taken together’; ‘for me the great trichiliocosm will become adamantine’, ‘from my Bodhi-tree will emanate an odour so powerful (?) that no one will have any more greed, hate, or delusion, and that no one will have a Disciple-thought or a Pratyekabuddha-thought, but all these beings shall be fixed on the supreme enlightenment; and these beings who will smell this odour, they will have no illness whatever’; ‘in that Buddha-field even the word ‘form’ will be unknown, or the words ‘feeling’, ‘perception’, ‘impulse’ or ‘consciousness’, or the words ‘perfection of giving’, etc. to: ‘applications of mindfulness’, etc. It is thus, Kausika, that the Bodhisattva, the great being, should not stand in the perfection of wisdom, by making in into a basis. Thereupon the Ven. Sariputra thought to himself: How then should the Bodhisattva, the great being, stand in perfect wisdom? Subhuti read his thoughts and said: What do you think, Sariputra, where did the Tathagata stand? Sariputra : Nowhere did the Tathagata stand, for the mind of the Tathagata, etc., sought no support. He stood neither in the conditioned element, nor in the unconditioned element; and likewise not in the skandhas, etc. to: all dharani-doors, not in the Buddha-dharmas, and not in all-knowledge. Subhuti : It is thus that the Bodhisattva, the great being, should stand in perfect wisdom. ‘As the Tathagata has not stood in forms, feelings, etc., nor not stood, just so will I stand’, so should the Bodhisattva, the great being, stand in the perfection of wisdom by way of not taking his stand anywhere. II 3. The Knowledge of the Paths which Consists in the Cognition of the Path of the Pratyekabuddhas.

253

II 3,A. NO NEED TO BE INSTRUCTED BY OTHERS. Thereupon the thought came to some of the gods in that assembly: What the fairies talk and murmur, that we understand though mumbled. What Subhuti has just taught, uttered, demonstrated, expounded about the perfection of wisdom, that we do not understand. Subhuti : You do not understand, sons of gods, what has been said? Gods : We do not understand, Ven. Subhuti! Subhuti : For there, O gods, not even a single letter has been uttered therein. What has not been uttered, that cannot be heard. What has not been heard that cannot be understood. And why? For not in the letters in the perfection of wisdom, and therefore it is not something that can be cognized or heard or demonstrated. Not in the letters is the enlightenment of the Tathagatas, etc. Just as a man who is asleep and has dreams would see the Tathagata, etc. demonstrate Dharma, - what do you think, O gods, would now therein anything be demonstrated, or heard or understood? Gods : No, Rev. Subhuti. Subhuti : Just so, O gods, all dharmas are like a dream, and therein nothing is heard by anyone, or demonstrated, or understood. Just, O gods, as if there were two men who stood in a valley between mountains, and wh

the Buddha, or the Dharma, or the Samgha, if from that there would issue the sound of an echo, what do you think, sons of gods,

ld now through that echo a second echo-sound be instructed? Gods : No, Rev. Subhuti.

Subhuti : Just so, O gods, all dharmas are like an echo; therein nothing is seen, or heard, or discerned. Just as a clever magician or magician’s apprentice would at the crossroads conjure up the Tathagata, and also the four assemblies, and (that Tathagata) would teach the four conjured up assemblies

k, O gods, would now thereby anything by taught, or heard, or discerned? Gods : No, Rev. Subhuti. Subhuti : Just so, O gods, all dharmas are like a magical illusion, and nothing is therein demonstrated or

II 3,B. THE DEPTH OF COGNITION.

254

Thereupon those gods thought to themselve

huti enlarge on the perfection of wisdom! For what he demonstrates that is deeper than the deep, subtler than the subtle. II 3,1. THE THREEFOLD DISTINCTIVENESS.

II 3,1,1. THE FORSAKING OF THE DISCRIMINATION OF THE OBJECT BY THE PRATYE

KAUDHAS. Subhuti : For form is neither deep nor subtle;

nor is feeling, etc. And why? For the own-being of form is neither deep nor subtle; and so on, up to: the knowledge of all modes. Thereupon those gods thought to themselves: Certainly, in this demonstration of dharma, no form is conceived … no perfect wisdom, no dharma which acts as wing to enlightenment, etc. to: no Buddha-dharmas, no fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: no enlightenment, and also no letters. Subhuti : Just so it is, O gods, just so it is. The enlightenment of the Tathagatas cannot be talked about, it is incommuni

hing is thereby demons

trated by anyone, nor heard, nor discerned. Therefore, those who want to stand in the fruit of a Streamwinner, and the realize it, they cannot do so without having resorted to this patience; and so up to Pratyekabuddha. It is thus, O gods, that the Bodhisattva, the great being should, beginning with the first thought of enlightenment, stand in the perfection of wisdom without uttering or hearing anything.

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CHAPTER 23

HARD TO FAT

II 3

,1,2. THE NONFORSAKING OF THE DISCRIMINATION OF THE SUBJECT ON THE PART OF THE PRATYEKABUDDHAS. Thereupon those gods thought to themselves: What should one wis

h those to be like who are worthy to listen to the doctrine from Subhuti the Elder? Subhuti : Those who learn the doctrine from me one should wish to be like a magical illusion, to be like a magical creation. In consequence they hear just nothing, study nothing, realize nothing.

Gods : Are then these beings like an illusion, are then these dharma-hearers like an illusion? Are these beings like a magical creation, are these dharma-hearers like a magical creation? Subhuti : So it is, O gods, so it is. Like an illusion are those beings, like an illusion are those dharma-hearers; like a magical creation, etc. Form also is like a dream, like an illusion; feeling, etc. to: also the Buddha-dharmas, also the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: also the Buddha-dharmas, also the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: also the Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment. Gods : Buddhahood also, you say, Ven. Subhuti, is lik

256

engaged in incomprehensibilities, so subtle, so delicate, so hard to

see, so hard to understa lime, so truly noble, so

much something that can be known only by the wise and the

discerning?

Thereupon the reat disciples and

to those deities: Irreversible

grasp it, or persons who have reached sound views, or Arhats in

whom the outflows have dried up, who have fulfilled their

e roots under many kotis of

Bud

rm is empty’, or that ‘emptiness is form’; feeling,

etc.

rning.

And

ail, i.e. no vehicle

of t

great beings, is explained, and the paths of the

Bod

urses in perfect wisdom is

reborn apparitionally; thus, unfailing in his super-knowledges, he

to Buddha-field. And those

wh

nd, so calm, so subVen. Ananda (?) said to those g Bodhisattvas, great beings, can

intentions, who have performed their duties under the Jinas of the past, who have planted wholesom

dhas, or sons and daughters of good family who have been taken hold of by a good friend. But they again will not discriminate that ‘fo

; signless, etc.; wishless, etc.; unproduced or unstopped, calm, isolated. And so for the skandhas, etc. to the knowledge of all modes; the conditioned element, the unconditioned element.

Subhuti : There is no on who can grasp this perfection of wisdom, since it is so deep, so incomprehensible, so much something that can be known only by the wise and the disce

why? For therein no dharma whatsoever is being taught, indicated, or lit up. Wherein, however, no dharma whatsoever is taught, indicated or lit up, therein no one will be able to grasp anything. Sariputra : By you, Ven. Subhuti, have in this perfection of wisdom (no?) three vehicles been explained in det

he Disciples, no vehicle of the Pratyekabuddhas, no vehicle of the fully enlightened Buddhas. [The assistance of the Bodhisattvas, the

hisattvas, beginning with the first thought of enlightenment and ending with the tenth thought;] i.e. the perfection of giving, etc. to: the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: all dharani-doors are explained as the assistance of all the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. It is thus that the Bodhisattva who co

will pass on from Buddha-field

olesome roots, by which (?) he will honour etc. the Buddhas, the Lords, they will wax strong in him. And the dharmas which they will hear from those Buddhas and Lords, they will not forget them ever again until they win full enlightenment. And he will be always concentrated, and his thought free from distraction. His inspiration will be unshackled, uninterrupted, concentrated, no 257

joined (?), quite certain, more distinguished and exalted than anything in all the world. Subhuti : So it is, Ven. Sariputra, so it is. Just so, as you say, in detail are ex

the vehicle of the Disciples, the vehicle of the Pratyekabuddhas, the great vehicle; and the assistance of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, is explained, etc. to the fact that they will have an inspiration which is more distinguished and exalted than anything else in all the world; and that in the sense that nothing is made into a basis. And what should not be made into a basis? A self, a being, etc. to: one who sees, form, etc. to: all-knowledge. Sariputra : For what reason are in this perfection of wisdom the three vehicles, and the other topics, explained in detail, in the sense that nothing is made into a basis? Subhuti : On account of inward emptiness, and the other kinds of emptiness. 258

C

HAPTER 24 INFINITE Thereupon the thought came to Sakra and the other gods in this great trichiliocosm, up to the Akanishtha gods: Let us then, since Subhuti the Elder preaches this view of Dharma, conjure up

scatter them over the Buddha, the Lord, the congregation of monks and Bodhisattvas, and the perfection of wisdom! Thereupon Sakra and the other g

jured up heavenly Mandarava flowers, and scattered them over the Buddha, th

259

Sakra : Deeply wise, surely, is the holy Subhuti the Elder, in that

he does not obstruct t et points out the true

nature of Dharma.

The Lord : So it is, Sakra, as you say.

Sakra : How then d Elder not obstruct the

concept and yet point out a?

The Lord : Form, etc., is a mere concept, and what is mere

concept that is the true nature of Dharma; that Subhuti the Elder

doe

owledge.

easurable and incalculable

Bud

II 3

etc., nor for its

dec

rain for the appropriation or vanishing of

form

tra : For what reason does the Bodhisattva not train for

the appropriation or vanishing of form, etc.?

why? Because form, etc. cannot appropriate form, etc. It is thus,

that the Bodhisattva, the great being, trains in

all-knowledge for the sake of the non-appropriation of all dharmas,

he concept, and yoes Subhuti the the true nature of Dharm

s not obstruct, but he points it out. And why: what is the true nature of Dharma, that cannot be obstructed, and Subhuti the Elder points it out and does not obstruct it. Subhuti : So it is, Kausika, so it is. As by the Lord all dharmas have been pointed out as mere concepts, just so should the Bodhisattva, the great being, having known all dharmas as mere concepts, train in perfect wisdom. And why? Because there he does not review the form in which he trains. When he trains thus, the Bodhisattva, the great being, trains in the perfection of giving. And why? Because he does not review the perfection of giving in which he trains. And so for everything else up to all-kn

Sakra : For what reason does a Bodhisattva not review that form, etc. to all-knowledge, in which he trains? Subhuti : Because there form, etc., is empty of form, etc. And why? Because form-emptiness does not review form, etc., as emptiness. He who trains in this emptiness, he trains in the emptiness of form, etc. to: in the imm

dha-dharmas, etc. to: in the knowledge of all modes, without making any divisions.

,2,2. SUMMITS. He does not train for the increase of form,

rease. And who does not train for the increase or decrease of form, etc. he does not t

, etc. II 3,2,3. STEADFAST PATIENCE. Saripu

Subhuti : Because there is no appropriation of form, etc. And

Ven. Sariputra,

260

and

II 3

riation and

non

up or taking, nor the

dec

452

fection of wisdom should be sought in the

Ven. Subhuti.

Sakra : Whose then is this might, whose is this authority?

gata’s might, it is the Tathagata’s

auth

ure he has no fixed

resi

goes forth to all-knowledge by way of the non-appropriation of all dharmas.

,2,4. HIGHEST MUNDANE DHARMAS.

Sariputra : When he thus trains, how will the Bodhisattva, the great being, when he has trained for the non-approp

-vanishing of all dharmas, go forth to all-knowledge? Subhuti : Because there the Bodhisattva, the great being, when he courses in perfect wisdom, does not see of form, etc., the production of stopping, nor the taking hold of or letting go, nor the defilement or purification, nor the heaping

rease or increase. And why? Because form, etc. does through its own-being not exist. It is thus that the Bodhisattva, the great being, trains for the sake of the non-production, non-stopping, non-appropriation, non-letting-go, non-defilement, non-purification, non-accumulation, non-taking-away, non-decrease and non-increase of all dharmas. When he trains in perfect wisdom, he will go forth to all-knowledge, by of non-training, by way of non-going-forth.

II 4. The Path of Vision and the Grea

t Advantage. II 4,1. THE GREAT ADVANTAGE, AND, WITH REFERENCE TO THE PATH OF VISION, ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERING. Sakra : Where, Rev. Sariputra, should one search for perfect wisdom? Sariputra : The per

exposition of the Sakra : It is, h

oly Subhuti, through your own might and authority that the holy Sariputra can say that the perfection of wisdom should be sought in the exposition of the Ven. Subhuti? Subhuti : This might is not mine, Kausika, this authority is not mine.

Subhuti : It is the Tatha

ority (adhisthana). For the Tathagata cannot be apprehended except through the fact that in his true nat

dence (niradhisthana; or, is without a solid basis), he cannot be 452 Here begins the Bodhisattva path. 261

apprehended except through Suchness. Without a fixed residence, Chief of Gods

residence, do you say that this is

aining power (authority)? Subhuti : So it is. Except through the fact that in his true nature he has no fixed residence; except through his Such

agata cannot be apprehended. And yet, the Tathagata is not apprehended in the fact that in his true nature he has no fixed residence, nor can the fact that in his true nature he has no fixed residence be apprehended in the Tathagata, nor can the Suchness be apprehended in him. The Tathagata cannot be apprehended in the Suchness of form, etc. nor can the Suchness of form, etc. be apprehended in the Tathagata; the Tathagata cannot be apprehended in the true nature of form, etc., nor can the true nature of form, etc. be apprehended in the Tathagata. And why? What is the Tathagata, that is not conjoined with the true nature of form, etc. nor disjoined from it. Nor is it conjoined with anything other than the Suchness of form, etc. or th

dharmas, or disjoined form them, it is his might, it is his sustaining power, by way of there being no sustaining power. And when,

again, Kausika, you ask, ‘where should a Bodhisattva, a great being, search for perfect wisdom?’, he should not search for it in form, etc. nor

in that which is other than form, etc. And why? Because the perfection of wisdom, and form, and the other skandhas, all these dhar

mas are not conjoined or disjoined, immaterial, invisible, non-resisting, with one mark only, i.e. no mark. Moreover, the Bodh

isattvashould not search for perfect wisdom through the knowledge of all modes, nor outside the knowledge of all modes. And why? Because the perfection of wisdom, the knowledge of all mod

es, and the searching, all these dharmas are not conjoined nor disjoined, invisible, non-resisting, with one mark only, i.e. no mark. And

why? Because there form, etc. is not the perfectio

om, nor is the perfection of wisdom other than form, etc.; and so for the true nature of form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. And why? Because there all these dharmas do not exist, and cannot be apprehended. Since thus all dharmas do not exist, and cannot be apprehended, therefore the perfection of wisdom is not

f form, etc. nor outside the true natur

262

II 4,2. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERING. Sakra : This is, Rev. Subhuti, a gr

hisattvas, the great beings, i.e. the perfection of wisdom, an immeasurable perfection, an unlimited perfection, an infinite perfection. Those who train i

the streamwinners attain the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: the Bodhisattvas, the great beings reach the knowledge of all modes, and they have known, they know, and they will know full enlightenment. Subhuti : So it is, Kausika. And why? Through the greatness of form, etc. is this a great perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. And why? Because of form, etc. no beginning can be apprehended, no end, and no middle. In this way is this a great perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. II 4,3. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERING. Through the immeasurableness of form, etc. is this an immeasurable perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. And why? Because of form, etc. no measure can be apprehended. Just as no measure can be apprehended of space, so also of form, etc. Through the measurelessness of space is the measurelessness of form, etc. and through the measurelessness of form, etc. is the measurelessness of the perfection of wisdom. In this way is an immeasurable perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. II 4,4. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF SUFFERING. Through the unlimitedness of form, etc. is this an unlimited perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. Just as no limit can be apprehended of space, so also of form, etc. Through the unlimitedness of space is the unlimitedness of form, etc. and through the unlimitedness of form, etc. is the unlimitedness of the perfection of wisdom. II 4,5. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION. a. The Negation of Cause : Through the infinitude of form, etc. is this an infinite perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. Just as no end can be apprehended of space, so also of form, etc. Through the infinitude of space is the infinitude of form, etc. and through the infinitude of form, etc. is the infinitude of the perfection 263

of wisdom. In this way is this an inf

hisattvas, the great beings, on account of the infinitude of form, etc. to the knowledge of all modes. b. The Negation of Origination : Moreover, Kausika, because of the infinitude of its objective support is this an infinite perception of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, i.e. the perfection of wisdom. Sakra : How is that so? Subhuti : Because of the infinitude of the objective support of the knowledge

hisattvas, the great beings, i.e. the perfection of wisdom. c. The Negation of the Product : Moreover, Kausika, because of the infinitude of the Dharma-element as an objective support is this an infinite perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, i.e. the perfection of wisdom.

Subhuti : Because the Dharma-element is an infinite objective

port. d. The Negation of Condition : Moreover, Kausika, because of the infinitude of Suchness as an objective support is this an infinite perfection of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, i.e. the perfection of wisdom. Sakra : How is that? Subhuti : Because of the infinitude of Suchness is there an infinitude of it as an objective support. It is thus that this is through the infinitude of Suchness as an objective support an infinite perfec

Moreover, Kausika, because of the infinitinfi

nite perfection. Sakra : How is that? Subhuti : What do you think, Kausika, what factual entity (dharma) does the word ‘being’ denote? Sakra : This word does not denote any factual entity; this word ‘being’ has been added on as something adventitious, groundless, unfounded on objective f

Subhuti : What do you think, Kausika, has in this perfection ofwisd

om any being been shown up? Sakra : No, Ven. Subhuti. Subhuti : When no being at all has been shown up, there cannot be an infinite number of beings. If the Tathagata, abiding 264

for aeons countless as the sands of the Ganges, would pronounce the word ‘being, being’, would thereby any being whatsoever be either produced or stopped? Sakra : No, holy Subhuti. And why? Because a being is perfectly pure from the very start. Subhuti : In this way should the infinitude of

265

CHAPTER 25

INFIN

266

and virtue, Well-Gone, a World-knower, unsurpassed, a leader of

men to be trained, a teac n, a Buddha, a Blessed

Lord’.

II 4,7. ACCEPTANCE O GNITION OF DHARMA IN

ORIGINATION.

The Gods : It is wonderful, O Lord, how much this perfection of

wisdom promotes the knowledge of all modes in the Bodhisattvas,

elop it, explain it to

othe

her of gods and meF SUBSEQUENT CO

the great beings, by way of the non-appropriation and the not-letting-go of form, etc. Thereupon the Lord saw that the four assemblies – the monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen – were assembled and seated, and so were the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, and the four great kings, the deities who belong to the Four Great Kings, and all the others, up to the Akanishtha gods, and that they all were present as attentive eye-witnesses, and he spoke thus to Sakra, Chief of Gods: Those Bodhisattvas, great beings, and those monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen, or those sons and daughters of good family, or those male and female deities who will take up this perfection of wisdom, bear it in mind, preach, study and dev

rs in detail and wisely attend to it, and also those who will not be lacking in the thought of the knowledge of all modes, Mara and his hosts will be unable to gain entry to them (so as to harm them). And why? Because these sons and daughters of good family will be well sustained by just the emptiness of form, by the emptiness of feelings, perceptions, impulses, and consciousness. And why? Because emptiness cannot gain entry into emptiness, nor the signless into the signless, nor the wishless into the wishless. In this way, to put it briefly, he is well sustained by the emptiness of the skandhas, elements, sense fields, conditioned coproduction, by the emptiness of the perfections, truths, superknowledges, Unlimited, trances and formless attainments, by the empti8ness of all emptinesses, all samadhis, all dharani-doors, the pillars of mindfulness, right efforts, roads to psychic power, dominants, powers, limbs of enlightenment, and paths, by the emptiness of the ten powers… the special Buddhadharmas, and finally by the emptiness of the knowledge of all modes. And why? Because emptiness cannot gain entry into emptiness, nor the signless into the signless, nor the wishless into the wishless. And why? Because there does not exist their own being, by which they could gain entry, or of which they could gain entry.

267

II 4,8. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION. It is therefore certain that neither men nor ghosts can gain entry to thos

sympathetic joy, and impartiality towards all beings, and that without takin

ghters of good family will also not die an untimely death. And why? Because those sons and daughters of good family have, coursing in the perfection of giving, presented all beings with all the correct serviceable things.

And those deities in this great trichiliocosm, from those who belong to the Four Great Kings, up to the Akanishtha gods, who have raised their thought to full enlightenment, but have not heard this perfection of wisdom, have not taken it up, not borne it in mind, not preached and studied it, those deities should listen to this perfection of wisdom, take it up, bear it in mind, preach and study it, and wisely attend to it, undeprived of the thought of all-knowledge. II 4,9. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN STOPPING. Moreover, Kausika, those sons and daughters of good family, who will take up this perfection of wisdom, who bear it in mind… and who are undeprived of the thought of the knowledge of all modes, they will certainly have no fear and they will not be stiff with fright – whether they have gone to an empty place, or an open space, or are on a highway. And why? Because they have well developed the emptiness of the subject, without taking it as a basis… the emptiness of the non-existence of own-being, without taking it as a basis. Thereupon all the gods in this great trichiliocosm said to the Lord: We shall always arrange for the shelter, defence, and protection of those sons and daughters of good family who will take up this perfection of wisdom, etc. and will not be lacking in the dwelling in all-knowledge. And why? Because it is thanks to the Bodhisattva that the hells are cut off, the animal births, the world of Yama, the worlds of the Asuras, and among men poverty, calamities, and misfortunes are cut off. Thanks to the Bodhisattva there is in the world a manifestation of the ten wholesome karma paths. And so of the four trances… Buddhadharmas; of wealthy warrior families, wealthy Brahmin families, the families of wealthy householders; of universal monarchs. In that way, thanks to the Bodhisattva, the gods are conceived; the fruit of a Streamwinner etc.; the m

268

the purification of Buddha-fields; the Tathagatas are co

world, those who turn the wheel of Dharma; the jewel of Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha. It is in this way, O Lord, that I will constantly arrange for the defence of the Bodhisattva, the great being, by the world with its gods, men, and Asuras. The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is, as you say. Thanks to the Bodhisattva, the great being, are all the hells cut off, the animal births, and the world of Yama; etc. to: thanks to him there is a manifestation of the Buddha-jewel, the Dharma-jewel, the Samgha-jewel. Therefore

great beings, be constantly honoured, revered, and worshipped by the world with its gods, men and Asuras, and constantly should their defence and protection be arranged. He would think that I should be revered, honoured, and worshipped, who would think that the Bodhisattva, the great being, should be honoured, revered, and worshipped. Therefore then, Kausika, should, by the world with its gods, men and Asuras, defence and protection constantly

If, Kausika, this great trichiliocosm were full of Dis

tyekabuddhas – like a thicket of reeds, sugar cane, rice, or sesamum plants, - and if some son or daughter of good family would, all their lives, honour, revere, and worship them, with all kinds of services, - and if another one would honour, revere, and worship one single Bodhisattva, who had produced the first thought of enlightenment and who were not lacking in the six perfections – then the latter would beget the greater merit. And why? Because it is not thanks to the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas that Bodhisattvas, great beings, and that Tathagatas are manifested in the world. But it is thanks to the Bodhisattva, the great being, that all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas are manifested in the world; and so the Tathagatas. Therefore then, Kausika, the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, should constantly be honoured, revered, and worshipped by the world with its gods, men and Asuras, and defence and protection should always be arranged for them.

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CHAPTER 26 GAINS

II 4,10. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN STOPPING. Sakra : It is wonderful, O Lord, to what an extent the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, who take up this perfection of wisdom, and bear it in mind, acquire good qualities, mature beings, purify the Buddha-field, and pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field. When they honour the Buddhas, the Lords, the wholesome roots by which they desire to honour, revere, and worship the Buddhas, the Lords, these wholesome roots flourish. And the Dharma which they hear from the Buddhas, the Lords, that they never again forget, until they have known ful

they gain the accomplishment of wholesomeness, and that of the retinue, the marks, the halo, the eye, the voice, the concentration, the dharanis. Having through skill in means conjured up for themselves a Buddha-frame, they pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field. Where there is no production of manifestation of the Buddhas, the Lords, there they preach in praise of the perfection of giving… perfection of wisdom; of the 18 kinds of emptiness; of the 4 trances… the 18 special Buddha-dharmas. And through skill in means they demonstrate Dharma to beings. They discipline beings in the three vehicles, the Disciple-vehicle, the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle, the Buddha-vehicle. II 4,11. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION IN STOPPING. Thereupon, again, Sakra said to the Lord: It is wonderful how, where this deep perfection of wisdom is taken up (gained), a

270

And again, Kausika, as to the qualities which a son or daughter

of good family acquire hen they take up the

perfection of wisdom, be h, study, and copy, and

wisely attend to it – listen well to them, with well-placed attention, I

will teach them to you.

So be it, Lord, replied Sakr ods, to the Lord.

The Lord : If any son or daughter of good family who is not a

Buddhist, if Mara, or the deities of Mara’s host, if a conceited person

great being, from this

perf

rahatship, Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment, the

utmost right and perfect enlightenment. These, Kausika, will be in

, a great

bei

a future

life

PPING.

in this very life, war it in mind, preaca, Chief of G

wants to dissuade the Bodhisattva, the

ection of wisdom, wants to contend against it, to quarrel with it, to contradict it, their quarrels, contentions and contradictions that may have been produced, will quickly simply vanish again. Their intentions will not be fulfilled. And why? For there the Bodhisattva, the great being, has coursed for a long time in the perfection of giving… perfection of wisdom; having forsaken in every way all the inner and outer dharmas through which beings for a long time undertake quarrels, contentions, and disputes, (he has established those beings in the perfection of giving); having forsaken the inner and outer dharmas through which beings for a long time undertake immorality, the Bodhisattva, the great being, establishes those beings in morality; having forsaken those inner and outer dharmas through which beings for a long time are driven to wrath, ill will and doing harm, the Bodhisattva establishes those beings in patience;… sloth… the perfection of vigour;… distracted thought… trance;… stupidity… in the great wisdom; that through which beings for a long time wander about in Samsara, i.e. the obsession with affection and aversion, from that the Bodhisattva, the great being, leads those beings away through his skill in means, and he establishes those beings in the four trances, the four Unlimited… in A

this very life the qualities and advantages of a Bodhisattva

ng, who goes on the pilgrimage of a bodhisattva. And in a future life he will further awake to full enlightenment, and, having turned the wheel of Dharma, and having established beings in accordance with his (initial) vow, he will lead them into the element of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind. These will be in

the qualities and advantages of a Bodhisattva, a great being. II 4,12. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION IN STO

271

Moreover, Kausika, the spot of earth in which the sons and daughters of good family take up this perfection of wisdom, bear it in mind, preach and study it, and wisely attend to it, in that spot of earth the Maras or the divinities of Mara’s host, or the wanderers of other sects, or conceited

ught. When there is a quarrel, contention, or contradic

perfection of wisdom… they will further have other qualities and advantages, i.e. by means of listening to this perfection of wisdom they will, after they have gradually gone forth by means of the three vehicles, make an end of ill. There is, Kausika, a herb, Maghi by name. Suppose a viper, famished, desirous of food, searching for food, were to see a creature. Wanting to eat that creature, it would pursue it. But if that creature went to a patch of that herb, then the viper would be turned back by the smell of that herb. And why? Because that herb has such a healing quality that it overpowers that viper’s poison. So powerful, Kausika, is that herb. Just so with any son or daughter of good family who will take up this perfection of wisdom. Those quarrels, contentions, and contradictions which may have arisen, they will, through the piercing flame of the perfection of wisdom, and through its power, quickly be destroyed and appeased. Wherever they will arise, they will quickly vanish again, they will not grow, but will be appeased. II 4,13. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH. And why? Because the perfection of wisdom appeases all dharmas, and does not increase them. Which dharmas? I.e. greed, hate, delusion, ignorance, the karma formations… the whole mass of ill; the hindrances, latent biases, the obsessions; the view of a self, the view of a being…; immorality…; the notion of permanence…; the seizing on the perfection of giving… the seizing on Nirvana. II 4,14. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH. And the great kings in this great trichiliocosm, the world guardians, Sakra, Chief of Gods,… Sahapati up to the Akanishtha gods, they will always arrange for the shelter, defence, and protection of that Bodhisattva, that great being, who will take up

who stand, hold, and maintain themselves

272

wh

and he praises others also

wh

es, that he makes

common to all beings and then turns it over to the supreme

a basis.

Wh

a rebirth in the ythree states of woe, and not among

men or gods, and neither the maturing of beings nor the purifying

-knowledge will not be

acq

olesome dharmas, and they will grow in them, i.e. the six perfections, and that without taking them as a basis; in the emptinesses, etc. II 4,15. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH. And he will be one of acceptable speech, of measured speech. Wrath and conceit will not overpower him, and he will not be mean… He himself will be one who abstains from taking life and others also he establishes in abstention from taking life, and he praises the abstaining from taking life,

o abstain from taking life, one acquiescent. He himself… not take what is not given… (Ad fol. 295)… one acquiescent. He himself… the perfection of patience… He himself stands in the perfection of wisdom and others also he establishes in the perfection of wisdom; he praises… he will be acquiescent… He himself enters into all concentrations… dharanis… He himself will develop the concentration of emptiness, the signless, the wishless, and others also he will establish in them… knowledge of all modes… acquiescent. II 4,16. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH. Moreover, Kausika, the Bodhisattva, the great being, when he courses in the six perfections, whatever gift he giv

enlightenment, and that without taking anything as

atever morality he guards… When he courses thus, there arises in the son or daughter of good family, who courses in the six perfections, this mindful recollection: If I do not give gifts, I shall be reborn in the states of woe, and there will be no maturing of beings (for me), nor a purifying of the Buddha-field, nor will I gain all-knowledge. It occurs to him: If I do not guard morality, there will be for me

of the Buddha-field will be done, and all

uired. It occurs to him: If I do not develop patience, my faculties will go to pieces, my face will be (disfigured?), nor will I acquire that perfect form by the mere sight of which, when I course on the course of a Bodhisattva, beings become fixed on supreme enlightenment, nor can I mature beings through my perfect form or purify the Buddha-field, and how much less will I acquire all-knowledge. It occurs to him: When I become lazy and do not

273

develop the path of a Bodhisattva, and do not exert vigour, how can I fulfil the Buddhadharmas, and how can I gain all-knowledge. It occurs to him: If

mature beings, or purify the Buddha-field, how much less ca

knowledge of all modes. It occurs to him: If I, weak in wisdom and unskilled in means, having transcended the level of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, having matured beings and having purified the Buddha-field (except to), fully know all-knowledge… I would not fulfil the perfection of giving through meanness, the perfection of morality through immorality, the perfection of patience through ill-will, the perfection of vigour through sloth, the perfection of wisdom through stupidity. And without fulfilling the six perfections I shall not go forth to the knowledge of all modes. It is thus, Kausika, that that son or daughter of good family acquires qualities and advantages belonging to both this and the next life, if he takes up, etc. this perfection of wisdom and becomes not lacking in the thought of all-knowledge.

5,1-2. THE ACTIVITY OF BEING EVERYWHERE SELF-DISCIPLINED AND HUMBLE. Sakra : It is wonderful how much this perfection of wisdom has been set up for the control and transformation of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings! The Lord : How does it do so? Sakra : Here the Bodhisattva, the great being, coursing in the worldly perfection of wisdom, gives gifts to the Buddhas and Lords, to the Pratyekabuddhas, and to the Disciples, and it does not occur to him: I give gifts as a Bodhisattva to the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, to those who are miserable, to mendicants,… and through this lack of skill in means he becomes arrogant. To a Bodhisattva who guards worldly morality it occurs: ‘I course in the perfection of morality, I fulfil the perfection of morality’, and through that he becomes arrogant. To a Bodhisattva who develops worldly patience it occurs: ‘I course in the perfection of patience, I fulfil the perfection of patience’, and through that he becomes arrogant. And so with a Bodhisattva who exerts worldly vigour, who enters on worldly concentration, who develops worldly wisdom. To a Bodhisattva who has stood in the development of 274

the applications of mindfulness it occurs: ‘I develop the application of mindfulness… I shall obtain the knowledge of all modes’. (Not?) coursing in these I-making dharmas, he gives gifts, but he does not apprehend the gift, or the giver, he does not apprehend the recipient, and he does not apprehend that which he bestows. It is thus that the Bodhisattva, the great being who courses in perfection wisdom, has been set up for control and for transformation. Likewise, when he develops the other five perfections, he does not apprehend anything. The Bodhisattva, the great being who thus courses in perfection wisdom, has been set up for control and transformation.

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CHAPTER 27 THE SHRINE

,3. VICTORY OVER THE DEFILEMENTS. Thereupon, the Lord said to Sakra, Chief of Gods: If, Kausika, any son or daughter of good family, while he takes up this deep perfection of wis

276

set his heart on disturbing his own peace, nor that of others, nor

that of both himself and

II 5,5. RIGHT AND PERFECT E .

And why? He does is self, or of others, or

of both himself and others. He does not make a basis of form,

feeling,… consciousness,… Buddhadharmas, or even the

knowledge of all modes. Since he does not apprehend them, he

or

. And those gods will come there to honour, revere, and

worship the perfection of wisdom, and, having worshipped it, they

and preaches this

per

undisturbed peace, and, having done so, they establish countless

others. NLIGHTENMENT not make a basis of h

does not set his heart on disturbing his

own peace, or that of others, of both himself and others. He acquires the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. He surveys (the thoughts of) all beings. And why? As they trained themselves in this lore, the former Tathagatas have fully known the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. And also those Tathagatas who will be in the future period, also they will, training themselves in this lore, fully awake to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. And also those who are just now, in the ten directions, the immeasurable Tathagatas, they also have, by training themselves in this lore, fully known the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. II 5,6. THE WORTHINESS OF BEING WORSHIPPED. Moreover, Kausika, where this perfection of wisdom, after it has been written down, has been taken up, etc. there men and ghosts who seek for entry, who search for entry, do not gain entry. And why? Because there, so as to worship the perfection of wisdom, all the gods in the great trichiliocosm arrange shelter, defence, and protection for these sons and daughters of good family who will bear in mind this perfection of wisdom after it has been written down

will go away again. He who bears in mind

fection of wisdom after it has been written down will have these qualities advantages belonging to this life. Just as those who have gone to the circumference of the terrace of enlightenment, or to its interior, cannot, even with the help of evil animal beings, be hurt or injured by men or ghosts. And why? Because, seated on it, the Tathagatas of the past have known full enlightenment, and so do those of the future and of the present; and after they have known full enlightenment, they establish all beings in ease, fearlessness, freedom from anxiety, lack of fright, nonenemity, inviolability and 277

beings in heavenly and human benefits, in the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. And why?

being honoured, revered and worshipped

. II 6. Resolute Faith. II 6,1. ONE AIMS AT ONE’S OWN WELFARE. II 6,1,1. VERY WEAK. Sakra : Suppose that there are two persons: One of the two, a son or daughter of good family, has written down this perfection of wisdom and made a copy of it, bear it in mind, honours, reveres, adores and worships it with flowers, wreaths, perfumes, unguents, aromatic powders, strips of cloth, parasols, banners, and flags. The other would erect a Stupa for the relics of the Tathagata who has gone to Parinirvana, and look after it, and would honour, etc. it with flowers, etc. Which one of the two would beg

The Lord : I will question you on this point

the best of your abilities. What do you think, Kausika, with regard to that knowledge of all modes which the Tathagata has obtained and to that body which he has brought forth, in which progressive practices did the Tathagata train so that he could obtain the knowledge of all modes and bring forth that personality? Sakra : It is because the Tathagata has trained in this perfection of wisdom that he has obtained the knowledge of all modes. The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. It is through training in the perfection of wisdom that I have obtained the knowledge of all modes. It is not by his acquisition of this body (which is the basis of the relics) that the Tathagata derives his name, but from his having acquired the knowledge of all modes. And this knowledge of all modes has come forth from the perfection of wisdom. Just so this body is the true foundation of the cognition of the knowledge of all modes. And, supported by this foundation has the Tathagata obtained the knowledge of all modes. Thus as the true foundation of that cognition of the knowledge of all modes has this body become a true shrine for all beings, worthy of being revered, adored, worshipped, honoured and saluted respectfully. 278

Just so, when I have gone to Parinirvana, also my relics will be worshipped. The son or daughter of good family who, having written this perfection of wisdom, will take it up, study, and bear it in mind, etc. to: honour, revere, adore, and worship it with flowers, etc. h

Tathagata who has gone

someone who studies and worships thisbeget the greater heap of

it are the five perfectionappl

ications of mindfulness, etc. to: the 18 special Buddhadharmas, all concentrations, all Dharanis, the maturing of beings, the accomplishment of the Buddha-field, the Bodhisattva’s accomplishments of the family, the body, the enjoyment, the retinue; the great friendliness, the great compassion, the good warrior, Brahmin and householder families, the various kinds of gods, the Streamwinners, etc. to: the Pratyekabuddhas, the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, the Tathagatas and the knowledge of all modes.

II 6,1,2. MODERATELY WEAK. Sakra : Those men of Jambudvipa who do not honour, revere, adore, and worship this perfection of wisdom, do they not know that the cult of the perfections of wisdom is greatly profitable? The Lord : What do you think, Kausika, how many men of Jam

budvipa are endowed with unbroken faith in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Samgha; how many are free from hesitation abo

ut the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Samgha; how many are unquestionably certain about the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Samgha? Sakra : Only a few. The Lord : What do you think, Kausika, how many men of Jambudvipa have acquired the 37 dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment, the three doors to deliverance, etc. to: the six super-knowledges; how many have through the forsaking of the three fetters become Streamwinners, etc. to: how many have set out for the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha or for full enlightenment? Sakra : Only a few.

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The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. Few are those beings who are endowed with unbroken faith in the Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha; fewer are those who are free hesitation about the Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha; fewer still those who are unquestionably certain about the Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha. Fewer still those who have acquired the 37 dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment. Fewer and fewer those who are Streamwinners, etc. to: those who have set out for full enlightenment, and fewest those who course in enlightenment. And why? Because formerly, when they wandered about in Samsara, they have not seen the Buddha, heard the Dharma, honoured the Samgha; they have given no gifts, failed to guard morality, develop patience, exert vigour, develop the perfection of giving, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. It is by this method, Kausika, that one should know that few are the men of Jambudvipa who are endowed with an unbroken faith in the Buddha, etc. to: fewest are those who with earnest intention course in enlightenment. Leaving aside, Kausika, the human beings, what do you think, how many living beings of Jambudvipa have acquired the 37 dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment

hesitations about the suprem

rma, and Samgha; how many honour their parents and the elders of the family, give gifts, guard the morality, observe the Uposatha days; how many perceive that they ought to be agita

ut their body, perceive that it is impermanent, that it does not belong to them, that it is unlovely, or perceive that there is nothing to delight in anywhere in the world, and how many have set out for the supreme enlightenment? Sakra : Very few indeed. The Lo

living beings who h

gs to enlightenment, etc. to: who have set out for the supreme enlightenment. Fewer than these are those who course in the supreme enlightenment. Fewer still than these are those who want to fully know the supreme enlightenment. Here Kausika, with my unobstructed Buddha-eye I see in all directions in countless world systems innumerable beings who course in the supreme enlighte

280

be

of concentration, etc. to: to all

kno nowledge of all modes. And why?

Just

definitely established on the level of the Disciples or Pratyekabuddhas. And why? Those who are lazy, of inferior vigour, inferior beings, of inferior resolve and stupid find it hard to come up to the supreme enlightenment. II 6,1,3. FAIRLY WEAK. Therefore then, Kausika, those sons and daughters of good family who have set out for the supreme enlightenment, if they want quickly and easily to know the supreme enlightenment, they should learn this perfection of wisdom, bear it in mind, preach, study, and wisely attend to it; in addition they should honour, revere, and worship it with flowers, etc. And whichever other dharmas are contained within this perfection of wisdom they also should be learned, etc., i.e. the six perfections, the various kinds of emptiness, etc. to: the superknowledges, and all the other immeasurable Buddhadharmas. And why? Because those sons and daughters of good family will cognize that therein the Tathagata has trained in the past when he coursed in the practice of a Bodhisattva, that they also should likewise train in it, and that the perfection of wisdom is the Teacher, and that also the other immeasurable Buddhadharmas are the religion of the Buddhas, the Lords. Training in this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: in the knowledge of all modes, the Buddhas and Lords, the Pratyekabuddhas, the Arhats, the never-Returners, the Once-Returners and the Stream-winners have gone beyond, do go beyond, will go beyond. Therefore then, Kausika, the sons and daughters of good family should, whether the Tathagata is present or has gone to Parinirvana, run back to just this perfection of wisdom, to the perfections

wledge, etc. to: to the k

this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: just this knowledge of all modes is the support of all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, and of the world with its gods, men, and Asuras. II 6,1,4. WEAKLY MEDIUM. If some son or daughter of good family would build, for the worship of the Tathagata who has disappeared into final Nirvana, a Stupa made of the seven precious things, one hundred miles high and half a mile broad, and would all his life honour, etc. it with 281

flowers, etc. what do you think, Kausika, would they on the strength of that beget a great heap of merit? Sakra : They would, O Lord. The Lord : Greater would be the merit

it, bear it in mind, preac

o others, will not be without the thought of the knowledge of all modes, and will in addition honour it, revere, and worship it with flowers, etc. II 6,1,5. MODERATELY MEDIUM. Leaving aside the Stupa, - if some son or daughter of good family, when the Tathagata has gone to Parinirvana, would fill this Jambudvipa with Stupas made of the seven precious things, hundreds of miles high and half a mile broad, and would honour, etc. them all his life with flowers, etc. – what do you think, Kausika, would they on the strength of that beget a great deal of merit? Sakra : They would, O Lord. The Lord : Greater would be the merit of one who learns the perfection of wisdom (etc. as before). II 6,1,6. STRONGLY MEDIUM. And the same holds good if we replace Jambudvipa by this four continent world system, or II 6,1,7. WEAKLY STRONG. by a small chiliocosm, or II 6,1,8. MEDIUM STRONG. a medium dichiliocosm, or II 6,1,9. STRONGLY STRONG. a great trichiliocosm.

II 6,2. ONE AIMS AT THE WE

II 6,2,1. VERY WEAK. Leaving aside the great trichiliocosm; if each of all the beings in the great trichiliocosm would build Stupas, etc. – greater will be the

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Sakra : So it is, O Lord. Those who honour, etc. the perfection of wisdom do honour, etc. the past, present, an

ch one of all the beings in the

ctions would build Stupas, etc. and honour, etc. them for an aeon or for the remainder of an aeon, would they on the strength of that beget a great deal of merit? The Lord : They would, Kausika. Sakra : Greater would be the merit of those who would learn, etc. the per

the ten wholesome paths of a

des. This is the religion of the Buddhas and Lords; having trained therein, all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, as well as the past, present, and future Buddhas and Lords, have gone to the Beyond of all Dharmas, do go to it, will go to it.

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CHAPTER 28 THE PROCLAMATION OF A

BODHISATTVA’S QUALITIES The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. These sons and daughters of good family will beget a great deal of merit, they will beget a merit which is immeasurable, incalculable, inconceivable, incomparable, illimitable, if, having copied this perfecti

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unwholesome dharmas wane away and the wholesome dharmas go

to the fulfilment of the e heavenly hosts wax

strong, and the hosts of way. The guide of the

Buddha will not be cut off, nor the guide of the Dharma, nor the

guide of the uld not be

interrupted, t all the

perfections, of the 37 dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment,

of the cour rhat, the

fully Enlightened One.

The Lord : Kausika, do take up the perfection of wisdom, bear it

in mind, preach and

Buddha-dharmas.

Sakra : A great lore is this perfection of wisdom, the utmost lore,

why? Because the perfection of

wisd

ir development; th the Asuras wane a Samgha. So that the Triple Jewel shohere takes place in this world a manifestation ofse of a Bodhisattva and of the Tathagata, the A

study it, and wisely attend to it! And why? If the Asuras form the idea of having a fight with the Gods of the Thirty-three, then, if you, Kausika, bring to mind this perfection of wisdom, repeat and wisely attend to it, those Asuras will drop that idea again. Nor will the mental processes grow which occur to the male or female deities at the time of their decease, when they see their future rebirth; when you, Kausika, repeat this perfection of wisdom in from of them, then through that wholesome root and through hearing the perfection of wisdom they are again once more reborn among the gods. And why? So greatly profitable is it to hear the perfection of wisdom! Whichever son or daughter of good family, whichever male or female deity comes to hear of this perfection of wisdom, they will all, through that wholesome root, in due course know full enlightenment. And why? Those, Kausika, who in the past period were Tathagatas, with their congregations of disciples, they have, by having trained in this perfection of wisdom, won final Nirvana in the realm of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind. And the same holds good of the Tathagatas who, with their congregation of disciples, just now stand, hold, and maintain themselves, in the ten directions, they all have known full enlightenment, because they have trained in just this perfection of wisdom. And why? Because in the perfection of wisdom are contained all the dharmas which act as wings of enlightenment, be they Disciples-dharmas, Pratyekabuddha-dharmas, Bodhisattva-dharmas, or

the unequalled lore. And

om spurns all unwholesome dharmas and bestows all wholesome dharmas. The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. A great lore, the utmost lore, the unequalled lore is this perfection of wisdom. And why? 285

Because those who were Tathagatas in the past period, they have, thanks to this lore, fully known the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. Those also who will be Tathagatas in a future period, they will, thanks to this lore, fully know the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. Those Tathagatas also who stand, hold, and maintain themselves just now in the world systems in the ten directions, they also do, thanks to this lore, fully know the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. And why? Because, Kausika, thanks to this

eived in the world, the four trances, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. Also thanks to the Bodhisattvas the 10 wholesome paths of action are brought about, and so are the four trances, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes, and the Streamwinner, etc. to: the Tathagatas. Just as, thanks to the disk of the moon all the hosts of the brightly shining stars become manifest and the constellations are conceived, just so, whatever wholesome conduct, whatever right conduct there is, the ten paths of wholesome action, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes – when no Tathagatas are produced all that should be known as having issued from the Bodhisattvas, as having been begotten by the Bodhisattvas. And that skill in means of the Bodhisattva, the great being, should be known as issued form the perfection of wisdom. Endowed with this skill in means the Bodhisattva courses in the perfections, the various kinds of emptiness, the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the 18 special Buddhadharmas. He does not fall on the level of the Disciples, does not realize the level of the Pratyekabuddhas, but matures beings and purifies the Buddha-field. And he acquires the accomplishment of long life, of beings, of the Buddha-field and of becoming a Bodhisattva; and he reaches the knowledge of all modes. Moreover, the son or daughter of good family who takes up this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: attends to it wisely, become endowed with these qualities belonging to this very life. Sakra : Which are those qualities? The Lord : He will not die from poison, or sword, from fire or water, etc. to: from … or sickness, except a

deeds. As to the calamities which threaten them from the courts of princes, if a son or daughter of good family approach the princely court while repeating this perfection of wisdom, then no harm can befall them.

t them with loving words, to converse with them, to be polite and friendly to them. And why? That is the might of the majesty 286

of just this perfection of wisdom! If a son or daughter of good family approach a princely court while repeating this perfection of wisdom, kings and ministers will think that they should address them with loving words, that they should converse with them, and give them a friendly greeting. And why? Because, Kausika, those sons and daughters of good family have set up towards all beings a thought of friendliness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and impartiality. Endowed with these good qualities relating to this very life will be that son or daughter of good family who will take up this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: wisely attend to it. And, Kausika, what qualities relating to the next world will he be endowed with? He will never be lacking in the ten paths of wholesome action, the four trances, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas. He will never be reborn in the hells, as an animal, or in the world of Yama. He will never be crippled. He will never be reborn in poor families, or in the families of jugglers, refuse workers, or ‘vultures’, except as a result of his vow to mature beings. Constantly and always he will be endowed with the 32 marks of a superman. He will be miraculously reborn in those Buddha-fields where he can be face to face with the Buddhas, the Lords. Never will he be lacking in the super-knowledges of a Bodhisattva. He will, as he plans, pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, for the sake of honouring the Buddhas, the Lords, and of hearing the Dharma. Passing on form Buddha-field to Buddha-field he will mature beings and purify the Buddha-field. Therefore then, those sons and daughters of good family who desire this accomplishment of qualities, should take up this perfection of wisdom, study it, recite it, and wisely attend to it, and they should not become lacking in the thought of the knowledge of all modes. They will be endowed with these qualities, belonging to this and the next life, until they will fully know the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment.

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CHAPTER 29 THE HERETICS Thereupon a hundred wanderers of other sects with hostile intent approached to where the Lord was. And it

ra: Those hundred wanderers of other sects approach with hostile intent to where the Lord is. What if now as much as I have learned of the perfection of wisdom from the Lord, if I repeat just that, so that those heretical wanderers, when they have approached, do not cause an obstacle to the Lord, and to the perfection of wisdom being preached. Thereupon Sakra, Chief of Gods, repeated as much of the perfection of wisdom as he had learned. Thereupon those wanderers of other sects, having from afar reverently saluted the Lord, again went away by that path, by that door. Thereupon it occurred the Ven. Saradvatiputra: For what reason have those heretical wanderers, after they had from afar reverently saluted the Lord, again gone away by that path, by that door? The Lord read Sariputra’s thoughts and said to him: It is because Sakra, Chief of Gods, has brought to mind this perfection of wisdom. Because, Sariputra, I see not even one single salubrious dharma in those heretical wanderers. They all wanted to approach with hostile intent, with thoughts of enmity. Nor do I see anyone in this world with its gods, Maras, Brahmas, Sramanas and Brahmanas, who, when this perfection of wisdom is

288

Mahoragas. And why? Because they all have issued from the

perfection of wisdom.

Thereupon it occur Evil One: The four

assemblies are seated face to face with the Tathagata, and so are

the gods of the realm e realm of form. In

this assembly Bodhisattva, great bein

full enlightenment. Let me now approach to where the Lord is in

order to blind them.

been conjured up by Mara,

the

it! Thereupon

Sak

reupon the Gods of the Thirty-three etc. to: the highest gods

in th

red to Mara, theof sense desire and of thgs, are sure to be predicted to

Thereupon Mara, the Evil One, conjured up a fourfold army and wanted to approach where the Lord was. Thereupon it occurred to Sakra, Chief of Gods: Surely, this is Mara, the Evil One, who, having conjured up a fourfold army, wants to approach to where the Lord is. But this array of the fourfold army of Mara, the Evil One, is not such as the array of the fourfold army of King Bimbisara, or of king Prasenajit, or of the Sakyas, or the Licchavis. This fourfold army has

Evil One. For a long time indeed has Mara, the Evil One, looked for a chance to do harm to the Lord, has intended to hurt beings who exert themselves rightly. I will now bring this perfection of wisdom to mind, recall, and repeat

ra, Chief of Gods, called to mind this perfection of wisdom, and repeated it in his memory. Immediately Mara, the Evil One, turned back on the path, on the door (by which he had come). The

e assembly conjured up heavenly flowers, flew through the air, and scattered and showered them over the Lord. And they spoke these words: For a long time surely has this perfection of wisdom been pursued by the men of Jambudvipa! Certainly, as long as the men of Jambudvipa pursue this perfection of wisdom, for so long in the great trichiliocosm, in the world systems in the ten directions all around, the Tathagata will not disappear, the Dharma will last long, the Jewel of the Samgha will be manifest in the world, and the specific practices of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, will be conceived! And in whichever part of the world those sons and daughters of good family will bear in mind this perfection of wisdom and make it into a book, there one would expect them to be born of light, protected by saviours, and free from darkness and blindness. The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. O deities, so it is. As long as the men of Jambudvipa will pursue this perfection of wisdom, for so long the Tathagata will not disappear, the Dharma will last long and the Jewel of the Samgha will be conceived in the world, etc. to:

289

in the great trichiliocosm, in the world systems in the ten direction all around, the Tathag

blindness. Thereupon those deities once more conjured up heavenly Kusuma flowers, scattered them over the Lord, and spoke these words: Mara and his host will have no chance to harm those sons and daughters of good family who take up this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: wisely attend to it. We also, O Lord, will constantly and alwa

tection of this son or daughter of good family! And why? For they will be endowed with no small who

illed their duties under the Jinas of the past, they have honoured many Buddhas, they have been taken hold of be the good spiritual friends. And why? One should search for all-knowledge through the perfection of wisdom, and this perfection of wisdom, in its turn, should be searched for through the perfection of wisdom. And why? Because, O Lord, the perfection of wisdom is not one thing and all-knowledge another; but perfect wisdom and all-knowledge are not two or divided. The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. The all-knowledge of the Tathagatas has issued from the perfection of wisdom, and vice versa. And why? For the perfection of wisdom is not one thing, and all-knowledge another; all-knowledge is not one thing, and the perfection of wisdom another; but perfect wisdom a

knowledge are not two or divided.

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CHAPTER 30 THE ADVANTAGES OF BEARING IN MIND AND OF REVERENCE II 6,2,3. FAIRLY WEAK. Ananda : The Lord does not proclaim the name of the perfection of giving, nor of the perfection of morality, patience, vigour, and concentration, but only that of the perfection of wisdom. He does not proclaim the name of everything up to the 18 special Buddhadharmas, but only that of the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : The p

ections etc. to: the 18 special Buddhadharmas. What do you think, Ananda, is a giving undedicated to all-knowledge a perfect giving? Ananda : No indeed, O Lord. And so with morality, patience, etc. Ananda : How, on the other hand, does a giving dedicated to all-knowledge become a perfect giving? How does wi

291

mindfulness, etc. to: the 18 special Buddhadharmas. Therefore,

then, Ananda, the perfe the leader of these five

perfection, etc. to: of the dharmas.

I

Sakra : The Tathagata, O Lord, has not yet proclaimed all the

qualities of the perfection ich a son or

daughter of good his perfection of

wisdom, bear it in min, peach and study it, and wisely attend to it.

By the perfection of wisdom beings learned, etc. to: wisely

s place in the world a manifestation of the

mind, recite it and attend

to it ng in the thought of the

kno

s of

mor

ction of wisdom is 18 special BuddhaI 6,2,4. WEAKLY MEDIUM. of wisdom, qualities wh family acquire when they learn t

attended to, there take10 w

holesome paths of action, etc. to: of the Buddha-dharmas, of good warrior families, etc. to: of the Tathagatas. The Lord : These, I say, are not the only qualities gained through the perfection of wisdom. And why? Such sons and daughters of good family will be endowed with an immeasurable mass of morality, and they will not be lacking in the thought

of the knowledge of all modes. They will be endowed with an immeasurable mass of concentration, wisdom, emancipation, and vision and cognition of emancipation, if they will take up this perfectio

n of wisdom, study it, bear it in wisely, and they will not b

e lackiw

ledge of all modes. As progressing in the direction of the Tathagata should those sons or daughters of good family be known, who will take up, etc. this perfection of wisdom and are not lacking in thu

e thoght of the knowledge of all modes. If we compare, Kausika, the mass of morality, of concentration, of wisdom, the mass of emancipation and the mass of the cognition and vision of emancipation of all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas with the mas

ality, etc., of these sons or daugh

ters of good family, then that of all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas does not approach one hundredth part, etc. to: it does not bear comparison. And why? Because those whose thought has been set free on the level of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas do not understand any dharma. Of the sons and daughters of good family, who, having written this perfection of wisdom, will take it up, etc. to: wisely attend to it, and will honour, revere, adore, and worship it with flowers, incense, scents, wreaths, unguents, rags, parasols, banners, bells, and manifold musical instruments, of those sons or daughters of good family I also just so preach the qualities, relating to this and to the next life.

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II 6,2,5. MODERATELY MEDIUM. Sakra : I also, O Lord, will constantly arrange for the shelter, defence, and protection of that son or daughter of good

instruments.

The Lord : When again this son or daughter of good family will joyfully approach in order to hear the Dharma, then the gods will think that of that son etc., who demonstrates the Dharma associated with the perfection of wisdom, the readiness of speech should be brought out. But when the dharma-preachers are not willing to gratify them, the gods will think that by means of just that respect for Dharma their readiness of speech should be brought about. Also this quality, belonging to this very li

who will take up this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: manifold musical instruments. And again, Kausika, that son, etc., who preaches this perfection of wisdom, will not feel any despondency in front of the assemblies, from fear that someone will censure or reprove him. And why? Because this perfection of wisdom will arrange for his shelter, defence, and protection. And why? Because in this perfection of wisdom all dharmas… - worldly and supramundane, with and without outflows, common and uncommon, wholesome and unwholesome, conditioned and unconditioned, Disciple-dharmas, Pratyekabuddha-dharmas, and Buddha-dharmas. And why? Because this is the statute of all wholesome dharmas. And that son, etc., established in subjective emptiness, etc. does not review, in the perfection of wisdom, the reproving, or him who would reprove, and also that perfection of wisdom he does not review. Thus certainly no one will reprove that son or daughter of good family, because they are upheld by the perfection of wisdom. And again, Kausika, the thought of that son or daughter of good family who takes up this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: wisely attends to it, will not become cowed or despondent, will not tremble, be frightened, or terrified. And why? Because they do not review an entity which could make them cowed or despondent, frightened or terrified. Those qualities belonging to this very life will those gain who take up this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: will attend to it wisely; how much more so if they will, having copied it, honour it, etc. to: manifold musical instruments. II 6,2,6 S

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And again, Kausika, this

ection of wisdom, etc. to: musical instruments, he will be dear to his mother and father, to friends, Shramanas and Brahmanas. And he will also be dear and pleasing to the Buddhas, the Lords in the world sys

t beings, to the Pratyekabuddhas, the Arhats, the Never-returners, the Once-returners and Streamwinners, and to the world with its gods, with its Maras, with its Brahmas, this world with its Shramanas and Brahmanas, with gods, men, and Asuras. II 6,2,7 WEAKLY STRONG. His inspiration will be unbroken; unbroken will be to him the perfection of giving, etc. to: the perfection of wisdom, the development of the subjective, etc. emptiness, of the four applications of mindfulness, et

centrations, of the dharanis, of the superknowledges; unbroken will be his maturing, the perfect purity of his Buddhafield, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. And he will be competent, in accordance with Dharma to get out of the counter-questions which may be put to him. Also these qualities belonging to this and the next life are acquired by someone who will take up, etc. this perfection of wisdom, and he will not be lacking in the dwelling in the knowledge of all modes when, having copied it out, he will honour it, etc. to: and worship it with flowers. II 6,2,8 MEDIUM STRONG. Moreover, when a son or daughter of good family has made this perfection of wisdom into a written book, and bears it in mind, recites and studies it, then those among the gods of the Four Great Kings who have set out for full enlightenment will come to

that place, will learn this perfection of wisdom, bear it in mind, recite and study it, pay homage to it, salute it respectfully, and then they will depart again. And so will all the gods, up to the Highest Gods. And those Mahabrahma gods who have made a vow to win the supreme enlightenment will come there, learn, study, bear in mind, recite and respectfully salute this perfection of wisdom, and then they will depart again. And so with the gods, from the Gods of the Pure Abode to the Highest Gods. And that son or daughter of good family should wish that all the gods in the wo

as other gods, Nagas, Ya

294

Kin

for past deeds. This is another quality which that son or daughter

is very life. And why? Because those

god

eavenly odour, not

smelled before. Furthermore, clean and pure habits will attract

, etc. this perfection of wisdom, and will

enr

naras, and Mahoragas should, after having come there and learned, etc. to: worshipped this perfection of wisdom, come there again and receive this gift of Dharma. And those gods in all the world systems in all the ten directions who have set out for the supreme enlightenment will come there, will learn this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: worship it, and will then depart again. And all these gods will arrange shelter, defence, and protection for that son or daughter of good family. Nor will anyone who looks for entry or seeks for entry gain entry to him, except as a karmic punishment

of good family gains in th

s who have set out for the supreme enlightenment will decide to come there, that is to say those gods who have set out for the supreme enlightenment out of concern for the protection of all beings, for their welfare and happiness. II 6,2,9 STRONGLY STRONG. Sakra : How, O Lord, can one know that gods from the ten directions have come (to that place) to learn this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: worship it? The Lord : When one perceives a sublime radiance then one should know for certain that very powerful deities have come there to recite this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: pay homage to it. And likewise when one smells a superhuman and h

those gods to come learn

apture them. But those deities of minor power, who had before occupied that place, they will decide to leave it, for they cannot endure the majesty and splendour of those very powerful gods. And as often as those very powerful gods approach, so those sons and daughters of good family will be much confirmed in their faith. And in that place one should not form any unclean or impure habits, and it should be adorned with flowers, incense, perfumes, garlands, ointments, aromatic powders, strips of cloth, perfumes, garlands, ointments, aromatic powders, strips of cloth, parasols, banners, and flags; it should be over strewn with sweet smelling, loose flowers; garlands and bundles of strips should be suspended, and an awning should be erected; in many ways therefore should this place be adorned. Moreover, the body of that son or daughter of good family will not get tired. On the contrary it will be at ease and achieve lightness for the sake of the

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happiness of many people. And that son or daughter of good family will know lightness, flexibility, and ease in both body and thought. At ease he sleeps at night. When intent on this perfection of wisdom he will see no evil dreams. When he sees anything in his dreams, it will be the Tathagatas, their golden coloured bodies embellished with the thirty-two marks of a superman, surrounded by a community of monks and a host of Bodhisattvas, demonstrating Dharma; and he will hear them talking about the six perfections, the 37 wings to enlightenment, etc. to: the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha. And he will hear the meaning of those perfections, etc. to: of the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha. And he will see the tree of enlightenment, as well as the Bodhisattva as he approaches the terrace of enlightenment, as he fully knows the supreme enlightenment and as thereafter he turns the wheel of Dharma. And he will see

proclaims how all-knowledg

matured and how the Buddha-field should be purified. He hears the sound of the voice of innumerable Buddhas, in the East and in the other directions.

er that name this Tathagata, surrounded and accompanied by so many millions of Bodhisattvas and Disciples, demonstrates Dharma. In the East, etc. he will see innumerable Buddhas who enter Parinirvana, and will also see the countless Stupas of those Tathagatas, which contain their relics and are made of many precious things. And he will honour, revere, and worship those Stupas, with flowers, etc. In this way that son or daughter of good family will see auspicious dreams. At ease he will sleep, at ease he will wake up. Even when food is thrown into it, his body will feel light and not at all heavy. Just as a monk who practices Yoga, who has emerged from trance and who has been replenished by his mental work, has no strong desire for food, so also that son or daughter of good family. And why? Because his body has been nourished with superhuman food. And also the Buddhas and Lords in the ten directions, as well as the gods, Nagas, etc. to: Mahoragas will provide his body with food. This is another quality which in this very life a son or daughter of good family will acquire if they learn this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: wisely attend to it, and if they are not devoid of the thought of all-knowledge. II 6,3 STRONG ONE AIMS AT THE WELFARE OF OTHERS.

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If someone has not learned this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: has not wisely attended to it, nor revealed it to others, but has nevertheless copied it out honours, reveres, and worships the book, with flowers, etc.; and if someone else were to learn this perfection of wisdom, recite and study it, and wisely attend to it, would reveal it to others, and would honour, revere, and worship, with flowers, etc. a written copy of it; then the latter would on that account beget the greater merit. And his merit would be greater also than that of those who would honour, revere and worship the Tathagatas in all the world systems in all the ten directions all around, together with their communities of Disciples, and furnish then with robes, etc. and who would erect Stupas, made of the seven precious things, for those Tathagatas who have gone to Parinirvana, together with their communities of Disciples, and would honour these Stupas, etc. to: worship them with flowers, etc. 297

CHAPTER 31 ON RELICS II 6,3,2. MODERATELY WEAK. The Lord : If, Sakra, on the one hand someone were to present you with this Jambudvipa filled up to the top with relics of the Tathagata and if on the other hand you were presented with a copy of this perfection of wisdom, which one of the two would you take? Sakra : The perfection of wisdom. And why? It is not, O Lord, that I lack in respect for these relics

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two or divided. And what is true of the Dharma-element, that is

true of Suchness, the Re unthinkable element.

Sakra : I pay homage to the perfection of wisdom to which the

world with its gods, men, and Asuras pays homage. Having

trained in it the Bodhisat htenment. When I am

seated on my own godly l of the gods,

then the gods who come along to wait on me salute me as I am

seated there. But when I am not there on my own lion seat, then

, and go away again. For they recall

that

perf

ice of a Bodhisattva and the true

foun

being signless, without attribute,

inex

ma which

is s

ality Limit and the tva knows full enligseat in Sudharma, the hal

the gods salute this, my seat

seated on this Dharma-seat Sakra, Chief of gods, demonstrates Dharma to the gods of the Thirty-three. Likewise divinities from all the ten directions, as well as gods, Nagas, etc. to: Mahoragas will come to the place into which a copy of this

ection of wisdom has been put, and where it is repeated and explained to others, and they will pay homage to that perfection of wisdom and then go away again. For they recall that from it have come forth the Tathagatas, and from it has come everything that brings ease to all beings; they will recall that even the relics of the Tathagata become an object of worship only because they are saturated with the perfection of wisdom; that the perfection of wisdom is the essential pract

dation and cause of the cognition of the all-knowing and that it nourishes it. Therefore, O Lord, presented with the two lots mentioned before, I would choose just the perfection of wisdom. And whenever, having taken up this perfection of wisdom and repeating it with a mind pervaded by Dharma, I pay homage to the perfection of wisdom, I do not perceive a sign which indicates its existence as a stable entity(?). And why? Because the perfection of wisdom is signless, without attributes, is not to be talked about and incommunicable. And so are the other perfections, and so is everything up to all-knowledge. If, O Lord, the perfection of wisdom had signs and attributes, if it could be talked about and communicated, instead of

pressible and incommunicable, then the Tathagata, having known all dharmas as signless, without attributes, inexpressible, and incommunicable, would not have, after fully knowing the supreme enlightenment, demonstrated to beings a Dhar

ignless, without attribute, inexpressible and incommunicable. But because this perfection of wisdom is signless, without attribute, inexpressible, and incommunicable, therefore the Tathagata, after knowing all dharmas as signless, without attributes, inexpressible, 299

and incommunicable has, after fully knowing the supreme enlightenment, demonstrated the Dharma to beings as signless

out attributes, inexpressible, and incommunicable. II 6,3,3. FAIRLY WEAK. Therefore this perfection of wisdom should be honoured and revered by the world with its gods, men and Asuras, and it should be worshipped with flowers, etc. And if someone honours it one should not expect him to be reborn in the hells, among animals or in the world of Yama, nor should one expect him to choose the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, until he finally wins full enlightenment. And he will never be without a vision of the Tathagatas, and will continuously mature beings and enter into a Buddha-field so as to honour and revere the Tathagatas, and to worship them with flowers, etc. II 6,3,4. WEAKLY MEDIUM. Moreover, O Lord, if I had to choose between a copy of the perfection of wisdom on the one side, and even this great trichilicosm filled to the top with relics of the Tathagata on the other, I would still choose just this perfection of wisdom. And why? Because from it have come forth the relics of the Tathagata, and for that reason are they honoured, revered, and worshipped, and for that reason also the sons and daughters of good family who have honoured, revered, and worshipped it are no more reborn in the great distress of the wretched destinies. But, having experienced the achievements open to gods and men they enter Nirvana in accordance with their original vow, i.e. through the vehicle of the Disciples, or that of the Pratyekabuddhas, or the great vehicle. In fact the vision of the Tathagata and the vision of the perfection of wisdom are of equal value. Because what is the perfection of wisdom and what is the Tathagata that is not two nor divided. II 6,3,5. MODERATELY MEDIUM. Moreover there is equal value in the Tathagata, with the help of the triple miracle, demonstrating Dharma, i.e. the twelve-limbed Dharma which consists of Discourses, etc. to: Expositions, and in someone demonstrating this perfection of wisdom in detail to others, after he has learned and studied it. And why? Because from this perfection of wisdom has the triple miracle come forth, 300

and so have the Discourses, etc. to: Expositions. Moreover, O Lord, there is equal value in the innumerable Buddhas and Lords in countless world systems in all the ten directions demon

the triple miracle, and

dom in detail to others, after he has learned it. For the same reason as before. Moreover there is equal value in someone honouring, revering, and worshipping all the countless Tathagatas everywhere, and in someone honouring, revering, and worshipping a copy of this perfection of wisdom. And why? Because from this perfection of wisdom have the Tathagatas come forth. II 6,3,6. STRONGLY MEDIUM. Moreover, O Lord, the son or daughter of good family who will take up this perfection of wisdo

in the hells, among the ani

l operate on the level of a Disciple or a Pratyekabuddha. Because that Bodhisattva is established on the irreversible level. And why? Because one would not expect of someone who, having copied it out, learns this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: worships it with flowers, etc. that he would be afraid anywhere. It is as with a man who, greatly frightened, waits on the king. If he manages (by his good service) to placate the king, he will be served upon also by those of whom he was afraid, and will no longer fear them. And why? In the presence of a powerful support there can be no fear. It is just so that the relics of the Tathagata become an object of worship as being saturated with the perfection of wisdom. In this context the perfection of wisdom corresponds to the king. As that man who is supported by the king becomes an object of worship, just so the relics of the Tathagata become objects of worship because saturated with the perfection of wisdom. And

with the perfection of wisdom.two

lots mentioned above I would choose just this perfection of wisdom. And why? Because from it have come forth the relics of the Tathagata, as well as the 32 marks of a superman, the ten powers of a Tathagata, etc. to: the 18 Buddhadharmas, the great friendliness and the great compassion. As they have come forth from it do the five perfections gain the appellation of ‘perfection’. And also the all-knowledge of the Tathagata has come forth from it.

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Wherever in the great trichilicosm beings take up this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: wisely attend to it, there humans and nonhumans who look or seek for entry to them do not gain entry; and all those beings will gradually move towards Parinirvana. So great is the wonder-working power of this perfection of wisdom! And this perfection of wisdom has been set up in this great trichiliocosm so that beings in it might do the work of a Buddha. One should expect a Buddha to appear in that world system in which the perfection of wisdom is observed. It is, O Lord, like a priceless jewel which has the following properties: It prevents men and ghosts from entering the place where it is put. If someone were possessed b

unable to endure the splend

re burning with bile, one would only have to apply this jewel, and the bile will be held back, could not get worse, and will be appeased. And the jewel would have the same effect when applied to a body oppressed by wind, choked with phlegm, or suffering from a disease resulting from a disorder of the humours. At night it would illuminate the scene. In the heat it would spread coolness, in the cold it would spread warmth, and wherever it is placed the temperature will not be too hot to too cold, but just pleasant. Its presence drives vipers, scorpions, and crawling animals from districts which they have infested. It someone were bitten by a viper, he would only have to exhibit that jewel, and at its mere sight that poison would depart. This is the kind of qualities which that jewel would have. If those people who are vexed by various disease will but place that jewel on their bodies, then all those disease will be appeased. Placed in water, it dyes that water all through with its own colour. Wrapped in a blue cloth, and thrown into water, it makes the water blue. Equally when wrapped in a yellow cloth, or a red one, or a crimson one, or a crystal-coloured one, or one dyed in various hues. And it would also completely clear up any turbidity there might be in the water. Endowed with such and other qualities that jewel will be. Ananda : Is this jewel a heavenly one, or can it be found among the men of Jambudvipa? Sakra : This is a heavenly jewel. The jewels of the men of Jambudvipa are rather small and coarse, but the heavenly ones are large and fine; they are as full of all possible qualities as the men of Jambudvipa are lacking in them. In fact the jewels of Jambudvipa are infinitely inferior to the heavenly ones. If now that heavenly 302

jewel were placed into a basket, then that basket would still remain an object of longing even after the jewel had been taken out of it, since one would remember that that jewel had been placed into it. Just so, in that place where this perfection of wisdom has been observed, these physical or mental ills and troubles, whether caused by humans or nonhumans, cannot affect the sons and daughters of good family. And ‘great jewel’ is a synonym for the perfection of wisdom and the cognition of the all-knowing. One cannot enumerate the qualities of the perfection of wisdom, for they are innumerable. Innumerable are the qualities of the other perfections, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas, and so are those of the cognition of the all-knowing, of the Realm of Dharma, the fixed sequence of Dharma, of Suchness, of the Reality Limit and of the Unthinkable Element. These qualities of the cognition of the all-knowing are the reasons why the relics of the Tathagata who has gone to Parinirvana become an object of worship. These relics of the Tathagata are the true repositories of the cognition of the all-knowing, of the forsaking of all the defilements together with their residues, of the ability to always dwell in evenmindedness and of the state of being always mindful, and that is the reason why they become objects of worship. II 6,3,7. WEAKLY STRONG. Sakra : These relics of the Tathagata, O Lord, are the repository of the precious perfection, of the perfection which is without defilement or purification, without production or stopping, without coming or going. They are the repository of the perfection of Dharmahood, because as pervaded by Dharmahood do they become objects of worship. Moreover, O Lord, if, on the one side not only the great trichilicosm, but all the countless world systems were filled to the very top with relics of the Tathagata, and if on the other side I were offered a copy of the perfection of wisdom, then of those two I wou

ause from it have come forth the relics of the Tathagata which become objects of worsh

perfection of wisdom. If someone honours, reveres, and worships the relics of the Tathagata, then as a result of his wholesome roots he will experience pleasures open to both gods and men, and he will make an end of ill after having experienced pleasures in the families of warriors, Brahmins, and wealthy

303

householders, and among the gods of the Four Great Kings, etc. to: the gods who control enjoyments magically created by others. But if someone learns this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: wisely attends to it, then he can fulfil the perfection of meditation, etc. to: the perfection of giving, the 37 wings which lead to enlightenment, etc. to: the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha; he can transcend the levels of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, enter on a Bodhisattva’s special way of salvation, acquire the superknowledges of a Bodhisattva, pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, and take up at will all kinds of personifications which enable him to mature beings, whether he appears as a world ruler, or as a warrior, Brahmin, or wealthy householder. Therefore, O Lord, it is not that I lack in respect for the relics of the Tathagata, or that I do not want to be involved with them. Bu

dom being honoured, revered, and worshipped that the relics of the Tathagata are honoured, revered, and worshipped. Moreover, those who want to see both the Dharma-body and the physical bodies of the Tathagatas who abide in countless world systems in all the ten directions and demonstrate Dharma, should listen to this perfection of wisdom, learn it, etc. to: wisely attend to it. If someone wants to see those Tathagatas, he should, coursing in the perfection of wisdom, develop th

of the Buddhas and Lords?

rmahood. What then is conditioned Dharmahood? The cognition of the 18 kinds of emptiness, of the 37 dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment, etc. to: of the holy Truths, of the Unlimited, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas; and also the cognition of the wholesome roots, be they with or without outflows, faulty or faultless, worldly or supramundane, leading to defilement or purification. This is called the conditioned Dharmahood. And what is meant by the unconditioned dharmas? That dharma of which there is no production or stopping, no stability or instability, or alteration, no defilement or purification, no diminution or growth, etc. to: of all dharmas the non-existence of own-being. And what is of all dharmas the non-existence of own-being? The 18 kinds of emptiness. The fact that all dharmas are empty of essential original nature, have no basis, etc. to: are inexpressible and incommunicable, that is called the unconditioned Dharmahood. II 6,3,8. MEDIUM STRONG.

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The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. All the Tathagatas owe their enlightenment to this very perfection of wisdom, whether they live in the past, future, or present. All the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, past, future, or present. All the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, past, future, and present, owe their special forms of enlightenment to it, and thanks to it (the other holy men) at all times win the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: Arhatship. And why? Because in this perfection of wisdom the three vehicles are explained in detail, but by way of indicating no sign, by way of nonproduction and nonstopping, nondefilement and nonpurification, by way of not affecting anything, not by way of toiling or withdrawing from it, not by way of adding or substracting anything, not by way of appropriation or nonappropriation – and in any case only by way of worldly convention and not as it is in ultimate reality. And why? Because in the perfection of wisdom one does not conceive of a not-beyond or a beyond, a shore or a gap (between two shores), even or uneven, sign or signless, worldly or supramundane, conditioned or unconditioned, wholesome or unwholesome, past, future, or present. Nor does the perfection of wisdom bestow any dharma, also not the dharmas of Pratyekabuddhas or the dharmas which constitute Arhatship. II 6,3,9. STRONGLY STRONG. Sakra : A great perfection is this perfection of wisdom! For when the Bodhisattvas course in it, they can wisely know the thoughts and doings of all beings, although they do not apprehend a being, a living soul, a personality, a man, a human, a young man, one who does, one who feels, or one who sees. Nor do they apprehend form, etc. to: enlightenment, or one who is enlightened, or the dharmas of a Buddha. For the perfection of wisdom has not been set up by taking anything as a basis. And why? Because that own-being does not exist and cannot be apprehended, nor that by which it could be apprehended, that which could be apprehended or that wherein it would be apprehended. The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. In this way the Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of wisdom by way of taking nothing for a basis does not even apprehend enlightenment, how much less the dharmas of a Buddha-to-be? Sakra : Does, then, the Bodhisattva course only in t

305

The Lord : The Bodhisattva courses in all the perfections, and not only in the perfection of wisdom, but without taking anything as a basis. He does not apprehend the perfection of giving, a donor or recipient; not the perfection of morality, nor one of good conduct, nor immorality; not the perfection of patience, nor one who is patient, nor that which has to be endured; not the perfection of vigour, nor that which has to be done, nor body and thought; not the perfection of meditation, nor thought, nor trance; not the perfection of wisdom, nor one who is wise or stupid. But it is the perfection of wisdom which directs and guides the Bodhisattva who gives gifts, guards his morality, develops patience, exerts vigour, enters into trance and has insight into dharmas, though without taking any dharma as a basis, from the skandhas to Buddhadharmas. The tress of Jambudvipa have different leaves and foliage, different flowers and fruits, different heights, shapes, and circumferences, but with regard to the shadows cast by these trees no distinction of difference can be apprehended; but they are all just called ‘shadows’. Just so no distinction or difference can be apprehended between the five perfections, all of them upheld by the perfection of wisdom and dedicated to all-knowledge – because of the absence of a basis.

II 7. Praise, Eulogy and

II 7,1. PRAISE. II 7,1,1. VERY WEAK. Sakra : Endowed with great qualities, O Lord, is this perfection of wisdom, she is perfect as in possession of all qualities, endowed with immeasurable, inconceivable, incomparable, infinite and boundless qualities. Let us again consider two people: One has made a copy of this perfection of wisdom and bears it in mind, recites and studies it, also honours, reveres, and worships it, with flowers, etc. and wisely

attends to the perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded; the other, having a copy of this perfection of wisdom, gives it to others; which one of the two begets the greater merit? The Lord : I will question you o

n this point and you may answer to the best of your abilities. What do you think, Kausika, if one person were to honour, revere, and worship, with flowers

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relic

II 7,1,2. MODERATELY WEAK.

merit if, having given

to others this perfection of wisdom as it has been explained, he will

hem. One would expect him to have found the

‘teacher’, or a succession of preceptors who represent him and who

nd why? For this very perfection of wisdom

s of the Tathagata, and if another person were to give to someone else and share with him a relic of the Tathagata only as big as a mustard seed with the result that its recipient would honour, revere, and worship that relic of the Tathagata as big as a mustard seed, which one of the two would beget the greater merit? Sakra : As I understand the meaning of the Lord’s teaching, compared with the one who by himself honours, etc. the relics of the Tathagata, the one who gives to another a Tathagata-relic only as big as a mustard seed will beget the greater merit. When he considers this state of affairs the Tathagata, having entered on the adamantine trance and having made his body also adamantine, generates the relics of a Tathagata of his great compassion for the world of beings and leaves the Tathagata-relics for those beings who can be discipline(?). And why? All those who after the Tathagata’s Parinirvana worship a relic even as big as a mustard seed produce a wholesome root of which the end cannot be reached until they themselves win Parinirvana. The Lord : So it is, Kausika, so it is. The son or daughter of good family who honours, etc., this perfection of wisdom, and gives a copy of it to someone else, begets the greater merit.

Moreover, someone will beget still greater

expound it to t

lead a spiritual life. Asho

uld in this context be regarded as the ‘teacher’, nor is the teacher one thing and the perfection of wisdom another, but just the perfection of wisdom is the teacher and just the teacher is the perfection of wisdom. And why? Because those who have trained in this perfection of wisdom will appear in the world as the Tathagatas of the past, future, and present. And also those Bodhisattva who, in possession of the superknowledges and leading a spiritual life, have one after the other stood in irreversibility, have fully known the supreme enlightenment while training in this perfection of wisdom. In just this perfection of wisdom have the Disciples trained, and thro

ugh it the Arhats have attained Arhatship, the Pratyekabuddha the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, and the Bodhisattva have entered on their special mode of salvation, enter on it, and will enter on it. Therefore, then, someone who wants face to face to 307

honour, etc. the Tathagatas should honour, etc. a copy of this perfection wisdom. Considering also this state of affairs it occurred to Me when I had known full enlightenment: ‘In dependence on which dharma should I now dwell, which dharma should I honour, revere, and worship?’ On perceiving that I had attained to the

est prominence (?) in the world with its gods, Brahmas and Maras, with its Shramanas and Brahmanas, it occurred to me: ‘I will now honour, revere, and worship that dharma through which I have been full enlightened, and I will dwell in reliance on that dharma’. But that dharma, that is this perfection of wisdom. So I honour, revere, and worship this perfection of wisdom and, having done so, dwell in dependence on it. How can it be that those who want to know full enlightenment should not honour, revere and worship this perfection of wisdom! And why? Because those who belong to the vehicle of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas should honour, etc. this perfection of wisdom. And why? From the perfection of wisdom have the Bodhisattvas co

hisattvas the Tathagatas, from the Tathagatas all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. Therefore then both the followers of the great vehicle and the followers of the Disciple-ve

in it, they know and will k

ightenment.

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CHAPTER 32 THE DISTINCTION OF MERIT II 7,1,3. FAIRLY WEAK. If someone, Kausika, had established one single being in the fruit of a Streamwinner, he would thereby beget an infinite merit. But not so if he had established all the beings in Jambudvipa in the ten ways of wholesome action. And why? Because beings established in the ten ways of wholesome action are not liberated from rebirth in the hells, among animals, in the world of Yama, or among the Asuras, whereas those who have been established in the fruit of a Streamwinner are liberated from all such rebirths. II 7,1,4. WEAKLY MEDIUM. Compared with establishing all beings of Jambudvipa in the ten ways of wholesome action, someone would beget the greater merit if he were to establish one single being in the fruit of a Once-Returner,

309

II 7,1,9. STRONGLY STRONG.

And just so, if one ablish all the beings in

Jambudvipa in the fruit r, and another were to

establish one single being in the supreme enlightenment, then the

latter wou

II 7,2. EULOGY.

se

the one who establishes even one single being in the supreme

with the noninterruption of the guide of

Maras, Brahmas, etc. to: this world with its

a Brahmanas.

o would e tablish as many beings as there are in

s of wholesome action, what do you

ould he on the strength of that beget a great deal

of merit?

ord, a great deal, O Sugata!

is book on perfect

wisdom to someone else, so that he may read, copy, or recite it,

r than that. And why? Because here in

this

ttain it; through

which the Bodhisattvas, the great beings have entered into a

person were to estof a Once-Returneld beget the greater merit.

II 7,2,1.V.

ERY WEAKAnd the same applies to the fruit of a Never-Returner, II 7,2,2. MODERATELY WEAK. to Arhatship, II 7,2,3. FAIRLY WEAK. and to the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha. And why? Becau

enlightenment is concernedthe

Buddhas. And why? Because from the Bodhisattvas have come forth all the Tathagatas that there are. By this method also one should know that the Bodhisattvas should be worshipped, adored, honoured, and reveres, with flowers, etc. to: banners, by the world with its gods,

Shramans and

II 7,2,4. WEAKLY MEDIUM.

Someone whsJambudvipa in the ten path

think, Kausika, w

Sakra : A great deal, O L

The Lord : Someone who would give th

would beget a merit greate

perfection of wisdom are expounded in detail those dharmas without outflows through which those who train themselves therein have entered into the certainty of salvation, do and will enter into it, etc. to: through which they have attained Arhatship and the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, do and will a

310

Bodhisattva’s way of salvatio

ch they have fully known the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment, do and will fully know it. And which, Kausika, are the dharmas without outflows? They are the 6 perfections, the 37 wings of enlightenment, the 4 Truths

4 analytical know

great impartiality, andhere

expounded in detail by the Tathagatas. By this methoa, should one know that someone who has copied this

on perfect wisdom, and gives it to ould beget the

and recited, w(who establishes the bein

wholesome aare expounded in deta

il all the dharmas by which good warrior families are conceived, etc. to: the gods, etc. to: the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the fully enlightened Buddhas. Leaving aside, Kausika, the beings in Jambudvipa; as many beings as there are in a four-continent world system, if someone were to establish them in the ten paths of wholesome action, what do you think, Kausika, would that person on the strength of that beget much merit? Sakra : Much, O Lord, O Sugata! The Lord : Compared w

someone else, to be read

e reason as before. Leaving aside, Kausika, the beings in a four-continent world system, as many beings as there are in a small chiliocosm, etc. as before. Leaving aside, Kausika, the small chiliocosm

meone were to establish them all in the ten p

lesome action, etc. to: in Pratyekabuddhahood, what do you think, Kausika, would that person on the strength of the beget much merit? Sakra : Much, O Lord, much, O Sugata! The Lord : Someone else will beget the greater merit if he gives a copy of this perfection of wisdom to someone else who at least reads and recites if. Leaving aside, Kausika, the beings in a medium dichiliocosm who have been established in everything up to the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, if someone were to establish 311

all the beings in a great trichiliocosm in the ten paths of wholesome action, etc. to: in the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, and if someone else were to give a copy of this perfection of wisdom to others, even only for them to read and recite it, then the latter begets the greater merit. Leaving aside the beings in a great trichiliocosm, if someone had established all the beings in the countless world systems in the ten directions, in the ten paths of wholesome action, etc. to: in Pratyekabuddhahood, and if someone else were to give a copy of this perfection of wisdom to someone else if only to read and recite it, then the latter would beget the greater merit. And why? Because here in this perfection of wisdom are expounded in detail, etc. to: the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the fully enlightened Buddhas. Moreover, Kausika, if someone were to establish the beings of Jambudvipa in the four trances, the four Unlimited, the four formless attainments or the five superknowledges, would he on the strength of that beget much merit? Sakra : Much, O Lord, much, O Sugata! The Lord : Someone else will beget the greater merit if he gives a copy of this perfection of wisdom to some other person, although that person only reads and recites it. And why? Because therein the dharmas without outflows are expounded in detail. Moreover if someone were to take up this perfection of w

e and study it, and wisely atten

tten a greater merit than someone else who had established the beings in world systems of any size in the ten paths of wholesome action, in the trances, Unlimited, and formless attainments. And here the wise attention consists in that one takes up, etc. to: wisely attends to this perfection of wisdom without coursing in duality towards enlightenment, and that without coursing in duality towards enlightenment one takes up, etc. to: wisely attends to the other perfections, the emptinesses, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. II 7,2,5. MOD

Moreover, if someone were to demonst

om in many ways to others, were to explain it in detail, develop it, comment and enlarge on it, and expound its meaning, and if someone else would show the meaning of this perfection of wisdom by way of nonduality, not through duality; not through sign or the signless; not through toiling or the withdrawal from it; not through

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adding or subtracting anything; not through defilement or purification; not through production or stopping; not through appropriation or nonappropriation; not through stability or instability; not through what is real or unreal; not through junction or nonjunction; with nothing omitted or nonomitted; not through conditions or nonconditions; not through Dharma or non-Dharma, not through Suchness or non-Suchness, not through the Reality limit or the non-Reality-limit; then that son or daughter of good family will beget the great merit who would explain this perfection of wisdom in detail to others, who would study, demonstrate, and develop it, and who would enlarge on it and would expound its meaning, and his merit will be much greater than that of the one who only for himself takes it up, bears it in mind, recites and studies it, and wisely attends to it. II 7,2,6. STRONGLY MEDIUM. Mor

rs will beget a greater merit than someo

nd for himself. Sakra : So it is, O Lord, so it is, O Sugata! The Lord : It is just so that someone should expound the perfection of wisdom, both its meaning and its letters. When he does so, he will be endowed with an immeasurable, incalculable, and infinite heap of merit. II 7,2,7. WEAKLY STRONG. It someone would during his entire life honour the countless Tathagatas in each one of the ten direction with what brings them ease, revere, and worship them, with flowers, etc.; and if someone else would demonstrate this perfection of wisdom to others by various methods and in some detail, and would instruct them in its meaning, then the latter begets the greater merit. And why? Because as a result of having

enlightenment.

II 7,2,8. MEDIUM STRONG. Greater still is the merit of someone who for endless kalpas explains the six perfections to others, and that without taking anything as a basis. What then is a basis? When someone gives a

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gift while taking something as a basis it occurs to him that ‘I give a gift, this gift I give. I will abide in giving gifts to others’; but this is not the perfection of giving. Nor is it the perfection of morality to think that ‘this is morality, I am moral, those beings I will protect’; nor is it the perfection of patience to think that ‘I make an effort to be patient, I endure this because of someone else, I will abide in this patience’… Nor is it the perfection of wisdom to think that ‘I develop wisdom, this is wisdom, for the sake of those will I abide in this wisdom’. For someone who courses in a basis cannot fulfil any of the perfections. Sakra : How then must a Bodhisattva course so that he can fulfil the six perfections? The Lord : Here a Bodhisattva, when he gives a gift, does not apprehend the gift, the don

conduct, or a being; that is

s not apprehend patience, that which has to be endured, or one who is patient; that is called the perfection of patience. He does not apprehend vigour, b

ur. He does not apprehend trance, nor on

rances, nor that which should be experienced in trance; that is called the perfection of meditation. He does not apprehend wisdom, nor one who is wise, nor that which should be known by wisdom; this is called the perfection

without basing himself oncom

plete in meaning and letters. And why? Because in a future period there will arise some sons and daughters of good family who will expound a counterfeit perfection of wisdom. Also for the sake of those who have set out for the supreme enlightenment and who hear this counterfeit perfection of wisdom should this perfection of wisdom be expounded complete in meaning and letters. Sakra : What is this counterfeit perfection of wisdom? The Lord : Here some son or daughter of good family may promise to expound this perfection of wisdom, but in fact will expound the counterfeit

explain is that form, andnot-

self, and repulsive, and that those who will course in this (insight) course in the perfection of wisdom. As a result those to whom this has been explained will strive to win these insights. But in fact a counterfeit of wisdom has been explained and practised. 314

Moreover, some will expound the perfection of wisdom by saying, ‘Come here, you son of good family, and develop the perfection of wisdom and the other perfections! When you do so you will be able to stand on the first, etc. to: tenth stage’. But they will develop the perfection of wisdom by way of a sign, by way of a basis through the perception of the knowledge of all modes. This is the counterfeit perfection of wisdom. Moreover, those sons and daughters of good family will explain as follows, ‘Come here, you son of good family, develop the perfection of wisdom! When you do so you will tra

ekabuddhas’. This is the counterfeit perfection of wisdom. Moreover, those sons an

ain the perfection of wisdom to followers of the great vehicle, will explain as follows: ‘Come here, you son of good family, develop the perfection of wisdom! When you do so you will enter on a Bodhisattva’s special way of salvation’. This is the counterfeit perfection of wisdom. Moreover, they will explain the perfection of wisdom as follows, ‘Come here, you son of good family, develop the perfection of wisdom! When you do so you will acquire the patience acquiescence in dharmas which fail to be produced, and in consequence you will stand in the superknowledges of a Bodhisattva which will enable you to pass on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, so that you may there honour, revere, and worship the Buddhas, the Lords’. When they explain it like this they explain the counterfeit perfection of wisdom. Moreover, when they explain the perfection of wisdom to followers of the Bodhisattva-vehicle they will explain as follows: ‘Whoever takes up the perfection of wisdom, etc. to: wisely attends to it, he will beget an infinite heap of merit’. When they explain it like this, they explain a counterfeit perfection of wisdom. Moreover they will say to followers of the Bodhisattva-vehicle, ‘Come here, son of good family! Take all the wholesome root of the Tathagatas of the past, future, and pre

the first thought of enlightenment to their ent

irvana in the element of Nirvana which leaves nothing behind, rejoice at it, pile it up into one single heap, and dedicate it to the supreme enlightenment!’ When they explain it like this they explain a counterfeit perfection of wisdom. Sakra : What then do those explain who explain to those who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle a perfection which is not counterfeit?

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The Lord : Here the sons and daughters of good family explain to those who have set out in the Bodhisattva-vehicle the perfection of wisdom as follows: ‘Come here, son of good family, when you develop the perfection of wisdom you should not look upon form, etc. to: all-knowledge as impermanent. And why? Because form is empty of the own-being of form, etc.; what is the own-being of form, etc. that is non-existence; and what is non-existence, that is the perfection of wisdom, which does not describe form, etc. as permanent or impermanent. And why? Because even form, etc. does not exist therein, how much less can there be permanence or impermanence’. Furthermore they will say, ‘Come here, son of good family, develop the perfection of wisdom, but do not look on any dharma or rely on one! And why? Because in the perfection of wisdom there exists no dharma which should be seen or in which one should seek support. And why? Because all dharmas are empty in their own-being, and a dharma which is empty in its own-being that is non-existence, and what is non-existence, that is the perfection of wisdom, which is not of any dharma the toiling or withdrawal from it, the production or stopping, the annihilation or eternity, the single or multiple meaning, the coming or going away’. Therefore, then, one should describe the meaning of the perfection of wisdom in this way. When one explains it in this way one begets a greater merit than the previously described persons. II 7,2,9. STRONGLY STRONG. Moreover, Kausika, if someone were to establish the beings of Jambudvipa in the fruit of a Streamwinner, would he beget much merit? Sakra : He would, O Lord. The Lord : A merit greater than this will he beget who explains this perfection of wisdom, complete in meaning and letters, to others by various methods. And in doing so he will say, ‘Come here, son of good family! Take up the perfection of wisdom, study it, bear it in mind, recite it, wisely attend to it, and make progress in the perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded!’ And why? Because from this perfection of wisdom the Streamwinner and his fruit become manifest. Leaving aside

plined in the fruit of a Streamwinner in Jambudvipa, or in a four-continent world system, or in a small chiliocosm, or in a medium dichilio

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all b

A merit gre r than… And why? Because from this

done to all beings in world systems

of an

eings in the fruit of a Streamwinner, would he on the strength of that beget much merit? Sakra : He would, O Lord! The Lord : A merit greater than that will he beget who explains this perfection of wisdom to others in detail, complete in meaning and letters, and who says to them, ‘Come here, son of good family! Take up the perfection of wisdom, study it, bear it in mind, recite it, wisely attend to it, and make progress in the perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded!’ And why? Because from this perfection of wisdom has the Streamwinner become manifest. II 7,3. GLORIFICATION. II 7,3,1. VERY WEAK. Moreover, Kausika, if someone were to establish the beings of Jambudvipa in the fruit of a Once-Returner, II 7,3,2. MODERATELY WEAK. or of a Never-Returner, II 7,3,3. FAIRLY WEAK. or in Arhatship, would he on account of that beget much merit? Sakra : He would, O Lord.

The Lord : ateperfection of wisdom have t

he fruits of a Once-Returner and of a Never-Returner, as well as Arhatship been conceived. Leaving aside the beings of Jambudvipa who have been disciplined in the three highe

r fruits, if the same were

y size, in all world systems, would one on the strength of that beget a great deal of merit? Sakra : One would, O Lord. The Lord : A merit greater than that… Arhatship been conceived. II 7,3,4. WEAKLY MEDIUM. Likewise, if all beings everywhere were established in Pratyekabuddhahood, the merit from the perfection of wisdom would be the greater. II 7,3,5. MODERATELY MEDIUM.

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Moreover, Kausika, if someone were to instigate all the beings in Jambudvipa to win the supreme enlightenment, would he on th

gth of that beget much me

akra : He would, O Lord. The Lord : A merit greater than that… and make progress in the perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded. And to the extent that you progress in the perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded, to that extent you will become a recipient of all-knowledge. To the extent that all-knowledge matures in you to that extent will the perfection of wisdom more and

perfection of wisdom m

enlightenment. And wBod

hisattvas who anywhere have raised their hearts to full enlightenment.

II 7,3,6. STRONGLY MEDIUM. s in

And so with the being

II 7,3,7. WEAKLY STRON

a small chiliocosm,

,3,8. MEDIUM STRONG. a medium dichiliocosm, a great trichiliocosm, or all the world systems everywhere. II 7,3,9. STRONGLY STRONG. Moreover, if someone were to establish all beings in Jambudvipa, etc. to: in all world systems, on th

would beget the greater me

gs this perfection of wisdom, complete in meaning and letters, and if he w

wisdom as it has been ex

de progress in the perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded, to that extent do you, training in the perfection of wisdom, stand in irrev

you will be one who obtains th

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you

: in all world systems, in

irrev enlightenment, and were to explain

to t

ING UP THE TOPIC OF (THE DIVISIONS INTO) WEAK, ETC..

Sakra : To the extent, O Lord, that the Bodhisattva comes

and ness,

the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the 18 special dharmas of a

ed with robes, almsfood, lodgings, and

for use in sickness, such a Bodhisattva should

be helped with both material and spiritual things for someone who

and spiritual things begets the greater

a.

ika, you who fortify those who belong

obtain the dharmas of all-knowledge, then you will know the supreme enlightenment. Furthermore, if someone were to establish all beings in Jambudvipa, etc. to

ersibility from the supreme

hem the perfection of wisdom complete in meaning and letters; and if among them one single one were to say, ‘I will quickly fully know the supreme enlightenment!’ then to explain to him the perfection of wisdom complete in meaning and letters would beget the greater merit. And why? Because it is to these irreversible Bodhisattvas that the full meaning (?) of the Dharma should be expounded, for they are definitely destined for full enlightenment and bound to end up in it. They pine away to get out of Samsara, but they are quite filled with the great compassion (and therefore will stay in it). II 7,3,9x. WIND

nearer to full enlightenment, to that extent he should be instructed

admonished in the six perfections, the 18 kinds of empti

Buddha. Having been help

medicinal appliances

helps with both material

merit. And why? Because it so happens that that Bodhisattva is instructed and admonished in the six perfections, etc. to: in the 18 special dharmas of a Buddh

Subhuti : Well said, Kausto

the Bodhisattva-vehicle. Even so should you act. Those holy Disciples who want to help beings, give help to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, help them in (their wish for) the supreme enlightenment, and maintain them with both material and spiritual things. And why? For here the congregation of the Lord’s Disciples has its origin, as well as the vehicle of the Prayekabuddhas and the great vehicle. For if the Bodhisattva had not raised his thought to supreme enlightenment, then he would not have trained in the six perfections, etc. to: in the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha, and not having trained in those dharmas he would not have fully known the supreme enlightenment, and in consequence there would be no conception of the supreme enlightenment, nor of the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, nor of the enlightenment of a

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Disciple. But because the Bodhisattva trains himself in the six perfections, etc. and in all dharmas, therefore he fully knows the supreme enlightenment, cuts off in all world systems the hells, the animal births, and the sphere of the ghosts, and there is a manifestation in the world of good warrior families, good Brahmin families, good householder families, of the various kinds of gods, of the perfections, etc. to: of all-knowledge, and of the vehicle of the Disciples, the vehicle of the Pratyekabuddhas, and the great vehicle.

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CHAPTER 33 ON DEDICATION AND REJOICING II 8. T

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each single direction, and their store of merit, associated with the

six perfections, and acqu time which begins with

their first production of htenment, proceeds to

the time when they won the supreme enlightenment, goes on until

they f aves

nothing behind, and ends

considers the foundation of meritorious work based on giving,

morality and meditational development, on the part of those who

of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. He

considers the roots of good, with outflows, of those who are still in

f the

ade

elopment) he piles up all that (mass of merit) and rejoices over

it with the most excellent and sublime jubilation, the highest and

ing the

at they are turned over into the supreme

enli

ired in the span of the thought of enliginally entered Nirvana in the realm of Nirvana which lewith the vanishing of the good law. He

belong to the vehicles

training, as well as the roots of good, without outflows, o

pts. He considers the mass of morality of those Tathagatas, the mass of concentration, the mass of wisdom, the mass of emancipation, and the mass of the vision and cognition of emancipation, as well as their solicitude for beings, their great friendliness and great compassion, as well the immeasurable and incalculable Buddhadharmas, and also the Dharma which has been demonstrated by those Buddhas and Lords, and the roots of good of those who through this demonstration of Dharma have attained the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, or who through it have entered on the Bodhisattva’s special way of salvation; and also the wholesome roots which have been planted under those Tathagatas or Arhats who have now entered Parinirvana. (In his meditational dev

utmost jubilation, with none above it, unequalled, equall

unequalled. Having rejoiced he would make the wholesome root associated with the rejoicing common to all beings and dedicate it to their supreme enlightenment, with the words, ‘may it feed the supreme enlightenment (of myself and of all beings)!’ Now, when a follower of the great vehicle turns over his thought in such a manner, do then those foundations (of merit) and the objects (involved in these contemplations) exist in such a way and are they apprehended in such a way that they would be treated as signs by those sons of good family who belong to the great vehicle? Maitreya : Those foundations and objects are not apprehended in such a way th

ghtenment after they have been treated as signs. Subhuti : If he had, on foundations which do not exist and through objects which do not exist, treated as a sign those Buddhas 322

and Lords and their wholesome roots, as well as the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, the learners and adepts, and their wholesome roots, all of which he had turned over into the supreme enlightenment by way of a sign, should he not beware of a perversion of perception? Thinking that there in permanence in the impermanent, ease in suffering, what belongs to a self in what does not belong to a self, calm in what is not calm – there must be a perverted perception, perverted thought, perverted view. But is it not so that as the foundations and objects (are nonexistent), so is enlightenment, etc. to: so is all-knowledge. But if, just as the foundations and objects, so the enlightenment, the thought, form, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas (are nonexistent) then, what is the foundation, what the object, what the enlightenment, what the thought, what the wholesome roots, and what that foundation of meritorious work associated with rejoicing which is turned over into the supreme enlightenment? Maitreya : If, Rev. Subhuti, the Bodhisattva is one who has coursed in the six perfections, who has honoured many Buddhas, who has planted wholesome roots, who is upheld by good spiritual friends and who trains in dharmas as empty of their own marks, then he is able to turn over into the supreme enlightenment without having made into a sign those foundations and objects, those Buddhas and Lords, those wholesome roots and those foundations of meritorious work associated with rejoicing. But he succeeds in turning over neither by way of duality nor by way of nonduality, not by way of sign nor by way of the signless, not by way of a basis nor by way of nonbasis, not by way of defilement or by way of purification, not by way of production or by way of stopping. If, however, those Bodhisattvas have not coursed in the six perfections, have not honoured the Buddhas, have not planted wholesome roots, are not upheld by good spiritual friends and have not trained in dharmas as empty of their own marks, then they turn over into the supreme enlightenment while making those foundations and objects into signs, as well as those wholesome roots and those productions of thought associated with rejoicing. But this perfection of wisdom expounded in such a way, shou

aught in front of a Bodhisattva who has newly set out in the vehicle.. and so with the other perfections, and the eighteen kinds of emptiness. And why? For would lose that little faith which is his,

little serenity, affection, and respect which are his. In front of an irreversible Bodhisattva, great being, should this be taught and 323

expounded, and also the other perfections and the eighteen kinds of emptiness. When he has heard, he will not tremble nor be frightened or terrified – if he is one who has been taken hold of by the good friend. If he is upheld by the good friend, has done his duties under the Jinas of the past, has planted wholesome roots and honoured many Buddhas, then a Bodhisattva can turn over into the supreme enlightenment the foundation of meritorious work associated with rejoicing. (Subhuti) : That thought by which one has rejoiced and turned over, that thought is (at the time of turning over) extinct, stopped, departed, reversed, and so are those foundations and objects. What then is the thought associated with rejoicing, what foundations and objects, and what the wholesome roots, which he turns over into the supreme enlightenment? What is the thought which he turns over, if two thoughts can never meet and if the own-being of a thought cann

hisattva, who courses in the perfection of wisdom, cognises thus, ‘nonexistence is the perfection of wisdom, and so are the other perfections, so is form, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas’, then the Bodhisattva succeeds in turning over into the supreme enlightenment the foundation of meritorious work associated with rejoicing. When he turns over in this way, then it becomes turned into the supreme enlightenment. Thereupon, Maitreya, the Bodhisattva, the great being, said to Subhuti, the Elder: How do, by a son or daughter of good family who has newly set out in the vehicle, these wholesome roots become turned over into full enlightenment? And how do they become turned over after foundation of meritorious action, which is connected with Rejoicing, has been acquired? Subhuti : If Maitreya, a Bodhisattva who, newly set out in the vehicle, courses in perfect wisdom, and grasps this perfection of wisdom without taking it as a basis or without treating it as a sign, then he has much trusting confidence in the perfections, the 18 kinds of emptiness, etc. to: the 18 special Buddhadharmas, he has been taken hold of by the good friend – and these his good friends expound to him, according to the meaning and the letter, just this perfection of wisdom and the other perfections, and expound them to him in such a way that he becomes one who is not lacking in the perfection of wisdom, and in all the perfections, etc. to: in the 18 special Buddhadharmas – he has entered on the certainty that he will be saved by the special methods of a Boddhisattva, he will 324

expound the deeds of Mara, and, when he has heard the deeds of Mara, there will be in him neither growth nor diminuation. And why? Because of these deeds of Mara no own-being is made manifest. And he will never be deprived of the Buddhas, the Lords, until the time that he enters on a Bodhisattva’s special mode of salvation. Thereafter he will plant sufficient wholesome roots to enable him to obtain the Bodhisattva-family, and he will no more be deprived of the Bodhisattva-family un

reme enlightenment. Moreover, a Bodhisattva who has newly set out in the vehicle considers the accumulations of merit of those Buddhas and Lords whose tracks are cut off, whose course is cut off, whose obstacles are cut off, who are guides through (the world of) becoming, whose tears have dried up, whose impediments are all crushed, whose own burdens are laid down, whose own weal has been reached, in whom the fetters of becoming are extinguished, whose thoughts are well freed by right understanding, and who have attained to the highest perfection in the control of their entire hearts, as well as the accumulations of merit of the Tathagatas who abide in countless world systems in all the ten directions and demonstrate Dharma, together with their congregations of Disciples; and also the accumulations of merit of those who have planted wholesome roots under them, or in the good families of warriors, etc. or among the various kinds

rolls into one lump, and weighs up, and then rejoices over them with the most excellent and sublime jubilation, the highest and utmost jubilation, which has none above it; and, having rejoiced at it, he should turn over into the supreme enlightenment that wholesome root associated with rejoicing.

,3. THE TURNING OVER MARKED BY THE ABSENCE OF PERVERTED VIEWS. Maitreya : If, Ven. Subhuti, a Bodhisattva who has newly set out in the vehicle has brought to mind all the wholesome roots of those Buddhas and Lords, together with their congregations of Disciples, and if, after having rejoiced over them with the best, etc. to: with the utmost jubilation, he turns them over into the supreme enlightenment, how is it that the Bodhisattva does not have a perverted perception, perverted thought, or a perverted view? Subhuti : If, Maitreya, the Bodhisattva brings to mind those Buddhas and Lords, together with their congregations of Disciples, then he is not one who perceives a Buddha, or a Disciple, or a wholesome root; but with regard to the thought by which he turns

325

over he becomes in that very thought one who perceives the thought (only); when he turns over in this way, the Bodhisattva has no perverted perception, thought, or view. But if the Bodhisattva, having brought to mind those Buddhas and Lords and those wholesome roots, makes them into a sign, and, having made them into a sign, turns them over into the supreme enlightenment, then this turning over amounts to a perverted perception, thought, and view. If again a Bodhisattva wisely knows those Buddhas and Lords, and those wholesome roots, and the thought by which he brings them to mind as ‘just extinct, extinct’; and if he reflects that what is extinct that cannot be turned over, and that this (extinction) is the very dharmic nature of the thought by which he turns over, as well as of that which he turns over and of that into which he turns over. If he turns over in this way, then he turns over evenly and not unevenly, not wrongly. It is thus that a Bodhisattva should turn over. The Bodhisattva considers (the accumulation of merit) of the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords, from their first production of the thought of enlightenment up to their Parinirvana and further up to the vanishing of the good Dharma, as well as the (accumulation of merit) of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas; and also the wholesome roots which as a result of hearing the demonstration of Dharma have been planted by the common people, by the devas, Nagas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Garudas, Kinnaras and Mahoragas, by members of good warrior families, etc. to: by the gods up to the gods of the Pure Abode; - all that he piles up, rolls into one lump, and weighs up, and, then, having rejoiced over it with the most excellent and sublime jubilation, which has none above it, is une

And if he again turns over while being aware that those dharmas

stopped, departed, reversed, and that that dharma also into which it (i.e. the wholesome root) is turned over is empty in its own-being, then it (i.e. the wholesome root) becomes something which has been turned over into full enlightenment. And so it does if he turns over while aware that dharmas cannot turn over dharmas, because all dharmas are empty in their own-being. It is thus that a Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of wisd

the other perfections is without perverted perception, thought, or view. And why? Because he does not settle down in those turnings over, and, since he does not review those wholesome 326

roots and that thought of enlightenment, he cannot settle down in it. This is the supreme turning over of a Bodhisattva, a great being. II 8,4. THE ISOLATEDNESS OF THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN TURNING OVER. The accumulation of the foundations of meritorious work further more becomes something which the Bodhisattva has turned over into full enlightenment if he remains aware that this accumulation of the foundations of meritorious work is isolated from the skandhas, elements, and sense fields, from the 37 dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment, etc. to: from the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha; and if furthermore he remains aware that the foundation of meritorious work associated with rejoicing is isolated in its own-being, that the Buddhas and Lords are isolated from the own-being of a Buddha, that also the wholesome roots are isolated from the own-being of wholesome roots, the accumulation from the own-being of the accumulations, the thought of enlightenment from the own-being of the thought of enlightenment, the thought of turning over from the own-being of turning over, enlightenment from the own-being of enlightenment, the perfection of wisdom from the own-being of the perfection of wisdom, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas are isolated from the own-being of the Buddhadharmas. It is thus that a Bodhisattva should course in the isolated perfection of wisdom. This is the perfection of wisdom of a Bodhisattva, a great being. II 8,5. MINDFUL RECOLLECTION OF THE OWN-BEING OF THE WHOLESOME ROOTS OF THE BUDDHAS. Moreover, a Bodhisattva should mindfully recollect all the wholesome roots of those Buddhas and Lords and turn them over in such a way that he is aware that such as that turning over so is that thought by which one turns over; both are of the same kind, have the same own-being. When he remains aware of that, it (i.e. the wholesome root) becomes something that has been turned over into full enlightenment. When he turns over in this way he is without perverted perception, thought, or view. If, however, the Bodhisattva who courses in perfection wisdom becomes aware of that wholesome root of those Buddhas and Lords by way of a sign, then he does not succeed in turning it over into full enlightenment. And even if he brings to mind that the Buddhas and Lords of the past who have entered Parivirvana are without a sign and without

327

not succeed in turning over those wholesome roots into full enlightenment, and he has perverted perception, perverted

Buddhas and Lords, nor those wholesome roots, nor those

umulations, nor those productions of thought, and if he does not make them into a sign, then the wholesome roots become something that has been turned over into full enlightenment, and the Bodhisattva is then without perverted perception, thought, or view. II 8,6. THE TURNING OVER IN ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SKILL IN MEANS. Maitreya : How, Rev. Subhuti, does the Bodhisattva turn over without making a sign? Subhuti : The Bodhisattva should train himself in the skill in means contained in this perfection of wisdom. For the Bodhisattva should know about skill in means from this perfection of wisdom, and without resorting to the perfection of wisdom he cannot possibly turn over the foundation of meritorious work. Maitreya : One should surely not say, Ven. Subhuti, that those Buddhas and Lords do not exist in the perfection of wisdom, nor those wholesome roots, nor those accumulations, nor those production of thought, etc. to: one should not say that one does not turn over into full enlightenment? Subhuti : A Bodhisattva w

wholesome roots, those accumulations and those production of thought. But it is on

dhas and Lords are discriminated, as well as those wholesome roots, those accumulations, and those productions of thought. And the Tathagatas withhold their sanction from the rejoicing of someone who in this way turns over by way of a sign. And why? For this becomes to him a great basis that he makes into a sign the Buddhas and Lords who have entered Parinirvana, that he discriminates and apprehends them. Therefore a Bodhisattva who wants to turn over the wholesome roots should not turn them over after having apprehended them and made them into a sign, for the Tathagatas have not ascribed great wonderworking power to the turning over carried out by one who perceives a basis of a sign. And why? Because that turning over is poisonous and thorny.

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II 8,7. THE TURNING OVER AS SIGNLESS. It is just as with food that seems excellent, but has been mixed with a poison which is concealed under its (apparently desirable) colour and taste. Some foolish person might think that it should be eaten. When he eats it, it appears good in its colour and taste, but its transformation (in someone who eats it) leads to a painful conclusion. Just so someone who has badly seized (the teaching), badly distinguished it, and who badly repeats it, and who neither knows

roots which the Buddhas and Lords of the past, future, and pres

e effected in the interval between their first production of the thought of enlightenmen

lightenment, up to their entry into final Nirvana in the Nirvana-element which leaves nothing behind, and up to the vanishing of the good Dharma, by coursing in the perfection of wisdom and in the other perfections; and also the wholesome roots associated with the four trances, etc. to: the 18 Buddhadharmas,

accumulation of which the Buddha-fields are purified and beings matured; and of those Buddhas and Lords the mass of morality, concentration, wisdom, emancipation, and the mass of the vision and cognition of emancipation, as well as their cognition of the knowledge of all modes, the cogn

ays mindful, the dwelling always in evenmindedness; and also the wholesome roots effected by the Disciples and by the predestined to Prayekabuddhahood; and also the wholesome roots effected by gods, Nagas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Farudas, Kinnaras, and Mahoragas; and, then, having piled all these up, rolled them into one lump, and weighed them up, turn them over into the supreme enlightenment! Thus this turning over, since it is carried out by means of a sign and a basis, causes people to partake of poisonousness. It is just like the poisonous food mentioned before. There an be no turning over for one who perceives a basis. And why? For a ba

is connected with signs, causes, and conditions. One who turns over in this way has not been well taught by the Tathagata, he does not preach what the Tathagata has said, he does not preach the Dharma. Followers of the Bodhisattva-vehicle should not train in this way.

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Maitreya : How, then, should one

ts of the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords, after having rejoiced over them, from the production of their first thought of enlightenment, to their awakening to the supreme enlightenment, to the period when their good Dharma remains established, including their congregations of Disciples, all the wholesome roots which they have effected during this interval, until they have attained all-knowledge, etc. to: how should one, after having rejoiced over them, turn over the wholesome roots planted by gods, Nagas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Garudas, Mahoragas, humans and nonhumans? And how should one turn over so that those wholesome roots are actually turned over into the supreme enlightenment? Subhuti : Here a follower of the great vehicle, who courses in the perfection of wisdom and who does not want to calumniate the Tathagata, should turn over as follows: As the Tathagatas cognize with their unsurpassed Buddha-cognition those wholesome roots, their kind such as it is, their own-being such as it is, their marks such as they are, and as they exist in their own dharmic nature, just so I rejoice, and as the Buddhas and Lords cognize it, so also I turn over into the supreme enlightenment. It is thus that a follower of the great vehicle should turn those wholesome roots over into the supreme enlightenment. When he turns over in such a way, he does not calumniate the Tathagatas, he preaches what the Tathagata has said and he preaches Dharma. It is thus that the Bodhisattva’s turning over becomes non-poisonous. II 8,9. THE TURNING OVER IS UNINCLUDED IN WHAT BELONGS TO THE TRIPLE WORLD. Furthermore, someone who has set out in the great vehicle and who courses in the perfection of wisdom, should turn over those wholesome roots while he realizes that form is unincluded in the world of sense desire, the world of form and the formless world, and so are feelings, etc. to: conditioned coproduction, and so also the perfection of wisdom and the other perfections, and so Suchness, Dharmahood, the element of Dharma, the Reality limit and the unthinkable element, and so are a Tathagata’s morality, concentration, wisdom, emancipation, vision and cogni

evenmindedness. But that is unincluded (in the triple

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also

istence by way of non-existence. It is

thus

e Bodhisattva

who courses in the perfection of wisdom should thus consider: ‘As

olesome root be turned over. Then it will actually

and

f nonproduction and

the turning over, and the dharmas which and into which one turns over, and he who turns over, and also the Buddhas and Lords and their wholesome roots, and also the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas and their wholesome roots. But what is unincluded that is not past, future, or present. If, however, the Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom perceives that form, etc. to: the (Tathagata’s) state of always dwelling in mindfulness are unincluded in the triple world, and that which is unincluded is not past, future, or present, he must remain aware that it is not possible to turn over these (dharmas) by way of a sign or a basis. And why? Because a dharma’s own-being does not exist; and that of which an own-being does not exist is non-existence; but it is impossible to turn over non-ex

that a Bodhisattva’s turning over becomes non-poisonous. If, however, a follower of the great vehicle turns over these wholesome roots by way of a sign and a basis, then he turns them over wrongly; but the Buddhas and Lords do not praise the wrong turning over as the right turning over. Such a one does not turn over with the turning over which the Buddhas and Lords praise; he does not turn over in the perfection of giving, etc. to: in the perfection of wisdom; he thus will not fulfil the six perfections, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas, he will not fulfil the concentrations or the Dharani-doors; he will not purify the Buddha-field or mature beings. But if he does not purify the Buddha-field or mature beings, then he will not fully know the supreme enlightenment. And why? Because his turning over is spoiled by poison. Moreover, th

the Buddhas and Lords cognize it, throught that Dharmahood should that wh

successfully be turned over. In this way I turn it over through this Dharmahood to the supreme enlightenment’. II 8,10 THE TURNING OVER AS GIVING RISE TO GREAT MERIT – WHICH IS WEAK. The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well said, you who explain the mass of turning over to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, by way of the signless and baseless, by way ononmanifestation, by way of nondefilement and nonpurification, by way of non-existence and of the emptiness of own-marks, by the way of the Dharma-element, of Suchness, of nonfalseness, of unaltered Suchness. If all the beings in the great trichiliocosm were 331

to become recipients of the ten ways of wholesome action, of the four trances, etc. to: of the five superknowledges, would they on the strength of that beget much merit? Subhuti : They would, O Lord. The Lord : A merit greater than this would that son or daughter of good family beget who would turn over the wholesome roots by a turning over which is without any stain. For such a turning over on the part of that son or daughter of good family is proclaimed the most excellent of all. II 8,11 THE TURNING OVER AS GIVING RISE TO GREAT MERIT – WHICH IS MEDIUM. Moreover, Subhuti, if all the beings in the great trichiliocosm were to become Streamwinners, etc. to: Arhats, and if someone would during his entire life honour, revere, and worship them, with roves, etc. would he on the strength of that beget much merit? Subhuti : He would, O Lord. The Lord : Greater than his would be the merit of someone who would turn over the wholesome roots by a turning over which is without stain. Moreover, Subhuti, if all beings in the great trichiliocosm were to become Pratyekabuddhas, and if someone would during his entire life, honour, revere, and worship them, with robes, etc. would he on the strength of that beget much merit? Subhuti : He would, O Lord. The Lord : Greater than his would be the merit of someone who would turn over wholesome roots by a turning over which is without stain. II 8,12 THE TURNING OVER AS GIVING RISE TO GREAT MERIT – WHICH IS STRONG. Moreover, Subhuti, if all beings in this great tric

directions all the beings in the countless world systems would for countle

hisattva with roves, etc. and furnish him with all he might need – would those sons and daughters of good family on the strength of that beget a great deal of merit? Subhuti : A great deal indeed, O Lord. That merit would in fact be infinite. It would not be easy to find a comparison for this foundation of meritorious work. If that foundation of meritorious

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work were a material thing, it would not find room even in all the world systems countless like the sands of the Ganges. The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well s

e just said. Greater than that w

would thus turn over wholesome roots into the supreme enlightenment by a turning over which is without stain. Such a turning over of wholesome roots is proclaimed as the most excellent of all. The mass of merit previously mentioned will be infinitesimal compared

endowed with the ten ways of wholesome action, the four trances, etc. to: t

so were those who honoured, revered, and worshipped, with robes, etc. all those beings who had become Streamwinners, etc. to: Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas, and furnished them with all they might need. For this was only a matter of honouring, revering, an

Four Great Kings and twenty thousand gods belonging to their host paid homage to the Lord with folded hands and said: A great transformation surely, O Lord, is this (turning over) by which the Bodhisattva, the great being, with his skill in means – in a manner which takes nothing as a basis, which is without stain, which is without a sign – turns over those wholesome roots into the utmo

that he approaches neither duality nor non-duality. Thereupon Sakra, Chief of Gods, together with (one hundred thousand) gods of the

garments, parasols, banners, and with music from heavenly musical instruments and cymbals. And they spoke as follows: A gre

at transformation… non-duality. Further again a Suyama god, a Samtushita, a Nirmanarati, a Paramirmitavasavartin god, together with many hundreds of thousands of deities said to the Lord: A great transformation… non-duality. Thereupon many hundreds of thousands of kotis of niyutas of the Brahmaparshadi gods came to where the Lord was, saluted the Lord’s feet with their heads, raised their voices, and utte

red the following words: It is wonderful, O Lord, how much a Bodhisattva, a great being who has been taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom and by skill in means surpasses the wholesome roots of those previously mentioned Bodhisattvas and 333

sons and daughters of good family who are based on something. And so spoke seventeen other classes of gods, up to

s. Thereupon the Lord said to those gods, from the gods belonging to the Four Great Kings up to the Highest Gods: If, O gods, all the beings in the great trichiliocosm had all set out for full enlightenment, and if they all, by way of taking something as a basis, would, after they had piled them up, and rejoiced at them, turn over into full enlightenment the following wholesome roots – i.e. those of the past, future, and present Tathagatas, Arhats, fully Enlightened Ones, with their congregations of Disciples, and with (their) Prayekabuddhas – beginning with the first thought of enlightenment, going on until the time when they have fully known the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment, going on until they have entered Parinirvana in the Nirvana-element which leaves nothing behind, and up to the establishment of their good Dharma, i.e. the wholesome root (acquired by) those Buddhas and Lords in that interval, and by those Disciples and by those Pratyekabuddhas, and by all those being different from them, the wholesome root which has issued from the perfection of giving, etc. to: the perfection of wisdom – the mass of morality, the mass of concentration, the mass of wisdom, the mass of emancipation, the mass of the cognition and vision of emancipation, and in addition the other measureless Buddhadharmas. And if on the other hand a son or daughter of good family has set out for full enlightenment, and turns the above wholesome roots over into full enlightenment, after he has piled them all up, heaped them up, weighed them all up, and has rejoiced over them with the most excellent rejoicing, and (he turns over) in the manner of not taking anything as a basis, by way of non-duality, without a sign, without a stain, treating all dharmas as inactive. Then, that second son or daughter of good family begets much more merit than

daughters of good family, and their wholesome root is incomparably superior to theirs. This turning over of the Bodhisattva which takes nothing as a basis is the one which is described as the most excellent, etc. to: as something quite unsurpassed. II 9. Rejoicing. Subhuti : How is it that a jubilation becomes the most excellent, etc. to: something quite unsurpassed?

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The Lord : The jubilation of a Bodhisattva becomes the most excellent, etc. to: something quite unsurpassed when he does not seize upon or release the wholesome dharmas of the Tathagatas of the past, future, and present, together with their Pratyekabuddhas, and also the wholesome dharmas of all other beings, and if he does not mind them, not despise them, not apprehend them; but if he thinks to himself htat therein no dharmas is produced or stopped, defiled or purified, and that of those dharmas there is no diminution or growth, no coming or going, no heap and no non-existence; and if he resolves to rejoice in accordance with the Suchness, nonfalseness, and unaltered Suchness of those dharmas, with their dharmic nature, the established order of Dharma, and the fixed sequence of Dharma; and if after having rejoiced, he turns it over into the supreme enlightenment. All other kinds of rejoicing are infinitely inferior to this one, and by comparison with them this rejoicing is called the most excellent. Moreover, a son or daughter of good family who has newly set out in the vehicle and who wants to rejoice over the wholesome roots of the past, future, and present Tathagatas, together with their Disciples and the Pratyekabuddhas, acquired between the production of the first thought of enlightenment and the period when their Dharma remains established, associated with the perfection of giving, etc. to: associated with the immeasurable Buddhadharmas; as well as over the wholesome roots of all other beings, due to giving, morality, and meditational development; he should rejoice as follows: As the resolve so the gift, the morality, etc. to: the wisdom; as the resolve, so form, etc. to: consciousness; as the resolve, so the elements, etc.to: the Buddhadharmas; as the resolve, so the vision and cognition of emancipation; as the resolve so the rejoicing; as the resolve, sot he past, future, and present Buddhadharmas; as the resolve, so the Buddhas and Lords; as the resolve, so the full enlightenment of those Buddhas and Lords; as the resolve, so the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas of those Buddhas and Lords; as the resolve, so the Parinirvana of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas; as the resolve, so the Dharmahood of those Buddhas and Lords; as the resolve, so

dharmas and of all b

efiled, and unpurified, the Dharmahood of those dharmas which are unborn, unarisen, unproduced, and

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on a

nd nothing is destroyed. This is the most excellent rejoicing of the Bodhsiattvas. When he is endowed with this rejoicing, the Bodhisattva quickly knows full enlightenment. Moreover, Subhuti, if some follower of the great vehicle should during the whole of his life honour, revere, and worship, with robes, etc. those Buddhas and Lords, together with their congregations of Disciples, who abide in all the ten directions, in each single direction, in the world systems countless like the sands of the Ganges, and would give them everything that they might need; and if day and night he would put forth zeal to honour, revere, and worship those Buddhas and Lords, with flowers, etc.; and if, by way of taking something as a basis he would stand in morality, develop patience, exert vigour, enter into trance and develop wisdom; and if one the other hand someone who has set out for the supreme enlightenment, coursing in the six perfections without taking anything as a basis, turns these wholesome roots over into the supreme enlightenment, then compared with his accumulation of merit and his accumulation of wholesome roots the previously mentioned accumulation of merit is infinitesimally small. This is the turning over which is proclaimed as the most excellent, etc. to: as something quite unsurpassed. It is thus that the Bodhisattva, who courses in the six perfections, and who has rejoiced over those wholesome roots by way of skill in means and by way of taking nothing as a basis, should turn these wholesome roots over into supreme enlightenment. 336

CHAPTER 34 GLORIFICATION OF THE VIRTUES OF CONSUMMATION II 10. Glorification of the Marks of Consummation. II 10,1. ITS OWN BEING. Sariputra : The perfection of wisdom gives light, O Lord, She is worthy of homage; I pay homage to the perfection of wisdom! She is unstained. She removes the darkness from everyone in the triple world. She does her utmost to bring about the forsaking of the blinding darkness caused by the defilements and by false views. She makes us seek the safety of all the dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment. She brings light, so that all fear, terror, and distress may be forsaken. She shows the path to beings, so that they may acquire the five organs of vision. To beings who have strayed on to the wrong road she brings about the kn

337

The Lord : As in the Teacher, so should one stand in the

perfection of wisdom. A omage to the Teacher,

so also to the perfect d why? For just this

perfection of wisdom is the Teacher; the Teacher is not one thing

and he

perfection of .

For from this perfection of wisdom all Tathagatas come forth, and

also all Bodhisattva uddhas, Buddhas,

Arhats, Never-returners, Once-returners, and Streamwinners. From

it have come forth the ten wholesome ways of acting, etc. to: the

, and

for what reason, has this question of the Ven. Sariputra arisen?

read Sakra’s thoughts and replied: This

que

n of meditation?

Sariputra : So it is, Kausika, so it is. Therefore, then, this

been proclaimed as superior to the other

five

s one should pay hion of wisdom. An the perfection of wisdom another; just the Teacher is twisdom, just the perfection of wisdom is the Teachers, great beings, all Pratyekab

Buddhadharmas and the knowledge of all modes. Thereupon it occurred to Sakra, Chief of Gods: Wherefrom

The Ven. Sariputra

stion has arisen for the reason that it has been said that ‘taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, through skill in means dedicate to the knowledge of all modes all the wholesome roots of the Buddhas and Lords of the past, future, and present, in the interval beginning with the first thought of enlightenment, up to their full knowledge of the supreme enlightenment, up to the abiding of the good Dharma.’ This perfection of wisdom of the Bodhisattvas surpasses the(ir) perfection of giving, etc. to: the(ir) perfection of meditation. Just as, Kausika, people born blind, one hundred, one thousand, or one hundred thousand of them, cannot, without a leader go along a road and much less enter into a city; just so, Kausika, without an eye the five perfections are as if born blind, without the perfection of wisdom they are unable to ascend the path to enlightenment, and still less can they enter into the city of the knowledge of all modes. When, however, the five perfections have been taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom, then they acquire an organ of vision, and, taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom, these five perfections deserve to be called ‘perfections’. Sakra : As the Rev. Sariputra has said, ‘taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom, the five perfections deserve to be called ‘perfections’. But they do not deserve to be called ‘perfections’ because they are taken hold of by the perfection of giving, etc. to: the perfectio

perfection of wisdom has

perfections.

338

II 1

e consummated

fro

o

birt

0,3. THE NONEFFECTING OF ALL DHARMAS. Sariputra : How should, O Lord, the perfection of wisdom be consummated? The Lord : Through the non-consummation of form, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas. Through the non-consummation of all dharmas, etc. to: through the non-consummation of the knowledge of all modes. Sariputra : How should from the non-consummation of form, etc. to: of the knowledge of all modes, the perfection of wisdom be consummated? The Lord : The perfection of wisdom should b

m the non-bringing-about of form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes, from their non-production, non-stopping, non-existence, n

h, non-destruction, and from their baselessness. II 10,4. THE PROCURING OF REUNION BY NOT TAKING ALL DHARMAS AS A BASIS. Sariputra : What dharma does the perfection of wisdom procure when consummated in such a way? The Lord : None whatsoever. That is why it is styled ‘perfection of wisdom’. Sariputra : What dharma does it not procure? The Lord : No dharma which is wholesome or unwholesome, faulty or faultless, with or without outflows, conditioned or unconditioned, defile or purified, belong to Samsara or to Nirvana. And why? Because the perfection of wisdom has not been set up for the sake of providing a basis. For that reason it procures no dharma. Sakra : Then, O Lord, does this perfection of wisdom not even procure the knowledge of all modes? The Lord : The perfection of wisdom does not procure or apprehend any dharma, and therefore also not the knowledge of all modes.

Sakra : How then, O Lord, does the perfection of wisdom not procure or apprehend the knowledge of all modes? The Lord : The perfection of wisdom does not procure or apprehend any dharma and therefore also not the knowledge of all modes.

Sakra : How then, O Lord, does the perfection of wisdom not procure or apprehend the knowledge of all modes?

339

The Lord : The perfection of wisdom do

e a mental process, a sign, or a volitional act. Sakra : How

The Lord : To the extent that one does not approach anything, does not grasp at anything, does not take one’s stand on anything, does not forsake anything, does not settle down in anything, to that extent o

dharma, does not set it free or acquire it. It is thus that one does not procure all dharmas, does not set them free, does not acquire them.

Sakra : It is wonderful, O Lord, to see the extent to which this perfection of wisdom has been set up for the non-production of all dharmas, for their non-stopping, their non-effecting, their non-apprehension and their non-destruction.

wisdom should perveive that ‘the perfection of wisdom does not procure

thless and keep far away from it? The Lord : There is some way in

t the perfection of wisdom as worthless and keep away from it. If the Bodhis

‘this perfection of wisdom is worthles

al and void’, then he will treat it as worthless and move far away from it. Subhuti : Which dharmas become restored when the perfection of wisdom has been restored? The Lord : Not form, etc. to: not the supreme enlightenment. Subhu

ored no form, etc. to: no knowledge of all modes has been restored?

The Lord : When form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes are not apprehended, then the perfection of wisdom is restored.

0,5. IT IS THAT WHICH BRINGS ABOUT THE GREAT AIM. Subhuti : A great perfection is this perfection of w

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, in what manner is this perfection of wisdom a great perfection? Subh

nds or contracts, that it strengthens or weakens. If, again, a Bodhisattva who has newly set out in this vehi

340

perf

anything’, the,

whe s not course in the

perfection

of wisdom be seen. One should see that the

perf

hat beings as well as

form

d indestructible. One should

kno

with the powers’. In this manner also is the

perf

ection of giving that ‘the perfection of wisdom makes nothing great or small, nor does it strengthen or weaken

n he thus perceives, the Bodhisattva doe

of wisdom. And why? Because that cannot be an outcome of the perfection of wisdom. It is not an outcome of the perfection of wisdom that form, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas are made large or small. And why? Because Bodhisattvas do not perceive a basis. Thus the perfection of wisdom should be seen from the no-birth of form, etc. to: the Buddha should the no-birth of the perfection

ection of wisdom has no own-being, because beings, as well as form, etc. to: the Buddhas have no own-being. One should know the non-existence of the perfection of wisdom, its emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness from the fact t

, etc. to: the Buddhas are non-existent, empty, signless, and wishless. One should know the non-beingness of the perfection of wisdom, it unthinkability, and indestructibility from the fact that beings are non-beings, unthinkable, an

w that the perfection of wisdom does not actually undergo the process which leads to enlightenment because beings do not, nor does form, etc. do so. One should know that ‘the perfection of wisdom is not endowed with the powers because beings are not endowed with the powers, and because form, etc. to: the Buddhas are not endowed

ection of wisdom a great perfection for the Bodhisattvas, the great beings.

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CHAPTER 35 THE HELLS II 11. Absolute Purity. II 11,1. THE CAUSES OF THE PRODUCTION (OF FIRM BELIEF IN THE DHARMA). II 11,1,1. TENDING THE BUDDHAS. Sariputra : The Bodhisattva, the great being, who resolutely believes in this deep perfection of wisdom – wherefrom has he deceased before he came here? For how long has that son or daughter of good family set out for the supreme enlightenment? How many Tathagatas has he honoured? For how long has he coursed in the six perfections, he who resolutely believes in this perfection of wisdom according to the meaning and the method? The Lord : This Bodhisattva will be one who is reborn here after he has deceased (in other world systems) where he has honoured the Tathagatas in the ten directions. II 11,1,2. THE

342

etc. to: the enlightenment of a Buddha, on account of the fact that

Dharma is their real field

II 11,1,3. SKILL IN MEANS.

Subhuti : For how lon tva coursed who makes

endeavours about this deep perfection of wisdom?

The Lord : One must make a distinction in this. It is possible that

a Bodhisattva, beginning with the first thought of enlightenment,

ection of wisdom and about

the other perfections, and that with skill in means. He does not

omes lacking in the six perfections, and those Buddhas

and Lords whom he desires to honour, and worship with various

hem his various kinds of worship

succ

DHA

N OF DHARMA.

On the other hand there are sons and daughters of good family

ntless Buddhas,

and

is being taught, will walk

awa

of w

. g has the Bodhisat

makes endeavours about this deep perf

reject any dharma and sees no accumulation or taking away. He never bec

kinds of worship, with regard to t

eed as soon as he has produced a thought of them. He passes on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, he is no more reborn in the belly of a mother, he is never again deprived of the superknowledges, and he does not become partial to any defilement, or to a Disciple-thought or Pratyekabuddha-thought. II 11,2. THE CAUSES OF THE NONPRODUCTION (OF FIRM BELIEF IN THE

RMA). II 11,2,1. DEEDS CONDUCIVE TO THE RUI

who use the great vehicle, and who have seen cou

who training themselves in their presence, have given gifts, guarded morality, etc. to: developed wisdom, but all that by way of basing themselves on something. When the deep perfection of wisdom is being taught to them, they lack in faith, and walk out (of the assembly). In their lack of respect these sons and daughters of good family even walk away when the Buddhas and Lords teach this deep perfection of wisdom. Even here there are assembled sons and daughters of good family, belonging to the great vehicle, who, when the deep perfection of wisdom

y. And why? Because in the past also when the deep perfection

isdom was being taught, they have walked away, therefore, also just now they walk away when the deep perfection of wisdom is being taught. There is no concord either in their bodies or their thoughts, and they will heap up a karma conducive to weakness in 343

wisdom. Having done and heaped up this karma conducive to weakness in wisdom, they will refuse this deep

the all-knowledge of the p

s. By this rejection of all-knowledge, and by having done and heaped up karma conducive to the ruin of Dharm

ed for many thousands of niyutas of kotis of years into the great hells. While they pass on from one great hell to another, their world system will be destroyed by fire, water, or wind. When such a destruction of their world system takes place, they will be hurled into the great hells in other world systems. When they have been reborn there, they will pass on from one great hell to another, and after the destruction of that world system they will again in other world systems be hurled into the great hells. When also those world systems will be destroyed, they will, having deceased in these great hells, be again reborn just here, while their karma conducive to the ruin of Dharma is still unexhausted. Again they will pass on from one great hell to another. When they are reborn in these great hells, they will experience many sharps pains, and that until the time tha

has taken place, they will again, having deceased here, be reborn in other worldst

ten directions in the world of Yama, experience verythe

re, and thereby they will exhaust that karma. Having exhausted the karma which led to so many painful feelings, they will somewhere and at some time acquire a human body, and wherever they may be reborn they will be born blind, or be reborn among born-blind families, or in the families of outcasts, or refuse workers, or among keepers of oxen, hogs, or…, or in families which are mean, contemptible and low-class. And when they are thus reborn they will be blind, or ugly, or…, or without hands, feet, ears, or nose; and where they are they will not hear the words, ‘Buddha’, ‘Dharma’, or ‘Samgha’, or the words ‘Bodhisattva’, ‘Pratyekabuddha’, or ‘Arhat’. All this from their having done and heaped up this karma conducive to ruin of Dharma. Sariputra : Are not even the five deadly sins similar (in their after-effects) to the doing and heaping up of this karma conducive to the ruin of Dharma? The Lord : One should not say that there is anything similar (in magnitude) to this karma conducive to the ruin of Dharma which

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has been done and heaped up by those who think that they should oppose the perfection of wisdom when it is being taught and who say that ‘one should not train therein; this is not Dharma, this is not Vinaya, this is not the Teacher’s religion, this has not been taught by the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the fully enlightened Buddhas’. They themselves will decide to oppose it, and other beings also they will dissuade from it. Not content with having injured their own continuities, they will try to injure those of others also. Having poisoned their own continuities, they will poison those of others also. Themselves lost they will also destroy others. They themselves do not cognize nor understand the deep perfection of wisdom, and they decide to oppose it, and others also they will persuade to do the same. To these persons I do not even grant permission to hear (the perfection of wisdom), how much less do I grant a vision of it, and still less the ability to stand in it. And why? Persons of this kind should be known as defamers of Dharma. Sons of good family of this kind should be known as mere rubbish and vipers. Those who think that they should listen to them and believe them will be ruined through their lack of method. For someone who defames My perfection of wisdom should be known as a person who defames Dharma. Sariputra : The Lord has not told us about the length of time during which such a person who has defamed Dharma will be reborn under the influence of this deed. The Lord : Leave that alone, Sariputra. And why? If this were announced, those who hear it would have to beware lest hot blood spurt out of their mouths, lest they should incur death or deadly pain, or be afflicted by the dart of sorrow, lest they shrivel up or wither away, turn blue-black or a sicklish green, or… So great is the length of time during which a person who has defamed Dharma will be reborn under the influence of that deed. So great are its faults! But the Lord gave no opportunity to the Ven. Sariputra to learn for exactly how long that person would have to suffer for his deed. Sariputra : Proclaim, O Lord, as a guidance for future generations, for how long the Dharma-defaming persons will continue to suffer from their deeds conducive to

rma! The Lord : May this be a guidance to future generations that through having done an

of Dharma he will experience many sufferings in the great hells. That is the measure and magnitude of his sufferings in the great 345

hells. That is the measure and magnitude of his sufferings that he will experience sufferings for just so long. In this way virtuous sons and daughters of good family will turn away from these deeds conducive to the ruin of Dharma. Even to save their lives they will not reject the Dharma, because they fear they might meet with such sufferings. Subhuti : A son or daughter of good family should become well restrained in the deeds of their body, speech, and mind. For they do not want to experience such sufferings, and do not wish to be prevented from seeing the Tathagata, from hearing the Dharma and from seeing the Samgha, do not want to be reborn outside the Buddha-fields and without encountering a Buddha, do not want to live among poverty-stricken humans and… For when this action, expressed by speech, which rejects Dharma has been done and heaped up, then an action conducive to the ruin of Dharma has been done and heaped up. The Lord : When this action, expressed by speech, which rejects all dharmas has been done and heaped up, then an action conducive to the ruin of Dharma has been done and heaped up. Just here there will be deluded persons who have left the world for the well-taught Dharma-Vi

ose this perfection of wisdom. But to defame and oppose the perfection of wisdom means to defame and oppose the enlightenment of the Buddhas and Lor

ose that means to defame and oppose the all-knowledge of the Buddhas of the past, future, and present; and to defame and oppose that means to oppose the Dharma; to oppose the Dharma means to oppose the Samgha. And when the Samgha is opposed then the world right views and the supramundane are opposed, as well as the six perfections, the 37 dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment, the holy truths, etc. to: all-knowledge is opposed.

en all knowledge has been opposed, then an infinite mass of demerit has been acquired. And when such a mass of demerit has

n acquired, then also an infinite mass of ill and sadness has been acquired. II 11,2,2.

Subhuti : Those who oppose this deep perfection of wisdom, O Lord, by what modes do they oppose it? The Lord : By four modes do these deluded men oppose this deep perfection of wisdom. Which four? These deluded men are (1)

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under the influence of Mara, (2) they are unpractised in deep dharmas, and have no serene confidence (in them), (3) they have settled down in the five skandhas, and (4) they have fallen into the hands of bad spiritual directors, practise in faulty ways, exalt themselves, and depreciate others. Endowed with these four modes those de

om. Subhuti : It is hard to fain confidence in the deep perfection of wisdom for one who is unpractised, lacks in wholesome roots, and is in the hands of a bad spiritual advisor. The Lord : So it is, Subhuti. Subhuti : How deep then, O Lord, is the perfection of wisdom, since it is so hard to gain confidence in it? The Lord : Form, etc. is neither bound nor freed, because form, etc. is without the own-being of form, etc. The past starting point of form, etc. is neither bound n

its own-being. The future end of form, etc. is neither bound nor freed, because it has non-existence for its own-being. A present form, etc. is neither bound nor freed, because it has non-existence for its own-being. Subhuti : It is hard to gain confidence in the perfection of wisdom, if one is unpractised, has planted no wholesome roots, is in the hands of a bad teacher, has come under the sway of Mara, is lazy, of small vigour, robbed of mindfulness, and without self-possession. The Lord : So it is, Subhuti. II 11,3. THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF ABSOLUTE PURITY The purity of form, etc. is identical with the purity of the fruit. Moreover, the purity of form, etc. to: the purity of the knowledge of all modes is the purity of the fruit, the purity of the fruit is the purity of the perfection of wisdom, the purity of the perfection of wisdom is the purity of form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. It is thus that the purity of form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes, and the purity of the fru

1,4. THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF ABSOLUTE PURITY.

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II 11,4,1. THE DISCIPLES ARE PURIFIED OF THE OBSTACLE OF THE DEFILEMENTS. Moreover, Subhuti, what is the purity of the self that is the purity of form, and what is the purity of form that is the purity of self. It is thus that the purity of self and the purity of form are not two nor divided, are not broken apart, not cut apart. So with the purity of a

The Purity of one who sees is the purity of the knowledge of all modes; the purity of one who sees is the purity of the knowledge of all modes; the purity of the knowledge of

who sees; for they are not

rt, not cut apart. Moreover, Subhuti, from the perfect purity of self results the perfect purity of form, etc.,

orm, etc. results the perfect purity of self, etc. It is thus that the perfect purity of self, etc. and the perfect purity of form, etc. are not two nor divided, are not broken apart, not cut apart. Moreover, Subhuti, from the perfect purity of greed, hate, and delusion results the perfect purity of form, etc. to: the perfect purity of the knowledge of all modes. It is thus that the perfect purity of greed, hate, and de

knowledge of all modes are not two nor divided, are not broken apart, not cut apart. Moreover, Subhuti, from the perfect purity of greed-hate-delusion results the perfect purity of form, etc. etc. II 11,4,2. THE

ACLE OF THE COGNIZABLE.

purity of the fruit. And so on, until we come to

orance. From the purity of the karma formations results the purity of consciousness, from the purity of consciousness results the purity of name-and-form, etc. to: from the purity of old age, death, sorrow, lamentations, pain, sadness, and despair results the purity of all-knowledge. It is thus that the purity of old age, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and despair and the purity of all-knowledge are not two nor divided, not broken apart, not cut apart.

II 11,4,3. THE BODHISATTVAS AS PURIFIED OF (THE

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for the various kinds of emptiness, etc. to: from the purity of the special Buddha-dh

s that the purity of all-knowledge and the purity of the special Buddha-dharmas is not two nor divided, not broken apart, not cut apart. (II 11,5. THE VARIETIES OF ABSOLUTE PURITY). II 11,5,1. THE WEAKEST PATH. Moreover, the purity of the perfection of wisdom is the purity of form, the purity of form is the purity of everything up to the knowledge of all modes. It is thus that the purity of the perfection of wisdom and the purity of form and the purity of the knowledge of all modes are not two nor divided, not broken apart, not cut apart. And so for the other skandhas, and for the perfections. II 11,5,2. THE MEDIUM WEAK PATH. Moreover, from the purity of inward emptiness, etc. to: from the purity of the emptiness of the non-existence of own-being results the purity of the knowledge of all modes. It is thus that the purity of inward emptiness, etc. to: the purity of the emptiness of the non-existence of own-being and the purity of the knowledge of all modes are not two nor divided, not broken apart, not cut apart

From the purity of the skandhas, eleconditioned coproduction, etc. to: from the purity of the ten powers, the grounds of self-confide

nce, and the special Buddhadharmas results the purity of the knowledge of all modes. It is thus that the purity of the skandhas, elements, sense fields and conditioned coproduction, and the purity of the perfections, the dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment, the holy truths, the Unlimited, the trances, the formless attainments, the eight emancipations, the nine successive attainments, the emptiness, signless and wishless, the superknowledges, of all concentrations and all dharani-doors, and the purity of the ten powers, the grounds of self-confidence, the analytical knowledges and the special Buddhadharmas, and the purity o

knowledge of all modes and the purity of the perfection of wisdom are not two nor divided

349

II 11,5,2. THE STRONGEST WEAK PATH. Moreover, from the purity of the conditioned results the purity of the unconditioned, and from the purity of the unconditioned the purity of the conditioned. It is thus that the purity of the conditio

the purity of the past results the purity of the

future the purity of the presenpur

ity of the past and future. It is thus that the purity of the past and future and the purity of the present are not two nor divided, are not broken apart, are not cut apart. 350

CHAPTER 36 THE EXPOSITION OF THE PURITY OF ALL DHARMAS II 11,5,4. THE WEAK-MEDIUM PATH.

351

II 11,5,8. THE STRONG-MEDIUM PATH.

Sariputra : The purity is without attainment or reunion.

The Lord : Because there is absolutely no attainment or reunion.

Sariputra : Through the nonattainment of what and through the

n

knowledge of all modes, and through the nonreunion with them.

II 11,5,9. THE STRONG- STRONG PATH.

Sariputra : Purity, O Lord, does not reproduce itself.

o reproduction.

nreproduction of what?

production of the five

skan

Purity means no rebirth, whether in the world of

or the world of form, e formless world.

le

wor

LITY BETWEEN THE COGNITION

Sariputra : How is it that purity does not cognize the skandhas?

ptiness of own-marks.

armas.

onreunion with what is there purity? The Lord : Through the nonattainment of form, etc. to: the

The Lord : Because absolutely there is n

Sariputra : The purity results from the no

The Lord : It results from the nonre

dhas.

II 11x. THE PATH AS OPPOSED TO THE WORLD. Sariputra :

sense desire or thThe Lord : Because of absolute pu

rity. Sariputra : How is it that purity means no rebirth in the trip

ld?

The Lord : Because, when the own-being is

considered, there is no rebirth in any of the three worlds. II 11xx. THE PATH AS OPPOSED TO THE DUA

AND THE COGNIZABLE.

Sariputra : Purity, O Lord, does not cognize.

The Lord : Because of absolute purity.

Sariputra : How is it that purity does not cognize? ord :

The LBecause one is benumbed by Dharma. Sariputra : Purity does not cognize the skandhas. The Lord : Because of absolute. Purity.

The Lord : On account of the em

Sariputra : Purity does not cognize all dh

The Lord : Because of absolute purity.

Sariputra : How is it that purity does not cognize all dharmas?

The Lord : Because it does not apprehend them.

352

II 11xxx. REFUTATION OF AN OBJECTI

CLUSION OF THE DUAL PURITY OF THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT.

Sariputra : The perfection of wisdom neither helps nor hinders

nowledge. The Lord : Because of absolute pur

Sariputra : How is it that the perfection of wisdom neither helps nor hinders all-knowledge?

Sariputra : The purity of the perfect

of any dharma.

The Lord : Because of absolute purity.

Sariputra : How is it that the purity of the perfection of wisdom

s not take hold of any dharma? The Lo

Sariputra : The purity of the skandhas, puri

ty of the self. The Lord : Because of absolute purity. of the skandh

Sariputra : For what reason is the purity

purity of (the) self? The Lord : The absolute purity results from the unreality of both self

and the skandhas. Sariputra : The purity of the perfections, etc. to: the 18 special Buddha-dharmas is due to the purity of

The Lord : Because of absolute purity. Sariputra : The purity of all dharmas is due to the purity of self.

The Lord : Because of absolute purity. y of se

Sariputra : For what reason is the purit

rmas?

The Lord : It is purity because of the unreality of set

Sariputra : To the purity of the self is due the puriit of a Onc

Streamwinner; and so is that of the fru

er-returner, of Arhatship, and of the enlightenment of a

yekabuddha. marks.

The Lord : On account of the emptiness of own- is due th

Sariputra : To the purity of the self

ghtenment.

The Lord : Because of absolute purity. Sariputra : For what reason is the purity of enlighte

353

Sariputra : To the purity of self is due the purity of all-knowledge.

The Lord : Because of absolute purity. Sariputra : F

purity of the self?

The Lord : On account of the emptiness of own-marks. Sariputra : The dual puri

The Lord : Because of absolute purity.

Sariputra : For what reason is the dual purity not attainment or reunion?

The Lord : Because in Dharma

purification are the same. Sariputra : The boundlessness o

ndlessness of the self.

Sariputra : For what reason is the boundlessness of the skandhas due to th

The Lord : On account of absolute

tiness without beginning or end. Sariputra : This then,

hisattva, the great being. The Lord : Because o

[Subhuti : For what reason is this the perfection of wisdom of the Bodhisattva, the great being?

The Lord : On account of the knowled

.]

ALL KNOWLEDGE.

1-2. Unestablished in either Samsara or Nirvan

a. Subhuti : The perfection of wisdom of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, O Lord, is not got at on the sore this side, or on the shore beyond, or in between the two. The Lord : Bec

ause of its absolute purity, Subhuti. Subhuti : For what reason is the perfection of wisdom

of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, not got at on the shore this side, or on the shore bey

ond, or in between the two? The Lord : Because of its absolute purity

, Subhuti, on account of the fact that all dharmas are the same in the three periods of time.

354

III

.

hter of good family who

belo

by making it into a basis, he will (thereby)

part t.

ti, For

also ttachment. And why?

Bec

ti : How, O Lord, are also names and signs sources of

atta

son or daughter of good family who

belo

it through t from the perfection of

wisd

it.

sdom) owing to Skill in

Mea

Lord, to see the extent to which this

perf the great beings, has

bee

III

ed).

Sariputra : What, Ven. Subhuti, is attachment on the part of the

rse in perfect wisdom, and what is

nonattachment?

n or

dau

futu and that is

an a

3. Farness (from Perfect Wisdom) owing to Lack of Skill in Means

Subhuti : If again, O Lord, a son or daug

ngs to the great vehicle would, unskilled in means, cognize the perfection of wisdom

from this perfection of wisdom and get far away from i

The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well said; so it is, Subhu

names and signs are sources of a

ause all dharmas are signless and nameless. Subhu

chment? The Lord : Here, Subhuti, a

ngs to the great vehicle seizes on the perfection of wisdom through a name, seizes on it through a sign. And, having seized on

a sign and a name they will par

om, will get far away from it; by minding it they will part from the perfection of wisdom, will get far away from

III 4. Nearness (of Perfect Wi

ns. Subhuti : It is wonderful, O

ection of wisdom of the Bodhisattvas,

n well taught, and well rounded off.

5. (The Cognition of) Entities (as a Point to be Shunn

Bodhisattvas who cou

Subhuti : Here, Ven. Sariputra, a Bodhisattva, or a so

ghter of good family, unskilled in means will perceive the skandhas as empty – and that is an attachment; unskilled in means he will perceive past dharmas as past dharmas, future dharmas as

re dharmas, present dharmas as present dharmas –

ttachment. Moreover, it is an attachment if a Bodhisattva, while perceiving a basis, courses, beginning with the first thought of enlightenment, in the six perfections.

III 6. Points to be Shunned and Antidotes.

355

III 6,ab. ANTIDOTES (AND POINTS TO BE SHUNNED). As again, Ve

attachment of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, who course in perfect wisdom?’ the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in perfect wisdom and who is skilled in means does certainly not perceive form as form, feeling as feeling, etc.; not past dharma

t dharmas, etc. Nor does it occur to him: I give a gift, to him I give a gift, this gift I give; I guard morality, this morality I guard, through that do I guard morality; etc. to: I beget m

rit). I enter on the Bodhisattva’s certainty of salvation; I will purify the B

nowledge. The Bodhisattvas who course in perfect wisdom and are skilled in means do not make any of these discriminations. And why? On account of the twenty kinds of emptiness. These are the nonattachments of a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom and who is skilled in means.

Sakra : In which manner, Subhuti, is there attachment on the part of a

Subhuti : Here, Kausika, the Bodhisattva perceives thought, perceives giving, etc. to: wisdom, the 20 kinds of emptiness, perceives the Buddhas, the Lords. He

heaped up all these, rolled them into one lump, and weighed them up, he con

ghtenment. This is an attachment on the part of a Bodhisattva, and through it he does not course in nonattachment. And why? For it is impossible to

ing, etc. III 6,d. ONCE MORE THE ANTIDOTE. Moreover, Kausika, a Bodhisattva who wants to instruct others in the supreme enlightenment, who wants to instigate them, fill them with enthusiasm for it, encourage them towards it, he should do so with a mind which keeps in agreement with true reality, and also in such a way that, when he cou

thus that a Bodhisattva rouses and incites others. In

356

should rouse and incite to the supreme enlighten

way that that son or daughter of good family succeeds in abandoning all the points of attachment. III 6,e. SUBTLE ATTACHMENTS. The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, you who point out to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, these points of attachment. I will now announce to you other, more subtle, attachments. Listen to them well, and pay good attention! I will teach them to you. “So be it, O Lord!” and the Ven. Subhuti listened in silence. The Lord : Here, Subhuti, a son or daughter of good family who has set out for the supreme enlightenment attends to the Tathagatas through a sign. But, so many signs, so many attachments. Whatever wholesome root there may be on the part of those Tathagatas in the interval (of time) which begins with the first thought of enlightenment, until full enli

Nirvana-element which leaves nothing beh

blishment of the Good Law, - to all that he attends through a sign, and, having atte

ghtenment. But as long as he attends through a sign, so long there is attachment. And as to the wholesome roots, which are quite free from attachment, of those Tathagatas, who are themselves free from all attachment, and as to the wholesome roots of other beings as well – to those also he attends through a sign, and, having attended to them, he dedicates them to the supreme enlightenment. But as long as he attends through a sign, so long there is attachment. But as long as he attends through a sign, so long there is attachment. And why? For the Tathagatas should not

6,f. THE DEPTH OF DHARMA. Subhuti : Deep, O Lord, is the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : Because all dharmas are isolated in their essential original nature. Subhuti : I pay homage, O Lord, to the perfection of wisdom! The Lord : For the perfection of wisdom is unmade, it has not been brought about, and so it has not been fully known by anyone.

357

III 6,g. THE ABANDONMENT OF ALL ATTACHMENTS. Subhuti : Hard to know fully are all dharmas. The Lord : Because they have th

thus cognize and see the essen

been brought about. All points of attachment will then be abandoned. III 6,h. THE FACT THAT IT IS HARD TO UNDERSTAND. Subhuti : Hard to known fully, O Lord, is the

om! The Lord : Because the perfection of wisdom has not been seen by anyone, nor heard, nor felt, nor discerned, nor fully known. III 6,i. UNTHINKABILITY. Subhuti : Unthinkable, O Lord, is the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : Because the perfection of wisdom has not been discerned by anyone, and it has not been cognised by form, etc. to: by the Buddhadharmas.

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CHAPTER 37

UNSUPPORTED ANYWHERE

Subhuti : Inactive is the perfection of wisdom

The Lord : Because all dharmas cannot be apprehended.

7. The Endeavours of the Cognition of Entities.

Subhuti : How, O Lor

om?

The Lord : Here, Subhuti, if a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, does not course in form, etc., then he courses in perfect wisdom.

359

Subhuti : It is wonderful, O Lord, to what extent both the

attachment and the non Bodhisattvas, the great

beings, have been expla

The Lord : So it is, Subhuti. They have been well explained by

the Tathag Moreover,

Subhuti, if a s not

dourse in the idea that ‘form is with attachment or without

attachment’, then he courses in perfect wisdom. Coursing thus, the

Bod m, etc., as ‘with

or w

TY (OF

PERFECT WISDOM).

n does not

dim

nstration diminish it; demonstration does not increase it,

and

ot diminish, demonstration does not increase it. It

is as if a Tathagata should, during his entire life, speak in praise or

it and would not diminish when he does not praise it.

For

grow,

nor does he waste away when there is no praise. Praise does not

ust as much as it is, whether it be

dem

odhisattva who, while

coursing in perfect wisdom, does not lose heart when the

it, who persists in making endeavours about the

perfection of wisdom and who does not turn back on the supreme

attachment of the ined! ata, the Arhat, the fully enlightened Buddha. Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom doe

hisattva, the great being, does not perceive for

ithout attachment’.

III 7,5. THE ENDEAVOURS WITH REGARD TO THE IMMUTABILI

Subhuti : It is wonderful, O Lord, how demonstratio

inish this deep perfection of wisdom, nor does non-demo

also non-demonstration does not increase it. The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, non-demonstration of the perfection of wisdom does n

dispraise of space – and yet the volume of space would not increase when he praise

space does not increase through praise, nor does it diminish through non-praise. III 7,6. THE ENDEAVOURS WITH REGARD TO THE ABSENCE OF AN AGENT. Or it is as with an illusory man. Praise does not make him

win him over, and when there is no praise he is not frustrated. Just so the true nature of dharmas is j

onstrated or not. III 7,7. THE ENDEAVOUR TO DO THAT WHICH IS HARD TO DO. III 7,7a. THE ULTIMATE AIM IS HARD TO REALIZE. Subhuti : A doer or what is hard is the B

perfection of wisdom is being preached, and does not mentally turn away from

360

enli

om and the perfection of wisdom

can

dhisattvas who put on the armour for the

sake of dharmas which are like space.

NING IS DIFFICULT.

gle Tathagata would lead countless beings to

Nirvana; still one could not conceive of the depletion of repletion of

s,

on

III 7,8. THE ENDEAVOUR IS NOT BARREN.

ge, O Lord,

to the perfection of wisdom of the Lord, in which no dharma is

ality is not conceived

in it

ghtenment. And why? This development of perfect wisdom is like the development of space. But in space there can be no development of perfect wisd

not be conceived in space, nor the other perfections, nor the skandhas, etc. to: nor the supreme enlightenment. Subhuti : I pay homage to the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, who are armed with this armour. Those who for the sake of beings put on the armour want to exert themselves and to struggle for the sake of space, and they want to liberate space. Armed with the great armour are the Bo

III 7,7b. THE TRAI

They want to get rid of space or the firmament, those who for the sake of beings put on the armour. III 7,7c. THE ACTIVITY IS DIFFICULT.

A great perfection of vigour has the Bodhisattva who wants to know the supreme enlightenment for the sake of beings. And why? If this great trichiliocosm were quite full of Tathagatas, like a thicket of reeds, a bamboo wood, a sugar cane forest, a forest of Saccharam Sara reed or like a rice field, and if these Tathagatas would demonstrate Dharma for an aeon or for the remainder of an aeon; and if each sin

the world of beings. And why? On account of the unreality of being

account of their isolatedness. And the same would be true if all the world systems in all the ten directions were considered. It is by way of this method that I say: Space would those want to liberate who for the sake of beings want to know full enlightenment.

Thereupon, it occurred to a certain monk: I pay homa

either produced or stopped. The mass of mor

, the mass of concentration, etc. to: the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. it not conceived in it. Sakra : If, Ven. Subhuti, a Bodhisattva were to make endeavours about this deep perfection of wisdom, what would his endeavours be about?

361

Subhuti : About space he would make endeavours, if he would endeavour to train in this deep perfection of wisdom. III 7,9. THE ENDEAVOUR IS NOT CONDITIONED BY ANYONE ELSE. Sakra : I will arrange for the shelter, defence, an

son or daughter of good family who will take up, etc. this perfection of wisdom. Subhuti : Can you, Sakra, see that dharma which you wish to shelter, defend and protect? Sakra : No, I cannot. Subhuti : When a son or daughte

their shelter, defence and protection

lacking in the perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded, then (hostile) men and ghosts will get a

if one would think of arranging shel

Bodhisattvas who course in perfect wisdom. What do you think, Kausika, are you able to arrange shelter, defence, and protection for a magical illusion, a mirage, a dream, an echo, a reflection, an image, a city of the Gandharvas? Sakra : Not so, Ven. Subhuti. Subhuti : So it is, Kausika. One who would think of arranging shelter, defence, and protection for Bodhisattvas who course in perfect wisdom would wear himself out to no purpose. What do you think, Kausika, are you able to arrange shelter, defence, and protection for a Tathagata, or for a Tathagata’s magical creation? Sakra : Not so, Ven. Subhuti. Subhuti : So it is, Kausika. One who would think of arranging shelter, defence, and protection for Bodhisattvas who cour

think, Kausika, are you able to arrapro

tection for the Dharma-element, for the Reality limit, for Suchness, for the Unthinkable element? Sakra : Not so, Ven. Subhuti. Subhuti : Just so with the Bodhisattvas.

7,10. THE COGNITION OF THE SEVEN ASPECTS (OR POINTS OF) COMPARISON. Sakra : To what an

362

sho

Subhuti : To the extent that Bodhisattvas do not put their minds

r do not

thin

m, etc.

e Endeavours.

a who courses in perfect

wisd

andalwood powder and came to

whe

wisd

this very same perfection

of w nment.

ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERING: NEITHE

w, a mirage, an echo, a reflected image, a city of the Gandharvas, an illusory magical creation?

even to the dream, or do not mind through the dream, o

k that ‘this is my dream’, or do not mind in the dream – and so for the other six – to that extent have they comprehended that all dharmas are like a drea

III 8. The Sameness of th

Moreover, Kausika, a Bodhisattv

om does not put his mind even to form, does not mind through form, does not mind in a dream, does not think ‘mine is the dream’, does not think ‘this is a dream’; and so on with the usual variations. III 9. The Path of Vision. III 9a. THE INTIMATION OF THE PRESENCE OF THE 16 MOMENTS OF THE PATH OF VISION. Thereupon through the Buddha’s might the Four Great Kings in this great trichiliocosm, and the other gods up to the gods of the Pure Abode, scattered heavenly s

re the Lord was. They revere

ntly saluted the Lord’s feet with their heads and stood on one side. Thereupon through the Buddha’s might the minds of all these deities were impressed by (the sight of) a thousand Buddhas in the act of teaching the Dharma, in these very syllables, in these very words, with monks called Subhuti asking question about just this deep perfection of

om as well as demonstrating i

t, and with Sakras, Chiefs of Gods, asking counter-questions about it. And so for the world systems in all the ten directions. The Lord : Subhuti, just at this spot of earth the Bodhisattva Maitreya will, after he has won supreme enlightenment, teach this very same perfection of wisdom. At just this spot of earth will the Tathagatas of this Auspicious Aeon teach

isdom, after they have won th

e supreme enlighte

III 9,1. RPERMANENT NOR IMPERMANENT. (Aspect: Impermanent).

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Subhuti : By which modes, O Lord, by which characteristics, by which signs will the Bodhisattva Maitreya

om after he has won the supreme enlightenment? The Lord : Here, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva Maitreya will, after he has won the supreme enlightenment, teach Dharma to the effect that form is not permanent or impermanent, not ease or ill, not self or not-self, not attractive or rep

up to the Buddhadharmas.

III 9,2. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERING: BOTH ETERNITY AND ANNIHILATION ARE LEFT BEHIND. (Aspect: Ill). Subhuti : How again will the Bodhisattva Maitreya demonstrate

The Lord : He will demonstr

III 9,3. ACCEPTANCE OF

pect: Empty). Subhuti : Perfectly pure, O Lord, is the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : Because of the perfect purity of form, etc. III 9,4. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF SUFFERING: NOT PRODUCED OR STOPPED, NOT DEFILE OR PURIFIED. (Aspect: Impersonal). Subhuti : How is it that the perfection of wisdom is perfectly pure because of the perfect purity of form, etc.? The Lord : The perfect purity of form, etc. lies in its non-production and non-stopping, its non-defilement and non-purification.

9,5. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION: LIKE SPACE. (Aspect: Cause). Moreover, Subhuti, because of the perfect purity of space is the perfection of wisdom perfectly pure. Subhuti : How is that, O Lord?

perfectly pure because of the non-production, non-stopping, non-defilement and non-purification of form, etc. to: all-

364

III

se of the

stai

SEQUENT COGNITION OF ORIGINATION: SET

FREE. (Aspect: Product).

erfectly

pure becau

III 9,8. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF ORIGINATION: INEXPRESSIBLE.

of wisdom is perfectly pure because of the

inex

The Lord : Just as in space an echo is the sound of a non-duality,

MA IN STOPPING:

UNOBTAINAB

of space.

Subhuti : How is that, O Lord?

isdom is perfectly pure because form, etc.

to:

III TOPPING: WITHOUT A GROUND FOR

APPR

Subhuti : How is that, O Lord?

9,6. THE COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION: UNSTAINED BY PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DEFILEMENTS. (Aspect: Cause). The perfection of wisdom is perfectly pure becau

nlessness of space. Subhuti : How is that, O Lord? The Lord : The perfection of wisdom is like space and perfectly pure because of the stainlessness of form, etc. to: all-knowledge. III 9,7. ACCEPTANCE OF SUB

Moreover the perfection of wisdom is perfectly pure because of the fact that space cannot be seized upon.

Subhuti : How is that, O Lord? The Lord : The perfection of wisdom is like space and p

se form, etc. to: all-knowledge cannot be seized upon.

(Aspect: Condition). The perfection

pressibility of space.

Subhuti : How is that, O Lord?

just so the perfection of wisdom is like space and it is perfectly pure because form, etc. to: all-knowledge are inexpressible.

III 9,9. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHAR

LE. (Aspect: Stopping). The perfection of wisdom is perfectly pure because of the incommunicability

The Lord : There can be no conventional utterance about space. Just so the perfection of w

all-knowledge are incommunicable.

9,10. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN S

EHENSION. (Aspect: Calm Quietude). The perfection of wisdom is perfectly pure because, like space, it offers no basis for apprehension.

365

The Lord : Because there can be no basis for the apprehension of space. Just so the perfection of wisdom is perfectly p

m, etc. to: all-knowledge offer no basis for apprehension.

9,11. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUEN

ect: Sublime). The perfection of wisdom is perfectly pure because all dharmas

Subhuti : How is that, O Lord? The Lord : The perfecti

absolute purity of form, etc. to: all-knowledge.

9,12. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF

S OF DISEASE. (Aspect: Definite Escape). Subhuti : If some son or daughter of good family will take up

wisely attend to it, then he will have no disease in his eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body o

y. Nor will that son or daughter of good family die a violent death. And many thousa

to: the gods of the Pure Abode will follow closely behind them, on the eighth, fourteenth, and fifteenth day a large number of deities will congregate where that son or daughter of g

when he teaches this perfection of wisdom that son or daughter of good family will beget a great de

alculable, measureless, inconceivable and incomparable. The Lord : So it is, Subh

d family will beget a great

lculable, measureless, inconceivable and incomparable, when they teach this perfection of wisdom on the eighth, fourteenth, and fifteenth day and a congregation of deiti

treasure.

9,13. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH: CESSATION OF THE STATES OF WOE. (Aspect: Path

When this most precious per

366

Yam

is a

donor of the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: of the supreme

s of action been explained in detail, and in it all

the

most precious

perf

: ABSENCE OF

THOUGHT-CONSTRUCTION. (Aspect: Correct Method).

ired or rejected. And

why

III

then he courses in perfect wisdom, develops wisdom,

pleases the Buddhas and Lords, and passes on from Buddha-field to

to Buddha-field, maturing

bei

a and from poverty among men. One will be reborn in good families – among warriors, Brahmins and wealthy householders – or among the various kinds of gods. This perfection of wisdom

enlightenment. And why? For in this perfection of wisdom have the ten wholesome path

spiritual practices are conceived, as well as their fruits, up to the Tathagatas themselves. That is why it is called a

ection.

III 9,14. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH

But in this most precious perfection no dharma whatsoever is produced or stopped, defiled or purified, acqu

? Because there are no dharmas which could be produced or stopped, defiled or purified, acquired or rejected. Nor can in this most precious perfection any dharma be apprehended which is wholesome or unwholesome, worldly or supramundane, with or without outflows, conditioned or unconditioned. By this method this most precious perfection is without basis. III 9,15. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH: ABSENCE OF CONTACT WITH SIGNS. (Aspect: Progress). Nor is this precious perfection of wisdom stained by any dharma whatsoever. And why? Because those dharmas cannot apprehended by which it could be stained, and therefore this perfection of wisdom if free from all stains.

9,16. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH: NONGENESIS OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE COGNITION AND ITS VERBAL EXPRESSION. (Aspect: Factor of Release). If, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being who courses in perfect wisdom, does even thus not cognize, does even thus not apprehend, does even thus not get delayed (by thinking multiple thoughts),

Buddha-field so as to honour, revere, and worship the Buddhas and Lords. Passing on from Buddha-field

ngs and purifying the Buddha-field, he will reach all-knowledge.

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(III 10. The Resume of I to III). III 10,1. THE INDICATION THAT THE FIRST TOPIC, I.E. ALL-KNOWLEDGE, IS CONCLUDED. And again, Subhuti, this perfection of wisdom does not bring near any dharma nor remove one, it does not show one up or define one, does not bestow one or take one away, does not produce or stop one, does not annihilate one or make it eternal, it has not one

not diminish one or make it grow. Nor is it past, future, or present.

10,2. INDICATION THAT THE SECOND TOPIC, THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PATHS, IS CONCLUDED. And again, Subhuti, this perfection of wisdom does not transcend the world of sense-desire, nor does it establish it; and so with the world of form and the formless world. She does not bestow the perfection of giving nor does she take it away; and so with the emptinesses, etc. to: all-knowledge.

ALL MODES, IS CONCLUDED. And again, Subhuti, this perfection of wis

Buddhadharmas nor take them away; and so for the dharmas of the foolish common people, the dharmas of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, and the Buddhadharmas; and so for the conditioned element and the unconditione

produced, fixed is this Dharmahood of dharmas, the Dharma-element, the fixedness of Dharma, the fixed sequence of dharma(s). Those the Tathaga

ving fully known them and having realized them intuitively, he describes them, demonstrates them, uncovers them, analyses them, enlarges on them, and reveals them. Thereupon a great many hundreds of thousands of gods who stood up high in the intermediate space called out aloud with cries of joy, waved their garments, and hurled heavenly blue, red, and white lotuses and mandarava flowers (into the air). And they said, “Now, indeed, we see the second turning of the wheel of Dharma

368

was being expounded, many thousan

The Lord : This is not, Subhuti, the second turning of the wheel of Dharma, n

for the sake of turning forward any dharma, or of turning it backward – on account of the emptiness of the non-existence of own-being. Subhuti : What, O Lord, is the emptiness of the non-existence of own-being, in consequence of which this perfection of wisdom has not been set up for the sake of turning any dharma forward or backward?

of wisdom; and so is the perfection of meditation empty of the perfection of meditation; etc.

Subhuti : A great perfection for the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, O Lord, is this perfection of wisdom. For the own-being of all dharmas is empty of the own-being of all dharmas. It is thanks to the perfection of wisdom that the Bodhisattvas, the great beings know full enlightenment, although they do not fully know any dharma. They turn the wheel of Dharm

dharma forward or backward. They do not behold any dharma, nor do they demonstrate any dharma. And why? Because that dharma can

not be apprehended which could turn forward or backward. For one absolutely does not settle down in all dharmas. And why? Because emptiness does not proceed or recede, nor does the Signless or Wishless. To demonstrate that is the proclamation of the perfection of wisdom, its narration, its disclosure, its dispatching, its explanation, its analysis, its indication, its amplification, its revelation. This is the perfectly pure demonstration of the perfection of wisdom. No one has demonstrated it, no one has received it, no one has realised it. And since no one has realised it, no one has therein gone to final Nirvana. Nor has this demonstration of Dharma ever made anyone worthy of gifts.

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CHAPTER 38

WITHOUT BASIS

IV. THE FULL UNDERSTANDING OF ALL MODES. IV 1. Mode

IV 1,1.(27) MODES OF ALL-KNOWLEDGE. Subhuti : A perfection of

ection of wisdom. The Lord : Because space is not something that is. Subhuti : A perfection of sameness is this, i.e. the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : Because all dharmas are equally uncomprehended. Subhuti : This is an isolated perfection. The Lord : On account of absolute emptiness. Subhuti : This is a perfection which cannot be crushed. The Lord : Because all dharmas cannot be apprehended. Subhuti : This is a trackless perfection. The Lord : Because both body and mind are absent. Subhuti : This is a perfection like space. The Lord : Because breathing in and breathing out cannot be apprehended. Subhuti : This is an incommunicable perfection. The Lord : Because thought applied and thought discursive cannot be apprehended. Subhuti : This is a nameless perfection. The Lord : Because feelings, perceptions, impulses, and consciousness ca

370

Subhuti : This perfection has no genesis.

The Lord : Because a produced or stopped.

Subhuti : This is a pe agent.

The Lord : Because no agent can be apprehended.

Subhuti : This is zer.

The Lord : Because no cognizer can be

Subhuti : This is a perfection which does not pass on.

The Lord : Because decease and rebirth cannot be

Subhuti : This is a perfection which does not discipline.

ause all dharmas in their essential original nature

do not need any discipline.

eam.

(ghoshadara?)

nd image cannot be

app

.

n.

lement.

n is spotless.

rehended.

ediments.

of Dharma.

IV 1,2.(36)

: This perfection has turned away from greed.

ll dharmas are not rfection without an a perfection without a cogniapprehended.

apprehended.

The Lord : Bec

Subhuti : This perfection is like a dr

The Lord : Because one cannot apprehend the one who sees the dream.

Subhuti : This perfection is like an echo.

The Lord : Because one cannot apprehend the one who makes the noise

Subhuti : This perfection is like a reflected image.

The Lord : Because both mirror a

rehended.

Subhuti : This perfection is like a mirage.

The Lord : Because no mass of water can be apprehended

Subhuti : This perfection is like an illusio

The Lord : Because its sign cannot be apprehended.

Subhuti : This perfection is free from defi

The Lord : Because the own-being of the defilements cannot be apprehended.

Subhuti : This perfection knows no purification.

The Lord : Because no defiled being can be apprehended. Subhuti : This perfectio

The Lord : Because space cannot be app

Subhuti : This perfection is without impediments. The Lord : Because it uproots all imp

Subhuti : This perfection has no mental attitudes.

The Lord : Because it uproots all mental attitudes.

Subhuti : This perfection is unshakeable.

The Lord : Because of the stability of the Realm

MODES OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PATHS. Subhuti

371

The Lord : Because its dispassion cannot b

Subhuti : This is a perfection which takes its stand nowhere.

The Lord : Because all dharmas are not discrimin

Subhuti : This perfection is calm.

The Lord : Because the nonfalseness of all dharm

erstood (?).

Subhuti : This perfection is free from greed.

The Lord : Because of the nonapprehension of greed. Subhuti : Th

The Lord : Because of the unreality of hate.

Subhuti : This perfection is free from delusion. The Lord : Because the b

elled.

Subhuti : This perfection is undefiled. The

Subhuti : No living being is found in this perfection

The Lord : Because no being can be apprehended. Subhuti : This perfecti

The Lord : Because all dharmas do not rise up.

Subhuti : This perfection does not follow after the duality of opposites.

The Lord : Because of absolute nonappreh

Subhuti : This perfection is undifferentiated.

The Lord : Because all dharmas are.

Subhuti : This perfection is untarnished.

The Lord : Because it has transcended the level of b

Pratyekabuddhas. Subhuti : Th

The Lord : Because of the nonapp

-discrimination.

Subhuti : This perfection is immeasura

The Lord : Because all dharmas are without me

not be apprehended.

Subhuti : This perfection is unattached.

The Lord : Because all dharmas in their own-being a

pace.

Subhuti : Impermanent is this perfection.

The Lord : Because no dharma is ever destroyed.

The Lord : Because it is not bent on all dharma

rma itself (?).

372

Subhuti : Empty is this perfection.

The Lord : Because it brings forth no fruits (?).

Subhuti : Not-self is this perfection.

The Lord : Because there is no set

Subhuti : Markless is this perfection. The Lord : Be

Subhuti : This is a perfection of the emptines

The Lord : Because inward dharmas cannot be apprehe

Subhuti : This is a perfection of the emptine

The Lord : Because outward dharmas cannot

Subhuti : This is a perfection of the emptiness

object. The Lo

pprehended.

Subhuti : This is a perfection of the emptiness of emptine

The Lord : Because the emptiness of emptiness

rehended. And so for the great emptiness, the em

ate reality, the conditioned emptin

tiness, the infinite emptiness, the emptiness wit

end, the emptiness of non-repudiation, the emptiness of essential na

Subhuti : This is a perfection of the emptiness of al

The Lord : Because of the nonapprehension of all dh

Subhuti : This is a perfection of the em

The Lord : Because by its own marks it is

Subhuti : This is a perfection of the unascertainable emptiness. The Lord : Because i

not be apprehended.

Subhuti : This is a perfection of the emptiness of the non-existence of ow

The Lord : Because the emptiness of th

-being cannot be apprehended.

,3.(110) MODES OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL

IV 1,3a. 37

MODES CORRESPONDING TO THE PATH OF1-4. Subhuti : A perfection of the applicati

ons of m, O Lord, i.e. the perfection of wisdom.

The Lord : On account of the no

napprehension of body, feelings, thought, and dharmas. 5-8. Subhuti :

373

The Lord : On account of the nona

unwholesome dharmas.

9-12. Subhuti : It is a perfection of t

The Lord : On account of the nonapprehension of desire-to-d

ur, thought, and exploration.

13-17. Subhuti : It is a perfection of the facu

The Lord : On account of the nonapprehension of faith, etc. (i.e

ur, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom).

18-22. Subhuti : It is a perfection of the powers.

The Lord : On account of the nonapprehension of the five

ers. 23-29.

ghtenment. The Lord : On

s of enlightenment.

30-37. Subhuti : It is a perfection of the path. The Lord : On account of the nonapprehension of the holy eight-fold path. IV 1,3b. 34 MODES CORRESPONDING TO THE PATH OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PATHS.

1. Subhuti : This is a perfection of Emptiness.

The Lord : Because no false views are apprehended.

2. Subhuti : This is a perfection of the Signless.

The Lord : Because no discoursings are apprehended.

3. Subhuti : This is a perfection of the Wishless.

The Lord : Because no plans for the future are apprehended. 4-11. Subhuti : This i

The Lord : Because they cannot be apprehended. 12-20. Subhuti : This is

ions. The Lord : Because they cannot b

The Lord : Because ill, origination, stopping, and p

25. Subhuti : This perfection of wisdom is a perfection o

ing. The Lord : Because no meanness is appr

26. Subhuti : This is a perfection of morality. The Lord : Because n

27. Subhuti : This is a perfection of patience.

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The Lord : Because no ill will is apprehended. 28. Subhuti : This is a pe

The Lord : Because no indolence is apprehended.

29. Subhuti : This is a perfection of meditation. The Lord : Because no distract

30. Subhuti : This is a perfection of wisdom.

The Lord : Because no stupidity is apprehended. 31. Subhuti : This is a perfection of skill in me

The Lord : Because no lack of skill in means is appr

32. Subhuti : This is a perfection of the Vow. The L

33. Subhuti : This is a perfection of strength. The Lord : Be

34. Subhuti : This is a perfection of cognition. The Lord : Because n

,3c. 39 MODES CORRESPONDING TO THE PATH OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL MODES.

ten powers. The Lord :

11-14. Subhuti : This is a perfection of the fo

-confidence.

The Lord : On account of the uncowedness in the

he modes of the path.

15-18. Subhuti : This is a perfection of th

wledges.

The Lord : Because the cognition which reaches everywhere is

ttached and unobstructed.

19-36. Subhuti : This is a perfection of the eighteen special Buddha-d

The Lord : On account of the complete transcen

rmas of all Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas.

37. Subhuti : This is a perfection of the Tathagata. The Lord : On account of

38.

The Lord : On account of its sovereignty over all dh

39. Subhuti : This is a perfection of the Buddh

The Lord : On account of the full understanding of

ll their modes.

375

CHAPTER 39

THE TRADITION IN THE NORT

. Endeavours.

2.A FOUR ASPECTS OF THE PERSON WHO IS SUITABLE TO

EAVOURS.

Thereupon it occurred to Sakra, Chief of Gods: Tho

ghters of good family who come to hear this

om must have fulfilled their duties under the Jinas of

must have been taken hold of by good spiritual friends. How much more so those who

ely attend to it, and who, in addition, progress to Thusness. They must h

ection of wisdom, they take it up, etc. to: progress to Thusness.

y must have questioned the Tathagatas of the past again and again, must have

perfection of wisdom, they do not tremble, are not frightened or terrified. Under many ko

ections if, on hearing this perfection of wisdom, they do not trembl

Sariputra : Those sons and daughters of good family, O Lord, who, having heard this deep per

frightened or terrified, but will take it up, bear it in mind, recite and study it, and w

t beings, should these sons and daughters of good family be borne in mind. And why? Because the perfe

p, and therefore someone who has not in the past pra

perfections cannot believe in it. But again those who now decide to

cted it in the past. And that is reason why with regard

p perfection of wisdom they have no faith, serene confiden

on, and no resolve. And those sons and daughters

d family have not repeatedly questioned the Buddhas, the Bodhisattvas, the P

376

perfections should be practised, or as to how the emptinesses etc.

to: the Buddhadharmas d.

Sakra : Deep, Ven. S ction of wisdom! It is

not at all astonishing the Bodhisattvas who in the past did not

believe tion of

giving, etc ere is

nothing astonishing about that. I pay homage to the Blessed

Perfection of Wisdom! One pays homage to the cognition of the

ays homage to the perfection of wisdom.

The Lord : So it is. For from it has come forth the knowledge of

wisdom is brought about as something which has

com

hav

should be developeariputra, is the perfein this deep perfection of wisdom, or in the perfec. to: the Buddhadharmas, should now reject it. Th

all-knowing when one p

all modes of the Buddhas, the Lords, and, conversely, the perfection of

e forth from the knowledge of all modes. A son or daughter of good family should stand in the knowledge of the paths, to produce the knowledge of all modes, to uproot all the defilements and their residues, to fully know the supreme enlightenment and to turn the wheel of Dharma. Likewise, if a Bodhisattva wants to establish beings in the fruit of a Streamwinner, or in the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, or in the supreme enlightenment, the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, or in the supreme enlightenment, or if he wants to foster the order of monks, he should make endeavours about this perfection of wisdom. Sakra : How does a Bodhisattva become established in the six perfections, and how does he make endeavours about them? And how, coursing in the perfection of wisdom, does he make endeavours about the emptinesses, etc, to: the Buddhadharmas? The Lord : Well said, Kausika, well said. It is good that you

e decided to question the Tathagata about this matter. In that also you have been inspired by the Buddha’s might. Therefore then, Kausika, listen and attend well, I will explain this to you. IV 2 B THE METHODS OF TRAINING. IV 2 B, 1 THE METHOD OF TRAINING WHICH DOES NOT INSIST ON THE REALITY OF SKANDHAS. Here, Kausika, a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom does not stand in form, etc. and in consequence makes no endeavour about form, etc. It is thus that he makes endeavours about the perfection of wisdom. And why? Because he does not apprehend that form, etc. wherein he could abide, or whereabouts he could make endeavours.

377

IV 2 B, 2 THE METHOD OF TRAINING WHICH IS WITHOUT EFFORT. Moreover the Bodhisattva does not apply him

hus that he makes endeavours about them. And why? Because he does not apprehend form, etc. where it begins, or where it ends, or in its middle either. IV 2 B, 3 THE METHOD OF TRAINING WHICH IS DEEP. Sariputra : Deep, O Lord, is the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : Through the depth of the Suchness of form; so with

ing, etc. IV 2 B, 4 THE METHOD OF TRAINING WHICH IS HARD TO FATHOM. Sariputra : Hard to fathom is the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : Because form is hard to fathom; so with feeling, etc. IV 2 B, 5 ITS IMMEASURABLENESS. (+3 subdivisions). Sariputra : Unlimited is the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : Because form is unlimited; so with feeling, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas. Sariputra : How does the Bodhisattva course in the perfection of wisdom?

The Lord : If the Bodhisattva, when he courses in perfect wisdom does not course in the notion that ‘form, etc. is deep’. And why? The depth of form is not form; and so with feeling, etc. And again, Sariputra, if the Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisd

om, does not course in the notion that ‘form, etc is hard to fathom’, then he courses in the perfection of wisdom. And why? Because the unfathomability of form is not form; and so with feeling, etc. Moreover, if the Bodhisattva, when he courses in perfect wisdom, does not course in the notion that ‘form, etc., is

unlimited’, thThe unlimitedness of form, that i

IV 2 B, 6 UNDERSTAN

DING IS ATTAINED PAINFULLY AND SLOWLY. Sariputra : So deep is this perfection of wisdom, so hard to fathom, so hard to understand, so unlimited that it should not be taught in front of Bodhisattvas who have newly set out in the vehicle. May they not, when they hear this deep perfection of wisdom, tremble, be frightened, be terrified! In front of an

378

irreversibly Bodhisattva should it be taught! When he has

perfection of wisdom, he will not tremble, be frightened or terrified, he will not hesitate or doubt, and he will resolutely believe in it when he hears it. Sakra : If, Rev. Sariputra, this deep

what fault would there be?

Sariputra : If, Kausika, this perfection of wisdom were t

t of a Bodhisattva who has newly set out in the vehicle, he would trembl

that Bodhisattva who has newly set out in the vehicle shohea

ring it, reject this deep perfection of wisdom, then he

p up a karma which leads him into an evil destiny and he would e to full enlightenment only with much trouble and slowly.

IV 2

B, 7 THE METHOD OF TRAININ CONNECTED WITH THE G

. Sakra : Are there, then, Ven. Sariputra, Bodhisattvas who are still

unpredicted, and who, on hearing this perfection of wisdom, will not tremble, be frightened or terrified?

Sariputra : Those who, on hearing this perfection of wisdom, will not tremble, be frightened or terrified, before long will gain the prediction to full enlightenment. Before they have passed by one, or two, or three Tathagatas, they will gain the prediction to full enlightenment. The Lord : So it is, Sariputra, so it is. Set out for long in the vehicle will be those Bodhisattvas, for long will they have coursed in the six perfections, many Buddhas will they have honoured if, on hearing this deep perfection of wisdom, they will not tremble, be frightened or terrified, and if, after having heard it, they will take it up, bear it in mind, recite and study it, and will stand in the perfection of wisdom as it has been explained. Sariputra :

clear to me, O Well-Gone! M

The Lord : ake it clear then, Sariputra. Sariputra : If in a dream a son or daughter of good family who has set out in the great vehicle were to develop the perfection of wisdom and the other perfections, etc. to: were to sit on the terrace of enlightenment, then one should know that he is actually near to the supreme enlightenment. How much more will one who while 379

awake, develops the six perfections be quite near to the supreme enlightenment! IV 2 B, 8 RREVERSIBILIT

Those sons and daughters of good family who come to hear of this deep perfection of wisdom, and who, on hearing it, progress in it, have matured their whole

e set out for a long time in the vehicle, will have planted wholesome roots, have honoured many Buddhas, will have been taken hold of by the good spiritual friends if, after having heard this deep perfection of wisdom, they will take it up, bear it in mind, recite and study it, and wisely attend to it. They will be quite near to the supreme enlightenment and will receive the prediction to it (?). Or those will be irreversible from the supreme enlightenment to whom this perfection of wisdom appears on its own accord, an

attend to it.

B, 9 DEFINITE GOING FORTH. A man coming out of a huge wild forest, one hundred up to five hundred miles big, might see certain signs w

r inhabited place – such as cowherds, cattle keepers, boundary lines, gardens, woods, groves, or the signs of groves, or a village, city, market town, capital or royal city. From these signs he will infer the nearness of an inhabited place. He feels relieved and is no longer afraid

hirst. Just so a Bodhisattva to whom the perfection of wisdom appears of its own accord, and who then takes it up, bears it in mind, recites and studies it, and wisely attends to it, should know that he is quite near the prediction to the supreme enlightenment and before long he will be fully enlightened. Nor should he e afraid of the level of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. Because he has had these indications, i.e. that he has

ection of wisdom for vision, praise, worship, and hearing. The Lord : So it is, Sarip

IV 2 B, 10 HE REACHES A STATE FREE FROM IMPEDIMENTS. Go on, Sariputra, and, through the might of the Buddhas, make the problem still clearer!

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Sariputra : A man desirous of seeing the great ocean, might travel towards it

know that the great ocea

ause in the neighbourhood of the great ocean no tree or sign of a tree can be seen, no mountain or sign of a mountain. But if he no longer sees any tree or mountain, then it occurs to him that he is no longer far from the great ocean, but near it. Because in the neighbourhood of the great ocean no tree or sign of a tree can be seen, no mountain or sign of a mountain. Although that man may not yet see the great ocean directly before his eyes, he nevertheless can be quite certain that: ‘I am near the great ocean, quite near here is the great ocean, not much farther from here is the great’. Just so, O Lord, this Bodhisattva who hears the perfection wisdom, takes it up, bears it in mind, recites and studies it, and wisely attends to it, should know and reflect that ‘although face to face

aeons, etc. to: so many hundredsaeo

ns you will fully know the utmost enlightenment!’, - in spite of that he should know: ‘I am now quite near to the prediction to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. And why? Because I have received this deep perfection of wisdom for the sake of vision, praising, worship, and hearing, and, having heard it, I take it up, bear it in mind, recite and study it, and attend wisely to it’. IV 2 B, 11 NEARNESS TO SUPREME ENLIGHTENMENT. When spring approaches, the withered leaves on the trees act as tokens to the men of Jambudvipa who then know that quite soon new leaves, flowers and fruits will manifest themselves. For when these symptoms have appeared on the trees, before long leaves, flowers, and fruits will manifest themselves. When they have seen these symptoms on the trees, the men of Jambudvipa will be overjoyed. Just so, when a Bodhisattva receives this d

ection of wisdom for vision, praise, wo

studies it, and wisely attends to it, he should be knownhas

matured his wholesome roots for along time, as one who has honoured many Buddhas. That Bodhisattva should know that through his previous wholesome roots he moves in the direction of

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he h

have

matured their wholesome roots for a long time – this deep

e it up, bear it in

min

as received this deep perfection of wisdom for vision, praise, and worship, and since he makes progress in the perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded, those divinities who have seen the Buddhas of the past will be overjoyed, exultant, and jubilant. For they feel that before long this Bodhisattva will receive his prediction to the supreme enlightenment, since also with the Bodhisattvas of the past these were the symptoms of their coming prediction to full enlightenment. IV 2 B, 12 SPEEDY PROGRESS TO FULL ENLIGHTENMENT. When a pregnant women comes nearer and nearer to her confinement, her body becomes more and more twisted (Note: unsteady, agitated, hemmed in), excessive sufferings and weariness arise in her body, she does not walk about a great deal, does not have her wits very much about her, takes little food, finds little rest, and, because these unpleasant feelings proceed in her, she speaks little. She also abstains from habitual cohabitation because she realizes that she experiences these unpleasant feelings as a result of indulging in unwise attention in the past, developing and practicing it. One knows, by comparison with what befalls other women, that when these symptoms appear in this woman she will before long give birth to a child. Just so when in Bodhisattvas – who have planted wholesome roots, honoured many Buddhas, observed and practised good conduct, who have been taken hold of by the good spiritual friends and who

perfection of wisdom appears, and then they tak

d, recite and study it, and attend to it wisely – then one should know that before long they will have their prediction to the supreme enlightenment. The Lord : Well said, Sariputra. In this also you have been inspired by the Buddha’s might. IV 2 B, 13 ENDEAVOURS FOR THE WELFARE OF OTHERS. Subhuti : It is wonderful to see the extent to which these Bodhisattvas have been helped and well encompassed by the Tathagata. The Lord : It is because these Bodhisattvas have practiced for the weal and happiness of a great mass of people, both gods and men, they have set out for the supreme enlightenment and on the course of a Bodhisattva. They assist innumerable beings with the

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help of the four means of conversion. They are established in giving. They themselves course in the perfection of giving, etc. to: the perfection of wisdom, and also others they establish in them. Thanks to the perfection of wisdom and through skill in means they establish beings in the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: in the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha, but they themselves do not realize them. They themselves enter on the irreversible stage and others also they establish in it

Buddha-field. Themselves they mature beings an

y instigate to do the same. Themselves they produce the superknowledges and others also they instigate to win them. Themselves they purify the Dharani-door and others also they instigate to purify. Themselves they acquire the accomplishment of ready speech and others also they instigate to acquire it. Themselves they acquire a perfect physical body and others also they instigate to do likewise. Themselves they acquire the accomplishment of the marks and others also they instigate to do likewise. Themselves they achieve the position of a Crown Prince and others also they instigate to do likewise. Themselves they accomplish the dharmas, which act as wings to enlightenment, and others also they instigate to accomplish them. Themselves they produce the eight deliverances, nine attainments of successive stations, the Emptiness-Signless-Wishless (deliverance) and the dharani-doors, and others also they instigate thereto. Themselves they produce the four grounds of self-confidence and the four analytical knowledges, and others also they instigate to win them. Themselves they develop to the end the great friendliness, the great compassion, the great sympathetic joy and the great impartiality, and

mited to the end. Themselves they accomplish the eighteen special dharmas of a Buddha an

residues and others also they instigate to do likewisethey

fully know the supreme enlightenment and others also they instigate to fully know the supreme enlightenment. Themselves they turn the wheel of dharma and others also they instigate to do likew

ise. IV 2 B, 14 NEITHER GROWTH NOR DIMINUATION.

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Subhuti : It is wonderful, O Lord, it is wonderful, O Sugata, with how many virtues those Bodhisattvas are endowed who for the sake of all beings course in the perfection of wisdom and fully know the supreme enlightenment. How does the development of perfect wisdom on the part of the Bodhisattvas reach its fulfilment? The Lord : When a Bodhisattva, while coursing in perfect wisdom, does not review the growth of form, etc. nor its diminuation. IV 2 B, 15 NEITHER DHARMA NOR NON-DHARMA ARE TAKE AS A BASIS. The Bodhisattva’s development of perfect wisdom reaches its fulfilment, if, when he courses in perfect wisdom, he does not review ‘dharma’ or ‘nondharma’, ‘past’, ‘future’, or ‘present’, ‘wholesome, unwholesome, or indeterminate’, ‘conditioned’ or ‘unconditioned’, the world of sense desire, the world of form, the formless world, the perfection of giving, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. And why? Because this is on account of the essential marks of Dharma, on account of irreversibility, of nullity, vanity, unsubstantiality, and voidness. IV 2 B, 16 THE ENDEAVOUR WHICH PERCEIVES THE ASPECT OF UNTHINKABILITY. Subhuti : The unthinkable, O Lord, is here demonstrated. The Lord : Because of the unthinkability of form, etc. If, when coursing in perfect wisdom, the Bodhisattva does not perceive that ‘form etc. is unthinkable’, then he fulfils the perfection of wisdom. IV 2 B, 17 ABSENCE OF ALL DISCRIMINATION. Subhuti : Who will zealously believe in this deep perfection of wisdom? The Lord : A Bodhisattva will zealously believe in this perfection of wisdom if already in the past he has practiced the six perfections, if he has planted wholesome roots under the Tathagatas, if he has honoured many Buddhas, if he has been taken hold of by good spiritual friends. Subhuti : To what extent, O Lord, has such a Bodhisattva in the past already practiced the six perfections, etc. to: has been taken hold of by

The Lord : wisdom does not construct form, or discriminat

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sign

owledge.

HE

HOL

f the purity of form, etc. to:

all-knowledge.

DELIMITATION OF TIME.

arise

to t

hurry with one’s task of copying it out, of explaining it, etc. to: of

stacles from becoming

effe

ar, in which to copy out the perfection of wisdom, etc. to:

to d

ause obstacles to this deep perfection of wisdom,

i.e.

wishes to copy it out, etc. to:

dev

of form, the own-being of form; and so with; feelings etc. to: all-knowledge. And why? Because form is unthinkable, and so is feeling etc. to: all-knowledge. It is certainly thus that the Bodhisattva is one who already in the past has been taken hold of by good spiritual friends.

Subhuti : Deep, O Lord, is the perfection of wisdom! The Lord : Because of the depth of form, etc. to: because of the depth of all-kn

IV 2 B, 18 THE BESTOWAL OF THE PRECIOUS JEWEL OF THE FRUITS (OF T

Y LIFE). Subhuti : A heap of treasure is the perfection of wisdom, a bestowal of precious jewels. This perfection of wisdom, which turns the Wheel of Dharma, bestows the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: the supreme enlightenment. IV 2 B, 19 PURITY. A pure heap of all dharmas is the perfection of wisdom. The Lord : On account o

IV 2 B, 20 THE

Subhuti : It would not surprising if many obstacles should

his deep perfection of wisdom being taught. The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. There will be many obstacles to this deep perfection of wisdom. Therefore one should

developing it. One should prevent all ob

ctive. If a son or daughter of good family have one month, or up to a ye

evelop it, they should try to finish their task within that period. Because it is a fact that in respect of very precious things many obstacles are wont to arise. Subhuti : It is not surprising that Mara, the Evil One, should exert himself to c

to its being copied out, etc. to: its being developed. The Lord : In spite of that he cannot produce any really effective obstacle to a Bodhisattva who

elops this perfection of wisdom.

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IV 3. Qualities. IV 3, 1 THE ANNIHILATION OF MARA’S POWER. Sariputra : Through whose might, O Lord, is Mara, the Evil One, prevented from causing ob

to: develop this perfection of wisdom?

The Lord : It is through the might of the Buddha, and also through the might of thos

assist those Bodhisattvas, and Mara, the Evil One, cannot cause an obstacle to

s, when they copy out this perfection of wisdom, etc. to: develop it. For Mara, the Evil One, is just incapable of causing an obstacle to Bodhisattvas assisted by the Buddhas and Lords. For it is in the nature of things that countless

mind the Bodhisat

fection of wisdom.

IV 3, 2 ONE IS B

It is through the Buddha’s might th

ily copies out, etc. to: develops this perfection of wisdom. Sariputra : Any such son or daughter of good

o through the Buddha’s might, and they are all upheld by the Buddha? The Lord : So it is, Sariputra. IV 3, 3 ONE IS PLACED INTO THE SIGHT OF THE BUDDHAS. Sariputra : The Buddhas and Lords who abide in all directions in innumerable world systems know those sons and daughters of good family with their cognition and see them with their fleshly eye, when they copy out this d

ress to Thusness? The Lord : So it is, Sariputra.

, 4 ONE IS QUITE NEAR TO ENLIGHTENMENT. And of these sons and daughters of good family who belong to the great vehicle one should know t

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IV 3, 5 ONE REALISE

made it into a book, they will bear it in mind

ndance of resolute faith in it. If they honour, revere, and worship it, they are known and seen by the Buddhas and Lords, and the Tathagatas see them with their Buddh

tly profitable to those sons and daughters of good family, a great advantage, fruit and reward that, having copied out this deep perfection of wisdom, they bear it in mind. Through that wholesome root they will never again be deprived of the Buddhas, the Lords; they will never again be reborn in the states of woe; when reborn among gods and men they will never be deprived of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and they will transcend the irreversible stage. Nor will they, as a result of this wholesome root, ever be deprived of the six perfections, the emptinesses, the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas, or of all-knowledge.

And this Perfection of Wisdom will, after the passing away of the Tathag

from there to the North. In each of these directions monks and nuns, laymen and laywomen will copy out this deep perfec

isdom, take it up, bear it in mind, recite and study it, and attend to it wisely. As a result of this wholesome root they will not go to the great d

eriencing life among gods or m

Lords, and gradually they will go forth by one of the three vehicles, i.e.

the Disciple-vehicle, the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle, or the great vehicle. Therein this deep perfection of wisdom does the work of a Buddha. And why? For when the Dharma-Vinaya is like freshly made cream the good Dharma does not disappear. I bring to min

d those sons and daughters of g

And also those sons and daughters of good family this

deep perfection of wisdom, honour, revere, and worship it, they also as a result of this wholesome root will not go to the great distress of some wretched destiny. Having succeeded in experiencing life among g

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perfections. They honour, revere,

ds, and gradually go forth by one of the three vehicles, i.e. the Disciple-vehicle, the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle, or the great vehicle. For they are seen by the Tathagata with his Buddha-eye, they are praised by the Tathagata. And the Buddhas and Lords who abide in all the world systems which extend in all the ten directions all around, also those Tathagatas see those sons and daughters of good family with their Buddha-eye, praise, and extol them. Sariputra : Will then this deep perfection of wisdom in the last time, in the last period, be widespread in the Northern direction? The Lord : Yes, it will. In the last time, in the last period, there will be sons and daughters of good family who will hear this deep perfection of wisdom, will copy it out, take it up, bear it in mind, recite and study it, wisely attend to it, and progress to its Thusness; and they will have set out for a long time in the vehicle, will have honoured many Buddhas, will have planted wholesome roots under the Tathagatas.

family will there be?

The Lord : In the last time, in the last period, at the extinction of the Dharma, there will be in the North many sons and daughters of good family, who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle, but there will be few who, having heard this deep perfection of wisdom, will believe; who, having believed, will read, write, take it up, bear it in mind, study, recite, expound, and preach it, attend wisely to it, develop it (by meditation) and progress to it Thusness. IV 3, 7 ALL DHARMAS WITHOUT OUTFLOWS AND PERFECTED. And they, having heard this deep perfection of wisdom being taught, will not be cowed or despondent, will not tremble, be frightene

ghters of good family have pursued the Tathagatas, have questioned and counterquestioned them, by resorting to just this deep perfection of wisdom. And why? Because these sons and daughters of good family will become quite full of the perfection of wisdom, of the perfection of meditation, etc. to: of the eighteen kinds of emptiness, etc. to: of the eighteen special Buddhadharmas. And why? Supported by their wholesome roots they will work the weal and ease of many people, with reference to just this utmost, right and perfect enlightenment.

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IV 3, 8 ONE BECOMES A PERSON WHO CAN COMMUNICATE THE DOCTRINE. And why? Because I, Sariputra, have preached to them sermons connected with the knowledge of all modes. Those also who in a past period have been Tathagatas, they also have for those sons and daughters of good family preached sermons connected with the knowledge of all modes. Even when they have passed beyond (this) birth, just these ideas, i.e. referring to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment, will persist by fo

it. They again will preach to others just these sermons, i.e. with reference to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment.

IV 3, 9 ONE CANNOT BE DEFLECTED FROM ENLIGHTENMENT. And again these sons and daughters of good family will be united in harmony in the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. But Mara, or the deities of Mara’s host, will not be able to deflect such a one from the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment; how much less can he

is not possible.

IV 3, 10 GENESIS OF AN UNCOMMON STORE OF MERIT. And again, those sons and daughters of good family who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle, will, having heard this deep perfection of wisdom, acquire an uncommon degree of zest, serene faith, and elation, and they will establish many people in wholesome dharmas, i.e. with reference to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment.

IV 3, 11And these sons and daughters of good family in m

y presence when they were face to face with Me, have said: ‘We, O Lord, will establish many hundreds of living beings, yea, many hundreds of thousands of kotis of living beings in wholesome roots, with a view of their winning the supreme enlightenment; we shall hold up perfect enlightenment to them, instigate, encourage, and incite them to win it, and help them to be predicted to irreversibility! And why? For I have rejoiced at the words of these sons and daughters of good family who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle, and also when I had surveyed their thought with my thought I certainly rejoiced at those sons and daughters of good family. Those Bodhisattvas, coursing towards enlightenment, will establish innumerable beings in the sup

389

encourage, and incite them to win it, and help them to be predicted

rreversibility. IV 3, 12 ONE RECEIVES A SUBLIME REWARD. And these sons and daughters of good family will have sublime aspirations with regard to forms, sounds, smells, tastes, touchables, and dharmas. They will give sublime gifts and thereby effect sublime wholesome roots. In consequence they will receive a sublime reward, and for the sake of other beings they will continue to acquire one reward after another.

IV 3, 13 ONE IS ACTIVE FOR THE WEAL OF BEINGS.

To those beings they renounce all their belongings, be they inward or outward. Through their wholesome root they will seek rebirth in other Buddha-fields where they will come face to face with the Tathagatas demonstrating Dharma. And when they have heard from them just this perfection of wisdom, they will also in their Buddha-field in

Sariputra : It is wonderful to see the extent to w

dharma which the Tathagata has not fully understood, or the Suchness of any dharma, or the conduct of any being. For he has cognized the Bodhisattvas, Buddha-fields and Disciples of the Tathagatas of the past, of the future Tathagatas, and of the present Tathagatas, and of the present Tathagatas, i.e. of those Tathagatas

and there demonstrate Dharma.

IV 3, 14 ONE IS CERTAIN TO WIN PERFECT WISDOM. And there are Bodhisattvas who make efforts about these six perfections, and who seek and search for them. Among them some will get them and others will not. The Lord : As a rule these six perfections will appear to these sons and daughters of good family. And why? Because they have made efforts about them. Sariputra : And will also the very deep Sutras connected with the six perfections come to them? The Lord : Yes, they will. Sariputra : To which sons and daughters of good family will they come?

390

The Lord : To those who, with intense faith, make efforts about these six perfecti

encourage, and incite beings to win the su

perfections will appear after they have passed through this present birth. And proceeding with the six perfections as they have been expounded they will not relax their vigour until they purify the Buddha-field, mature beings, and know full enlightenment.

391

CHAPTER 40 MARA IV 4. Faults.

392

Moreover they will copy it out with their thoughts disturbed;

they will copy it out wit ther things. Or it will

occur to these Bodhisat y enjoyment

from this’, and with these words they will get up from their seats

and take their leave.

IV 4, 5. RECITATION FOR THE WRONG REASONS.

Furthermore they will yawn, get up from their seats, and take

yawning they will study, bear in mind, recite,

demonstrate, and attend. Or, laughing at one another they will

attend. Or, sneering

at o

.

This also should be known as Mara’s deed to the

Bod

is?

perfection of wisdom, and so, their thoughts devoid of serene faith,

supreme

enli

odhisattvas not

proclaimed in this deep perfection of wisdom?

Bodhisattvas are

not

,

or nation (?) where I was born’, and then decide that the perfection

d that they had

better leave that assembly. And each time they decide to leave

they get away from the Buddhadharmas. As often as they have

h their minds on otva that ‘we do not derive an

their leave. Or

learn, bear in mind, recite, study, and wisely

ne another they will write, learn, etc. to: wisely attend. Or, with thoughts disturbed they will learn, etc. Or they will learn, etc. with their minds on other kinds of talk. IV 4, 6. CONSIDERATION OF R

EASONS FOR REJECTING THE SUTRASubhuti : As the Lord has said: ‘We do not derive any enjoyment from this’, with these words they will get up from their seats and take their leave.

hisattvas. For what reason do they not derive any enjoyment from th

The Lord : Because in the past also they have not coursed in the six perfections furthermore, it is another deed of Mara that it occurs to the Bodhisattvas that they are not predestined for this

they will get up from their seats and leave.

Subhuti : For what reason do they feel that they are not predestined for the perfection of wisdom?

The Lord : Bodhisattvas who have not definitely set out (on the career of a Bodhisattva) are certainly not predicted to the

ghtenment, and they have no serene faith in this perfection of wisdom because their name is not mentioned in it. Subhuti : For what reason are the names of B

The Lord : Certainly the names of unpredicted

proclaimed. They think to themselves that ‘my name is here not proclaimed, nor that of the village, city, market place, royal city

of wisdom is not worthwhile their listening to an

393

the

Having spurned the perfection of wisdom which nourishes the

and search for those

Sut

ated with the vehicle of the

Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. They enjoin the application of

erance

whi

es and Pratyekabuddhas which are conducive to

nou

mas and train in them.

E (TEACHING).

ad to study the

Sutr

ches, leaves, and

folia

thought of leaving, for so many aeons they will have to take to (Birth-and-death) and make new efforts again and again. IV 4, 7. DESERTION OF THE CAUSE OF BUDDHAHOOD (i.e. the Prajnaparamita)

cognition of the all-knowing, they will seek

ras which do not nourish it. In this way those sons and daughters of good family will decide to spurn the root of the obtainment of the cognition of all-knowledge, and to look instead for support in what are mere branches, leaves, and foliage. Subhuti : Which are the Sutras that do not nourish the cognition of the all-knowing and which they decide to study? The Lord : They are the Sutras associ

mindfulness, the right efforts, etc. to: the doors to deliv

ch consists in emptiness, the signless, the wishless. When they have stood in these, the sons and daughters of good family attain the fruit a Streamwinner, etc. to: the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha. These are the Sutras associated with the level of the Discipl

rishing the vehicle of all-knowledge, and which (those people) decide to study after they have spurned the perfection of wisdom. And why? For the Bodhisattvas have issued from the perfection of wisdom, and when they train in perfect wisdom they will go forth to the worldly and supramundane spiritual dhar

IV 4, 8. LOSS OF TASTE FOR THIS MOST SUBLIM

Just as a dog would spurn a morsel (of food or a sip of water) from a servant; just so, in the future, some persons belonging to the great vehicle will spurn this deep perfection of wisdom which is the root of all the Buddhadharmas, and decide inste

as associated with the vehicles of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, Sutras which are like bran

ge. This also will be Mara’s deed to them. Furthermore, there will be in the future some adherents of the Bodhisattva-vehicle who, having spurned this deep perfection of wisdom, will decided to study the Sutras associated with the vehicle of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas for the sake of gain and honour.

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IV 4, 9. DESERTION OF THE SUPREME VEHICLE. If a man who wants an elephant were to get hold of

intelligent person? Subhuti : No, Lord!

The Lord : The same is true of those persons who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle and who, having spurned this deep perfection of wisdom, decide to study the Sutras associated with the vehicles of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. What do you think, Subhuti, would these followers of the great vehicle be very intelligent? Subhuti : No, Lord.

The Lord : This also should be known as Mara’s deed to the Bodhisattvas.

IV 4, 10. DESERTION OF THE HIGHEST GOAL. Just as a person would want to see the great ocean; on having seen it he would look for a puddle in a cow’s footprint. On having seen that he would say to himself that it is of the same size as the great ocean. What do you think, Subhuti, would that be a very intelligent person? Subhuti : No, Lord! The Lord : The same is true of the followers of the great vehicle who, after they have heard and obtained this perfection of wisdom, abandon it to learn the Sutras associated with the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. What do you think, Subhuti, would they be very intelligent people?

The Lord : This also should be known as Mara’s de

hisattvas. IV 4, 11. DESERTION OF BOTH THE CAUSE (OF BUDDHAHOOD) AND THE FRUIT CONNECTED WITH IT. Just as a mason, or mason’s apprentice, would want to build a palace of the size of the Vaijayanta palace and would take his measure from the size of the sun and moon, would that be an intelligent thing to do? Subhuti : No, Lord! The Lord : Just so there will be in the future some followers of the Bodhisattva-vehicle who, after they have heard and obtained this deep

395

associated with the Disciples and Pratyekab

ple be very intelligent? Subhuti : No, Lord! The Lord : Thi

hisattvas.

IV 4, 12. DESERTION OF THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE (FORM OF EXISTENCE). Suppose some person sees the commander of a fort and thinks to himself that he is like the universal monarch in his complexion and shape. Having observed the aspects, signs, and tokens of

plexion and shape

these are the distinctive aspects of the complexion and shape of the universa

Subhuti : No, Lord!

The Lord : Just so there will be in the future some followers of the great vehicle who, after they have heard and obtained this deep perfection of wisdom, will spurn and reject it and will decide to search for the knowledge of all modes in the Sutras associated with the Disciples and Pr

lligent?

Subhuti : No, Lord. The Lord : This also should be known as Mara’s deed to the Bodhisattvas. IV 4, 13. THE PRODUC

RACTING THOUGHTS DI

Moreover to those sons and daughters of good family who copy out this perfec

These flashes of ideas will concern sight objects, sounds, etc. to: Buddhadharmas and the

perfection of wisdom is without flashes or ideas, it is unthinkable and inconceivable. It is not produced or stopped, not defiled or purified. It cannot be disturbed, it is inexpressible, it is without basis. And w

om those dharmas

hisattva-vehicle is disturbed by these dharmas when they hear or copy out this deep perfection of wisdom, then that also is Mara’s deed to him.

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IV 4, 14. ONE SETTLES DOWN IN THE IDEA THAT THIS TEXT IS COPIED OUT. Subhuti : Is it then pos

om?

The Lord : No, Subhuti. And why? Because the own-being of the perfection

That of which the own-being does not exist, that is non-existence

at is non-existence cannot be written down by the nonexistent. IV 4, 15. ONE SETTLES DOWN IN THE IDEA THAT IT IS NONEXISTENCE. (Note: Differs from printed AA.) If again some followers of the great vehicle have the notion that this perfection of wisdom is a nonexistent, this also will be an act of the Evil One.

, 16. ONE ADHERES TO IT AS IN THE LETTERS. Subhuti : If some followers of the great vehicle, after they have copied out this deep perfection of wisdom in written letters, should think that ‘the deep perfection of wisdom has been written down by me’, then they form an attachment to the written letters as representing

wn as Mara’s deed t

IV 4, 17. ONE ADHERES TO I

letters, nor are the other perfections, etc. to: all-knowledge. But if followers of the great vehicle settle down in the perfection of

dom, etc. as not in the letters, then that also should be known as Mara’s deed to them. IV 4, 18. ATTENTION TO WORLDLY OBJECTS, SUCH AS A PLEASANT COUNTRYSIDE. Moreover, when these sons and daughters of good family copy out this perfection of wisdom, their minds will be on the landscape. This also should be known as Mara’s deed to them. Furthermore, they will pay attention to villages, cities, market towns, royal cities, nations, gods, and teachers; their attentions will be associated with mother, father, brother, sister, son, daughter, and relatives, with robbers and outcasts, with discoursings about sense pleasures, with the comp

397

also Mara, the Evil One, will arrange obstacles and disturbances to

e who copy out this deep perfection of wisdom, expound and repeat it,

IV 4, 19. A TASTE FOR GAIN, HONOUR, AND FAME. Furthermore, they will relish the thought of gain, honour, and fame, be concerned about their robes, almsbowl, lodging, and medicinal appliances for use in sickness. This also is Mara’s deed

IV 4, 20. ONE SEEKS FOR SKILL IN ME

Furthermore, Mara, the Evil One, will bring along very deep Sutras to the Bodhisattvas who copy out this deep perfection of wisdom, expo

very deep sutras which Mara has brought

ause they do not nourish all-knowledge. But Bodhisattvas, who have no skill in means, will, after they have heard it, reject this deep perfection of wisdom in which I have extensively found. That these followers of the great vehicle should, having rejected this deep perfection of wisdom, seek for skill in means in those Sutras associated with the

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CHAPTER 41

THE ABSENCE OF MARA’S

IV 4, 21.

perfection of wisdom, to recite, explain and repeat it, whereas the tea

cher is indolent. IV 4, 22. MALADJUSTMENT THROUGH GEOGRAPHICAL SEPARATION, ALTHOUGH BOTH BE ZEALOUS. Furthermore, it may be that the teacher is untiring in his desire to copy out, etc. this deep perfection of wisdom, whereas the pupils move off into a different district. Or vice versa, the pupils want to copy, etc. the perfection of wisdom, but the teacher moves into a different district. IV 4, 23. THE ONE VALUES GAIN AND HONOUR, THE OTHER IS EASILY SATISFIED.

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any food after midday, or eats his meal in one sitting, or lives on

alms-food, or inhabits an ries, or lives in an open

unsheltered place, or dw a tree, or even in his

sleep remains in a sitting posture, or sleeps at night wherever he

may h robes,

whereas th Or,

on the contrary, a pupil undergoes the (12) ascetic practices

whereas the teacher does not. This discord is another deed of

ay be that the pupil is full of faith, lovely in his

character, and desirous of copying, expounding, and repeating this

does not desire to copy, expound, and

rep

l. This discord is another deed of Mara which

affects the study of the perfection of wisdom.

THE ONE IS GENEROUS, THE OTHER IS STINGY.

lling to give robes, etc.

to the teacher, but that the teacher is not willing to accept them.

n

of w

d frequents cemeteells at the foot ofappen to be, or possesses no more than three e pupils undergo none of these ascetic practices.

Mara which affects the study of the perfection of wisdom.

IV 4, 25. THE ONE IS LOVELY IN HIS CHARACTER, THE OTHER IS NOT. Furthermore, it m

deep perfection of wisdom, whereas the teacher has no faith, is not lovely in his character, and

eat this deep perfection of wisdom. Or, on the contrary, it may be that the teacher is full of faith, lovely in his character, and desirous of giving this deep perfection of wisdom so that it may be copied out and its meaning understood, whereas none of this is found in the pupi

IV 4, 26.

Furthermore, it may be that the teacher is one who gives away everything, without niggardliness in his heart, whereas the pupil is stingy, with many wishes, with evil wishes, and attaches weight to gain, honour, fame, robes, etc. On the other hand it may be that the pupil is the one who gives away everything and has no niggardliness in his heart, whereas the teacher is stingy and niggardly. This discord is another deed of Mara which affects the study of the perfection of wisdom. IV 4, 27. THE ONE IS WILLING TO GIVE ADIVE, THE OTHER NOT WILLING TO ACCEPT. Furthermore it may be that the pupil is wi

This discord, a deed of Mara, also affects the study of the perfectio

isdom. On the other hand, it may be that the teacher is willing to accept from the pupil, but that the pupil is not willing to give. This discord again is Mara’s work.

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IV 4, 28. THE ONE REQUIRES A BRIEF EXPLANATION, AND THE OTHER GIVES A DETAILED ONE. Furthermore it may be that the teacher understands as soon as the main points are mentioned, whereas the pupil needs elaborate instructions, cannot understand unless all the details are explained, and insists on verbal expressions being laboriously explained. Or conversely, the pupil understands at a mere hint, whereas the teacher needs lengthy explanations. This discord is again Mara’s work.

IV 4, 29. THE ONE HAS THE HIGHER KNOWLEDGE OF THE DHARMA

OUNDED IN) THE SUTRAS, WHILE THE OTHER HAS NOT. Furthermore it may be that the teacher knows the exposition of Dharma (dharmantara? Note!), i.e. the Discourses, Discourses in Prose and Verse Mingled, Predictions, Verses, Summaries, Origins, Thus-was-said, Birth-Stories, Expounded Texts, Marvels, Tales and Expositions, whereas the pupils do not. This discord also is Mara’s work. IV 4, 30. THE ONE IS ENDOWED WITH THE SIX PERFECTIONS, THE OTHER IS NOT.

perfections, whereas the pupil is not. Or, alternativ

y be endowed with the six perfections, whereas the teacher is not. This discord also is Mara’s work. IV 4, 31. THE ONE HAS SKILL IN MEANS, THE OTHER HAS NOT. Furthermore the teacher may have skill in means with regard to the six perfections, whereas the pupils have none. Alternatively, the pupils have skill in means with regard to the six perfections, whereas the teacher has none. Th

IV 4, 32. THE ONE HAS A POWERFUL MEMORY, THE OTHER HAS NOT. Furth

ereas the pupils have not. This discord also is Mara’s work. IV 4, 33. THE ONE LOVES TO WRITE, ETC. THIS TEXT, THE OTHER DOES NOT. Furthermore it may be that the teacher is willing to copy out, bear in mind, recite, and repeat, etc. to: attend, whereas the pupils have no such desires. Or it may b

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to copy out, etc. whereas the teacher has no such desire. This discord also is M

IV 4, 34. THE ONE HAS SENSE DESIRES, ETC., THE OTHER IS FREE FROM THEM. Furthermore it may be that the teacher is free from sense desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, excitedness and sense of guilt, or doubt, whereas the pupils are not free from them. Or alternatively, the pupils

IV 4, 35. THE AVERSION TO BEING REBORN IN THE STATE

Moreover someone will come along to those who copy, etc. to: who develop this deep perfection of wisdom, and disparage life in the hells, among the animals or the Pretas, saying ‘so ill are the hells, so ill is the animal world, so ill is life among the Pretas. Do make and end of ill just here and now; what point is there in your fully kn

IV 4,

Moreover someone will come along to those who copy, etc. to: who wisely attend to this deep perfection of wisdom, and praise life among the (27) kinds of gods. ‘So happy is life among the gods, in the world of sense desire because o

attainments, and in the formless world because of its calm

ever, is impermanent, ill, empty, no the self or belonging to a self, doomed to reversal, fall, cessation, and stopping. Do attain the fruit of Streamwinner just here and now, etc. to: do attain the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha just here and now! Do no

deeds.

IV 4, 37. THE ONE IS FOND OF SOLITUDE, THE OTHER OF COMPANY.

second, and does everything by and for himself, whereas the pupil

fers the company of others. Or, conversely, the pupil may live alone, whereas the teacher prefers the company of others. This discord also is Mara’s deed.

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IV 4, 38. THE PUPIL WISHES TO ASSOCIATE WITH THE TEACHER WHO GIVES HIM NO OPPORTUNITY.

am I will give this perfection of wisdom, so that they can copy it, etc. to: dev

il may wish to go where the teacher is, but the teacher gives him no opportunity to do so. This is another one of Mara’s deeds. IV 4, 39. THE ONE NEEDS SOME MATERIAL HELP, THE OTHER IS UNWILLING TO GIVE IT.

wisdom in return for some material help, but the pupil doe

h to approach him for fear of having to offer it. This is another one of Mara’s deeds. IV 4, 40. THE ONE GOES TO A PLACE OF DANGER, THE OTHER TO A SAFE PLACE. Furthermore the teacher may want to go to a district where he is in danger of

danger of his life, but the teacher does not want to go there. This

nother one of Mara’s deeds. IV 4, 41. THE TEACHER GOES TO A PLACE WHICH IS SORT OF FOOD, AND THE PUPIL REFUSES TO COME WITH HIM. Furthermore the teacher may want to go to a place which is short of food and water, but the pupil will not want to go there. Or the teacher may have gone to a place where there is plenty of food and water, and the pupils will follow him there. He, however, will say to them: ‘You may think that it is a good thing for you to come here, because you think that your material needs will be supplied. But I am afraid that you will regret having come, when you see how little alm

interpret his remarks as signs of refusal, and not a sign

lingness to give. This is another one of Mara’s deeds. IV 4, 42. THE TEACHER GOES TO A PLACE HAUNTED BY ROBBERS, ETC. Furthermore the monk who is a teacher may move to place where there is danger from r

403

beasts of prey, vipers, wild jungles, and treacherous roads. And the pupils who wish

ow him there. To them this monk will say, ‘why do you want to go where there are all these dangers?’ Though the pupils, desirous of hearing this deep perfection of wisdom, are willing to follow the teacher, the monk who is the teacher does not wish to teach them, and does not wish to see to it that this deep perfection

teacher’s remark, they do in their disgust not go to where he goes. This is anot

IV 4, 43. THE TEACHER LIKES TO SEE THE FAMILIES WHO FEED HIM. Furthermore the teacher may be one of those who attach weight to their relations

the ground that they have to see those families and pay visits to them.

ara’s deeds. IV 4, 44. MARA, THE EVIL ONE, MAKES AN EFFORT TO DISSUADE FROM WISDOM. Moreover, Mara, the Evil On

perfection of wisdom, etc. to: from attending to it. Subhuti : For what reason do

The Lord : Because as a result of the perfection of wisdom all beings can forsake their defilements. Moreover, Mara, the Evil One, will come along in the guise of a monk, in order to cause dissension and he will say that ‘this Sutra as it has come to you is not the perfection of wisdom’ in order to dissuade people from copying etc. the perfection of wisdom. Moreover, approaching in the guise of a monk, Mara, the Evil One, will say, ‘a Bodhisattva who courses in this deep perfection of wisdom realizes the reality limit, and attains the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha’. Some of those who have heard those words will then not course in the perfection of

4, 45. MARA ARRANGES A COUNTERFEIT (PERFECTION OF WISDOM).

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Moreover to those who copy, etc. to: develop this deep perfection of wisdom many deeds of Mara will arise which will cause obstacles. A Bodhisattva should avoid them. Subhuti : Which are the deeds of Mara that a Bodhisattva should recognise and avoid? The Lord : Mara will produce counterfeits of the perfection of wisdom and the other perfections, and of the 18 kinds of emptiness. Others of his deeds will be connected with the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, and he will say: ‘study these (?) and then attain the fruit of a Steamwinner, etc. to: Ar

deliverance! What is the point of your fully knowing the sup

ightenment?’ In this way Mara will arrange many deeds of this kind. IV 4, 46. MARA PRODUCES A LONGING FOR UNDESIRABLE THINGS. Moreover, Mara, the Evil One, will approach in the guise of the Buddha, with a bo

longing will rise up in him, and he will fail to win all-knowledge. Moreover

ghters of good family a community of monks headed by the Buddha. Longing will thereupon arise in the Bodhisattva, and he will think that ‘I also will at a future period be such a

ll likewise foster a host of monks. As this

onstrate Dharma!’ As a result of this longing he will fail to win all-knowledge. Moreover, Mara, the Evil One, will exhibit many hundreds and thousands of Bodhisattvas who course in the six perfections. Some Bodhisattvas will feel longing for those illusory magical creations conjured up by Mara, and as a result they will fail to win all-knowledge. And why? Because in this deep perfection of wisdom no form exists, no feeling, etc. to: no enlightenment. And when no form exists, etc. to: no enlightenment, there also Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Disciples do not exist. And why? Because all dharmas are in their own-being empty. IV 4, 47. THE BUDDHA’S GREAT MIGHT A

Moreover this perfection of wisdom will be bound up with ma

405

in J

: develop this deep

perf

p it.

The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. Those people who will not

isdom

and

help.

It is as with a women who has many children – five, ten, twenty,

so that their mother

ma

ambudvipa, such as gold, gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, conch shells, crystal, coral, silver, etc. are subject to many obstacles and provoke much hostility; just so those who copy, etc. to

ection of wisdom will endure many obstacles and much hostility.

Subhuti : So it is, O Lord, so it is, O Sugata. The Sutras associated with the perfection of wisdom, will provoke much hostility. Beset by Mara, of small and sluggish intelligence will be those deluded persons who will cause obstacles to this deep perfection of wisdom being copied, etc. to: being developed. Nor will their intelligence be able to function in these very sublime dharmas if they do not copy, etc. to: develop this deep perfection of wisdom, or if they cause obstacles to those who copy, etc. to: develo

copy out, etc. to: wisely attend to this deep perfection of w

who will cause obstacles to it being copied out, etc. to: developed, they will be beset by Mara, they will have newly set out in the vehicle, they have planted no wholesome roots, have but tiny wholesome roots, have not done their duties under the Jinas of the past and have not been taken hold of by the good spiritual friends. Small, sluggish, and limited will be their intelligence, and their thought will be unable to stride up into very sublime dharmas. But although these deeds of Mara are bound to arise when this deep perfection of wisdom is being copied out, etc. to: is being developed, nevertheless it is due to the Buddha’s might that often no deeds of Mara and no obstacles arise to the study of this deep perfection of wisdom and that in addition sons and daughters of good family can perfect the other five perfections, as well as the emptinesses, etc. to: the Buddhadharmas and the knowledge of all modes. Those Buddhas and Lords who abide in the ten directions and demonstrate Dharma will make efforts on behalf of those sons and daughters of good family who copy out, etc. to: attend to this deep perfection of wisdom. And so will the irreversible Bodhisattvas in the ten directions, and they will bring

forty, fifty, or one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand. If she feels ill, they will all exert themselves

y not meet with any obstacle to her life, so that she may live long, so that no unpleasant touch may hit her body. For they feel that she is their genetrix and has given them their body and their

406

life. They will therefore look well after their mother, protect her well, and hope that she will meet with no obstacle to her life, that her body will not become excessively weak, and that she be free from pain caused by stinging insects, mosquitoes, crawling animals, by a fall,

r mother everything that can make her happy, make much of her and cherish her, because they are aware that she has instructed them in the ways of the world. In this way the Tathagatas bring this deep perfection of wisdom constantly and always to mind with their Buddha-eye. And why? Because they are aware that this deep perfection of wisdom is the genetrix of the Tathagatas and their instructress in the cognition of all the Buddhadharmas, and the maker (?) of the world. And the Buddhas an

ld systems, they also constantly and always bring to mind just this deep perfection of wisdom with their Buddha-eye. And why? Because this deep perfection of wisdom is the genetrix of the Tathagatas and their instructress in the cognition of the all-knowing. It is because of this that the Tathagatas, motivated by gratitude, constantly and always bring this deep perfection of wisdom to mind with their Buddha-eye. And why? From it have come forth for the Tathagatas the six perfections, the (18) kinds of emptiness, etc. to: the eighteen Buddhadharmas, the six superknowledges, the knowledge of all modes of all the Buddhas, the countless and numberless Buddhadharmas. From it have come forth the Steamwinners, etc. to: the Tathagatas, Arhats, fully enlightened Buddhas. All the Tathagatas who have known, do know, and will know the supreme enlightenment, they all do so thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom. And those followers of the great vehicle who will copy out this deep perfection of wisdom, etc. to: attend to it, they also will all be brought to mind constantly and always by the Tathagatas with their Buddha-eye, and the Tathagatas will constantly and always arrange for them shelter, defense, and protection, so that they may not fail to win the supreme enlightenment.

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CHAPTER 42 SHOWING THE WORLD IV 5. Marks IV 5, 1. THE MARKS OF COGNITION. IV 5, 1a. THE MARKS OF COGNITION AS REGARDS ALL-KNOWLEDGE. IV 5, 1a, 1. COGNITION OF THE APPEARANCE OF THE TATHAGATA. Subhuti : The Lord has said that ‘the perfection of wisdom is the genetrix of the Tathagatas and their instructress in this world.’ How then is she the genetrix of the Buddhas and Lords? How is she their instructress in the world? How has the Tathagata been generated by the deep perfection of wisdom? And what is it that the Tathagata has proclaimed as ‘the world’? The Lord : The ten powers of a Tathagata have been generated by this deep perfection of wisdom, and likewise the four grounds of self-confidence, the great friendliness, the great compassion, the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha and his knowledge of all modes. It is through these dharmas that a ‘Tathagata’ becomes manifest. That is why it is this deep perfection of wisdom which has generated the Tathagata. IV 5, 1a, 2. COGNITION OF THE WORLD. Subhuti : What is it that the Tathagata has proclaimed as ‘the world’? The Lord : The five skandhas. Subhuti : And how have the five skandhas been shown up by the perfection of

408

not crumble, nor crumble away, and so also the Signless, the

Wishless, the Uneffected topping, Nonexistence

and the absence of own that the Tathagata has

proclaimed the deep perfection of wisdom as the instructress in the

world.

IV 5, 1a, 3. COGNITION OF THE THOUGHTS AND DOINGS OF ALL BEINGS.

It is also thanks to the perfection of wisdom that those who

ts of others can wisely know the thoughts and

doings of countless beings. Though in this deep perfection of

being can be apprehended; no

form or concept of form; etc. to: no knowledge of all modes, or

deep

perfection of wisdom instructs the Tathagatas in the world, but she

why?

Bec

ected and distracted

thou

h kind of Dharmahood?

The Lord : Through that Dharmahood in which even the

, how much less collected

thou

IV THE MODE OF NONEXTINCTION OF

THO

a wisely knows as they really are the

colle

, Nonproduction, S-being. It is thus

know the though

wisdom no being or concept of a

concept of the knowledge of all modes. It is thus that this

does not show up form, etc. to: all-knowledge. And

ause even the perfection of wisdom itself does not exist in the perfection of wisdom, nor can it be apprehended in it; how much more so with form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. IV 5, 1a, 4-5. COGNITION OF COLLECTED AND DISTRACTED THOUGHTS. Moreover the Tathagata wisely knows coll

ghts as they really are as ‘collected and distracted thought’, and that applies to the thoughts of all beings, as many as there are, conceived under the concept of beings – with or without form, with or without perception, and with neither perception nor nonperception, in this world system or in other world systems in the ten directions. And how does he do so? Through Dharmahood. Subhuti : Through whic

Dharmahood cannot be apprehended

ghts and distracted thoughts.

5, 1a, 6. THE COGNITION OF

UGHTS. Moreover the Tathagat

cted and distracted thoughts of those beings under the aspect of nonextinction. And how does he do so? He wisely knows those thoughts in the aspect of their stopping, their forsaking, their peaceful calm, their vanity, and their isolatedness.

409

IV 5, 1a, 7-8. THE COGNITION OF THE WORLD. Moreover the Tathagata wisely knows as they really are thoughts with greed, hate, or delusion, and thoughts without greed, hate, or delusion. Sub

The Lord : The thought which is with greed, hate, or delusion i

the thought as it really is. And why? Because thought as it really is cannot be apprehended, nor can the dharmas which constitute thought, how much less so thought that is with greed, hate, or delusion! And how does the Tathagata wisely know thought without greed, hate, or delusion as it really is? A thought marked by absence of greed is not a thought marked by its presence. And why? Because there can be no meeting of two thoughts. The same applies to hate and delusion. IV 5, 1a, 9. THE COGNITION OF EXTENSIVE THOUGHTS. Moreover, the Tathagata, thanks to this deep perf

beings and persons as ‘extensive thought’. And how does he d

Here the Tathagata wisely knows as it really is that the thought of other beings and person is neither expanded nor contracted, for it does not grow or diminish, does not come or go. And why? Because of thought no own-being can be apprehended which could effect an expansion, etc. to: which could come. IV 5, 1a, 10. THE COGNITION OF THOUGHT WHICH HAS GONE GREAT.

Moreover the Tathagata, thanks to this perfect

ly knows as it really is of other beings and persons the thought which has gone great as ‘thought which has gone great’. And how does he do so? Because he does n

alteration. And why? Because those thoughts have no own-being

ble or altered. IV 5, 1a, 11. THE COGNITION OF UNLIMITED THOUGHTS. Moreover thanks to this perfection of wisdom, the Tathagata wisely knows as it really is of other beings an

410

Because with regard to this thought He doe

that it is not, nor does He review it as discontinuous, or as not discontinuous. And why? Because unlimited trends of thought have no support,

ch they could be firmly grounded.

, 1a, 12. THE COGNITION OF THOUGHTS AS UNDEFINABLE. Moreover thanks to this perfection of wisdom, the Tathagata wisely knows as it really is of other beings and persons the undefinable thought as ‘undefinable thought’. And how does he do so? Because he wisely knows as they really are those thoughts as without marks, as devoid of own-being, on account of the emptiness of own-marks. IV 5, 1a, 13. THE COGNITION OF THOUGHTS AS IMPERCEP

thoughts of others are not perceived by the fiv

hagata. IV 5, 1a, 14. THE COGNITION OF THOUGHTS WITH AFFIRMATION, ETC. Moreover thanks to this perfection of wisdom, the Tathagata wisely knows they really are of other beings and persons the thoughts which affirm or negate, which are drawn in or stretched out. And how does he do so? He wisely knows that wherever they may arise they are all dependent on the five skandhas.

death’. ‘the Tathagata does not continue exist after death’, ‘T

hagata neither does nor does not continue to exist after death’ – then these statements refer to the skandhas only. The same applies to statements such as, ‘Eternal are self and the world – just that is the truth, everything else is delusion’. And so if one considers that self and the world are noneternal, both eternal and noneternal, neither eternal nor noneternal. Likewise if one maintains that self and the world are finite, or not finite, or both finite and not finit

the soul, another the body’.

IV 5, 1a, 15. THE COGNITION OF THE MODE OF SUCHNESS.

411

Moreover the Tathagata, thanks to this perfection of wisdom, perceives form, etc. as identical with Suchness and nonfalseness, as immutable, indiscriminate, signless, impassive, unimpeded, and inapprehensible. It is thus that the Tathagata, thanks to the perfection of wisdom, cognizes of ot

out, just as he cognizes Suchness, etc. to: the inapprehen

IV 5, 1a, 16. THE COGNITION WHICH UNDERSTANDS THE SUCHNESS OF THE FULLY ENLIGHTENED BUDDHAS AND CAN COMMUNICATE IT TO OTHERS. In this way the Suchness of the affirmations and negations, of the contractions and expansions is the Suchness of the skandhas, elements, sense fields and conditioned

and that is the Suchness of the 37 dharmas which act as w

ightenment; etc. to: the Suchness of the 18 special dharmas of a Buddha is the Suchness of all-knowledge; and that is the Suchness of wholesom

with or without outflows, with and without faults, with and withodef

ilements, defiled or purified, conditioned or unconditioned. And the Suchness of the conditioned and unconditioned is the Suchness of past, future, and present dharmas; and that again is the Suchness of the Streamwinner, and that the Suchness of the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: the Suchness of the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha is the Suchness of the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment; that again is the Suchness of a Tathagata, and that the Suchness of all beings. It is thus that the Suchness of the Tathagata and the Suchness of all beings are just one single Suchness, an indistinct Suchness. As indistinct this Suchness is indistinguishable and because it is indistinguishable it is not divided. This is the Suchness of all dharmas which, thanks to the perfection of wisdom, the Tathagata has fully known. In this way this Suchness of the perfection of wisdom is the genetrix of the Tathagatas, and in this way this perfection of wisdom is the instructress in the world. It is thus that the Tathagata cognizes the Suchness of all dharmas, their nonfalseness, their unaltered Suchness. And it is because

called a ‘Tathagata’. Subhuti : Deep, O Lord, is this Suchness of all dh

412

Suc

is

it inexhaustible? Because of the inexhaustibility of all dharmas.

hness that the enlightenment of the Buddhas, the Lords has been revealed. Who else, O Lord, could firmly believe in it, except for irreversible Bodhsiattvas, great beings, or persons who have achieved right reviews, or Arhats whose outflows have dried up; etc. to: these deep dharmas have first been fully known by the Tathagata and then they have been declared. The Lord : For Suchness, Subhuti, is inexhaustible. And why

This is the Suchness of all dharmas which the Tathagata proclaimed after he had fully known the supreme enlightenment.

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CHAPTER 43 UNTHINKABLE

IV 5, 1b. THE MARKS OF COGNITION AS REGARDS THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PATH.

414

non-existence,

IV 5, 1b, 9. COGNITION OF OWN BEING

absence of own-being, having nonexistence for own-being,

IV 5, 1b, 10. COGNITION OF LACK OF SUPPORT.

lack of support.

MA AS UNDISTURBED.

(As something that cannot bRIRIset?)

be altered by the world with

a mark. A mark cannot wisely know a mark, nor a ca

y a no-mark, nor can a no-mark wisely know a

re is no possibility for

the known, nor can anyone wisely know them.

ONED.

en brought about by form, etc.

v brought about by the knowledge of all

n nor nonhuman, with

lows, worldly or supramundane, conditioned or

unconditioned.

COGNITION OF NONDISCRIMINATION.

And the Lord furthermore said to those gods of the realms of

e to say that space has

rk, would he be speaking correctly?

The Gods : No, Lord, because space is unconditioned.

uced or not produced,

s element is established. As it is established, so

the Tathagata has fully known it. Therefore is he called the

-.

IV 5, 1b, 11. COGNITION OF HAVING THE MARK OF SPACE.

This deep perfection of wisdom is marked like unto space. In this way, Gods, this deep perfection of wisdom is nonmarked, and it has been verbally expressed by the Tathagata by way of worldly convention, but not by way of ultimate reality. IV 5, 1b, 12. COGNITION OF THE NATURE OF DHAR

Gods, those marks cannot possibly its g

ods, men, and Asuras. And why? Because that world with its gods, men, and Asuras has also that very same mark. For a mark cannot alter

a mark wisel know mark, nor can a no-mark plus no-mark, the

m to be wisely

IV 5, 1b, 13.CONDITI

OGNITION OF THE UNCGods, these marks hav3e not be

to: they hae not been modes. For these marks are neither huma

or without outf

IV 5, 1b, 14.

sense desire and of form: If someone wer

some kind of ma

The Lord : Whether Tathagatas are prod

just this markles

Tathagata. 415

IV 5, 1b, 15. C

Tathagata. Because of his full knowle

the Tathagata’s unattached vision and cognition, and, having

because of the nonattachment of the perfectid the marks. It is wonderful to

Lord has revealeperfection of wisdom i

which the Tathagata has fully known the supreme enand

thereafter has made a distinction between all marks, between the marks of all dharmas like form, etc. IV 5, 1b, 16. COGNITION OF THE ABSENCE OF MARKS. The Lord : The Tathagata has fully known the markl

form marked by molesting (being liable to destruction); and so with ption marked by taking up

feeling marked by experiencing, percethe

impulses marked by together-making, consciousness marked by recognition; the perfection of giving marked by renunciation, the perfection of morality marked by celibacy, the perfection of patience marked by immovability, the perfection of vigour marked by uncrushability, the perfection of concentration marked by comprehension, the perfection of wisdom marked by nonattachment; the four trances, the four Unlimited, the four formless attainments marked by immovability; the 37 dhar

which act as wings to emptiness as a door to deliverance marked by

detachment, the ignless as a door to deliverance marked by quiet calm, the wishless as a door to deliverance marked by the removal of suffering; the deliverances marked by delivering, the powers marked by being well determined, the grounds of self-confidence marked by bei

providing what is beneficial, the great comp

tection, the great sympathetic joy marked by rejoicing, the great impartiality marked by noncommingling; the 18 special Buddha-dharmas marked by being something to whic

and the cognition of the knowledge of all modes

ked by being ‘before the eye’. It is thus that the Tathagata has fully known all dharmas as unmarked, and that is why the Tathagata is called the one who has the cognition of nonattachm

416

IV 5, 1c. THE MARKS OF COGNITION AS REGARDS THE KNOWLEDGE OF A

ES. IV 5, 1c, 1. THE COGNITION OF THE FACT THAT (THE BUDDHA) DWELLS AS ONE WHO HAS TAKEN RECOURSE TO HIS OWN DHARMA. The Lord : The perfection of wisdom, Subhuti, is the genetrix of the Tathagata. The perfection of wisdom instructs him in this world. For this reason the Tathagata dwells taking recourse to this Dharma; IV 5, 1c, 2. THE COGNITION OF HONOURING.

IV 5, 1c, 3. THE COGNITION OF VALUING GREATLY. values it greatly, IV 5, 1c, 4. THE COGNITION OF REVERING. reveres, IV 5, 1c, 5. THE COGNITION OF WORSHIP. and worships it, i.e. the perfection of wisdom. This is the Dharma, i.e. the perfection of wisdom, which the Tathagata honours, values greatly, reveres, and worships. And why? Because it is from this perfection of wisdom that the Buddhas, the Lords manifest themselves. Grateful is the Tathagata, the Arhat, the fully enlightened Buddha, thankful is the Tathagata, the Arhat, the fully enlightened Buddha. Rightly would he speak who would say of the Tathagata that he is ‘grateful and thankful’. And how is the Tathagata grateful and thankful? The Tathagata honours, values greatly, reveres and worships, favours and cherishes that vehicle on which he has come and that progressive path by which he has won full enlightenment. IV 5, 1c, 6. THE COGNITION OF THE ABSENCE OF AN AGENT. Moreover the Tathagata has, relying on the Signlessness of all dharmas, fully known all dharmas as not made on account of the nonbeingness of an agent. He has fully known them as not unmade, on account of the nonbeingness of their suppression. This, also, Subhuti, should be seen as the gratitude and

417

thankfulness of the Tathagata. Thanks to the perfection of wisdom

IV 5, 1c, 7. THE COGNITION WHICH REACHES EVERYWHERE. Moreover it is thanks to the perfection of

agata’s cognition has proceeded in all dharmas as unmade as though really it has not proceeded, and the proceeding is only a matter convention. In this way the perfection of wisdom is the genetrix o

IV 5, 1c, 8. THE COGNITION THAT (THE BUDDH

IS IMPERCEPTIBLE.

imperceptible, how can the perfection of wisdom

the Tathagata and

imperceptible. And why are they so? orthless, insignificant, void, and insubstan

empty, wway all dhar

Subhuti, all dharmas are unknowable a

they are unsupported and unincluded. It is thus that the perfection of wisdom is the genetrix of the Tathagata and his instructress in this world. And she is an instructress because form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes cannot be viewed. It is thus that the perfection of wisdom is the Tathagata’s genetrix and his instructress in this world. Subhuti : How does she become the instructress through the nonviewing of form, etc.? The Lord : Where, Subhuti, there arises an act of consciousness which has none of the skandhas for an objective support, there she becomes an instructress through a nonviewing of the world. It is thus, Subhuti, that this deep perfection of wisdom is the genetrix of the Tathagata and his inst

IV 5

, 1c, 9. THE COGNITION OF THE WORLD FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF EMPTINESS. Furthermore how is the perfection of wisdom the genetrix of the Tathagata and his instructress in the world? Here the perfection of wisdom indicates that the world is empty. And why does she do so? Here in the world the five skandhas are empty, the 12 sense

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fields are empty, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes is empty. It is thus that the perfection of wisdom is the genetrix of

5, 1c, 10. COGNITION OF THE FACT THAT THE BUDDHA CAN INDICATE THE WORLD’S EMPTINESS. How does the perfection of wisdom show up the world as empty?

THE WORLD’S EMPTINESS.

, 1c, 12. COGNITION OF THE FACT HE CAN SHOW UP THE WORLD’S EMPTINESS. She shows up the fact that the world and the

pty’. It is thus that the perfection of wisdom is the Tathagata’s genetrix and his instructress in the world. IV 5, 1c, 13. COGNITION OF UNTHINKABILITY. Moreover the perfection of wisdom shows up to the Tathagata the world as unthinkable. How? It shows up that the five skandhas are the world which is unthinkable. Moreover the perfection of wisdom shows up to the Tathagata the world, in other words the five skandhas, as isolated, as absolutely empty, as empty of own-being, as empty through the nonexistence of own-being.

IV 5, 1c, 14. COGNITION OF UNTHINKABILITY. M

oreover the perfection of wisdom shows up to the Tathagata the world, or the five skandhas, as calmly quiet. IV 5, 1c, 15. THE COGNITION OF THE CESSATION (OF THE WORLD). Moreover the perfection of wisdom shows up to the Tathagata the world, or the five skandhas, as just emptiness.

IV 5, 1c, 16.T.

And again how does this deep perfection of wisdom show up the world? So that no perception of this world or the other world takes place. And why? Because those dharmas do not exist through which a perception of this world or a perception of the other world could take place.

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IV 5, 2. THE DISTINCTIVE MARKS. IV 5, 2, 1. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF

Subhuti : For the sake of a great performance, O Lord, has this perfection of wisdom be

omparable, immeasurable, and equal to the unequalled (P: incalcula

of wisdom been set up as a great performance? It is a great performance on the pa

wisdom been set up as an unthinkable performance? Unthinkable is Buddhahooall-

knowledge. In this way has the perfection of wisdom been set up for an unthinkable performance on the part of the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the fully enlightened Buddhas.

IV 5, 2, 2. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN SUFFERIN

And how has the perfection of wisdom been set up for an incomparable performance? There is no being whatsoever, among those who are comprehended under the term ‘beings’, who would be able to think Buddhahood, Tathagatahood, Self-Existence, and the state of all-knowledge, or to compare it.

IMMEASRUABILITY.

And how has the perfection of wisdom been set up for an immeasurable performance? The Buddhahood, Tathagatahood, Self-Existence, and state of all-knowledge of t

immeasurable, and it cannot be measured by anyone.

IV 5, 2, 4. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF SUFFERING: INCAL. And how has the perfection of wisdom been set

performance which equals the unequalled? Because nothing can be

quite equal to the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the fully Enlightened Ones, how much less can anything be superior to them! Subhuti : Are then Buddhahood, Tathagatahood, Self-Existence, and the state of all-knowledge unthinkable, incomparable, immeasurable, and equal to the unequalled?

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The Lord : Yes, they are.

and equal to the unequalled. With regard to the Dharmahood of all dharmas no t

apprehended. Form also, as unthinkable, etc. cannot be conceived, and so up to the knowledge of all modes. Subhuti : For what reason can form, etc. as unthinkable, etc. not be conceived?

The Lord : Because with regard to form, etc. one cannot conceive of the thinking, the comparing, the measuring, the equality or inequality. Subhuti : And for what reason is that so? The Lord : Because also of form, etc. the own-being is unthinkable, etc. What do you think, Subhuti, can form, etc. be apprehended in what is unthinkable, etc.? Subhuti : No, O Lord! The Lord : In that manner all dharma

etc. They are unthinkable because thinking has ceased and betra

nscended, comparing and measuring have ceased and been transcended, equality and inequality have ceased and been transcended. ‘Unthinkable’, that is a synonym of incomparable, etc. These Tathagata-dharmas of the Tathagata are unthinkable because space is unthinkable, incomparable because space is incomparable, etc. etc. This also is of the

Tathagata-unthinkability, -incomparability, -immeasurability, and –equality to the unequalled, which cannot be thought or com

pared by the world with its gods, men, and Asuras. Thus are the Buddhas immeasurable, thus are the Buddhadharmas immeasurable. When this chapter on the Tathagata’s unthinkability, etc. was being taught, the minds of 500 monks were freed, with

clinging, from6,000 lay brethren obtained with regard to dharmas the pu

re, dispassionate, unstained Dharma-eye, 20,000 Bodhisattvas won the patient acceptance of dharmas which fail to be produced, and the Lord has predicted that they will become Buddhas in this very Bhadra-kalpa. 421

CHAPTER 44 THE CONGREGATION

ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION: COMPRISING ALL THE HOLY PERSONS. Subhuti : Deep, O

t performance (enterprise) has this perfec

up, for an enterprise which is unthinkable, incomparable, immeasurable, equal to the unequalled. The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is.

ection of wisdom are t

ous kinds of emptiness, the four applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. Just as an anointed king, a Kshatriya, who feels strong and secure in his kingdom, entrusts all his business concerning the kingly office and the kingdom to his minister; he himself has few cares and his burden is light as regards the business concerning his kingly duties and his activities concerning the kingdom; just so, Subhuti, whatever dharmas of the Disciples, the Pratyekabudhas, the Bodhisattvas, or the Buddhas there may be, they are all entrusted to the perfection of wisdom, and the perfection of wisdom in them does the work. Therefore, then, has the perfection of wisdom been set up for a great performance, for a performance which is unthinkable, incomparable, immeasurable, equal to the unequalled. And why? Because this dee

uld not take hold of form, etc. to: the supreme enlightenment, nor settle down in them. Subhuti : How, O Lord, has this perfection of wisdom been set up so that one should not take hold of form, etc. to: supreme enlightenment, nor settle down in them? The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, can you review that form, etc. to: that knowledge of all modes, or that fruit of a Streamwinner,

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Subhuti : No, O Lord.

The Lord : Well said ! I also do not review

form, etc. to: the suprem ecause I do not review

it I do not take hold of it; because I do not take hold of it I do not

grasp at it. of a Buddha,

all-knowledge, the knowledge of all m ood;

not reviewing it I do not take hold of it; not taking hold of it I do not

settle down in it. And why? The Bodhisattva, Subhuti, should

and of form : Deep, O

Lord

, Subhuti, well saide enlightenment; bI also do not review the level odes, and Tathagatah

not take hold of form, etc. to: Tathagatahood, and he should not settle down in them.

IV 5, 2, 6. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION: THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ABSOLUTE IS ACCESSIBLE TO THE EXPERIENCE OF THE WISE. The Gods of the realm of sense desire

, is this perfection of wisdom, hard to see, hard to understand, inaccessible to reasoning and discursive thought, calm, subtle, delicate, to be felt only by the learned and discerning. Those beings who firmly believe in this perfection of wisdom will be such as have fulfilled their duties under the Jinas of the past, they will have been taken hold of by the good spiritual friends, and they will have planted wholesome roots. IV 5, 2, 7. ACCEPTANCE OF THE SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF ORIGINATION: UNCOMMONNESS. If, O Lord, all beings in this great trichiliocosm would become Faith-followers, Dharma-followers, people on the eighth-lowest stage, Streamwinners, Once-returners, Never-returners, Arhats, or Pratyekabuddhas, compared with their cognition and forsaking the cognition of this deep perfection of wisdom for one single day, the willingness to find pleasure in it, the reflection on it, the weighing up of it, the exploration and investigation of it, will be superior. And why? Because the p

atient acceptance of the Bodhisattva, the great being who has gained the patient acceptance of dharmas which fail to be produced, is superior to the cognition and forsaking of the Faith-followers, etc. to: Pratyekabu

ddhas. IV 5, 2, 8. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF ORIGINATION: QUICK UNDERSTANDING. The Lord : So it is, O Gods, so it is. One may expect that those sons and daughters of good family who will listen to this deep 423

perf y it out, explain and repeat it, and wisely

atte

and because they have trained in that

perfection of wisdom the Tathagatas have fully known the supreme

the realm

of f

ION OF DHARMA IN STOPPING: NEITHER

DECREASE NOR INCREASE.

n be conceived.

ahs he deceased,

where is he reborn?

hearing this deep perfection of wisdom firmly

beli

perfection of wisdom, and on hearing this deep perfection of

ection of wisdom , cop

nd to it, will go forth more quickly than those others, who belong to the vehicle of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, who are lacking in perfect wisdom, and who course on the stage of a Faith-follower, etc. for an aeon or for the remainder of an aeon. And why? Because in this deep perfection of wisdom that patient acceptance of dharmas which fail to be produced has been explained in detail, and in that the Faith-followers, etc. to: the Pratyekabuddhas should train, in that the Bodhisattvas, the great beings should train,

enlightenment, do fully know it, will fully know it. Thereupon the gods of the realm of sense desire and

orm gave forth this shout of triumph : A great perfection is this perfection of wisdom, O Lord, etc. to: a perfection which equals the unequalled is this perfection of wisdom! It is because they have trained in this deep perfection of wisdom that the Faith-followers, etc. to: the Pratyekabuddhas have gone forth to the supreme enlightenment, do go forth to it, will go forth to it. IV 5, 2, 9. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNIT

And of this deep perfection of wisdom neither deficiency nor completeness ca

Thereupon the gods of the realm of sense desire and of form saluted the Lord’s feet with their heads, thrice walked round the Lord, and then moved away from the presence of the Lord. Before they had gone far, they disappeared from sight, and the gods of the realm of sense desire departed for the world of sense desire, and the gods of the realm of form for the realm of form. IV 5, 2, 10. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN STOPPING: NEITHER DECREASE NOR INCREASE. Subhuti : If a Bodhisattva, on merely hearing it, immediately believes in this deep perfection of wisdom – where

The Lord : Here, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva, a great being, immediately on

eves in it, does not become cowed or stolid, is not stupefied, does not hesitate or doubt, but delights in hearing this deep 424

wisdom does not become lacking in those attentions and does never let go those attentions, wherever he goes, comes, stands, or sits, and he constantly and always follows that reciter of Dharma. Just as a cow does not abandon her young calf, just so, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva who knows this deep perfection of wisdom by heart, who has become thoroughly familiar with it through his mindfulness, who has well investigated it with his mind, who has well penetrated it with his vision, - that person belonging to the vehicle of the Bodhisattvas has deceased among men, has been reborn among men. And why? Because this son or daughter of good family, belonging to the vehicle of the Bodhisattvas, has in the past also copied this deep perfection of wisdom, made

oured, revered, adored, and worshipped it with flowers, etc. Through that wholesome root he has, deceased among men, been reborn among men, and has firmly believed in this deep perfection of wisdom immediately on hearing it. IV 5, 2, 11. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF STOPPING: FULL ATTAINMENT.

with these qualities, and who firmly believes in this deep perfection of wisdom immediately

studies it, and wisely attends to it – could that Bodhisattva have deceased near others Buddhas and Lords

oured, before he was reborn here? The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. That is quite possible. And why? Because that Bodhisattva, that great being, has in the presence of these Buddhas and Lords heard this deep perfection of wisdom, borne it in mind, preached and studied it, and has wisely attended to it. Through just that wholesome root and

Bodhisattva, the great being, has been reborn among the Tushita gods and he should be

lities. And why? Because that Bodhisattva, that great being, has questioned and counterquestioned Maitreya, the Bodhisattva, the great being, abou

wholesome root he has been reborn here. But if that Bodhisattva, that great being in the past, when he heard this deep perfection of wisdom, has not asked questions and counterquestions aout it, then, when now this deep perfection of wisdom is being preached, he feels hesitation, stupefaction, and 425

despondency of thought. And so when the other five perfections, or the various kinds of emptiness, or the supreme enlightenment are being preached. Moreover, Subhuti, some Bodhisattva, a great being has in the past heard this deep perfection of wisdom for one, two, three, four, or five days, has asked questions and counterquestions about it, and has pursued it for that time, but afterwards he has again withdrawn from it and feels no longer like asking questions about it. And why? For it is a fact that if a Bodhisattva has in the past not all the time asked questions and counterquestions about this deep perfection of wisdom, and pursued it, and if only for a time he has been intent and keen on it, then he will later at some time feel the urge to pursue it, but not so at other times; he will again withdraw from it, and through his unsteady intelligence he will become like cotton wool that Bodhisattva, that great being should merely be known as one who has but lately set out in the vehicle, as

fully enlightened Buddhas. He will no further explain this deep perfection of

n trained in the perfection of wisdom, or the other five perfections, etc. to: in the knowledge of all modes. That Bodhisattva, that great being should be known as one who has newly set out in the vehicle. Endowed with but a little faith and little love, he will no longer be able to copy out this deep perfection of wisdom, or to preach, explain or study

if a son or daughter of good family does not copy out this deep perfection of wisdom, or explains or studies it, or wisely attends to it, and does not get hold of the beyond of this deep perfection of wisdom, etc. to: of the knowledge of all modes, does not comply with this deep perfection of wisdom, etc. to: with the knowledge of all modes, then one of two stations or levels should be expected of them, i.e. the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. And why? It is because in the past they have not copied, etc. this deep perfection of wisdom, because they have not got hold of the beyond of this deep perfection of wisdom, and have not complied with it, that of these sons or daughters of good family these two levels should be expected.

426

CHAPTER 45 THE SHIP IV 5, 2, 12. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF STOPPING: THE DISTINCTIVE OBJECTIVE SUPPORT. Just as, Subhuti, if a ship breaks up on the ocean, one should know that those people who cannot find the support of a log, gravel bank, plank, tree-trunk, or a corpse, or get hold of one of these, will surely meet with their end in the ocean before they have reached the shore. But those people who, when a ship breaks up in the ocean, think of seeking the support and of getting hold of a log, gravel-bank, plank, tree-trunk, or corpse – one should know, Subhuti, that those people do not meet with their end in the great ocean, but they will safely cross over the great ocean, and unhurt, uninjured, and safe they will again stand on dry land. Just so, Subhuti, those sons and daughters of good family who belong to the vehicle of the Bodhisattvas, and who are endowed with just a little faith, a little serene belief, a little affection, but who do not read this perfection of wisdom, do not explain or study it, do not wisely attend to it, do not seek their support in it – and likewise with the perfection of giving, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes – one should know, Subhuti, that those sons and daughters of good family who belong to the vehicle of the Bodhisattvas, will in the middle of the way experience a loss of enlightenment and, without having obtained the knowledge of all modes, they will realize the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. But those persons who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle, and who have faith, patience, serene belief, resolution, willingness to find pleasure in this, renunciation, and persistence in trying to win the supreme enlightenment, they will copy this deep perfection of wisdom, explain and study it, wisely attend to it, and seek their support in it. Thus whatever of the perfe

427

midway come to ruin. Having transcended the level of the

Disciples and Pratyeka matured beings and

purified the Buddha- know the supreme

enlightenment.

IV 5, 2, 13. ACCEPTANCE OF COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH: IT’S

DISTINCTIVE FOUNDATION.

Just as if a woman or man would want to carry water in a jar

, but will quickly fall to pieces and melt away.

And

buddhas, having field, they fully

which is badly baked or quite unbaked, one should know that that jar will not last long

why? Because in its unbaked condition it would actually soon come to an end on the ground. Just so, although sons and daughters of good family who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle may have faith, etc. to: persistence in trying to win supreme enlightenment, but if they have not been taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom, or by skill in means, or by the five perfections, or the various kinds of emptiness, or the knowledge of all modes, then they will midway come to ruin and fall on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. But if some woman or man would carry water in a well-baked jar, from a … or any other water-bearing place, then that jar will safely go to where it is meant to go. Just so the Bodhisattva, the great being who has faith, etc. to: persistence in trying to win the supreme enlightenment, and who has also been taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom, by skill in means and by the knowledge of all modes, will not midway come to ruin, on the level of the Disciples or Prayekabuddhas, and he will, unhurt and uninjured, fully know the supreme enlightenment. IV 5, 2, 14. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH: THE FULL COMPLEMENT. Just as if some man were to launch into the great ocean a ship which has not been properly repaired or caulked, and has been overloaded with goods; one should know, Subhuti, that that ship will soon flounder, and that the ship will soon be in one place and the goods in another. That merchant, who is without skill in means, will thus suffer a great disadvantage and lose a huge fortune. Just so, although a Bodhisattva may have faith, etc., if he has not been taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom, by skill in means, etc. to: by the knowledge of all modes, one should know, Subhuti, that this Bodhisattva will suffer ruin midway, will be separated from a great advantage and will lose great wealth, i.e. the wealth of the knowledge of all modes, and he will fall unto the

428

level of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. But if an intelligent man were to launch into the great ocean a ship which is well repaired and well got ready, and were to place the load properly on it, then one shou

if a Bodhisattva has faith, etc.. and has also been taken hold of by the perfection of wisdo

wledge of all modes, then one should know that he will not founder midway before he reaches the supreme enlightenment. And why? Because under such circumstances he cannot fall on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. IV 5, 2, 15. ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH: THE ASSISTANCE. Just as if a man were one hundred years old, very aged, advance in years, and decrepit, and if some illness were to arise in his body – from the wind, bile, phlegm or combination of the humours – what do you think, Subhuti, could he rise from his bed on his own? Subhuti : No, Lord! If even he could get up, he would not have the strength to walk for half a mile. Wasted away by both old age and illness he could, even if he managed to get up, not walk about. The Lord : So it is, Subhuti. Even though a Bodhisattva may have faith, etc. if he has not been taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom, by skill in means, etc. to: by the knowledge of all modes, then one should know, Subhuti, that midway he will fall down unto the level of the Disciples or Pratyekabuddhas. A

by skill in means, etc. to: by the knowledge of all modes. Just as if

t man who is so sick and old would wish to get up; and two strong men, one to his right and one to his left, would carefully lift him up and promise him that he may go wherever he wishes – then he will have no fear of falling down on his way to where he wants to go. Just so, if a Bodhisattva has faith, etc. and if he has been taken hold of by the perfection of wisdom, skill in means, etc. to: by the knowledge of all modes, then one should know that that Bodhisattva will not collapse midway, and he will be able to reach the place he wants to go to, i.e. the supreme enlightenment. And why? Because he is not lacking in perfect wisdom and skill in means.

429

Subhuti : How does the person belonging to the Bodhisattva-vehicle, who has not been taken hold of by perfect wisdom and skill in means, fall on the level of Disciple or Pratyekabuddha? The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well said, you who think that for the sake of the persons belonging to the Bodhisattva-vehicle you should ask the Tathagata about this matter. Here, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva from the beginning gives gifts, but with a mind that has fallen into I-making and Mine-making; he guards morality, etc. etc. When he gives a gift, etc. it occurs to him, I give a gift, to him I give that gift, I am a giver; I guard morality, et

And why? Because in the perfection of wisdom these discrimination

abstained (aramita) from them, etc. And so for the other perfections. And that person belonging to the Bodhisattva-vehicle neither knows the not-beyond nor the Beyond. Not taken hold of by the perfection of giving, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes, he falls on the le

h to the knowledge of all modes. And how, Subhuti, does a person who belongs to the Bodhisattva-vehicle become unskilled in means? Here, Subhuti,

the beginning without skill in means he gives a gift, guards morality, develops patience, etc. And it occurs to him, I give a gift, this gift I give, to him I give, etc. He puts his mind to the gift, he thinks ‘I am a giver’, etc. And why? Because in the perfection of giving these discriminations do not exist, as he discriminates them. And why? Because that perfection of giving is really a non-perfection. And he knows neither the not-beyond nor the Beyond. Not taken hold of by the perfection of giving, etc. to: by skill in means, etc. to: by the knowledge of all modes, he falls on the level of a Disciple or a Pratyekabuddha, and he does not go forth to the knowledge of all modes. And how, Subhuti, does a person who belongs to the Bodhisattva-vehicle, and has been taken hold of by perfect wisdom and by skill in means, not fall on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, and attain full enlightenment? Here, Subhuti, a person who belongs to the Bodhisattva-vehicle gives gifts from the beginning, but not with a mind that has fallen into I-making and Mine-ma

430

to h

apable of the trances, I am wise. And why?

Bec

, he does not fall on the level

of a

im, I give a gift, to him I give a gift, etc. to: I develop wisdom. He does not put his mind to the gift, he does not think through the gift, he does not think: I am a giver, I am moral, I am patient, I am energetic, I am c

ause there in the perfection of giving these discriminations do not exist to which he could put his mind. For a non-perfection is this, i.e. the perfection of giving, etc. But that Bodhisattva does not put his mind to a non-perfection, or to a perfection. Taken hold of by the perfection of giving, etc. to: by the knowledge of all modes, he does not fall on the level of a Disciple, and attain to the knowledge of all modes. And how does a Bodhisattva become one who has been taken hold of by skill in means? Here, from the beginning, just with skill in means he gives a gift, etc. It does not occur to him, I give a gift, etc. to: I develop wisdom. He does not think of a gift, nor through it, etc. to: I am wise. And why? Because in the perfection of wisdom these discriminations do not exist by which he could discriminate. And why? Because there that is a non-perfection, i.e. the perfection of giving, etc. Taken hold of by the perfection of giving, etc. to: by that skill in means

Disciple and attains to the knowledge of all modes.

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CHAPTER 46 EXPOSITION OF THE OWN-BEING OF ALL DHARMAS IV

5, 2, 16. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH: THE ABSENCE OF RELISHING. Subhuti : How, O Lord, should a Bodhisattva, a great being who is a beginner, train in the perfection of wisdom and the other five perfections? The Lord : Here, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva, who is a beginner and who wants to train in the perfection of wisdom and the other five perfections, should tend, love, and honour the good spiritual friends, who explain to him this deep perfection of wisdom, as follows: ‘Come here, son of good family, whatever gift you may have given, whatever morality you may have guarded, etc.

432

Bodhisattvas, the great beings have set out towards the supreme

enlightenment for the benefit and welfare of the world, so that they

can become a shelter fo ge, a place of rest, the

final relief, islands, torchbearers, caravan leaders and light bringers,

a

IV 5, 3, 1. HE BRINGS BEN

How then has a Bo ants to fully know the

supreme enlightenment, set out for the benefit of the world? Here

the Bodhisattva liberates beings from the five places of rebirth, and

those beings who are doomed to undergo these

conditions, and he leads them to the realm of Nirvana which leaves

known the

sup

r the world, a refund leaders of the world. EFITS. dhisattva, who w

places them on the shore where there is nothing to fear, into the safety of Nirvana.

IV 5, 3, 2. HE BRINGS EASE. And how has the bodhisattva set out for the world’s Ease? Her

e the Bodhisattva, the great being who wants to fully know the supreme enlightenment, liberates beings from physical ills, mental sadness, and despair, and places them on the shore where there is nothing to fear, into the safety of Nirvana. IV 5, 3, 3. HE GIVES SHELTER. And how does the Bodhisattva who wants to fully know the supreme enlightenment, become the world’s shelter? He protects beings from all the sufferings which belong to Samsara; he demonstrates Dharma so that these sufferings might be forsaken, and he leads the beings who have heard that Dharma gradually to Nirvana through the three vehicles. IV 5, 3, 4. HE GIVES REFUGE. And how does the Bodhisattva who wants to fully know the supreme enlightenment, become a refuge for the world? He sets free from birth, decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and despair

nothing behind.

IV 5, 3, 5. HE PROVIDES A PLACE OF REST. And how does the Bodhisattva, who wants to fully

reme enlightenment, become a resting place for beings? He

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demonstrates Dharma to beings so that they may learn not learn not to embrace anything. Subhuti : How does the non-embracing of all dharmas come about? The Lord : The non

that is the same as their non-p

ir non-stopping. IV 5, 3, 6. HE PROVIDES FINAL RELIEF. And how does the Bodhisattva, who wants to fully known the supreme enlighten

form, etc. that is not form.

Subhuti : If as form so all dharmas, then a Bodhisattva must surely have fully known all dharmas. And why? Because in the Beyond of form, etc. there is no discrimination, to the effect: this is form, this is feeling, etc. to: this is the knowledge of all modes. The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. In t

Bodhisattvas that they meditatdo

not become cowed, (but are resolved that) ‘in this way should all these dharmas be fully known, and, when the supreme enlightenment has been won, I will reveal these dharmas to others.’ IV 5, 3, 7. HE ACTS AS AN ISLAND.

supreme enlightenment, becpie

ces of land limited all round by water, in rivers, or great oceans. Just so form, etc. is limited at its beginning and end, and so everything up to the knowledge of all modes. By this limitation of their beginning and end are all dharmas circumscribed. And this limitation of all dharmas at their beginning and end is the Calm Quiet, the Sublime. That which really is, i.e. emptiness, nonbasis, the nonannihilation

nonembracing, dispassion, stopping, Nirvana. Bod

hisattva, when he has fully known the supreme enlightenment, reveals these dharmas, so calm, so sublime. And how does the Bodhisattva, when he has fully known the supreme enlightenment,

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reveals to beings the true meaning associated with the four means of conversion, and establis

And how does the Bodhisattva, when he has fully known the supreme

ts out to beings who have set out on a bad road or who find themselves at some crossroads the one single suitable path, which is conducive to purity, the transcending or sorrows and misfortunes, the going to rest of p

5, 3, 8. HE ACTS AS A LEADER. And how does the Bodhisattva, when he has fully known the supreme enlightenment, become a leader of beings? He demonstrates and reveals dharma for the sake

production, nonstopping, nondefilement and nonpurification of form, etc. to: of the supreme enlightenment. IV 5, 3, 9. HE DOES NOT TURN TOWARDS ANYTHING.

And how does the Bodhisattva, when he has fully known the supreme enlightenment, become the resort of beings? He demonstrates dharma to beings to the effect that form, etc. is situated in space; that the emptiness of form, etc. is situated so that it has not come, i.e. it neither comes nor goes. And why? For all dharmas are situated in emptiness and from that situation they do

Situated in the Uneffected are all

m that situation. And why? Because of the Uneffected no coming or going can be apprehended. IV 5, 3, 10. THE (NON?) REALIZATION OF THE FRUIT. For all dharmas are situated in non-production and non-stopping, and from that situation they do not depart. And why? Because of non-production and nonstopping no coming or going can be apprehended. And the same formula is applied to: non-defilement and non-purification, dream, magical illusion, echo, reflection, mirage, firewheel, magical creation; endless and boundless; unrecoverable and un-removable; non-addition and non-subtraction. For all dharmas have not come, and from that situation they do not depart. And why? Because non-coming,

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coming, and going cannot be apprehended. Likewise all dharmas are situated in non-toiling and absence of

on-binding and unbinding, they are situated in non-joining and disjoining. They are situated in the self and from that situation they do not depart. And why? Because absolutely a self does not exist; how could its coming and going take place? And as for the self, so for being, living soul, etc. to: one who sees. And in the same sense all dharmas are situated in permanence, ease, the self, the lovely; and likewise in impermanence, ill, not-self, and the

by false views does not exist, ho

e place? For situated in Suchness are all dharmas, and from that situation they do not depart. And why? Because the coming or going of Suchness cannot be apprehended. And so for the Dharma-element, the Reality limit, Sameness, the unthinkable element, and immobility.

IV 5, 3, 11. HE BECOMES A MEANS OF SALVATION.

For all dharmas are situated in form, and from that situation they do not depart. And why? Because absolutely form does not exist; how could its coming or going take place? And so for the other four skandhas, the six perfections, the various kinds of emptiness, the fruits, etc. to: the supreme enlightenment. Subhuti : Who will there firmly believe in this so deep perfection of wisdom? The Lord : Those Bodhisattvas, great beings, Subhuti, who have formerly coursed in the direction of full enlightenment, who have done their duties under the Jinas of the past, have matured wholesome roots under the Jinas of the

been taken hold of by the good spiritual friends bel

ieve in this deep perfection of wisdom. IV 5, 4. THE MARKS OF OWN-BEING. Subhuti : What again, O Lord, will be of those Bodhisattvas, great beings, who firmly believe (who cognize P) this deep perfection of wisdom, the tokens, signs, and modes (attributes)?

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CHAPTER 47 THE DISCIPLINING OF GREED IV 5, 4, 1. ISOLATED FROM THE DEFILEMENTS. The Lord : They will in their own-being be isolated from (the need for the) disciplining of greed, hate, and delusion. IV 5, 4, 2. ISOLATED FROM THE TOKENS OF THE DEFILEMENTS. They will in their own-being be isolated from the tokens of greed, hate, and delusion.

They will in their own-being be isolated from

e, and delusion. IV 5, 4, 4. ISOLATED FROM BOTH THE POINTS TO BE SHUNNED AND FROM THEIR ANTIDOTES. In their own-being be isolated from the attributes of gree

delusion will be those Bodhisattvas, great beings, who resolutely be

Subhuti : Destined (gatika) for what will be those Bodhisattvas, great beings, who will understand this deep perfection of wisdom? The Lord : They will be destined for the knowledge of all modes. Subhuti : Will the Bodhisattva, the great being, who is destined for the knowledge of all modes, be the resort (gati) of all beings? The Lord : Yes, Subhuti.

Subhuti : Doers of what is ha

gs who have put on this armour, ‘all beings we will lead to Nirvana’. And yet therein no being and no concept of a being is apprehended.

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exist, and also not the Bodhisattva’s armour. Therefore it is said

that not tied up with f armour. And so with

feeling, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes.

IV 5, 4, 6

Subhuti : Of that Bodhisattva, great beings who has thus put on

the great armour, ‘all beings we will lead to Nirvana’, two stations

should not be expected, i.e. the level of a Disciple or the level of a

Bod

Disciple or

Pratyekabuddha. That cannot possibly be. And why? Because

undaries,

put

son do you, Subhuti, say that of that

Bodhisattva, that great being, who thus puts on the armour and

these two

lev

use there, O Lord, that Bodhisattva, great beings

has

e sake of the

cog

limi

bein e cognition of the knowledge of all

modes has the Bodhisattva, the great being put on the armour.

IV 5

where. And why? Because in this deep

perf

orm surely is this . IT IS DEVOTED TO ONE AIM ONLY.

Pratyekabuddha. It is impossible, O Lord

, it cannot be that a hisattva, a great being who has thus put on the armour, ‘I will lead all beings to Nirvana’, should fall on the level of a

the Bodhisattva, the great being has not, hemmed in by bo

on the armour for the sake of beings. The Lord : For what rea

courses in this deep perfection of wisdom, neither of

els can be expected, i.e. the level of a Disciple or of a Pratyekabuddha?

IV 5, 4, 7. THE PROGRAMME. Subhuti : Beca

not put on the great armour for the sake of a limited number of beings or for the sake of a limited kind of cognition. And why? For the sake of leading all beings to Nirvana and for th

nition of the knowledge of all modes has the Bodhisattva, the great being, put on the armour.

The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. It is not for the sake of a

ted number of beings that the Bodhisattva, the great being, has put on the armour. But on the contrary, for the sake of leading all

gs to Nirvana and for th

, 4, 8. IT OFFERS NO BASIS. Subhuti : Deep, O Lord, is this perfection of wisdom. She is not to be developed by anyone, nor should anything be developed, nor should one develop any

ection of wisdom one does not get at the full reality of any dharma, which would develop, or which he would develop, or through which he would develop. A development of space, O Lord,

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is this development of the perfection of wisdom. A development of all dharmas, a development of what is not, a development of not taking hold of, a development which is really

The Lord : Of what, Subhuti, is th

ection of wisdom an undevelopment of development? Subhuti : Of form this is an undevelopment of development; of feeling, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. The Lord : So it is, Subuti, so it is. This development of perfect wisdom is an undevelopment of the development of form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. IV 5, 4, 9. NO SETTLING DOWN. And the Lord further said (amantrayate) to th

irreversible Bodhisattva, great being, should thoroughly ponder on this deep perfection of wisdom, for then he does not settle down in this deep perfection of wisdom (as if it were a real thing). And so he should thoroughly ponder on the other five perfections, etc. to: on the knowled

Bodhisattva, great being, wh

om, does not look upon the critical arguments and hints of others as having validity; he does not go by someone else whom he puts his trust in; he does not partake of thoughts connected with greed, hate, and delusion; he is not deprived of the six perfections; and when this deep perfection of wisdom is being taught, he will not tremble, be frightened or terr

he delights in hearing this deep perfection of wisdom, and, having heard it, he takes it up, studies it, bears it in mind, teaches it, attends wisely to it, and progresses Thusness. One should know, Subhuti, that in a former life already that irreversible Bodhisattva, great being, has asked questions and counterquestion about th

to it. And why? Because thedee

p perfection of wisdom is being taught, does not not tremble, is not frightened or terrified, is not cowed or despondent, and his mind does not turn back on it. In addition, when he has heard it, he learns and studies it, bears it in mind, and preaches it, and wisely attends to it. Subhuti : How should a Bodhisattva who, when this deep perfection of wisdom is being taught, does not tremble, etc. to:

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does not allow his mind to turn back on it, apprehend this deep perfection of wisdom? IV 5, 4, 10. THE OBJECTIVE SUPPORT.

The Lord : The Bodhisattva, the great being, should apprehend this deep perfection of wisdom through a series (of th

ned to the knowledge of all modes. Subhuti : How does the Bodhisattva, the g

es (of thoughts) inclined to the knowledge of all modes have an apperception of this deep perfection of wisdom? The Lord : The Bodhisattv

emptiness, the signless, th

production and nonstopping, to nondefilement and nonpurification, to Suchness, the Dharma-element, the Reality limit, Sameness, the unthinkable element, to the Uneffected, to a dream, etc. to: a magical creation. Subhuti : When the Bodhisattva, the great being, has an apperception of this deep perfection of wisdom through a series (of thoughts) inclined to emptiness, etc. to: a dream and a magical creation, does he then apperceive form, or feeling, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes? The Lord : When a Bodhisattva courses in perfect wisdom, he does not apperceive form, etc. to: consciousness, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. And why? Because the knowledge of all modes has not been made or unmade, it has not come from anywhere nor gone to anywhere, it does not stand in any spot or place, and its definition cannot be apprehended, nor its coming or going. But that of which no definition and no coming or going can be apprehended, that cannot possibly be fully known by anyone, not through form, or any of the other skandhas. And why? Because form is not the knowledge of allm odes, nor is any of the other skandhas. And why? For the Suchness of form and the Suchness of the knowledge of all modes are just one special Suchness. And so for feeling, and everything up to the eighteen special Buddha-dharmas.

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SETTLEMENT IN THE TRAINING OF A

BODHISATTVA

Thereupon the gods of the realm of sense desire and of the realm of form took heavenly sandalwood powder, took heavenly blue lotuses, pink lotuses, night lotuses, and white lotuses, and scattered them over the Lord. They approached to where the Lord was, respectfully saluted his feet with their heads, stood on one side, and said to the Lord: Deep, O Lord, is the perfection of wisd

om, hard to see, hard to understand, incomprehensible, engaged in incomprehensibilities, subtle, delicate, to be felt only by the learned and discerning. In antagonism to the entire world is the enlightenment of the Tathagatas, by which the Tathagatass (are able to) expound this so deep perfection of wisdom. Form, etc.

is just the knowledge of all modes, the knowledge of all modes is just form, etc. The Suchness of form, etc. to: the Buddha, and the Suchness of the knowledge of all modes, are just one single Suchness, they are not two or divided. IV 5, 4, 11. ANTAGONISM TO THE ENTIRE WORLD. The Lord : So it is, O Gods. When he considers this sequence of reasoning, the thought of the Tahagata is inclined to carefree nonaction and not to the demonstration of Dharma. And why? Because surely this Dharma, i.e. the enlightenment of the Tathagata is deep, hard to see, hard to understand, incomprehensible, engaged in incomprehensibilities, subtle, delicate, to be felt only by the learned and discerning, and antagonistic to the entire world. It has not been fully known by anyone, not at any time

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of the full knowledge of nonproduction and nonstopping, of

nondefilement and non full knowledge of the

Uneffected, of the self, e s, of form and the other

skandhas, of the perfections, the various kinds of emptiness, etc. to:

the

The s

Dharma been expounded. And why? Because this Dharma, O

Lord, is not demonst ng up form, nor for

the sake of not taking it up; and so with feeling, etc. to: the 18

special Buddhadharmas; the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: the

knowledge

wledge of all modes. And

a s not anywhere obstructed. y what is it not

purification, of thetc. to: one who seeknowledge of all modes. gods : Surely, as in antagonism to the entire world has thirated for the sake of taki

of all modes. But it is in taking up that the world courses: Mine is form, I am form, etc. to: mine is the knowledge of all modes, I have the knowledge of all modes. The Lord : So it is, Gods, so it is. This Dharma is not demonstrated for the sake of taking up form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes, nor for the sake of not taking them up. But those, Gods, who course for the taking up of form, etc. or for not taking it up, they are not capable of developing the perfection of giving, etc. to: the perfection of wisdom, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. IV 5, 4, 12. NOWHERE OBSTRUCTED. Subhuti : In agreement with all dharmas is this Dharma. In agreement with which all-dharmas? It is in agreement with the perfection of wisdom, etc. to: the perfection of giving; the emptiness of the subject, etc. to: the kno

this Dharm i Bobstructed? By form, etc. to: by the knowl

edge of all modes. Marked with nonobstruction is this Dharma, on account of its sameness with space, Suchness, the establishment of the Dharma-element, the Reality limit, the unthinkable element, Emptiness, the Signless, the Wishless, Nonproduction, Nonstopping, Nondefilement and Nonpurification, Nonproduced is this Dharma, on account of the nonapprehension of the production of form, etc. to: of the knowledge of all modes. IV 5, 4, 13. GROUNDLESS. Trackless (apado) is this Dharma, on account of the nonapprehension of form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes.

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IV 5, 4, 14. WITHOUT A RESORT. The gods of the realm of sense desire and of the realm of form: Born after the image of the Lord, O Lord, is the Elder Subhuti. And why? Because whatever the Elder Subhuti demonstrates, all that he just demonstrates starting

m the Wishless. Subhuti : As you say, O Gods, born after the image of the Tathagata is Subhuti the Elder. It is because he is born after the image of the Tathagata! As the Tathagata’s Suchness has neither come nor gone, so also that of Subhuti the Elder. For from the very beginning has Subhuti the Elder come to be born after the image of the Tathagata. As the Tathagata’s Suchness, so is that of all dharmas. And the Suchness of all-dharm

of the Tathagata. But the Tathagata’s Suchness is a no-Suchness. It is thus also that Subhuti the Elder has been born after the image of the Tathagata. As the Tathagata-Suchness, so has Subhuti the Elder been established and he has been born after the image of the Tathagata. As the Tathagata’s Suchness is immutable and indiscriminate, so also that of Subhuti the Elder. As the Tathag

all dharmas, they are both one singl

ade is that Suchness, and there is nothing of which it is not the Suchness; that is why it is not two or divided. It is in this sense that the Elder Subhuti is born after the image of the Tathagata. Everywhere this Suchness is immutable, indiscriminate, and undifferentiated, and so is also the Suchness of Subhuti. Just as the Tathagata’s Suchness is not broken apart, unbroken, unbreakable, and unapprehensible, so is that of Subhuti. It is thus that Subhuti the Elder is born after the image of the Tathagata. As the Suchness of the Tathagata cannot fail to be the Suchness of each and every dharma, just such is that Suchness; just so is Subhuti the Elder born after the image of the Tathagata because he is not other than Him. But he is not born after the image of anything. It is thus that Subhuti th

future, or present, so also ththa

t Subhuti the Eloder is called born after the image of the Tathagata, born after the image of Suchness. Through the Suchness of the sameness of the past is the Suchness of the

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of the future and present. In

t, future, and present, and the Suchness of the Tathagata, are not two or divided. Through the Suchness of the Tathagata is the Suchness of form, etc. In consequence the Suchness of form, etc., and the Suchness of the Tathagata, are not two or divided. And so for the Suchness o

ections, the various kinds of emptiness, etc. to: of the knowledge of all modes. It is because he has fully known this Suchness in Suchness that a Bodhisattva, a great being comes to be called a ‘Tathagata’. IV 5, 4, 15. UNBORN. When this disquisition on Suchness had been taught, this great trichiliocosm shook in six ways, stirred, quaked, was agitated, resounded, and rumbled etc. Thereupon the gods of the realm of sense desire and of form scattered and showered heavenly sandalwood powder over the Lord and over Subhuti the Elder, and pronounced these words: It is wonderful, O Lord, how much this Subhuti the Elder is born after the image of the Tathagata through the Suchness of the Tathagata! Subhuti : But Subhuti the Elder, O Gods, is not born after the image of form, or anything other than form, or born after the image of the Suchness of form, or anything other than the Suchness of form; etc. to: he is not born after the knowledge of all modes, nor anything other than the knowledge of all modes; not born after the Suchness of the knowledge of all modes, nor anything other than the Suchness of the knowledge of all modes; not born after the conditioned or anything other that the conditioned; not born after the Suchness of the conditioned, or anything other than the Suchness of the conditioned; and so with the unconditioned. And why? Because all these dharmas do not exist and are not apprehended, neither he that has been born after, nor that through which he has been born after, nor he who would be born after, nor that through which he would be born after, nor he who would make him be born after, nor that through which he would be made to be born after. IV 5, 4, 16. THE NONAPPREHENSION (EVEN) OF SUCHNESS. Sariputra : Deep, O Lord, is the Suchness, nonfalseness, unaltered Suchness, the Dharmahood, dharma-element, the established nature of Dharma, the fixed nature of Dharma, the 444

Reality limit – in which no form, etc. is apprehended, nor form-Suchness, etc. Form is just not apprehended, how could the Suchness of form be apprehended? Etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. The Lord : So it is, Sariputra, so it is. Deep is this Suchness in which no form is apprehended, nor the Suchness of form. Form is just not apprehended, how could its Suchness be apprehended. Etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. Again, Sariputra, when this chapter on Suchness, Nonfalseness, Unaltered Suchness, was

nuns there arose the

rmas; and 5,000 Bodhisattvas – gods and men – acquired the patient acceptance of dharmas which fail to be produced, and 6,000 Bodhisattvas were freed from the outflows without any further clining. And these Bodhisattvas, great beings, have honoured 500 Buddhas, and have everywhere given gifts, guarded their morality, developed their patience, exerted their vigour, produced the trances, and developed wisdom. But they were not upheld by perfect wisdom and

le coursing in manifoldness, ‘this gift we will give to him, but not to him; we will guard this morality, develop this patience and vigour, enter into these trances, develop this wisdom’. Lacking in perfection wisdom and not upheld by skill in means they give gifts, etc. to: develop wisdom. Coursing in the notion of not-self and the nonapprehension of not-self, they have not entered on a Bodhisattva’s special method of salvation. They have attained the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: Arhatship, but although the Bodhisattva, the great being, has the path (of) Emptiness, the Signless, and the Wishless – because he is lacking in perfect wisdom and not upheld by skill in means, he has realized the Reality limit and become a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. Sariputra : For what reason do they, when developing the dharmas of Emptiness, the Signless, and the Wishless, because they lack in skill in means, realise the Reality limit and become Disciples a

and the Wishless, because they have been taken hoperf

ection of wisdom, thanks to their skill in means fully know the supreme enlightenment? 445

The Lord : Here, Sariputra, some, lacking in the thought of the knowledge of all modes, developing the dharmas of Emptiness, the Signless, and the Wishless, become, thanks to their (lack of?) skill in mean

hisattvas, the great beings, (not?) lacking in the thought of the knowledge of all modes, developing the dharmas of Emptiness, the Signless and Wishless, thanks to their skill in means enter on a Bodhisattva’s special way of salvatio

e bird, with a body about 100 or up to 500 miles large. That bird would intend to fly from the Gods of the Thirty-Three down to here, but it would be deficient in wings. It would take off from the Gods of the Thirty-Three, and decide to land here in Jambudvipa. What do you think, Sariputra, if that bird would in the middle of its journey wish to have stayed with the Gods of the Thirty-Three, would it be able to do so? Sariputra : No, O Lord. The Lord : And could it hope to come down in Jambudvipa without damage or injury? Sariputra : No, O Lord. It is bound to get damaged and injured, and when it drops down on Jambudvipa it will incur death or deadly pain. And why? Because of the fact that, whereas its body is huge, its wings are insufficient. The Lord : So it is, Sariputra. Although a Bodhisattva may for aeons countless as the sands of the Ganges give gifts, etc. to: enter on the trances, and although his setting forth may be great, and his thought of enlightenment, and his effort to win the supreme enlightenment; but if he is lacking in perfect wisdom and skill in means, he falls on the level of Disciple of Pratyekabuddha. And why? Because as one who is lacking in the thought of knowledge of all modes has that Bodhsattva given gifts, etc. to: has he produced the trances. And that Bodhisattva, lacking in perfect wisdom and not upheld by skill in means falls o

iples and Pratyekabuddhas. And although that Bodhisattva brings to mind the morality, concentration, wisdom, emancipation, and the vision and cognition of emancipation of the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords, retains it in mind and makes it into a sign, he does nevertheless not cognize the morality of the Tathagatas, etc. to: their vision and cognition of emancipation; uncognizing, without understanding, he hears talk about Emptiness, the Signless, the Wishles

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Bod

THE AIDS TO EMANCIPATION.

PATION WHICH CONSISTS IN FAITH

hisattva will stand on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. And why? For it is a fact, Sariputra, that, lacking in perfect wisdom and skill in means, he dedicates these wholesome roots to the supreme enlightenment. IV 6. The Aids to Emancipation IV 6a. THE AIDS TO EMANCIPATION IN GENERAL. And again, Sariputra, the Bodhisattva, the great being, beginning with the first thought of enlightenment, not lacking in the thought of the knowledge of all modes, gives gifts, but does not make that into a sign; he develops the applications of mindfulness, etc. but does not make that into a sign. IV 6

b. FIVEFOLD DIVISION OF

IV 6b, 1. THE AID TO EMANCI.

And, not lacking in perfect wisdom and skill in means, he brings to mind of the past, future, and present Buddhas the mass of morality, concentration, wisdom, emancipation, and the mass of the vision and cognition of emancipation – but all that he does not mak

e into a sign. He does not make the emptiness-concentration into a sign, etc. One should know, Sariputra, that this Bodhisattva, this great being, will not stand on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, but unhurt and uninjured he will know full enlightenment. IV 6b, 2. THE AID TO EMANCIPATION WHICH CONSISTS IN VIGOUR. And why? For by that Bodhisattva, that great being, beginning with the first thought of enlightenment, gifts have been given, but that has not been made into a sign; morality has been guarded, etc.; of the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords the morality, etc. to: the vision and cognition of emancipation have not been made into a sign. This, Sariputra, is of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, the skill in means, that with a mind devoid of signs they have given gifts, etc. to: that they course in all-knowledge and yet do not make that into a sign. IV 6b, 3. THE AID TO EMANCIPATION WHICH CONSISTS IN MINDFULNESS.

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Sariputra : As I understand the meaning of the Lord’s teaching, the Bodhisattva, the great being, who, beginning with the first thought of enlightenment, is not lacking in perfect wisdom and skill in means will indubitably win

IV 6b, 4. THE AID TO EMANCIPATION WHI

the first thought of enlightenment, apprehen

y knows, or by which he fully, i.e. form, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes. But of sons and daughters of good family, who belong to the great vehicle, and who are lacking in perfect wisdom and skill in means, of them full enlightenment is not to be expected. And why? Because they, lacking in perfect w

they have guarded, etc. to: all the wisdom they have apperceivedIn consequence it is more than doubtful whether full enlightenment

can be expected of them. Therefore then the Bodhisattva, thegre

at being who wants to know full enlightenment, should become one not lacking in perfect wisdom and in skill in means. Having stood in perfect wisdom and in skill in means, without taking anything as a basis, and with a mind connected with the Signless, he should give gifts, etc. to: course in the knowledge of all modes. IV 6b, 5. THE AID TO EMANCIPATION WHICH CONSISTS IN WISDOM. The gods who belong to the realm of sense desire and the realm of form : Hard to come up to, O Lord, hard to believe in is the utmost enlightenment!

should fully know all dharmas in all their modes and yet dha

rmas do not exist and cannot be apprehended. The Lord : So it is, O Gods, so it is. Hard to come up to, hard to believe in is the utmost enlightenment. By me, however, have all dharmas been fully known in all their modes, and yet no dharma has by me been got at which would fully know, by which one would fully know, and which one would fully know. And why? Because of the absolute purity of all dharmas. IV 6c. THREE DEGREES OF STREN.

IV 6c, 1. THE HIGHEST AIDS TO EMANCIPATION.

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Subhuti : The Lord has said, ‘hard to come up to is the supreme enlightenment’. As I, however, understand the meaning of the Lord’s teaching, and as I think it out for myself – easy to win is the supreme enlightenment. And why? For no one

known. For, O Lord, all dharmas are empty. And when all

rmas are empty, that dharma does not exist which would fully know, or by which one would fully know, or which one would fully know. And why? For all dharmas, O Lord, are empty. And that dharma, for the sake of the growth or diminuation of which he would give gifts, guard morality, etc. to: train in the knowledge of all modes – these dharmas do not exist. And what he fully knows, and that whereby he fully knows, and that which he fully knows, all these dharmas are empty. In this manner, O Lord, easy to win is the supreme enlightenment of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. And why? Because form, etc., is empty of the own-being of form, etc. IV 6c, 2. THE WEAK AIDS TO EMANCIPATION. Sariputra : In this manner, Ven. Subhuti, the supreme enlightenment is hard to come up to. And why? For it does not occur to space, ‘I shall know full enlightenment’. Just so it does

enlightenment’. And why? Because the same as space a

rmas. And it is after he has firmly believed in all dharmas as the same as space that the Bodhisattva, the great being, know full enlightenment. If again on the part of the Bodhisattva, the great being who has firmly believed that all dharmas are the same as space, the supreme enlightenment were easy to w

e up to, then Bodhisattvas countless like the sands of the Ganges would not turn away from full enlightenment. In this manner, Ven. Subhuti, one can discern that the supreme enlightenment is hard to come up to, and not easy to win. IV 6c, 3. MEDIUM AIDS TO EMANCIPATI

from the supreme enlightenment?

And so in detail for feeling, etc. to: the knSubhuti : turns away

449

Sariputra : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Does the Suchness of form, etc. turn away from full enlightenment? Sariputra : No, Subhuit. Subhuti : Is the dharma which turns away from full enlightenment other than the Suchness of form, etc.? Sariputra : Does Suchness turn away from full enlightenment, or does Dharmahood, the Dharma-element, the established order of Dharma, the fixed sequence of Dharma, the reality limit or the inconceivable Element? Sariputra : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Is the dharma which turns away from full enlightenment other than Suchness, Dharmahood, etc. to: the inconceivable Element? Sariputra : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Since thus, in ultimate truth and as things stand, those dharm

Sariputra : When one adopts the

rmas in their ultimate reality, which Subhuti the Elder uses in his exposition, then indeed there is no Bodhisattva who will turn away from the supreme enlightenment. But then there will no longer be any ground for the distinction of those who have set their hearts on enlightenment into three kinds of person, who, as described by the Tathagata, differ with respect to the vehicle which they have chosen. According to the exposition of the Ven. Subhuti, there should be only one single kind of Bodhisattva, i.e. the one who belongs to the Bodhisattva-vehicle. Purna, the son of Maitrayani : First of all, Ven. Sariputra, Subhuti the Elder should be asked whether he looks for even one single kind of Bodhisattva! Sariputra : Do you, Ven. Subhuti, look for even one single kinds of Bodhisattva – one who belongs to the vehicle

Subhuti : Do you, Ven. Sariputra, lokind

s of Bodhisattvas – Bodhisattvas who use the Disciple-vehicle, Bodhisattvas who use the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle, and Bodt

hisattvas who use the Bodhisa

Sariputra : No, Subhuti.

Subhuti : Can then three kinds of Bodhisattvas be apprehended in Suchness? 450

Sariputra : No, Subhuti.

Subhuti : Can then Suchness be apprehended as being of one, two, or three kin

Sariputra : No, Subhuti.

Subhuti : Can one in Suchness then apprehend one single (kind of) Bodhisattva?

Sariputra : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Since, in ultimate truth and as things stand, such dharmas cannot be apprehended, wherefrom does the Ven. Sariputra get the idea

iple-vehicle, that Bodhis

that Bodhisattva again to the Buddha-vehicle’? If a Bodhisattva who thus identifies all dharmas in Suchness does not become cowed or stoli

tened, then he is bo

ghtenment. The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well said! Through the Buddha’s might you have been inspired to say this.

Sariputra : To which enlightenment, O Lord, will that Bodhisattva go forth? The Lord : To the supreme enlightenment. IV 7. The Aids to Penetration IV 7a. HEAT. IV 7a, 1. WEAK HEAT. H

Subhuti : ow should a Bodhisattva, a great being behave, if he wants to go forth to the supreme enlightenment? The Lord : Here the Bodhisattva, who wants to know full enlig

htenment, should behave towards beings with an even mind. Towards all beings he should produce an even mind, and he should not produce an uneven mind. All beings he should make into an obje

ct with an even, and not an uneven mind. Towards all beings he should produce the great friendliness and the great compassion. He should handle all beings with a friendly thought, with the thought of great compassion. He should towards all beings produce a thought which has slain pride and he

ards all of them.

451

IV 7

e should make them into an object with a

thou of no-benefit. Towards all beings he

sho

ct with a thought free from aversion. Towards

all ce a thought of no-harming, and he

sho

rom taking life; he

sho taking life, and he

Bodhisattva should stand if he

wants to go forth to the supreme enlightenment. And what is said

on from taking life applies also to: the taking of what

is not given, to sexual misconduct, to lying speech, harsh speech,

seless prattling, covetousness, ill will and

wro

rounds of self-confidence, the four analytical

knowledges, the eighteen special Buddhadharmas, the great

a, 2. MEDIUM HEAT.

He should produce towards all beings a thought of benefit and not of no-benefit; h

ght of benefit and not

uld produce a thought free from aversion, and he should make them into an obje

beings he should produ

uld make them into an object with a thought of no-harming. IV 7a, 3. STRONG HEAT. He should handle all beings as if they were his mother, father, brother, sister, son, or daughter, his friends, relatives, or kinsmen. It is thus that a Bodhisattva should behave if he wants to go forth to the supreme enlightenment. IV 7b. SUMMITS.

IV 7

b, 1. WEAK SUMMITS. He himself should become one who abstains from taking life, and

also others he should induce to abstain fuld speak in praise of the abstention from

should praise also those other people who abstain from taking life one acquiescent. It is thus that a

of the abstenti

malicious speech, sen

ng views; to the four trances, the four Unlimited, and the four formless trances.

IV 7b, 2. MEDIUM SUMMITS. He himself should fulfil the perfection of giving, etc. and also others he should induce to fulfil the perfection of giving, etc. etc. to: - one acquiescent. IV 7b, 3. HIGH SUMMITS. He himself should develop the emptiness of the subject, etc. the four applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the ten powers of a Tathagata, the four g

452

friendliness and the grea

uce, etc. He himself should accomplish the conditioned coproduction in direct and reverse order, and others also he should induce, etc. And that without taking anything as a basis. IV 7c. PATIENCE. IV 7c, 1. WEAK PATIENCE.

stopping, and develop th

. IV 7c, 2. MEDIUM PATIENCE. He himself should produc

Pratyekabuddha,

7c, 3. STRONG PATIENCE. He himself should enter on a Bodhisattva’s special way of salvation and others also he should induce, etc. And that without taking anything as a basis. IV 7d. HIGHEST MUNDANE DHARMAS. IV 7d, 1. WEAK HIGHEST MUNDANE DHARMAS. He himself should mature beings and others also he establishes in the maturing of being; and he praise the maturing of beings and also those others

himself sh

IV 7d, 2. MEDIUM HIGHEST MUNDANE DHARMAS. produce a Bodhisattva’s superknowledges, etc. to:

IV 7d, 3. STRONG HIGHEST pro

duce the cognition of the knowledge of all modes, and others also he should induce, etc. He himself should forsake all defilements together with their residues, and others also he should induce, etc. to: one acquiescent. It is thus that a Bodhisattva, who wants to go forth to the supreme enlightenment, should 453

behave and that without taking anything as a basis. He himself should acquire the accomplishment of a long lifespan, etc. to: – one acquiescent. He himself should acquire the stability of his good Dharma, etc. to: – one acquiescent. It is thus that a Bodh

trains and abides

seizing of form, etc. is noBod

hisattva was being taught, two thousand Bodhisattvas acquired the patient acquiescence in the fact that no dharma has ever been produced.

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CHAPTER 49 IRREVERSIBILITY IV 8. The Community of Irreversible Bodhisattvas. IV 8, 1. T

455

The Lord : That Bodhisattva has turned away from form and the

other skandhas. A Bod known as irreversible if

he has turned away from s, the various kinds of

emptiness, the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the 18 special

Buddhadharmas, Disciples and

Pratyekabuddhas, etc.

Bodhisattva should be known as irreversible.

And why? Because form, etc. to: enlightenment has no

re a Bodhisattva does not pander to Sramanas and

Brah

of what is

the

not given, sexual misconduct,

intoxicants as tending to cloud the mind, lying speech, malicious

tinct prattling, covetousness, ill will and) wrong views.

Endowed with these attributes, etc. Moreover the irreversible

ence against the ten

hisattva should be the six perfectionfrom the level of the to: from enlightenment. Such a

own-being in which the Bodhisattva could find support.

IV 8, 1, 2. THE EXTINCTION OF DOUBT. Furthermo

mins of other schools, telling them that they know what is worth knowing, that they see what is worth seeing. It is quite impossible that they should be able to form a conception

right view. He does not undergo doubt, does not fall into the contagion of mere rule and ritual or into false views, nor does he need to wipe away any occasion for remorse due to sin. He pays no homage to strange gods, offers them no flowers, garlands, perfumes, etc. He does not think that he should give to them, or pay homage to them. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 1, 3. THE EXTINCTION OF THE EIGHT KINDS OF INAUSPICIOUS REBIRTH. Moreover, the irreversible Bodhisattva is no more reborn in the hells, etc. to: in the eight kinds of inauspicious places of rebirth. Nor does he ever again become a woman. IV 8, 1, 4. O

NESELF ESTABLISHED IN WHOLESOME DHARMAS, ONE ENJOINS THEM ON OTHERS ALSO. Moreover, the irreversible Bodhisa

ttva undertakes to observe the ten wholesome ways action. He himself abstains from taking life, and

also others he establishes in the abstention from taking life; he praises the abstention from taking life, and also those others who abstain from taking life; one acquiescent. And so for (the abstention from : taking what is

speech, indis

Bodhisattva even in his dreams commits no off

456

who

f wisdom, gives gifts

for

eover the

irreversible Bodhisattva studies Dharma, i.e. the Discourses,

led, Predictions, etc. to: Tales

and

tva no

hesitation, perplexity, or doubt with regard to deep dharmas?

rom form to enlightenment, with regard to which he could

hav

ND MIND.

Moreover, the irreversible Bodhisattva is endowed with gentle

attributes, etc. Moreover the irreversible

Bod

lesome ways of acting, how much less when he is awake. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 1, 5. THE REWARDS FOR GIVING, ETC. ARE TURNED OVER TO ALL BEINGS. Moreover, the irreversible Bodhisattva, when he proceeds in the perfection of giving, etc. to: in the perfection o

the sake of all beings, etc. to: develops wisdom for the sake of all beings. Endowed with these attributes, etc. Mor

Discourses with Prose and Verse Ming

Expositions, out of concern for the welfare of all beings. And when he gives the gift of Dharma he thinks to himself, ‘may the intentions of all beings be fulfilled by this gift of Dharma!’ Having made that gift of Dharma common to all beings, he dedicates it to the supreme enlightenment. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 1, 6. NO HESITATION WITH REGARD TO DEEP DHARMAS. Moreover, the irreversible Bodhisattva has no hesitation or doubt with regard to deep dharmas. Subhuti : For what reason has the irreversible Bodhisat

The Lord : The irreversible Bodhisattva does not review any dharma, f

e hesitation, perplexity, or doubt. IV 8, 1, 7. FRIENDLY DEEDS OF BODY, VOICE, A

deeds of body and his thoughts are free from hostility for all beings. Endowed with these

hisattva is constantly and always endowed with friendly deeds of body, speech, and mind. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 1, 8. ONE DOES NOT MEET WITH THE FIVE HINDRANCES. Moreover, the irreversible Bodhisattva does not meet with the five hindrances, i.e. with sensuous desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, excitedness and sense of guilt, or doubt. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 1, 9. LOSS OF ALL LATENT TENDENCIES TO IGNORANCE, ETC.

457

Moreover, the irreversible Bodhisattva does not have in any way whatsoever the latent biases toward

IV 8, 1,

Moreover, whether the irreversible Bodhisattva goes out or comes back, his mind does not wander, but his mindfulness is fixed before him. Mindfully he comes, goes, walks about, stands, sits and lies down. When he lifts up or puts down his foot on the ground, he knows what he does. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 1, 11. CLEANLINESS OF THE ROBE HE WEARS, ETC. Moreover the robe of the irreversible Bodhisattva is free from lice, his habits are clean, he is salubrious, smells clean and his afflictions are few. Endowed with these attributes, etc.

(B. Summits).

IV 8, 1, 12. THE 80,000 FAMILIES OF WO

RMS CANNOT ARISE IN HIS BODY. Moreover the 80,000 families of worms which men have in their bodies and which eat their bodies, they do not exist at all in

the body of the irreversible Bodhisattva. And why? Because his wholesome roots have lifted him above all the world and are the most excellent in all the world, for t

those wholesome roots of his go on increasing, to t

uires in due course the perfect purity of body, speech, and thought. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 1, 13. NO CROOKEDNESS IN HIS HEART. Subhuti : How does the Bodhisattva’s perfect purity of body,

The Lord : As those wholesome roots of his go on increasing

t extent the craftiness of his body, thought, and speech, the crookedness of his body, thought, and speech are being purified by these wholesome roots. By way of his body he courses well in three ways, by w

speech, and thought. And through that perfect purity of

458

spe

ese attributes, etc.

SCETIC PRACTICES.

1, 15. NONPRODUCTION IN HIS MIND OF STATES WHICH ARE HOSTILE

TO THE PERFECTIONS, SUCH AS MEANNESS, ETC.

o thought of

me

ING TOWARDS A JUNCTION WITH THE PERFECTION OF

WISDOM WHICH IS NOT IN CONFLICT WITH THE TRUE NATURE OF DHARMAS.

bec

IV 8, 1, 17. THE DESIRE TO GO INTO THE HELLS FOR THE GOOD OF OTHERS.

p the eight great hells in

fron

ndreds of thousands of niyutas of

koti

ech, and thought he transcends the level of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, and he does not realize the Reality limit. Endowed with th

IV 8, 1, 14. HE TAKES UPON HIMSELF THE TWELVE A

Moreover the irreversible Bodhisattva is not one to attach weight to gain, honour, and fame, etc. to: he does not attach weight to the triple robe. And he takes upon himself the twelve ascetic practices. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8,

Moreover in the irreversible Bodhisattva n

anness arises, nor of immorality, anger, sloth, unconcentratedness, or stupidity; nor does a thought of envy arise in him. Endowed with these attributes, etc.

IV 8, 1, 16. MOV

Moreover the intelligence of the irreversible Bodhisattva

omes steady and goes deep. With respect he hears the Dharma from others and unites all of it with the perfection of wisdom. And also all worldly activities he unites, thanks to the perfection of wisdom, with the nature of dharmas. There is not any dharma which he does not see as yoked to the Dharma-element, and all that he sees as making an effort towards the perfection of wisdom. These should be known as the irreversible marks of the irreversible Bodhisattvas.

If again, Mara, the Evil One, conjures u

t of the irreversible Bodhisattvas, and in each one of them many thousands, etc. to: many hu

s of Bodhisattvas, burning, boiling… and experiencing sharp pains, having conjured them up, he shows them to that Bodhisattva, and says to him: ‘These Bodhisattvas have been predicted as irreversible by the Tathagata; they have been reborn here in the hells. You also have been predicted by the Tathagata to irreversibility, but in fact you have been predicted to rebirth as a being in hell. Reject that thought of enlightenment! Then you 459

will not be reborn in hell, but you will be one who goes to heaven’. If the thought of the Bodhisattva is not disturbed, it he does not hesitate or doubt, then one should k

predestined (to Buddhahood), and firmly established in t

versible element. It is impossible, it cannot be that the irreversible Bodhisattva should be reborn in hell, among the animals, or in the world of Yama. That cannot possibly be. Endowed with these attributes, etc.

(C. Patience).

8, 1, 18. ONE CANNOT BE LED ASTRAY BE OTHERS. Moreover approaching in the guise of a Sramana, Mara, the Evil One will say: ‘What you have learnt, i.e. that you should purify the perfection of giving, etc. to: that you

that it was erroneous. What you have been told, i.e. that you should rejoice at all the wholesome roots of the Tathagatas of the

t, future, and present, and of their disciples, beginning from the production of the first thought of enlightenment up to the abiding of their true Dharma – of that you must confess it was erroneous; that you must reject! What you have heard, that is not the Buddha-word, that has not been taught by the fully enlightened Buddha. It is mere poetry. What I teach is the Buddha-word, that is as taught by the Tathagata’. If the Bodhisattva, the great being, is agitated, hesitates, and doubts, one should know that this Bodhisattva, this great bei

established in the irreversible element. But if the Bodhisattva, the gre

at being, does not get agitated, does not hesitate and doubt, but does flee back to the true nature of Dharma, to the Unconditioned, to Nonproduction, then he does not put his faith in someone else, then he does not go by someone else whom he puts his trust in, as concerns the six perfections, etc. to: enlightenment. Just as an Arhat, with his outflows dried up, does not go by someone else whom he puts his trust in, but places the true nature of Dharma directly before his eyes, and cannot be assailed by Mara, the Evil One, just so, Subhuti, does the irreversible Bodhisattva become uncrushable by persons belonging to the Disciple-vehicle or the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle; he cannot by his nature go back on the

460

supreme enlightenment, he is predicted (to Buddhahood) and firmly established in the irreversible element; and he becomes someone who does not go by someone else whom he puts his trust in. he does not go by his faith in the Tathagata, how much less in those who belong to the Disciple-vehicle or the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle, how much less in Mara, the Evil One, how much less in the heretical wanderers! It is impossible that he should trust them. And why? Because he does not review any dharma in which he could put his

tokens, and sign

IV 8, 1, 19. ONE RECOGNIZES THE MARAHOOD OF MAR

A COUNTERFEIT PATH. Moreover, Subhuti, Mara the Evil One, approaching in the guise of amonk, will say to the Bodhisattva, the great being: ‘A wandering in birth-and-death is this, and not the wandering of a Bodhisattva; just here do you, monk, make an end of all!’ And again, that Mara the Evil One will expound to the Bodhisattva a counterfeit of the Path. He expounds this counterfeit path by worldly modes belonging to the plane of birth-and-death. Of the perception of bones, the first trance, etc. to: the fourth formless attainment he says that ‘this, your worship, is the path, these are its progressie steps. Through this path, through these progressive steps you will reach the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to Arhatship. Through this path, through these progressive steps, do you make, just here, an end of ill! No longer will you experience those sufferings which belong to the plane of birth-and-death. Ah, surely, you will first of all not produce this personality of yours. How would you think of taking hold of another personality?’ If again, Subhuti, the thought of the Bodhisattva, the great being, is not agitated, and does not waver, and if in addition he thinks to himself, ‘very helpful to me is this monk who expounds a counterfeit to the holy path. That counterfeit path is not conducive to the realization of the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: of Arhatship or Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment, etc. to: of full enlightenment.’ He then laughs, ‘very helpful to me is that monk who expounds attachment to me! When I have understood that attachment, I should train in all the three vehicles.’ When Mara, the Evil One, has notice the laughter of the Bodhisattva, the great being, he says to him: ‘You wish, son of good family, to see the Bodhisattvas, the 461

great beings who have presented to Buddhas and Lords, countless as the sands of the Ganges, robes, almsbowl, lodging, medicinal appliances for use in sickness; who have, in the presence of Tathgatas countless as the sands of the Ganges, fulfilled the six perfections; who have honoured, questioned, and counterquestioned Buddhas and Lords countless as the sands of the Ganges, for the sake of this very Bodhisattva-vehicle, (asking :) how should the Bodhisattva, the great being, stand in the Bodhisattva-vehicle, while coursing in the six perfections, the applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the great compassion. They have stood, coursed, made efforts in that which those Buddhas and

enlightenment!’ And he adds: ‘Though they have been thus instructed, have thus st

knowledge of all modes! How then will you reach full enlightenment ever?’ If, when he is thus being dissuaded, the Bodhisattva undergoes no change of heart, if he remains unafraid, and if, in addition, he laughs and says to himself, ‘very helpful to me is this monk who expounds attachment to me, and who suggests that through these attachments the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes can be reached!’, then Mara, the Evil One, having noticed the uncowedness of his mind, conjures up a great many monks in that very spot of earth and says, ‘All these are Arhats with their outflows dried up who have set out for the supreme enlightenment. But they have all stopped short at Arhatship. How will you ever know full enlightenment?’ But if it occurs to the Bodhisattva, the great being, ‘surely, Mara, the Evil One, expounds a counterfeit path’, then, coursing in the perfection of wisdom, he does not go back on the supreme enlightenment, and does not fall back on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha; and in addition it occurs to him, ‘it is impossible, it cannot be that the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the perfection of giving, etc. to: who develops the knowledge of all modes, does not fully know the supreme enlightenment. That cannot possibly be!’ (D. Supreme Dharmas). IV 8, 1, 20. HE TAKES UP THE PROGRESSIVE PRACTICE IN WHICH EVERYWHERE THE BUDDHAS HAVE REJOICED.

462

Moreover the Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom thinks to himself, ‘if, having trained as the Tathagata has taught, if, not lacking in this practice, one dwells in attentions associated with these perfections, then one will not fail in the six perfections, etc. to: in the knowledge of all modes.’ Moreover, the Bodhisattva thinks to himself, ‘one who recognizes the deeds of Mara, he does not fail in the supreme enlightenment.’ Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 1, 21. THE MARKS OF IRREVERSIBILITY OF ONE WHO STANDS ON THE PATH OF VISION. IV 8, 1, 22. PATIENT ACCEPTANCE OF THE COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ILL: REJECTION OF UNDERSTANDING DHARMAS AS FORM, ETC. Subhuti : Wherefrom does the irreversible Bodhisattva turn away? The Lord : He turns away from the perception of form, and the other skandhas: of the elements, sense fields, etc. to: of the Buddha. And why? Because the irreversible Bodhisattva through dharmas which are empty of own-marks enters on the certainty that he will win salvation as a Bodhisattva. He does not apprehend even that dharma and so he cannot put it together or produce it. One therefore says that ‘a Bodhisattva who patiently accepts nonproduction is irreversible’. Endowed with these attributes, tokens, and signs should a Bodhisattva be known as irreversible.

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CHAPTER 50 EXPOSITION OF THE TOKENS OF

IV 8, 2, 2. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ILL

SUPREME ENLIGHMoreover Mara, the Evil One, approaches the Bodhisattva, and tries to dissuade him with the words, ‘the same

as space is this knowledge of all modes; with non-existence for their own-being are all dhar

mas, empty of own-marks; these dharmas also are the same as space, with non-existence for own-being, empty of own-marks. When all dharmas have the own-being of space, have no own-being for own-being, and are empty of own-marks, no dharma can be apprehended, which could know full enlightenment or by which it could be known. All these dharmas are the same as space, have no own-being for own-being, and are empty of own-marks. It is useless for you to resist. A deed of Mara is this doctrine that ‘one should know full enlightenment’. It is not the Buddha-s teaching. May you, son of good family, not fall into these attenti

464

Endowed with a thought which is firm, unshakeable, and

unconquerable he enter six perfections, into a

Bodhisattva’s special wa

IV 8, 2 OF ILL:

TURNING AWAY FROM THE THOUGHT OF DISCIPLES AND PRATYEKABUDDHAS.

Subhuti : Can then an

irreversible or a re ?

The Lord : An irreversible Bodhisattva may be called reversible

and a reversible Bodhisattva may be called irreversible.

s, coursing in the y of salvation. , 3. PATIENT ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION irreversible Bodhisattva be calledversible Bodhisattva irreversible

Subhuti : How may the irreversible, and the reversible, Bodhisattva be so called?

The Lord : The Bodhisattva who has turned away from the level of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, this reversible Bodhisattva should be called irreversible. But the Bodhisattva who does not turn away from the level of the Disciples or Pratyekabuddhas, this irreversible Bodhisattva would be called reversible. This should be known as the irreversible mark of the Bodhisattva who is endowed with these attributes, tokens, and signs. Endowed with these attributes, tokens, and signs the irreversible Bodhisattva cannot be dissuaded by Mara, the Evil One, from the supreme enlightenment. IV 8, 2, 4. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF ILL: THE MASTERY OVER THE LIMBS OF THE TRANCES, ETC. Moreover according to plan the irreversible Bodhisattva enters on the first trances, etc. to: on the attainment of cessation. Moreover, according to plan the irreversible Bodhisattva enters on the four applications of mindfulness, etc. to: he consummates the five superknowledges. He becomes a complete master over the four trances, the four Unlimited, the four formless attainments, and the attainment of cessation; he develops the four applications of mindfulness, etc. to: he enters on the path and the concentrations on emptiness, the signless and wishless, etc. to: he consummates the five superknowledges. But he does not take hold of the trances, etc. to: the fruit of the attainment of cessation, he does not take hold of the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: the enlightenment of a Pratyekabuddha. According to plan and at will he takes hold of a new personality, through which he can work the weal of beings. Endowed with these attributes, etc. 465

IV 8, 2, 5. PATIENT ACCEPTANCE OF THE COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION: LIGHTNESS OF BODY AND MIND. Moreover the irreversible Bodhisatt

enlightenment, he does not become one who attaches weight to form, or the marks, or the physical basis, or giving, morality, etc. to

Unlimited, etc. to: the enlightenment. He does not become one who attaches weight to the purification of the Bu

uring of beings, the vision of the Buddhas, or the planting of wholesome roots. And why? Because when all dh

ty of own-marks, the Bodhisattva does not see any dharma whereto he should attach weight,

? Because all dharmas are the same as space, have nonexistence for own-being, are empty of own-marks. And that Bodhisattva, endowed with attention to enlightenment, remains unbewildered in the four postures; he is unbewildered whether he goes out or comes back, stands or walks about, sits or lies down. Mindful he comes, mindful he goes, walks about, stands, sits, and lies down. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 2, 6. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN ORIGINATION: ENJOYMENT OF SENSE

Moreover if the Bodhisattva lives the life of a householder, he possesses all pleasa

e of maturing beings. He gives gifts to all beings, food to those in need of food, etc. He himself courses in the perfection of giving, he establishes others also in the perfection of giving; he praises the perfection of giving and also those who course in it, one acquiescent. And so for the other perfections. IV 8, 2, 7. PATIENCE ACCEPTANCE OF SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF ORIGINATION: ONE ALWAYS LEADS A CHASTE LIFE. And again that irreversible Bodhisattva who lives the life of a house-holder gives gifts, having filled Jambudvipa, etc. to: the great trichiliocosm, with the seven precious things. But he does not really derive enjoyment from the sense pleasures. Constantly and always he remains chaste. And he does not generate anything which could overpower him or blight his spirit. Endowed with these attributes, etc. Moreov

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will fully know the supreme enlightenment, and until that time Vajrapani and his clan will constantly and always foll

cannot be assailed by men or ghosts, and he cannot be crushed by gods, Maras, or Brahmas, or by anyone else in the world, with justice. IV 8, 2, 8. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF ORIGINATION: PURITY OF LIVELIHOOD BY PROVIDING RIGHTLY FOR IT. His mind is not distracted from attentions to enlightenment until the time that he fully knows the supreme enlightenment. The faculties of that Bodhisattva are not deficient, i.e. his eye-faculty, etc. to: his body-faculty, or his faculties of faith, vigour, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. He is a true man, not a contemptible person. Subhuti : Through what is a Bodhisattva a true man, and not a contemptible person? The Lord : If a Bodhisattva’s thought is not disturbed, that is why he is a true man and not a contemptible person. Endowed with these attributes, etc. Moreover the irrever

embark on those spells, herbs, magical formulas, and medicinal incantations which are the work of women.

king marvellous predictions, saying to women or men, ‘you will have a son, or daughter; you will have a family; you will live long’. And why? Because the Bodhisattva does not see a sign in dharmas which are empty of own-marks. Not seeing a sign, he becomes one who is perfectly pure in his livelihood. Endowed with these attributes, etc.

THE DWELLING IN OCCUPATION OR PREOCCUPATION WITH SKANDHAS OR SENSE FIELDS.

Furthermore, Subhuti, I will demonstrate the attributes, tokens, and signs, endowed with which a Bodhisattva should be known as irreversible. Listen to them, and attend to them well. I will teach them to you. – ‘So be it, O Lord,’ and the Ven. Subhuti listened in silence to the Lord. The Lord : Here the Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom and who is not lacking in attentions to enlightenment, is not preoccupied with the skandhas, elements, or sense fields. And

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why? Because the Bodhisattva has well attended to the emptiness of the skandhas, elements, and sense fields. He is not preoccupied with society. And why? Because he has well attended to the emptiness of the essential original nature. He is not preo

not review of any dharma the inferiority or difficulty.

8, 2, 10. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN STOPPING: NEGATION OF THE DWELLING IN OCCUPATIONS OR PREOCCUPATIONS WITH TALK CONCERNING THINGS WHICH COULD ACT AS POSSIBLE OBSTACLES TO FULL ATTAINMENT. He is not preoccupied with talk about robbers. And why? Because in dharmas which are empty of own-marks he does not review of any dharma

IV 8, 2, 11. PATIEN

PING: NEGATION OF THE DWELLING IN OCCUPATION OR PREOCCUPATION WITH TALK ABOUT ARMIES (WHICH IS HELD TO REFER TO THE MANY VARIOUS THINGS SUCH AS) GIVING ,ETC. WHICH ARE THE TRUE EQUIPMENT FOR ENLIGHTENMENT. He does not dwell preoccupied with talk about armies. And why? Because one who is established in the emptiness of the essential original nature does not review of any dharma the fewness or abundance. IV 8, 2, 12. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF STOPPING: NEGATION OF THE DWELLING IN OCCUPATION OR PREOCCUPATION WITH THE TALK ABOUT BATTLES, KILLERS AND TH

why? Because, established in the dharmahood of all dharmas, he does not see any affection or aversion on the part of any dharma whatever.

why? Because, established in the emptiness of all dharmas, he does not see the assemblage or nonassemblage of any dharma. He does not dwell preoccupied with talk about cities. And why? Because establish

attraction or nonattraction of any dharma. He does not dwell preocc

blished in the Reality limit, he does not review the accumulation or taking away of any dharma whatever. He does not dwell 468

preoccupied with talk about self, etc. to: about one who knows, one who sees. He dwells preoccupied with nothing at all outside the perfection of wisdom, and he is not lacking in mental activities associated with the cognition of all modes. IV 8, 2, 13. PATIENT ACCEPTANCE OF THE COGNITION OF DHARMA IN TH PATH: NEGATION OF OCCUPATION AND PREOCCUPATION WI

Coursing in the perfection of giving, he does not dwell preoccupied with meanness; and so for the perfection of morality and immorality, etc. to: the perfection of wisdom and stupidit

rsing in the dharmahood of all dharmas he is one who wants dharma and not its opposite. Coursing in the Dharma-element he does not speak in praise of a broken Dharma. He wants

the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, and whom he encounters in the presence of the Buddhas, the Lords, and of the Bodhisattvas, great beings – them also he established in supreme enlightenment, incites them to it, disciplines them in it. He pleases the Tathagatas, so that he may h

tems in which the Tathagatas stands, hold, and maintain themselves. According to plan he is reborn near them, and he dwells in those attentions. i.e. the attentions on the Buddha. And why? Because as

desire, and have observed the ten wholesome ways of action, are reborn in those Buddha-fields; having produced the first trance, etc. to: the fourth formless attainment, they are reborn there. Athe

re they are face to face with the Tathagatas who stand, hold, and maintain themselves. Endowed with these attributes, etc. IV 8, 2, 14. COGNITION OF DHARMA IN THE PATH: ONE DOES NOT TAKE EVEN THE LEAST DHARMA AS A BASIS. Moreover the irreversible Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of wisdom, and who is established in subjective emptiness, etc. to: in the knowledge of all modes, in the doors to deliverance of Emptiness, the Signless and Wishless, does not think to himself: I am irreversible and not reversible. No such doubt arises in him. He has no uncertainty about the stage he has made his own. And why? Because he does not review these dharmas,

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man who stands on the stage of a Streamwinner has no hesitation or doubts about if that is the stage which is his by right, and so up to: the Buddha-stage. Just so the Bodhisattva, when he stands on the stage which is his own by right, has no

Buddha-fields and matures beings. And he quickly sees through any deed of Mara that may have arisen and does not come under its influence. He un

m them. Just as, Subhuti, a man who has committed one of the deadly sins will never again, until his death, lose the thought of that sin; but it will follow after him; he cannot shake off the (irresistible drive towards) the states of woe; its overwhelming effect follows him until the time of his death. Just so the irreversible thought of the irreversible Bodhisattva has been truly established, he cannot be deflected from the irreversible stage, and the whole world with its gods, men, and Asuras, has entered on the certainty of salvation. Having stood on the stage which is his by right, he has achieved the complete perfection in the superknowledges, purifies the Buddha-field, and matures beings; he passes on from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, and he plants in these Buddha-fields wholesome roots which allow him to have a vision of the Buddhas, the Lords, to salute them respectfully, to honour them, and to hear the Dharma from them. And in all these Buddha-fields he questions the Buddhas and Lords, counterquestions and honours them. And that Bodhisattva who has thus stood recognises for what they are any deeds of Mara that may have arisen, and he does not come under their influence. And he cleanses those deeds of Mara through skill in means at the Reality limit. He has no hesitations or doubts about the stage which is his by right. And why? He has no uncertainties about the Reality limit, and he does review t

even after he has passed through this present life, he will produced no thought on the level of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. And

why? Because the Bodhisattva does not, when all dharmas are empty of own-marks, review the production of any dharma, or its stopping, its defilement, or purification. IV 8, 2, 15. PATIENT ACCEPTANCE OF THE SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH: HE IS ESTABLISHED IN THE CERTAINTY ABOUT THE TRIAD OF HIS OWN LEVELS, WHICH IS ESSENTIALLY THE SAME AS THE TRIPLE OMNISCIENCE.

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But when that Bodhisattva has passed through this present life, he will think, ‘it is not the case that I shall not win full enlightenment; I will in fact win it! And why? Because the supreme enlightenment is empty of own-marks’. When the Bodhisattva has thus stood firm on the stage which is his by right, he cannot be led astray or crushed by others. And why? Because, as he has stood firm on it, he becomes endowed with any insuperable cognition. If again Mara, the Evil One, in the guise of the Buddha (himself) were to come to him and say, ‘Realise Arhatship here and now! You are not predestined to full enlightenment. You have not acquired the patient acceptance of dharmas which fail to be produced and without that you cannot be predicted by the Tathagatas to full enlightenment. You have not the attributes, tokens, and signs which a Bodhisattva must be endowed with to be predicted to full enlightenment’. If a Bodhisattva when he has heard these words, does not become terrified in his mind, then this Bodhisattva should know that he has been predicted to full enlightenment by the Tathagatas. And why? Because he knows that he has the dharmas endowed with which a Bodhisattva is predicted to the supreme enlightenment. IV 8, 2, 16. SUBSEQUENT COGNITION OF THE PATH: RENUNCIATION OF ONE’S LIFE FOR THE SAKE OF DHARMA, WHICH CONSISTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL MODES. If Mara, the Evil One, having approached in the guise of a Buddha, or of some person under the influence of Mara, should predict the Bodhisattva to the level of the Disciples or Pratyekabuddhas, then the Bodhisattva thinks to himself, ‘this one, who wants to establish me on the level of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha, is surely Mara, the Evil One, who has come along in the guise of the Buddha, or this is a person under Mara’s influence.’ When the Bodhisattva reads and studies the Extensive Sutras, then Mara, the Evil One, comes to him in the guise of the Buddha and says to him, ‘these have not been taught by the Lords or their Disciples. Taught by Mara are these Sutras in which you course.’ But that Bodhisattva should know

dissuade him from the supreme enlightenment. If he does know that, then he has been predicted to full enlightenment by the Tathagatas of the past and he is firmly established on the

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And why? Because he has the attributes, tokens, and signs of the irreversible Bodhisattvas. Endowed with these attributes, etc. Moreover, Subhuti, an irreversible Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom gives up even his self and life so that he may gain the True Dharma. But that Dharma he does not give up. The irreversible Bodhisattva makes great efforts to gain the True Dharma. He gains the True Dharma of the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords, and he does not give up the Buddhas. And why? He thinks that because they have gained the True Dharma the past, present, and future Buddhas have been worshipped. And what is the True Dharma for the sake of which the Bodhisattva gives up his self? Here the Tathagatas demonstrate Dharma to the effect that ‘all dharmas are empty’. A few deluded persons then contradict and say that this is not the Dharma, not the Vinaya, not the Teacher, not the Teaching. But the Bodhisattva for the sake of that Dharma gives up even his self. He becomes convinced that he also will be reckoned as on of the future Buddhas, that he also has been predicted (to full enlightenment) and that this also is the True Dharma for the sake of which he is willing to give up even self and life. The Bo

self forth e sake of gaining the True Dharma. Endowed with these attributes, etc. Moreover, Subhuti, when the Tathagata demonstrates Dharma, t

itate or doubt. But whatever Dharma the Buddhas may teach, all that he does not forget. And why? Because he has acquired the Dharanis. Subhuti : What dharanis has he acquired so that he no longer forgets the Sutras taught by the Tathagata? The Lord : The dharani which causes inexhaustibility, the Seal of the Ocean, and the Lotus Array. Subhuti : (Does the Bodhisattva’s absence of hesitation and doubt refer only to) the Tathagata’s teachings, and not also to those of Disciples, gods, Nagas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Garudas, Kinnaras and Mahoragas? The Lord : Whatever may be said or spoken by anyone, with regard to that the Bodhisattva has no hesitation and doubts. And why? Because he has acquired that dharani. Endowed with these attributes, tokens, and signs a Bodhisattva should be known as irreversible from the supreme enlightenment.

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CHAPTER 51 THE EXPOSITION OF SKILL IN MEANS IV 8, 3. THE MARK OF IRREVERSIBILITY OF ONE WHO STANDS ON THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. IV 8, 3, A. THE DEPTH OF THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. IV 8, 3, A. DEEP IS THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. Subhuti : Endowed with great qualities, O Lord, is the irreversible Bodhisattva, great being. Endowed with immeasurable, incalculable, unmeasured qualities is the Bodhisattva, the great being. Endowed with measureless qualities is the irreversible Bodhisattva, great being. The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. Endowed with, etc. to: great being. And why? Because he has acquired an endless and boundless cognition, which is not shared by all the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. And, having stood in this cognition, the irreversible Bodhisattva, great being, consummates the analytical knowledges, and in consequence he cannot, when questioned by the world with its gods, men, and Asuras, be overcome by counterargume

Subhuti : The Tathagata, O Lord, could for aeons countless like the sands of the Ganges go on explaining th

signs through which an irreversible Bodhisattva, great being is exalted. It would be well, O Lord

e explained, established in which the Bodhisattva, the great being, coursing in the six perfections, fulfils the four applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the knowledge of all modes.

IV 8, 3, A, 2. THE DEPTH OF THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. The Lord : Well said, Subhuti, well said. It is good that you, for the sake of the irreversible Bodhisattvas, great beings, should question the Tathagata about the very deep stations. ‘Deep’, Subhuti, of emptiness that is a synonym, (of t

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Wishless, the Uneffected, the Unproduced, of No-birth,

Nonexistence, Dispassio na and Departing. So

A).

Subhuti : Is it a synonym of only of Nirvana or of all dharmas?

or

form, etc to:

enlightenment, deep? As deep as the Suchness of form, etc. to

enlightenment, so deep is form, etc. to enlightenment.

E PATH OF DEVELOPMENT IS FREE FROM THE EXTREMES OF

ATTRIBUTION AND NEGATION.

The Lord : The Suchness in which there is no form, etc. and

or without outflows –

and

, will weigh them up, will meditate on them,

o thus perfects

himself, thus meditates, thus investigates, thus makes an effort,

n, Cessation, NirvaThe Lord : It is a synonym of all dharmas. And why? F. to: enlightenment is deep. How is form, etc.

IV 8, 3, A, 3. TH

Subhuti : What is the Suchness of form, etc.?

which yet is no other than form, etc.

Subhuti : It is wonderful, O Lord, how by a subtle device the irreversible Bodhisattva has impeded form, etc., and indicated Nirvana at the same time. All dharmas which one might seize upon have been impeded – whether they be worldly or supramundane, common or uncommon, with

Nirvana has been indicated. IV 8, 3, B. THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT. IV 8, 3, B, 1. THE ROAD TO DEVELOPMENT. The Lord : If again, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, will reflect on these very deep stations associated with the perfection of wisdom

IV 8, 3, B, 2. THE ROAD TO DEVELOPMENT WITH THE AIDS TO PENETRATION, ETC. ‘thus must I stand as it is commanded in the perfection of wisdom, thus must I train myself as it has been explained in the perfection of wisdom, thus must I progress as it is pointed out in the perfection of wisdom’; - this Bodhisattva, this great being wh

thus strives, thus struggles,

IV 8, 3, B, 3. THE THREEFOLD ADVANTAGE. through that production of thought he will gain incalculable, immeasurable, and innumerable wholesome roots. For an

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immeasurable aeon he will spurn Samsara; how much more so if, coursing in the perfection of wisdom exclusively, he dwells in atten

considerations of greed, had made a date with a handsome,

active and good-looking woman; but, held back by someone else, she could not leave her house; what do you think, Subhuti, with what would that man’s thought be connected? Subhuti : With the woman, of course. He thinks of

sexual intercourse with her. The Lord : How many s

day and night?

Subhuti : Many indeed, O Lord. The Lord : As many ideas as that m

night, for so many aeons a Bodhisattva spurns Samsara, turns his back on it, if he trains in this deep perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded, investigates it and meditates on it, and if he endeavours to get rid of those faults which turn him from the supreme enlightenment. If, engaged in these endeavours, the Bodhisattva for only one day dwel

which he thereby acquires is indefinitely greater than thwholesome root

(with gifts).

IV 8, 3, C. THE DISTINCTION OF (9 OR 18) KINDS OF THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT.

IV 8, 3, C, 1. THE DISTINCTION (HOSTILE STATE) IS VERY STRONG. If, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva, great being, lacking in perfect

wisdom, gives gifts for aeons countless like the sands of the Ganges to the triple Jewel, would he, on account of that, beget a great deal of merit? Subhuti : He would, O Lord. IV 8, 3, C, 2. THE PATH (ANTID

family beget by making endeavours abou

wisdom as it has been explained. And why? For this is the method by which the supreme enlightenment is fully known.

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IV 8, 3, C, 3. THE DISTINCTION IS MEDIUM STRONG. What do you think, Subhuti, if, lacking in perfect wisdom, a Bodhisattva would for aeons countless like the sands of the Ganges bestow donations upon Streamwinners, etc. to: upon the Tathagata, would that Bodhisattva on account of that beget much merit? Subhuti : He would, O Lord.

, 3, C, 4. THE PATH IS MODERATELY WEAK. The Lord : Greater is the merit which a son or daughter of good family would beget by m

ection of wisdom as it has been explained. And why? Because when he

yekabuddhas, enters on a Bodhisattva’s way of salvation, until he fully knows the supreme enlightenment. IV 8, 3, C, 5. THE DISCRIMINATION IS WEAKLY STRONG. What do you think, Subhuti, if, lacking in perfect wisdom, a Bodhisattva would for aeons countless like the sands of the Ganges give gifts, guard his morality, perfect his patience, exert vigour, enter into the trances and develop wisdom, would he on account of that beget much merit? Subhuti : He would, O Lord.

IV 8, 3, C, 6.TThe Lord : A son or daughter of good family would beget greater merit if, having

morality, perfect patience, exert vigour, enter the trances,

elop wisdom. And why? Because the perfection of wisdom is the mother and genetrix of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings. Having stood in this perfection of wisdom, the Bodhisattvas fulfil all dharmas u

What do you think, Subhuti, if, lacking in p

hisattva for aeons countless like the sands of the Ganges were to give the gift of Dharma, would he on account of that beget much merit? Subhuti : He would, O Lord. 476

IV 8, 3, C, 8. THE PATH IS WEAKLY MEDIUM.

The Lord : Greater would be the merit which a son or daughter of good family would beget if, having stood in this deep perfection of wisdom as it has been explained, they would give the gift of Dharma for one single day only. And why? Because

hisattva who lacks perfect wi

does not lack the knowledge of all modes. Theref

dhisattva who wants to fully know the supreme enlightenment become one who is not lacking in perfect wisdom. IV 8, 3, C, 9. THE DISCRIMINATION IS MODERATELY MEDIUM. What do you think, Subhuti, if, lacking in perfect wisdom, a Bodhisattva would for aeons countless like the sands of the Ganges make endeavours about the four application

he on account of that beget much merit?

Subhuti : He would, O Lord. IV 8, 3, C, 10. THE PATH IS MODERATELY MEDIUM. The Lord : Greater is the merit which a son or daughter of good family beget if they make

p perfection of wisdom as it

Buddha-dharmas. And why? It is impossible, it cannot be that

hisattva who is not lacking in perfect wisdom should turn away from the knowledge of all modes. That is quite impossible. But it could be that a Bodhisattva who is lacking in perfect wisdom might turn away from the knowledge of all modes. Therefore, then, should the Bodhisattva become one who is not lacking in perfect wisdom. IV 8, 3, C, 11. THE DISCRIMINATION IS WEAKLY MEDIUM.

Bodhisattva would for aeons countless like the sands o

icate those material gifts, that gift of Dharma and those attentions associated with meditative seclusion to the supreme enlightenment, would he on account of that beget much merit? Sub

477

IV 8, 3, C, 12. THE PATH IS STRONGLY MEDIU

The Lord : Greater would be the merit which a son or daughter of good family beget if, having stood in this deep perfection of wisdom, they dedicate for one single day only to the supreme enlightenment those material gifts, the gifts of Dharma and those attentions associated with meditative seclusion. And why? For this dedication (in the spirit) of the perfection of wisdom is the best of all rejoicings and dedications. Therefore, then, a Bodhisattva who wants to fully know the supreme enlightenment should become one who is skilled in the dedication (in th

8, 3, C, 13. THE DISCRIMINATION IS FAIRLY WEAK. What do you think, Subhuti, if, lacking in perfect wisdom, a Bodhisattva would for aeons countless like the sands of the Ganges dedicate to the supreme enlightenment all the wholesome roots of the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords

heir congregations of Discip

Subhuti : He would, O Lord.

IV 8, 3, C, 14. THE PATH IS FAIRLY STRONG. The Lord : Greater would be the merit which a son or daughter of good family beget, if, having stood in this deep perfection of wisdom as it has been explained, they would dedicate to the supreme enlightenment the root of merit (produced) during one single day. And why? Because all his dedicating will be guided by the perfection of wisdom. Therefore, then, should a Bodhisattva who wants to fully know the supreme enlightenment becomes skilful in the dedication (in the spirit) of the perfection of wisdom.

IV 8, 3, C, 15. THE DISCRIMINATION IS MODERATELY WEAK

Subhuti : How can that son or daughter of good family beget a greater merit, since the Lord has described all (karmic) accumulation as mere imagination. For without (karmic) accumulation one cannot produce right views, or enter on the right way of salvation, or gain the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: fu

w the supreme enlightenmen

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IV 8, 3, C, 16. THE PATH IS MEDIUM STRONG.

The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. Without (karmic) accumulation it is not possible to produce right views, or to enter on the right way to salvation, or to gain the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: to fully know the supreme enlightenment. But also that gift of a Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom is without (karmic) accumulation, because it has been declared to be just empty, null, vain, and insubstantial. And why? Because the Bodhisattva is well trained in all the (18) kinds of emptiness. IV 8, 3, C, 17. THE DIS

emptinesses, goes on contemplating all karma-form

nner, to that extent he becomes one who does not lack perfect wisdom. IV 8, 3, C, 18. THE PATH IS VERY STRONG. And to the extent that the Bodhisattva does not lack in perfect wisdom, to that extent h

measureless merit.

IV 8, 3, D. (THE MARK OF ENLIGHTENMENT).

IV 8, 3, D, 1. THE IMPLICATIONS OF ‘INCALCULABLE’, ETC. Subhuti : What is the distinction and difference between the incalculable, the immeasurable, and the measureless? The Lord : ‘Incalculable’ is that which has no number, or that to which calculation does not apply. ‘Immeasurable’ is that of which no measure can be apprehended in past, future, or present dharmas. ‘Measureless’ is that which one cannot measure. Subhu

The Lord : Yes, there would be.

IV 8, 3, D, 2. THE MARK OF THE OWN-BEING OF ‘INCALCULABLE’, ETC. Subhuti : In what manner are the skandhas incalculable, etc.? The Lord : They are empty, and (therefore) incalculable, etc. Subhuti : Are only the skandhas empty or also all dharmas? The Lord : What do you think, S

479

Subhuti : As ‘empty’, O Lord, have all d

he Tathagatas. And they that are empty and inextinguishable, they are also incalculable, immeasurable, and measureless. Of emptiness no number is got at, nor measure, nor limitation. IV 8, 3, D, 3. ONE RAISES THE PROBLEM AND EXPLAINS (THESE TERMS) AS OUTPOURINGS OF THE TATHAGATA’S COMPASSION. Therefore, then, no distinction can be apprehended between these dharmas by way of their meaning or method.

talked about by the Tathagata. And exposition o

demonstration are the words used by the Tathagata, i.e. ‘inextinguishable’, ‘incalculable’, ‘immeasurable’, ‘measureless’, ‘empty’, ‘signless’, ‘wishless’, ‘uneffected’, ‘nonproduction’, ‘dispassio

IV 8, 3, D, 4. THE PROBLEM RAISED BY TH

INUTION IN AN INEXPRESSIBLE ENTITY. Subhuti : It is wonderful to see the extent to which the Tathagata has demonstr

meaning of the Lord’s teaching, all dharma

The Lord : So it is, Subhuti. All dharmas are iThe

inexpressibility of all dharmas is their emptiness. And emptiness cannot be expressed in words.

Subhuti : Can an inexpressible object have growth or diminution? The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : But if there is no growth or diminution of an inex

pressible object, then there can be no growth or diminution of the six perfections, etc. to: of the Buddhadharmas. The nonetc. to: of the Buddhadharmas,

-existence of the six perfections, Because of the non-exi

the non-existence of the knowledge of all modes will be a fact, anbeca

use of the non-existence of the knowledge of all modes, whoy

ld fullknow the supreme enlightenment?

, 5. ITS SOLUTION.

480

The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. There is no growth or diminution of an inexpressible object. But it does not occur to the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the perfection of wisdom, develops it, makes efforts about it, and is skilled in m

the contrary it occurs to him, ‘a mere designation is that, i.e. this perfection of giving, etc.’ When he course

ing, etc. to: in the perfection of wisdom, he dedicates those attributes, those productions of thought, and thos

s to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. And he dedicates so as to conform to that which the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment actually is. IV 8, 3, D, . THE MARK OF ENLIGHTENMENT. Subhuti : And what again is this

The Lord : It is the Suchness of all dharmas. Subhuti : And what is the Suchnes

ost, right, and perfect enlightenment? The Lord : The Suchness of form, etc. to: of Nirvana – that neither grows nor diminishes. Therefore the Bodhisattva who regularly and abundantly dwells as one who is not lacking in perfect wisdom, does not rev

tever. It is thus that there is no growth or diminution of the six perfections, etc. to: of the analytical knowledges. It is thus that the Bodhisattva should course in the p

of no-growth and no-diminution.

, 3, E.

IV 8, 3, E, I. IV 8, 3, E, I, 1. Subhuti : Does the Bodhisattva, the great being, awake to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment by means of the first production of the thought (of enlightenment), or rather by means of the last production of the thought (of enli

production of the thought (o

481

the

r. Through a simile discerning

people will understand the meaning of the teaching. What do you

e wick burnt by the first

incid

, O Lord, is the wick burnt by means of the first

incid

ent. Because, Subhuti, the

Bodhisattva, the great being, coursing in this perfection of wisdom,

of the first thought (of enlightenment), having fulfilled

the ten stages, does awake to the utmost, right, and perfect

t.

isattva, the great being,

the ten stages, awake to the utmost, right, and

thought (of enlightenment) is not in touch with the last production of the thought (of enlightenment); the last production of the thought (of enlightenment) is not in touch with the first. When thus, O Lord, the dharmas which constitute thought and its concomitants are not in touch with each other, how do the wholesome roots go on accumulating? But without the wholesome roots being accumulated, it is impossible to fully know the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. IV 8, 3, E, I, 2. THE SIMILE OF THE LAMP. The Lord : Therefore, then, Subhuti, will I give you a simile, so that you can understand this matte

think, Subhuti, in a burning oil lamp, is th

ence of the flame, or by the last incidence of the flame? Subhuti : Not

ence of the flame, nor independent of it.

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, has now that wick burnt up?

Subhuti : It is burnt up, O Lord, it is burnt up, O Sugata! The Lord : Just so, Subhuti, does the Bodhisattva, the great being no fully awake to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment by means of the first production of the thought (of enlightenment), nor independent of it; not by means of the last production of the thought (of enlightenment), nor independent of it. And yet the Bodhisattva, the great being, does fully awake to the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenm

on account

enlightenmenSubhuti : How, O Lord, does the Bodh

having fulfilled perf

ect enlightenment? The Lord : Having fulfilled the stage of bright insight does the Bodhisattva, the great being, awake to full enlightenment; having fulfilled the stage of becoming one of the clan, etc. to the Bodhisattva-stage does the Bodhisattva, the great being, awake to full enlightenment. Training himself in the ten stages, the Bodhisattva, the great being, does not by means of the first production of the thought (of enlightenment) fully know the utmost, 482

right, and perfect enlightenment, nor independent of it; nor by means of the last thought (of enlightenment), nor independent of it; and yet he fully knows the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. IV 8, 3, E, II. THE EIGHTFOLD PATH. IV 8, 3, E, II, 1. THE DEPTH OF IT (MODE OF) PRO

Bodhisattva, the great being, does no

of the thought (of enlightenment) fully know the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment, nor independent of it; nor by means of the last production of the thought (of enlightenment), nor independent of it; and yet he fully knows the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment.

The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, the thought which has been stopped, will that again arise?

Subhuti : No, O Lord.

, 3, E, II, 2. THE DEPTH OF ITS STOPPING.

The Lord : The thought which has (not?) been produced, is that doomed to stop? Subhuti : It is doomed to stop, O Lord, it is doomed to stop, O Sugata. The Lord : What is doomed to stop, will that be stopped? Subhuti : No, O Lord. IV 8, 3, E, II, 3. THE DEPTH OF ITS SUCHNESS. The Lord : Will it abide just as suchness does? Subhuti : Yes, it will.

The Lord : When it will abide just as Suchness does, it would certainly not be unmoved? Subhuti : No, O Lord. o

The Lrd : Is Suchness deep? Subhuti : It is deep. IV 8, 3, E, II, 4. THE DEPTH OF THE COGNIZABLE. The Lord : Is that thought like Suchness? Subhuti : No, O Lord. The Lord : Is the thought other than Suchness?

483

Subhuti : No, O Lord. The Lord : Is Suchness other than the thought? Subhuti : No, O Lord. The Lord : Is

The Lord : Does then Suchness review Suchness?

Subhuti : No, O Lord. IV 8, 3, E, II, 6. THE DEPTH OF THE PRACTICE. The Lord : One who courses thus, does he course in the deep perfection of wisdom? Subhuti : Yes, he does. The Lord : One wh

rse? Subhuti : One who courses thus,

proceed, they do not happen in him. To

hness, nothing happens, nor can anything happen to him. The Lord : The

ection of wisdom, where does he course?

, 3, E, II, 7. THE DEPTH OF ITS NONDUALITY.

Subhuti : He courses in

The Lord : One who courses in ultimate re

rses in signs?

Subhuti : No, O Lord.

The Lord : Has, then, by him the perception of a sign been annihilated?

Subhuti : No, O Lord.

, 3, E, II, 8. THE DE

perception of a sign (been developed, or the

less) been annihilated?

Subhuti : That Bodhisa

of wisdom, does not apply himself thus,

484

the hilate the signless’. Here again the

Bod perfection of

wisd nlightenment not without having fulfilled

the the Buddhadharmas. This

aga eat being, the skill in means, by

which he does not make any dharma into something existent or

ecause there the

Bod in the

own all dharmas, enters into the three

concentrations, for the sake of beings whom he matures through

reat being, enters the

rough them?

sign or I will anni

hisattva, the great being who courses in the

om, awakens to full e

ten powers of a Tathagata, etc. to:

in is of the Bodhisattva, the gr

something nonexistent. And why? B

hisattva, the great being, established

-mark-emptiness of

them. It is thus that the Bodhisattva, the gthre

e concentrations. How, O Lord, does the Bodhisattva, the great being, enter into the three concentrations for the sake of bein

gs whom he matures th

The Lord : Here a Bodhisattva, a great being, having stood in the three concentrations establishes in emptiness those beings who cou

rse in the perception of discrimination, in the signless those who course in the sign, and enjoins the wishless on those who course in making plans. It is thus that the Bodhisattva, the great being, coursing in the perfection of wisdom, having stood in the three concentrations, matures beings.

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CHAPTER 52 THE FULFILLMENT OF SKILL IN THE SIX PERFECTIONS IV 9. The Identity of Nirvana and Samsara. Sariputra : Ven. Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, who in his dreams enters into the three concen

less, the wishless – does he, then, grow in perfect wisdom? Subhuti : If, Ven. Sariputra, he grows through the development by day, then he also grows in a dream. And why? Because dream and waking are indiscriminate. If the Bodhisattva who courses by day in the perfection of wisdom has a development of the perfection of wisdom, then also the Bodhisattva, the great being, who dreams will have a development of the perfection of wisdom.

486

acts take hold of defilement, and some of purification. Therefore,

then, Sariputra, it is with ort a deed or act of will

arises and not without o

Sariputra : If, Ven. Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, in

hi

patience

would turn that wholesome root over to full enlightenment, would it

(actually) become tur enlightenment?

Subhuti : Maitreya, this Bodhisattva, this great being, has

experienced (this) face to face, he is bound to only one more birth,

ould be asked,

n

dec

g, how he makes this

exp

an objective suppbjective support. s dream would give gifts, guard morality, perfect himself in, exert vigour, enter the trances and develop wisdom, and ned over by him into full

his irreversibility has been declared by the Lord, he shhe will dispose of this.

Maitreya : As the Ven. Subhuti, the Elder has said: ‘Maitreya, this Bodhisattva, this great being, has experienced (this) face to face, he is bound to one more birth only, his irreversibility has bee

lared by the Lord, he should be asked, he will dispose of this’. Will now that designation ‘Maitreya, the Bodhisattva, the great being’ dispose of this matter, or will form dispose of it, or feeling, etc.? The emptiness of form, etc. that is not capable of disposing (replying). The Suchness of form, etc. that is not capable of disposing. I do not review (see) that dharma which would dispose, or by wh

ich one would dispose, or wherein one would dispose. Nor that dharma which has been predicted, or wherein it has been predicted. All these dharmas are nondual and undivided. Sariputra : Have by you these dharmas then perhaps been realised in the way in which you teach this dharma? Maitreya : No, they have not. Then it occurred to the Ven. Sariputra: Profoundly wise surely is Maitreya, this Bodhisattva, this great bein

lanation after he has coursed for a long time in the six perfections and in baselessness. The Lord : What do you think, Sariputra, do you see (review) that dharma by which you are dignified as an ‘Arhat’? Sariputra : No indeed, O Lord.

The Lord : In the same way, Subhuti, it does not occur to the Bodhisattva, the

great being, who courses in the perfection of wisdom: ‘that good dharma is being predicted; that good dharma has been predicted; that good dharma fully knows the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment!’ Coursing thus, the Bodhisattva, the great being, courses in the perfection of wisdom. Nor does there arise a doubt in him: ‘I will not know fully the utmost, right and 487

perfect enlightenment.’ ‘I will just know fully the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment’, (that he knows). One who courses thus, he courses in the perfection of wisd

hisattva, the great being, will not tremble, will not be frightened or terrified: ‘Not shall I not fully know the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment; but just I will fully know the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment’.

0. The Purity of the Buddha-field. Subhuti : How, O Lord, does the Bodhisattva, the great being, fulfil the six perfections and come near to the knowledge of all modes?

The Lord : Here, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the perfection of giving should, having seen beings who are hungry, thirsty, ill housed, ill clad, and devoid of beds and seats, consider as follows: ‘Just so will I course in the perfection of giving that, when I have won full enlightenment, all these faults of those beings will in each and every way not take place and not be conceived. Just like the possessions enjoyed by the various classes of gods, from the Gods belonging to the Four Great Kings, to the Highest Gods, so will be the possessions enjoyed by the beings in that Buddha-field’. When he courses thus, the Bodhisattva, the great being, fulfils the perfection of giving and comes near to full enlightenment. Moreover, Subhu

hisattva, the great being, who courses in the perfection of morality, having seen beings who take life, take what

mit sexual misconduct, spea

liciously, prattle away, are covetous, with minds full of ill will, with false views, short-lived, with many afflictions, with many troubles, ugly to look at, insignificant, with few possessions, of low-class families, badly dressed,

sider: ‘In such a way will I course in the perfection of morality that, when I have won full enlightenment, in that B

e beings will not have those fa

conceived’. Thus coursing, the Bodhisattva, the great being, fulfils the perfection of morality, and comes near to full enlightenment. Moreover, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the perfection of patience, having seen beings who are full of ill will for each other, and having seen beings who belabour each other with clods, beatings, and swords, rob each other of their

488

lives, and use staffs, clubs, and so on, on each other, he should consider thus: ‘In such a way will I course in the perfection of patience that, when I have won full enlightenment, in that Buddha-field those beings shall not have these faults, that they shall become inconceivable. And the minds of all beings will become like that of a mother, father, brother, sister, son, or daughter’. When he c

enlightenment. Moreover, Subhuti, the Bo

g, who courses in the perfection of vigour, having seen beings who are of little vigour, lazy, indolent, averse from making efforts, trivial be

iple-vehicle, the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle, or the Bodhisattva-vehicle – he will thus consider: ‘So will I practice the perfection of vigour that, when I have won full enlightenment, in that Buddha-field those beings shall not have those faults, and that they shall become inconceivable’. When he courses thus, the Bodhisattva, the great being, fulfils the perfection of vigour and comes near to full enlightenment. Moreover, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the perfection of meditation, having seen beings who proceed with the five hindrances, i.e. with the obstacles of sense desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, excitedness and sense of guilt, and doubt; beings who are bewildered, confused in their mindfulness, who are lacking in the four trances, in friendliness, compassion, sympathetic joy and impartiality, and in the four formless attainments, he should thus consider: ‘In such a way will I practise the perfection of meditation that, when I have won full enlightenment, in that Buddha-field those beings shall not have these faults and that they shall become inconceivable’. When he courses thus, the Bodhisattva, the great being, fulfils the perfection of meditation and comes near to full enlightenment. Moreover, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the perfection of wisdom, having seen beings who are stupid and devoid of wisdom, who are devoid of either mundane or supramundane right views, who teach that actions have no karmic result, who tea

erness or bothness, he should thus consider: ‘Thus will I practice the perfection of wisdom that, when I have won full enlightenment, in that Buddha-field those beings shall not have those faults, and that they shall become inconceivable’. When he courses thus, the 489

Bodhisattva, the great being, fulfils the perfection of wisdom and comes near to full enlightenment. Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in the six perfections and who has seen beings proceeding in the three heaps – those destined (for salvation), those destined for perdition, and those whose destiny is not fixed either way – should consider as follows: ‘For so long will I course in the six perfections, purify the Buddha-field and mature beings until, when I have known full enlightenment, in that Buddha-field even the word for beings who are destined (for salvation), destined for perdition, not destined either way, will no longer be or be conceived’. When he courses thus, a Bodhisattva fulfils the six perfections and comes near to the knowledge of all modes. Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in the six perfections, and who has seen the beings in the hells, the beings in the animal world, and the beings in the world of Yama, should consider as follows: ‘For so long will I course, etc. to: even the word for the three states of woe will no longer be or be conceived’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the six perfections, and who has seen that this great earth is full of jungles, rocky crags, precipices, sewers, and cesspools, should consider as follows: ‘For so long will I course, etc. to: these faults of beings will no long be conceived, and this is my Buddha-field will be (flat and) even like the palm of a hand’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen this great earth made chiefly of clay, with very little gold and silver, should, etc. to: this great earth will be covered with rivers of gold’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen beings indulging in the seizing on Mine-making, should, etc. to: these beings will no long seize on Mine-making’. When he courses thus, etc.

Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen beings divided into the four castes, should, etc. to: even the words for the four castes will no longer exist’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen the inferiority, superiority, and middlingness of beings, and (their distribution) into inferior families, middling families, and superior families, should, etc. to: those beings will longer have these faults. When he courses thus, etc.

490

Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen the difference in the beauty of beings, should, etc

beings will any longer be or be conceived. But all beings shall be handsome, attractive, good-looking, endowed with the supreme excellence of loveliness and beauty’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen sovereignty, should, etc. to: not even the concept of sovereignty will be known, except reference to the King of Dharma, the Tathagata, the Arhat, the fully Enlightened One’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen the differentiation among beings of the places of rebirth, should, etc. to: the differentiation of the places of rebirth among beings will not be or be conceived, i.e. the hells, the animal world, the world of Yama, the gods and men. But all beings will be of one karma and lacking in the four application of mindfulness, etc. to: the four analytical knowledges’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen the four modes of rebirth of beings, i.e. egg-born, born

isture-born or miraculously born, should, etc. to: three of these modes of rebirth will not be or be conceived, i.e. the egg-born, those born from a womb and the moisture born. But all beings will be miraculously born’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen beings deficient in the five superknowledges, should, etc. to: all beings will have

Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen all beings brought forth among faeces, etc. should, etc. to: all beings will be nourished on trance and joyous zest for the Dharma’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen beings lacking in halos, should, etc. to: each being will have his own halo’. When he course

Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen among beings (the difference between) night, day, month, half-month and year, should, etc. to: even the words for night, day, month, ha

year will among those beings not be or be conceived’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen that beings are shortlived, should, etc. to: all beings will have an immeasurable life span’. When he c

491

Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen that beings are without the marks, should, etc. to: beings will be endowed with the thirty-two marks of the Superman’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen that beings are lacking in wholesome roots, should, etc. to: beings will be endowed

h wholesome roots and, as endowed with these wholesome roots, they will attend on the Buddhas, the Lords’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen beings

iseases, should, etc. to: those caused by wind, bile, phlegm, or the disorder of the humours’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisatva, etc. to: who has seen beings defiled by the three defilements, should, etc. to: the three defilements will not be or be conceived. Which three? Greed, hate, and delusion. But all beings will be free from greed, hate, and delusion’. When he courses thus. Etc.

Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen beings of inferior resolve, should, etc. to: even the words for the two vehicles will not be, i.e. for the Disciple-vehicle or the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle. But all beings will have set out for all-knowledge’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, etc. to: who has seen conceite

ngs should, etc. to: even the word ‘conceit’ will not be, and all beings shall be free from conceit’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, w

rses in the six perfections should thus produce a thought: ‘For so long shall I not fully know the supreme enlightenment until, when I have known the supreme enlightenment, I will have in that Buddha-field an im

nite congregation of monks’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the six perfections sho

ightenment before among all the countless Buddha-fields I have at least one single Buddha-field for my own’. When he courses thus, etc. Moreover, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the six perf

ely, is this Samsara, infinite surely is this world of beings!’ And he should thus wisely attend to it: ‘Bounded by space surely is Samsara, bounded by space surely i

492

cou

rses thus, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, fulfils the six perfections and comes near to the knowledge of all modes.

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CHAPTER 53

494

The Lord replied: This goddess of the Ganges, Ananda, will in

a future period, in the s r in the world as a fully

enlightened Tathagata, ‘Golden Flower’ by name. This is the last

time that this Ganges goddess has been reborn as a woman. She

will (in man.

He will be reborn in Abhirati, the Buddha-field of ata

Akshobhya and will therein lead the holy life. And that Bodhisattva,

that great being, will hav After his

decease there he will pass from Buddha-field to Buddha-field, and

he will never be without the Buddhas, the Lords. Just as the

universal monarch can pass from pa a

bled in that

Bud

goddess (first) planted

e had scattered golden flowers over the

tarlike aeon, appea her next birth) cease to be a woman and become a the Tathage the name of ‘Golden Flower’.

lce to palace, without ever, during his entire life up to the time of his death, treading upon the earth with the soles of his feet; just so will that Bodhisattva Golden Flower, that great being, pass from Buddha-field to Buddha-field until he has known the supreme enlightenment. Thereupon the Ven. Ananda thought to himself: All those Bodhisattvas, great beings, who will be assem

dha-field should be known as the congregation of the Tathagata? The Lord read the Ven. Ananda’s thoughts and said to him: So it is, Ananda, as you say. That assembly of Bodhisattvas, great beings, should be known as the congregation of the Tathagata. In addition, the community of the disciples in the Buddha-field of the Tathagata Golden Flower will not be bound by any measure, and it will be impossible to measure the extent of his communit of disciples by saying that there are so many disciples, or so many hundreds of disciples, or so many

thousands of disciples, etc. to: or so many hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of disciples. All one can say is that these disciples will be countless, innumerable, and immeasurable. And furthermore, Ananda, in the Buddha-field of the Tathagata Golden Flower, after he has known the supreme enlightenment, these faults which have been enumerated in this Prajnaparamita will in no way whatsoever either be or be conceived. Ananda : Where, O Lord, has the Ganges

her wholesome root? The Lord : It was in the presence of the Tathagata Dipankara that she planted her wholesome root, raised her thought to the supreme enlightenment, and dedicated that wholesome root to the supreme enlightenment. It was when, aspiring for the supreme enlightenment, sh

495

Tath

o has made the

nec

nt.

agata Dipankara. That was at the same time when I, aspiring for the supreme enlightenment, strewed flowers over the Tathagata Dipankara, and when that Tathagata, having known that I was endowed with the requisite roots, predicted my future enlightenment with the words: ‘You will in a future period become a Tathagata, Sakyamuni by name – endowed with knowledge and virtue, Well-Gone, a worldknower, unsurpassed, tamer of men to be tamed, teacher of gods and men, a Buddha, a Blessed Lord!’ Thereupon when she had heard my prediction, that goddess produced a thought to the effect that: ‘Certainly, like that young man I also would like to be predicted to the supreme enlightenment!’ It is thus, Ananda, that that goddess has in the presence of the that Tathagata Dipankara raised the first thought to the supreme enlightenment. Ananda : This Ganges goddess is one wh

essary preparations for the supreme enlightenment. The Lord : So it is Ananda, so it is. As you say, this Ganges goddess has made the necessary preparations for the supreme enlightenme

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CHAPTER 54 DEMONSTRATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL IN MEANS IV 10. Training in Skill in Means. Subhuti : How, O Lord, should the Bodhisattva, the great being who courses in the perfect

quest of emptiness, how should he achieve the emptiness-concentration? How should the four applic

dfulness be developed? How should he gain mastery over the right efforts, how should the right efforts be developed? So with: the bases of psyThe Lord : H

497

support. Meanwhile, the Bodhisattva, the great being, does not

become destitute of ch act as wings to

enlightenment, but he the extinction of the

outflows. And why? The Bodhisattva, the great being, becomes

which con

‘This is the time for complete conquest, this is not the time for

realisation.’ Tha o courses in the

perfection of wisdom, should surely contemplate: ‘For the six

perfections is this the time; for the development of the applications

or the development of the

conquest of emptiness; and

he d

the dharmas whidoes not realize endowed with an exalted cognition, if, having stood in the dharmas stitute the wings of enlightenment, he discerns thus: t Bodhisattva, that great being wh

of mindfulness is this the time, etc. to: fPath, of the concentrations on emptines

s, the signless and wishless, for the acquisition of the superknowledges, of the concentrations, etc. to: of the four analytical knowledges. But this is not the time for the realisation of the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: of the cognition of a Pratyekabuddha. It is the time for the nonrenunciation of the acquisition of the knowledge of all modes’. It is thus, Subhuti, that the Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of wisdom makes complete

wells in emptiness; and so with the signless; of the wishless he makes complete conquest and he dwells in the wishless. He develops the holy eightfold path, but he does not realize (it); etc. to: he develops the applications of mindfulness and dwells in them. It is thus, Subhuti, that the Bodhisattva makes complete conquest of the dharmas which constitute the wings of enlightenment, develops them, and dwells through them. But he does not realise the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: Arhatship. IV 11, 1 – 10. THE OBJECTIVE RANGE OF SKILLS IN MEANS.

IV 11, 11. THE OVERCOMING OF HOSTILE STATES. Suppose, Subhuti, that there were a man who is a hero, vigorous, of high social position, handsome, attractive, and fair to beh

old, endowed with the supreme excellence of loveliness and beauty; in archery he has gone as far as one could go, he is successful in warding off all manner of attacks, accomplished in all the sixty-four arts, and foremost in all crafts. He is dear and pleasant to many. Whatever work he may undertake will win him much gain and honour, and for that reason he would be honoured, revered, and worshipped by the manifold. More and more he would feel ever increasing joy and zest. Taking his parents and

498

children with him on some business or other, he enters on a wild forest. The foolish among them would feel terror and hair-raising fear. He, however, would fearlessly say to his family: ‘Do not be afraid! I will soon get you out of this fearful wild forest. I will protect you and soon set you free!’ If then many unfriendly, destructive hostile, and inimical forces should rise up against him in that wild forest, this heroic man would be endowed with the power of supreme wisdom. Having taken his parents and children out of that fearful forest, having set them free, he will securely and safely reach a village, city or market town, a country district or a place in a country district, and will dwell there full of joy and happiness, unhurt and uninjured. Nor does he become angry in his mind with those hostile and inimical beings. And why? Because he is well skilled in all the arts. In consequence he can in that wild forest conjure up forces which are more powerful than those which oppose him, and all the forces hostile and inimical to him will flee in fright. And thereupon that man will dwell at ease, after he has safely rescued his parents and children. Just so, at the time when a Bodhisattva dwells radiating towards all living beings a thought of friendliness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and impartiality, he does not on that occasion through the realization of the signless concentration get established on the level of the Disciples or the level of the Pratyekabuddhas. IV 11, 2. TO DWELL WITHOUT SUPPORT. A bird on its wings courses in the air and does not fall to the ground. It dwells just in space, just i

Bodhisattva achieves mastery over emptiness; he achie

the wishless and dwells in the wishless. But

ptiness, the signless, and the wishless in such a way that, as a result of this realisation, he would fall on the level of the Disciples or Pratyekabuddhas, without having completed the ten powers of a Tathagata, etc. to: the eighteen Buddhadharmas, the great friendliness and the great compassion. But, having coursed in innumerable Buddhadharmas, he reaches the knowledge of all modes. IV 11, 3. THE CARRYING OUT OF THE VOWS MADE IN THE PAST.

499

It is as with a powerful master of archery, well-trained in archery. He would first shoot an arrow upwards and would then by a regular succession of other arrows prevent it from falling down on the ground. In fact, the first arrow would not fall down on the ground until that man would decide that it should do so. In order that the first arrow should fall unto the ground, he does not send up the last arrow, with the result that the whole succession of arrows falls unto the ground. In the same way a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom and who is upheld by skill in means, does not realise that farthest Reality limit until his wholesome roots are matured in the supreme enlightenment. Only when those wholesome roots are matured in the supreme enlightenment, only then does he realise that farthest Reality limit. Therefore, then, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, should thus contemplate and meditate the dharmic nature of these dharmas. IV 11, 4. THE SKILL WHICH IS UNCOMMON. Subhuti : A doer of what is hard is the Bodhisattva, if he trains in this Dharmahood, in the Reality limit, in the Dharma-element, etc. to: in the three doors to freedom, and yet does not collapse midway before he has known full enlightenment. Wonderful is this, O Lord, most wonderful, O Sugata! The Lord : For, Subhuti, all b

beings, he can have this extraordina

ose thought aspires thus, ‘all beings should not be abandoned, by me they should be set free’, when he proceeds in dharmas which are not, if he aspires to the concentration of emptiness, the signless, and the wishless, which are the doors to freedom, the Bodhisattva should at that time be known as endowed with skill in means. But he does not midway realise the Reality limit, until he reaches the knowledge of all modes. IV 11, 5. THE SKILL WHICH IS UNATTACHED. Moreover, Subhuti, when the Bodhisattva, the great being, becomes one who wants to contemplate these very deep stations – i.e. the emptiness of the subject, etc. to: the emptiness of the non-exis

thought should aspire thus: ‘For a long time those beings,

500

in

,

nor does he become destitute of the four trances, etc. to: the

he Bodhisattva, the great

bein

mas and his faculties become keener,

unli

d with skill in means, he courses in the

perfection of wisdom. He does not enter on the concentration of a

powers of a Tathagata,

etc

a basis. So that they may forsake the view of a basis, I will, after I have fully known the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment, demonstrate dharmas.’ At that time the Bodhisattva, the great being, enters into the emptiness-concentration, a door to freedom, but he does not realise the Reality limit, by the realisation of which he would attain the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment. At the time when the Bodhisattva, the great being, develops the signless concentration, a door to freedom, at that time he enters the signless concentration, a door to freedom, but does not realise the Reality limit, by the realisation of which he would win the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: Arhatship, or Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment. Thus, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, endowed with this production of thought, and with these wholesome roots, does not midway realise the Reality limit

Buddhadharmas. Thus, Subhuti, does t

g, at that time become endowed with all the dharmas which constitute the wings to enlightenment. But he does not fail until he fully knows the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. The Bodhisattva, the great being, who has been taken hold of by skill in means, grows in pure dhar

ke those of Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas. IV 11, 6. THE SKILL WHICH IS WITHOUT BASIS. Moreover it occurs to the Bodhisattva, the great being: ‘For a long those beings have coursed in the four perverted views, in the notions of permanence, of ease, of loveliness, of self; for their sake I will, when I have known full enlightenment, demonstrate dharma to the effect that they may form the habitual idea that this is permanent, ill, unlovely, and not-self.’ Endowed with this production of thought an

Buddha before having completed the ten

. to: the eighteen Buddhadharmas, the great friendliness, and the great compassion. At that time the Bodhisattva develops the doors to deliverance which consist in the concentration on emptiness, the signless and the wishless, and enters upon them, but he does not realise the Reality limit until he fully knows the supreme enlightenment. Moreover the Bodhisattva thinks to himself: ‘For a long time these beings have coursed in a basis, i.e.

501

in ‘a self, a being, a living soul, etc. to: one who does, one who feels, one who knows, on who sees’; in ‘form’, ‘feeling’, etc. For them I will act in such a way that, when I have fully known the supreme enlightenment, the beings will not have the faults connected with assuming a basis.’ Endowed with these productions of thought and with this skill in means, he courses in perfect wisdom and does not realise the Reality limit, without first having completed the ten powers of a Tathagata, etc. to: the great compassion. At that time the door to deliverance which consists in concentration on emptiness reaches for that Bodhisattva the fullness of its development. IV 11, 7. THE SKILL WHICH IS SIGNLESS. Moreover the Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom, thinks to himself: ‘For a long time these beings have coursed in signs, in the signs of woman and man, in the signs of form and the formless. For those beings I will act in such a way that, when I have fully known the supreme enlightenment, they will no more have these faults’. Endowed with this production of thought and with this skill in means, he courses in perfect wisdom and does not realise the Reality limit before he has completed the ten powers of a Tathagata, etc. to: the great compassion. When he is endowed with that production of thought, then, at that

for the Bodhisattva the fullness of its develop

IV 11, 8. THE SKILL WHICH IS WITHOUT WISHES FOR THE FUTURE. Moreover the Bodhisattva, the great being who courses in perfect wisdom, thinks to himself: ‘For a long time these beings, under the influence of hopes for the future, have been eager to become Sakras, Brahmas, world guardians or world rulers. They have been eager for forms, etc. For their sake I will, when I have fully known the full enlightenment, demonstrate Dharmas to beings to the effect that they see the faults of having hopes for the future’. When the Bodhisattva, the great being, through these wholesome roots and through this skill in means courses in the perfection of wisdom, then the door to freedom which consists in the concentration on the wishless arrives at the fullness of its development. But he does not realise the Reality limit, without having fulfilled the ten powers, etc. to: the great compassion and until he has fully known the supreme enlightenment. It is

502

impossible, it cannot be that a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in the six perfections, in the various kinds of emptiness, in the four applications of mindfulness, etc. to: in the Buddhadharmas, and who has made a complete conquest and is thus endowed with vision and cognition, should fall into the Uneffected, or become intimate with what belongs to the triple world. That cannot possibly be. IV 11, 9. THE SKILL WHICH IS THE TOKEN OF IRREVERSIBILITY. Moreover the Bodhisattva, the great being, who courses in the dharmas which

wants to fully know the supreme en

rsed in the dharmas, which act as wings to enlightenment and made a complete conquest, manage not to realise emptiness, or to penetrate the Reality limit, with the result that he might reach the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: Pratyekabuddha-enlightenment? How can he realise emptiness, the signless, the wishless, the Uneffected, nonproduction and non-existence, and how can he develop the perfection of wisdom?’ If the Bodhisattva, when thus question by Bodhisattvas, would explain the ‘just emptiness should be attended to, just the signless, the wishless, the Uneffected, nonproduction and non-existence should be attended to, and yet all beings should not be abandoned,’ the one should know that that Bodhisattva has been predicted by the Buddhas, th

complete conquest of an irreversible Bodhisattva, great being,

lares and exalts it. If a Bodhisattva, when questioned, explains that ‘not should a complete conquest be made of emptiness, of the signless, the wishless, the Uneffected, of nonproduction, of non-existence; but one should make a complete conquest of the dharmas which act as wings to enlightenment and one should not hang on to all beings’, then one should know that this Bodhisattva has not been predicted to the supreme enlightenment. And why? Because he does not indicate the complete conquest of an irreversible Bodhisattva, does not declare or exalt it; and in consequence the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, should know that the Bodhisattva, having made a complete conquest, has transcended the stage of an irreversible Bodhisattva. IV 11, 10. THE SKILL WHICH IS LIMITED IN ITS OBJECTIVE RANGE.

503

Subhuti : Is therein some manner in which a Bodhisattva is irreversible? The Lord : He is irreversible if, having heard the six perfections, he answers as an irreversible Bodhisattva would. He then should by the Bodhisattvas be known as irreversible. Subhuti : There are, O Lord, many Bodhisattvas who course towards enlig

stage.

The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. And why? Because few only are the Bodhisattvas who have been predicted to the irreversible stage in which this cognition becomes possible. But those who have been predicted to it, they will give the correct answer. One should know that they have planted splendid wholesome roots, and that the whole world, with its gods, men and Asuras, cannot overwhelm them.

504

CHAPTER 55 THE EXPOSITION OF THE FOR

DISCRIMINATION

V. THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL MODES V 1. The Characteristics. (Heat). V 1, 1. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF CON

505

will come to understand455 its meaning, as one who makes progress

towards the Dharma a uence, 456 who makes

progress in conformity ( and who courses in its

logical sequence. This also should be known as the irreversible

m

V 1, 4. THE C RCEPTION OF THE

WONDER-WORKING P

Moreover even in his dreams the Bodhisattva, the great being,

sees the Tathagata rising up high into the air and demonstrating

dowed with the 32 marks of

extending a fathom (round

es up magical creations

systems; his

also, Subhuti, should known as the irreversible mark of an

V 1, 5. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE PRODUCTION OF A THOUGHT BY

in his dreams feels no fear when

conf

ike a dream indeed is all this that belongs to the triple

world! And when I have woken up to full enlightenment, I shall

!’,

the

nd its logical seqwith that Dharma) ark of an irreversible Bodhisattva. HARACTERISTIC OF HAVING A PEOWERS OF A BUDDHA.

Dharma to the community of monks, enthe superman, as he exhibits the halo

his body) and manifold miracles, and conjurthrough which he does a Buddha’s work in other world

irreversible Bodhisattva.

WHICH HE DEMONSTRATES DHARMAS AS SIMILAR TO A DREAM. Moreover if a Bodhisattva even

ronted with the sacking of a village or city, or some huge conflagration; if he feels no sorrow, fear, terror, or fright, when he sees ferocious wild animals or fierce beasts of prey,457 or when he perceives that his head is about to be cut off, or sees other fearful and terrible things which bring suffering, mental agony, and despair, sees those who are hungry and thirsty, sees the death of mother or father, his brother or sister, or those dear to him, of his relatives and kinsmen; but if immediately on waking up from his dream he reflects that ‘l

demonstrate that all dharmas in the triple world are like a dream

n, this also, Subhuti, should be known as the irreversible mark of 455 ajnasyamiti. This is a technical term for the first of a series of ‘supramundane’ faculties which mark the growth in wisdom. It pertains to the Streamwinners. See P 209. 456 anudharma; or ‘the method behind’ the Dharma. Ad f. 232b, anudharmata, rjes-su mthun-pa’I chos. For the sense of this phrase see Edgerton s. v.

7 candalamrgajatani, gcan-gzan khro-bo’I rigs dag; more likely = canda, as in Mhvy. A xx 381, ksudramrgajatin. 506

an irreversible Bodhisattva. V 1, 6. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE RECOLLECTION458 BY WHICH HE ABOLISHES THE STATES OF WOE IN HIS OWN BUDDHA-FIELD. Moreover, Subhuti, how can one disce

fully enlightened Buddha, the three states of woe will in no way whatsoever be? If that Bodhisattva, w

am seen hellish beings, or animal beings, or beings in the world of Yama,459 turns his mindful attention upon them460 and thinks to himself, ‘thus will I act, thus will I progress that, when I have known full enlightenment, in my Buddha-field these three states of woe will in no way whatsoever be!’ And why? Because the state of dreaming and the state of being awake, all that is (dharmically) not two nor divided. This also, Subhuti, should be known as the irreversible mark of an irr

V 1, 7. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE SUCCESS IN THE SUSTAINING POWER OF THE TRUTH,461 WHEN ONE APPEASES A CONFLAGRATION IN A

Moreover, Subhuti, a Bodhisattva, a great being, may, either in his sleep or on waking up from it, see a town on fire462 and think to himself, ‘if I have the attributes, tokens, and signs which I have seen in my dream or on waking up from it as those with which an irreversible Bodhisattva, great being, is endowed, then, because of this Truth, because of the enunciation of this Truth, let that town fire be appeased, cooled down, and extinguished!’ If that fire is then appeased, cooled down, and extinguished, then one should know that that Bodhisattva has been predicted as irreversible from the supreme enlightenment. If, however, that mass of fire, overpowering this annunciation of the Truth, spreads from house to house, from road to road, if it burns some houses and not others,

9 yamalaukikan; A xx 382: preta-gatan. 460 evam (‘di lta-bu’i) smrtim pratilabhate. 461 satyadh

l-powerful and irresistible. It is a formal declaration of fact, accompanied by a command or resolution or prayer, that the purpose of the agent shall be accomplished. cf. 2 Kings I 10-12, Elijah: “If I be a man of God, then let fire come down from heaven to consume thee and thy men with thee!”, and with that, came fire from heaven, and he and his fifty were consumed. For fu

formation see JRAS 1917, 429-467. JAOS 1944. Milindapanha 119-123. 462 so AdT : gron-khyer tshig-pa mtho

507

some road and not others, th

to the rejection of Dharma by these beings,463 and through that the houses of some of these beings now burn while othe

eir karma which now matures in this very life; it is the karma left over from the rejection of Dharma which now comes to fruition. This is the cause of a Bodhisattva’s irreversibility, this is its condition. Through these causes and conditions should the irreversible Bodhisattva, great being, be known. V 1, 8. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF ACCOMPLISHING A TRUTHFUL UTTERANCE WHICH INDUCES GHOSTS, SUCH AS YAKSHAS, ETC. TO GO AWAY. And once more, Subhuti, I will demonstrate the attributes, tokens, and signs by which an irreversible Bodhisattva, great being, should be known. If some woman or man were possessed by464 a ghost, then the Bodhisattva should think to himse

then to the extent that my earnest intention to win full enlightenment, and my attention to it, and perfectly pure, to th

nt I have left behind the thoughts of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, and I surely will win full enlightenment! Nor shall I not win full enlightenment! Surely, I shall win full enlightenment!465 There is nothing that the Buddhas and Lords who reside in countless world systems and demonstrate Dharma have not cognized, seen, known, realised, or fully known. I am sure to win full enlightenment, for these Buddhas and Lords know my earnest intention to do so. ((f. 216b)) By this Truth, by this enunciation of the Truth may that ghost depart who possesses and torments this woman or man!’ If as a result of this utterance of the Bodhisattva the ghost does not depart, then one should know that that Bodhisattva has not been predicted by the former

now that the Bodhi

3 ebhih sattvaih, AdT : sems-can ‘di-dag-g

ho has the rejected the Dharma. H 767: His previous rejection of the Good Law matures in this life when he experiences sadness from seeing the ineffectiveness of his Act of Truth. The Large Prajnaparamita seems, however, to feel that justice demands that these persons who lose their houses through fire should also in some way be karmically responsible for their misfortune. 464 AdT: byin-gyis rlabs (adhisthana) sin babs-par gyur (avista). 465 The construction of this sentence is obscure, and I have understood it as

anslation of A xx 382.

508

enlightenment. As endowed with these attributes, tokens, and signs should the irreversible Bodhisattva, great being, be known. (Mara’s Deeds).466 Moreover, in connection with the sustaining power of the Truth, Mara, the Evil One, may approach a Bodhisattva unpractised in the six perfections, deficient in skill in means, unpractised in the four applications of mindfulness, etc. to: in the doors to freedom which consist in Emptiness, the Signless, and the Wishless, and who has not entered on a Bodhisattva’s specific course of salvation. When t

Tathagatas of the past have predicted my full enlightenment, may that ghost depart!’, then Mara, the Evil One, will eagerly

emove the ghost. And why? As Mara’s efforts become ever more forceful and vehement, in the end the ghost will actually be removed by Mara’s power; but the Bodhisattva will think to himself, ‘it is through my might that that ghost has departed!’, and will fail to cognize that his departure was in fact due to Mara’s might. In consequence he will despise other Bodhisattvas, deride, mock, condemn, and depreciate them, in the belief that he himself has been predicted to full enlightenment by the Tathagatas of the past, but those others have not. As he grows in conceit and produces (thoughts of) conceit, so he moves far away from the knowledge of all modes, from the utmost Buddha-cognition. When such a being, so greatly lacking in skill in means, produces this kind of excessive conceit, then two levels may be expected of him. Which two? The level of the Disciples or that of the Pratyekabuddhas. It is thus that a deed of Mara will arise to that Bodhisattva through the sustaining power of the Truth. He will omit to tend, love, and honour the good spiritual friends, and thus he will further tighten the hold which Mara has over him. And why? Because he has not practised the six perfections, because he has not been taken hold of by skill in means. This also should be known by the Bodhisattva, the great being, as Mara’s deed.

odhisattva in connection with the prediction of his name,467 if the 466 This corresponds to the beginning of A ch. XXI. 467 nama-adhisthana. A xxi 386 distinguishes the nama-apadesa and the nama-adhisthana. The first is the annunciation of the name which the B

ill have as a Buddha. This takes place at the ‘prediction’, in the case

t the time of Dipankara. This second is the announcement of other details and circumstances connected

509

Bodhisattva is unpractised in the six perfections, etc. to: has not entered on a Bodhisattva’s special way of salvation? Here Subhuti,

a, the Evil One approaching the Bodhisattva in some guise or other, will say to him: ‘You, son of good family, have by the Tathagata ((f. 217a)) been predicted to the supreme enlightenment. this is your name, these the names of your mother, father, brother, sisters, friends, relatives, kinsmen, and relations.’ Backwards through seven generations he will recites the names of your parents, and he will tell you the country and region from which you have come, as well as the country, town, or village in which you were born. If the Bodhisattva has a dull nature, he will tell him that also in the past he has been dull; if he is keen, he will claim that likewise in the past he was keen. If the Bodhisattva is a forest dweller, or begs his food from door to door without accepting invitations, or wears clothes made of rags taken from dust heaps, or never eats any food after midday, or eats his meal in one sitting, or lives on alms food,468 or lives in and frequents cemeteries, or lives in an open unsheltered place, or dwells at the foot of a tree, or even in his sleep remains in a sitting posture, or sleep at night wherever he may happen to be, or possesses no more than three robes,469 if he has few wishes, is easily contented, quite detached, etc. to: wise frugal, soft in his speech470 or soft in his talk471 – in each case Mara will tell him that also in the past he has had the same quality. And why? Because since you have these ascetic practises now, you must in all certainty have undergone the austerities also in the past. Through that previous annunciation of his name and clan, and through this present assurance that he has undergone the austerities of the ascetic practices, he will produce conceitedness. And Mara, the Evil One, aware of this foolishness, will approach him and say: ‘Predicted you are, son of good family, by the Tathagata to a state of irreversibility from the supreme enlightenment, because you have472 the qualities necessary for it.’19 Sometimes he will

mother, etc. (H). Since the connection with the normal meaning of adhisthana is not immediately obvious, the Tibetan sometimes translates min-la

8 praptipindiko, pattapindika in Pali, but not in other

9 This gives 12 ascetic practices, as against the 13 of the Pali tradition. Most of the above terms are explained in H 774-5. 470 mandabhasyo, smra-ba nun-ba. 471 mandamantro, brjod-pa nun-ba. 472 ‘performed the ascetic practices’, S. AdT.

510

approach in the guise of a monk, sometimes in that of a nun, or a householder, or his mother or father, and he will say: ‘Predicted you are, son of good family, by the Tathagata to the supreme enlightenment. And why? Because you have the qualities of an irreversible Bodhisattva’. But those modes, tokens, and signs of an irreversible Bodhisattva which I have declared, they do not exist in the Bodhisattva. One should know, Subhuti, that this Bodhisattva, compared with those other Bodhisattvas,473 is truly under Mara’s influence. And why? Because the modes, tokens, and signs of an irreversible Bodhisattva do not exist in him. As a result of this annunciation of his name he will despise other Bodhisattvas, deride, mock, condemn, and depreciate them. This also should be known as a deed of Mara which happens to a Bodhisattva through the prediction of his name. here is another deed of Mara which may happen to a Bodhisattva through the prediction of his name. And how? For here the Bodhisattva, who does not course in the six perfections, does not cognize the Skandha-Mara,474 because he does not cognize form, feelings, perceptions, impulses, and consciousness. And to ((217b)) Mara, the Evil One, will predict that ‘when you have known full enlightenment you shall have this name!’ When thereupon that Bodhisattva ponders and reflects on this name, then to him, who is stupid and without skill in means it occurs that ‘just this very name which I thought of in my own mind, just that will be my name when I have known full enlightenment’. He follows the suggestions of Mara, the Evil One, or the deities of Mara’s host, or a monk who is under Mara’s influence, and thinks to himself: ‘The name of which I have thought in my own mind, and that which has been indicated to me by that monk, they are the same; that is the name under which I have been predicted by that Tathagata to the supreme enlightenment’. But those modes, tokens, and signs of an irreversible Bodhisattva which I have

down on the other Bodhisattvas, great beings. Through his contemptuousness he remains far from full enlightenment. Of him who is lacking in skill in means, in perfect wisdom, and in the good spiuis,

irtal frendtwo levels should be expected, i.e. that of a

3 ? tad anyair bodhisattvair; ‘he should be known by the other Bodhisattvas’: A xxi 388, de-la … gshan-gyis, but AdT: de-las47

4 Mara appears in four different form

eath, and 4. as a divinity of the heave

511

Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. Or, alternately, he will only after erring and wandering about in Samsara for a long time, for a good long time, know full enlightenment thanks to this very perfection of wisdom. But if the Bodhisattva does not repeatedly win good spiritual friends – to observe, obey, and honour – and if in his new incarnation475 he does not censure his former ideas and see their error,476 then only two levels can be expected of him, i.e. that of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. Among the monks who follow the vehicle of the Disciples anyone guilty of any of the four capital offences477 ceases to be a monk, a Sramana, a son of the Sakya, and cannot, while in this body, gain any of the four fruits of a Sramana. More serious still are the ideas478 associated with conceitedness which a Bodhisattva has because of the annunciation of his name, and which make him despise other Bodhisattvas and look down upon them. In this way subtle deeds of Mara take place as a result of this annunciation of the name. not only more serious than the four capital offences, but even than the five deadly sins479 are these conceited ideas which stem from the annunciation of the name. Moreover by way of declaring the virtues of detachment Mara, the Evil One, approaches the Bodhisattva and says: ‘The Tathagata has spoken in praise of detachment’. But I, Subhuti, do not speak of the detachment of a Bodhisattva in the way of his residing in the remote forest, in forest jungle, or in far-away places. ((f218a)) Subhuti : What then is a Bodhisattva’s detachment, if it is different from his residing in the remote forest, in forest jungle, or in far-away places? The Lord : If a Bodhisattva becomes detached from attentions associated with the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, then he dwells detached, though not in the remote forest, forest jungle, or far-away places. If he dwells day and night in the detachment which I have enjoined, then the Bodhisattva dwells truly detached. 475 atmabhavapratilabhena, lus rned-pa; A xxi 390, -pratilambhena, lus yons-su grub-pa, ‘in his new-found outlook on life’? 476 ‘confesses his fault’, which lay in having held them. 477 mula = pradhana H 779. They are: murder, theft, unchastity, and false claims

ratimokshasutra they are the four offences whic

e order of monks. 478 cittopado. 7

9 Murder of mother, father, or an Arahant; causing dissension in the order of monks; deliberately causing a Tathagata’s blood t

512

And the detachment which I have enjoined for the Bodhisattvas differs from that which Mara, the Evil One, recommends, and which consists in residing in the remote forest, in forest jungles, in far-away places. He who is contaminated by that detachment, who is not lacking in the attentions associated with the level of the Disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, who does not apply himself to the perfection of wisdom, he will not fulfil the knowledge of all modes. His attentions are by no means perfectly pure, and yet he looks down on those other Bodhisattvas who dwell near a village, although their attentions are perfectly pure and uncontaminated by Disciple-thoughts, Pratyekabuddha-thoughts, or any other ideas, and they have reached the full comprehension of the trances, emancipations, concentrations, attainments and superknowledges.480 But that Bodhisattva who has no skill in means – though he may spend up to hundreds of thousands of niyutas of kotis of years or more, in wild forests, hundreds of miles wide, with no other company than481 beasts of prey, deer and birds, thieves and outcasts, snakes, Rakshasas and a few stray hunters – he will still not cognize this detachment482 by which Bodhisattvas dwell as having set out with earnest intention. But contaminated is that

achment, clings to it and is bent on it. He will not gladden my heart with such thoughts as these. But that which I have declared to be the detachment of Bodhisattvas, that does not appear in him who is endowed with this kind of detachment. And why? Because he is without it. And to him Mara, the Evil One, standin

up in the air, will say: ‘Well done, well done, son of good family! This is the true detachment which the Tathagata has declared. Do dwell in it! Then yo

proudly imagines that his kind of detachment is the most valuable of all, returns to the neighbourhood of a village, and despises the monks belonging to the vehicle of the Bodhisattvas

erfectly pure, and although they are well behaved and lovely in character; and he believes that

elling. He exhorts those Bodhisattvas w

ho dwell in (true) detachment ((f. 218b)) to live in what is in fact a contaminated,483 a 480 So AdT.

1 anapagata;

2 which is the result of the perfection of wisdom and of skill in means. H. 483 by the ideas of the Disciples, etc. H.

513

crowded484 dwelling. But those who live in a contaminated dwelling, he credits with dwelling in detachment and feels respect for them. But where he ought to feel respect, there he feels pride. And why? Because he imagines, ‘ghosts exhort me, ghosts inform me! How can this happen to one living near a village?’ It is thus that the Bodhisattva despises other sons of good family who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle. This person should be known as an outcast among Bodhisattvas,485 a defamer of Bodhisattvas,486 a counterfeit Bodhisattva,487 a thief488 of the world with its gods, men and Asuras in the guise of a Sramana. Sons and daughters of good family who belong to the vehicle of the Bodhisattvas should not tend, love, or honour such a person. And why? Because, Subhuti, he must be regarded as greatly conceited. V 1, 9. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF COURAGEOUSLY ADVANCING ON ONE’S OWN INITIATIVE TO THE HIGHER KNOWLEDGE, AND OF TENDING THE GOOD SPIRITUAL FRIEND. A Bodhisattva, a great being, who has not abandoned the knowledge of all modes or the supreme enlightenment, that Bodhisattva, that great being, who earnestly intends to know full enlightenment and to work the weal of all beings, should not tend such persons, love, or honour them. But he should devote himself to his own welfare,489 always alarmed at Samsara and afraid of it, unsubmerged by the triple world. And even towards outcast Bodhisattvas he should also produce a thought of friendliness, of compassion, of sympathetic joy, of impartiality. He should produce a thought, ‘thus will I act that in future all these faults of mine shall in no way whatsoever either happen or be produced. And if they should be produced, I will train myself to quickly forsake them!’ This should be known as the courageous advance of these Bodhisattvas towards their own higher knowledge.490 Furthermore the Bodhisattva, the great being, who earnestly 484 as lying outside the Mahayana. H. 485 because other Bodhisattvas do not wish to have any contact with him. H. 486 because he defames, or disgraces, his own thought of enlightenment, and that of others. H. 487 because he is devoid of the attributes (dharma) of a Bodhisattva. H.

0 svayam-ab

ut the Tibetan, both at A and AdT has ran-gi mnon-par ses-pas, ‘by, or through,

eir own higher knowledge’.

514

intends to know the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment, should tend, love, and honour the good spiritual friends. Subhuti : Who, then, O Lord, should be known as the good spiritual friends of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings? The Lord : The Buddhas, the Lords, should be known as the good spiritual friends of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings; and so should the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, and also the Disciples; and so should those who tell them about491 the six perfections. ((219a)) Moreover, the six perfections should be known as the good spiritual friends of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings; and so should the four applications of mindfulness, etc. to: the 18 special Buddhadharmas; and also Suchness, the Reality limit and the Dharma-element. Moreover the six perfections should be known as the teachers of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings; they are the Path, the Light, the torch, the illumination, the int

Bodhisattvas, the great beings, their refuge and final relief; they are the parents of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings.492 The four applications of mi

hisattvas, the great beings) etc. to:493 the knowledge of all modes is conducive to the forsaking of all the defilements together with their residues. And why? These dharmas which constitute the wings to enlightenment494 were the parents also of those Buddhas and Lords who were Tathagatas in the past period; they will be the parents of those Buddhas and Lords who will be Tathagatas in a future period; and they are also the parents of those Buddhas and Lords who just now in the world systems in the ten directions stand, hold, and maintain themselves. And why? Because from these dharmas have issued the past, future, and present Buddhas and Lords. Therefore, then, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being who wants to win full enlightenment, to purity the Buddha-field, to mature beings, should win over

1 The text here gives eight synonyms.

2 Most of these terms are explained by H on p. 787.

3 The yavat represents a long list in S. This seems to suggest that Ad is later than S and represent

4 The later Mss give their number as 37, i.e. the 4 applications of mindfulne

ght efforts, 4 roads to psychic power, 5 dominants (or ‘cardinal virtues’

limbs of enlightenment, 8 limbs of the Path.

515

words and deeds. Surveying also this reasoning, Subhuti, I say: These dharmas which are the wings to enlightenment are of the Bodhisattvas, the great beings, the teachers, the parents, the place of rest, the refuge, and the final relief.

V 1, 10. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF TRAINING IN PERFECT WI

ERS AND WAYS. Therefore, then, Subhuti, the Bodhisattva, the great being, who wants to go to a state where he cannot be led astray by others, and to maintain himself in it, who wants to terminate the uncertainties of all beings, to purify the Buddha-field and to mature beings, should train himself in just this perfection of wisdom. And why? Because here in this perfection of wisdom those dharmas are pointed out in detail in which the Bodhisattva, the great being, should train. V 1, 11. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF NOT SETTLING DOWN IN ANYTHING. Subhuti : How is the perfection of wisdom marked? The Lord : Like space, the perfection of wisdom is marked by non-attachment.495 But the perfection of wisdom is not a mark ((f. 219b)) nor does it have one. Subhuti : Might perhaps all dharmas exist42a through that mark through the perfection of wisdom exists42a? The Lord : So it is, Subhuti, so it is. All dharmas exist by just that mark by which the perfection of wisdom exists. And why? Because all dharmas are isolated in their own-being, empty of their own-being. In that way all dharmas exist through the mark by which the perfection of wisdom exists, i.e. through the mark of emptiness, the mark of isolatedness. Subhuti : If all dharmas are isolated from all dharmas, if all dharmas are empty of all dharmas, how then can the defilement and purification of beings be conceived? Because what is isolated

either the isolated nor emptiness fully knows the utmost, right, and perfect enlightenment. the isolated cannot apprehend any dh

arma in emptiness. The i

mptiness any being who knows full enligh

495 A xii 400 omits “like space” and has only asanga-laksana = anabhinivesa-svabhava, H. 42a samvidyate; or ‘is found’, ‘be found’.

516

shall we understand the meaning of this teaching? The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, do beings for a long time course in I-making and Mine-making? Subhuti : So they do, O Lord. The Lord : Are then I-making and Mine-making isolated and empty? Subhuti : Yes, they are. The Lord : Is it because of I-mak

Subhuti : So it is, O Lord. The Lord : It

ceived. No I-making and Mine-making and in consequence no taking up. No taking up, and then on beings run and wander about in birth-and-death. And so there is no defilement. In the same way should the purification of beings be conceived. V 1, 12. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF BEING NEAR THE ENLIGHTENMENT OF A BUDDHA. Subhuti :

18 special Buddhadharmas. And why? Because there all tho

mas are not apprehended – he who courses, that w

ses, that wherein he would course. When he courses thus, the Bodhisattva, the great being, cannot be crushed by the whole world with its gods, men and

iples or Pratyekabuddhas. And why? Because this Bodhisattva’s special way of salvation is an

nsurpassable is the Bodhisattva who is not devoid of attentions to the knowledge of all modes. ((f. 220a)) V 2. The Growth. (Summits). V 2, 1. THE GROWTH OF THIS MERIT IS

S OF JAMBUDVIPA, ETC. GAIN FROM THE HONOURING THE TATHAGATAS, ETC. The Lord : If, Subhuti, all beings in Jambudvipa should acquire a human personality, and thereafter know full enlightenment; and

ves honour, revere, adore, and worship them, and should dedicate

517

the merit thus gained496 to the supreme enlightenment – would they on the strength of that beget much merit? Subhuti : They would, O Lord. The Lord : A greater merit does that son or daughter of good family beget who demonstrates497 the perfectio of w

dwells in attentions associated with it. Likewise, if a son or daughter of good family should establish a

iliocosm, after they have acqu

paths of wholesome action, in the four trances, the four Unlimited

mwinner, etc. to: in

htenment, and would dedicate the merit thus gained to the supreme enlightenment – would they on the streng

h merit?

Subhuti : They would, O Lord. The Lord : A greater merit does that son or daughter of good family beget who demonstrates the perfection of wisdom to others, and dwells in attentions associated with the knowledge of all modes. He then reaches a cognition where he becomes worthy498

dwelling as the Bodhisattva, the great being, except of course the Tathagata.

course in the perfection of wisdom, aspire for the great friendliness, and see all beings as on the way to their slaughter; they aspire for the great compassion. Dwelling in that dwelling, they rejoice with the great sympathetic joy, and aspire for the great sympathetic joy. But they do not become intimate with that sign,499 but acquire the great impartiality. This, Subhuti, is of those Bodhisattvas, the great light of wisdom – the light of the six perfections. Even before they are fully enlightened they become worthy of the donations of all beings, for they do not turn away from full enlightenment. Dwelling in attentions associated with the perfection of wisdom, they purify500 the d

knowledge of all modes. The

496 literally: ‘that wholesome root’. 497 The text here gives 8 synonyms. 498 i.e. punyaksetratam pratipadyate, H. 499 A x

xii 403: “ut he does not make either this, or anything else, into a sign to he becomes partial”. Sardham samvasati also at A xx 379. P f. 275.

518

Bodhisattva should constantly and always dwell in this mental work associated with perfect wisdom, if he does not want to consume his alms fruitlessly, if he wants to point out the path to all beings, to shed light over a wide range, to liberate the beings imprisoned in the triple world, to produce the supreme Eye

gs. If the Bodhisattva dwells

perfect wisdom, he should also preach sermons associated with the perfection of wisdom. V 2, 2. IN ITS DISTINCTIVE OWN-BEING THE GROWTH CONSISTS IN ATTENTIONS TO THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM. When he has preached sermons associated with the perfection of wisdom, he should dwell in just these attentions associated with the perfection of wisdom, and give no opportunity to other mental activities. Day and night he should persistently dwell in just these attentions associated with the perfection of wisdom. If a man had newly acquire

it again, he would be most sad and

ys mental activities associated with that precious gem would proceed in him, and he would regret being parted from it. Just so should the Bodhisattva, the great being, recognizing this (perfect wisdom) as a precious jewel, not lack in attentions associated with the knowledge of all modes. Subhuti : Since, however, all mental activities are lacking in own-being, are empty of own-being, how then can the Bodhisattva become one who is not lacking in acts of attention associated with the knowledge of all modes? For how can one apprehend the Bodhisattva, his acts of attention and the knowledge of all modes, in that which is deprived of them?501 The Lord : If the Bodhisattva cognizes thus: ‘devoid of own-being are all dharmas; they have not been made by the Disciples, nor by the Pratyekabuddhas, nor even by the Buddhas, the Lords; but just a fact is the Dharmahood of these dharmas, the established order of Dharma, the fixed sequence of dharmas, the Suchness, nonfalseness, unaltered Suchness, the Dharma-element,

1 virahite, AdT: ‘bral-ba-la. – The authors

f disquisitions in which they juggle with the words virahita, avirahita, viharati and manasikara. It is almost impossible to do them justice in English.

519

is in its own-being isolated and empty, and it neither increases nor decreases.502 V 2, 3. THE GROWHT WHICH IN ITS OWN FORM IS THE GAINING OF THE PREEMINENT PATIENT ACCEPTANCE OF THAT WHICH FAILS TO BE PRODUCED. Subhuti : If, O Lord, the perfection of wisdom in its own-being is isolated and empty, how is it that the Bodhisattva, the great being, thanks to the full possession of the perfection of wisdom503 wins full enlightenment? The Lord : When in full possession of the perfection of wisdom, the Bodhisattva, the great being

Because the perfection of wisdom is neither one nor two. If the Bodhisattva, when this is being taught, is

rt, and remains unafraid, then one can be quite certain that he stands in the irreversible element,504 and is in fact one who courses in perfect wisdom. Subhuti : It is, then, this emptiness of the perfection of wisdom, its nullity, insignificance, voidness and insubstantiality,505 which courses in perfect wisdom? The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Can one, then, outside the perfection of wisdom apprehend a dharma which courses in perfect wisdom? The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Does, then, perhaps the perfection of wisdom course in perfect wisdom?

The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Does, then, perhaps the emptiness course in emptiness? The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Does, then, perhaps something outside emptiness course in perfect wisdom?

502 H 796: The perfection of wisdom is empty and in actual fact devoid of growth and diminuation. When the attention makes the emptiness of all dharmas into its object, the fact that it is turned on emptiness guarantees its unpervertedness (see P 198), and in that sense the perfection of wisdom is not lacking in attention. 503 prajnaparamitayam samudagamya; AdT : ses-rab-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa-la

amudagacchati, “how can a Bodhisattva arrive,

isdom, at the full attainment of enlightenment?” 504 AdT: stage, or, level. 505 For a definition of these terms see H 706.

520

The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Do, then, the skandhas course in perfect wisdom? The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Do, then, the six perfections course in perfect wisdom, etc. to: do the 18 special

The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Does, then, the emptiness of form, its nullity, vanity

stantiality, Suchness, nonfalseness, unaltered Suchness, its Dharmahood, Dharma-element, fixed sequence of Dharma, Reality limit, course in the perfection of wisdom? The Lord : No, S

Subhuti : Does, then, the emptiness, etc. to: Reality limit of all dharmas up to the 18 special Buddhadharmas course in the perfection of wisdom? The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : If, O Lord, these dharmas do not course in perfect wisdom, how then again does the Bodhisattva, the great being, course in perfect wisdom? The Lord : Wh

ma which ((f. 221b)) courses in the perfection of wisdom? Subhuti : No, O Lord. The Lord : What do you

ction of wisdom in whic

Subhuti : No, O Lord. The Lord : What do you think, Subhuti, can on

ehend that dharma whic

Subhuti : No, O Lord. The Lord : What

ehend, will that be pr

Subhuti : No, O Lord. The Lor

507roduced. Endowed with this kind of patience, a Bodhisattva is predicted by the Buddhas, the Lords to the supreme enlightenment. He is bound to progress to the Tathagata’s grounds of

506 tattvato, H. 507 sarvadharmanupalambhad eva p

ama-bhavanaya samvr

havati. H

521

self- ytical knowledges.508 When he thus

cour

reach the cognition of the supremely

enlig eat cognition, the cognition of the

know a

has eptance of dharmas which fail to be

prod

V 2, AS FOR ITS MARK THE FACT THAT IT OFFERS

NO B

510 of all dharmas that a

Bodh ll enlightenment?

ted?

his

Bodh nment take place?

do not see as real that dharma which is

pred

Subhuti, so it is. When he does not

appr

one will fully

confidence and his anal

ses, thus strives, and struggles, then it is quite impossible that the Bodhisattva should not

htened Buddhas, the gr

ledge of all modes. And why? Because that Bodhisattv

attained the patient acc

uced. And he cannot lose any of these dharmas509 until he has known full enlightenment.

4. THE GROWHT WHICH H

ASIS FOR THE APPREHENSION OF THE REAL EXISTENCE OF THE PERSONS WHO WIN ENLIGHTENMENT, OR OF THE DHARMA WHICH IS KNOWN TO ENLIGHTENMENT. Subhuti : It is, then, for the production

isattva is predicted to fu

The Lord : No, Subhuti. Subhuti : Is it, then, for the nongenesis511 of all dharmas that a Bodhisattva is so predic

The Lord : No, Subhuti.

Subhuti : Is it, then, for neither genesis nor nongenesis that he is so predicted? The Lord : No, Subhuti.

Subhuti : If he is predicted neither for genesis512 nor for nongenesis,513 how then does just now here the prediction of t

isattva to full enlighte

The Lord : Do you see514 as real that dharma which is predicted to full enlightenment?

Subhuti : No, O Lord, I

icted to full enlightenment, or also that dharma which is fully known, or whereby it is fully known, or him who fully knows it.

The Lord : So it is,

ehend all dharmas, it does not occur to the Bodhisattva: ‘I will fully know, through this (dharma) I will fully know, this

508 The sense is none too clear, and the text is here corrupt. I follow AdT and A. 509 AdT: because he will remain intent on it (gshol-bar = nimna). 510 So AdT. s has: anutpadaya, but in view of Subhuti’s next questions this seems

1 anutpattikatay

2 Aatti, skye-ba. 513 Ad: anutpatti, skye-ba ma mchis-pa. 514 samanupasya

522

know’. And why? Because all these discriminations do not exist in the Bodhisattva who courses in perfect wisdom. ((f. 222a)) And why? Because the perfection of wisdom does not discriminate.

523

CHAPTER 56 EVEN TRAINING

524

Jambudvipa who are endowed with the ten ways of wholesome

action, with the four tran ited, the four formless

attainments, and the fiv ; how much more so if

he will learn this deep perfection of wisdom, bear it in mind ((f.

222b)) and study it ss to its Thusness.

He will surpass the suras, he will

come to surpass it. And he will in addition come to surpass all the

Streamwinners, etc. to: Pratyekabuddhas; and also those

perfection of

med

wants to extricate

bein

ing approached him, they will say to him:

“Qu

aded by Samtusita, the

deva

ces, the four Unlime superknowledges, and thereafter will progreworld with its gods, men and A

Bodhisattvas who, without skill in means and perfect wisdom, course in the perfection of giving, etc. to: the

itation. But those Bodhisattvas who course in the perfection of wisdom as it has been explained, then the world with its gods, men and Asuras cannot surpass. The Bodhisattva who courses in the perfection of wisdom as it has been explained and complies with it, he works for the noninterruption of the lineage of the knowledge of all modes,518 he does not keep aloof from the Tathagatas. He will, when he progresses thus, not keep aloof from519 the Tathagatas. He will, when he progresses thus, not turn back on the terrace of enlightenment, for he

gs from (the mud of the defilements) into which they have sunk.520 When he thus trains, he trains in the training of a Bodhisattva, and not that of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha. V 2, 6. THE GROWTH WHICH BY ITS OWN-BEING (INDUCES) THE WHOLE MULTITUDE OF THE GODS TO APPROACH (THE BODHISATTVA). When he thus trains, the Four Great Kings will think of approaching him, and, hav

ickly train yourself, great man, nimbly train yourself! Here are the four begging fowls which the former Tathagatas received,521 and which you also shall receive when you will be seated on the terrace of enlightenment, after you have known full enlightenment.” And also the divinities belonging to the Four Great Kings will think of approaching the Bodhisattva who thus trains in perfect wisdom. And not only they, but also the Gods of the Thirty-three, the deva kings headed by Suyama, the devas kings he

kings heads by Nirmito (who magically create their own

rigs) –anupacchedaya sthatukamena etc. AdT here: gdun.

9 or ‘disdain’, ‘belittle’, ‘re

0 A xxiii 414, klesapanke samsidamanan uddharisyati. 521 Buddhacarit

525

enjoyments), those who control the enjoyments magically created by others, Brahma Sahampati and the gods connected with him, the shining gods, the altogether lovely gods, those who have a great fruition, the lowest of the five Gods of the Pure Abode, the Atapa gods, ((f. 223a) the gods who are good to see, the gods who are good to behold, the Gods of the Pure Abode.522 The Tathagatas will constantly bring to mind the Bodhisattva who courses in this deep perfection of wisdom as it has been explained. When he thus courses in this deep perfection of wisdom as it has been explained, then all the worldly ills which may befall his body as the result of hostile influences from the outside will never befall his body or assail it. These, O monk, will be the qualities which a Bodhisattva who courses in this deep perfection of wisdom gains in this very life. All the illnesses that there are, which may befall him,523 such as eye-disease, ear-, nose-, and tongue-diseases, bodily illness, mental illness – they all cannot arise in his body or assail it. These qualities belonging to this very life should be expected of the Bodhisattva who courses in this deep perfection of wisdom. V 2, 7. THE GROWTH WHICH IN ITS OWN FORM IS THE ABILITY TO OVERCOME ALL MARAS.

Chief of Gods, expound by his own insight524 the perfection of wisdom and its virtues and advantages or by the Budd

Sakra read his thoughts, and said to the Ven. Ananda: As the Buddha’s might should this be known when I expound the perfection of wisdom and its virtues and advantages. The Lord : So it is, Ananda, so it is. It is through the Tathagata’s might, it is through His sustaining power, that Sakra, Chief of Gods, expounds the perfection of wisdom, and its virtues and advantages. At the time when, Ananda, a Bodhisattva trains in perfect wisdom, make endeavours about it and develops it, all 522 For this list see Edgerton s.v. deva. 523 lit. ‘from the union of the humours’.

urth of the ‘analytical knowledges’ (see A.K. vii 91-2), and one of the faculties of a Bodhisattva which he requires less for his own salvation than for the conv

thers (see SaPu x v. DaBhu 76, 24 sq.). It means both ‘flashes of i

l flexibility’, and readiness to express them in speech,

to A I 4, iii 83, xi 232, xx 3

526

the evil Maras in the great trichiliocosm are in a state of uncertainty, ‘Will this Bodhisattva realise the Reality limit and then reach the fruit of a Streamwinner, etc. to: Pratyekabuddhahood, or will he know full enlightenment?’ Moreover, at the time when the Bodhisattva becomes one who is not without perfect wisdom, Mara, the Evil One, is pierced by the dart of sorrow.525 Moreover the Evil Maras will let loose a shower of meteors, so as to generate fear in him, to cow him, to make his hairs stand on end, to discompose his mind, to cause one thought at least to distracted away from attentions to the knowledge of all modes. Ananda : Does then, O Lord, Mara, the Evil One, attempt to hurt all Bodhisattvas? The Lord : No, he does not. Ananda : What kind of persons does he then try to hurt? The Lord : Mara attempts to hurt those Bodhisattvas who, when this deep perfection of wisdom was being taught in the past have had no firm belief in it. And also those who have been seized by uncertainties about this deep perfection of wisdom, and who thought th

not seeing him, do not hear this deep perfection of wisdom, do not cognize it, and in con

ot know how to develop it. And Mara also has a chance with a Bodhisattva who, being without perfect wisdom, takes hold of what is not the true Dharma. Moreover when a Bodhisattva, being

out perfect wisdom, speaks in praise of what is not the true Dharma, then it occurs to Mara, the Evil One: ‘One who speaks in praise of what is not the true Dharma, he is my adher526

I have found an advocate13 among many who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle. He will fulfil my intention, which is that those who belong to the Bodhisattva-vehicle should stand on either of two levels – that of a Disciple or Pratyekabuddha.’ What other kind of a Bodhisattva will Mara, the Evil One, gain entry to? If a

r listening to it, etc. to: in your

u

e bottom of it. How then can you?’, then Mara will gain entry to 525 because the Bodhisattva has transcended their realm and has moved outside the range of their influence, they are filled with deep sorrow (saimanasya), H 814. 526 sahayako, grogs. 527

him. Moreover when a Bodhisattva despises other Bodhisattvas, and thinks, ‘I course in the perfection of giving, etc. to: in the perfection of wisdom, but you do not!’, then Mara gain entry to him. Moreover when a Bodhisattva fancies and exalts himself, then Mara, the Evil One, becomes contented, elated, enraptured, he becomes over-joyed, exultant and jubilant, and can gain entry to him. Moreover when of a Bodhisattva the assumption of a name or clan527 is proclaimed, then he may regard that as a sufficient reason to look down on other Bodhisattvas, however well behaved and lovely in character528 they may be.

eciates others. He has not got the qualities which are the attributes, tokens, and

as not got them, he gives rise

eciates others and says: ‘In this Bodhisattva-vehicle, in

isattva-clan you do not make such a good figure529 as I do.’ So he will condemn and depreciate those persons belonging to the Bodhisattva-vehicle. Mara, the Evil One, then thinks to himself: ‘My realm will not remain empty, crowded will be the hells, the animal kingdom, ((f. 224a)) the world of Yama, and the range of the Pretas’. More and more will Mara, the Evil One, sustain that Bodhisattva, so that he will in due course become a plausible talker. ‘Because of his plausible talk many people will listen to him and believe him, they will imitate what they have seen and heard, and will in consequence not530 train in Thusness; not17 training in Thusness, not17 progressing in it, they will increase their defilements. Whatever deed they may do with their perverted personality531 – by body, voice and mind – that will lead them to what is unserviceable, disagreeable, and unpleasant. In consequence the great hells will become crowded, the animal kingdom, the world of Yama, and the range of the Pretas. The realm of Mara will be crowded!’ When he considers this sequence of events, Mara becomes enraptured, over-joyed, and jubilant. Moreover, if a person belonging to the Bodhisattva-vehicle disputes with a son of good family, who belongs to the vehicle of the 527 min smos sam, rus smos te. 528 As f. 218a.

e meaning of the falsehoods contained in his ‘plausible talk’. 531 AdT: “whatever mental deed they may do with perverted mind, body, or voice”;

e A xxiv 419.

528

Disciples, and claims to be superior to him, the Mara, the Evil One, thinks to himself: ‘Surely, this son of good family will keep far away from the knowledge of all modes and will not come near it!’ And why? Because these quarrels, fights, battles, and disputes do not lead to the knowledge of all modes, but to the hells, to animal births, to the world of Yama. Because they are not the way to the knowledge of all modes. Moreover if a person belonging to the vehicle of the Bodhisattvas quarrels, fights, battles, and disputes with someone else who likewise belongs to that vehicle, the Mara, the Evil One, thinks to himself, ‘both these remain far away from the knowledge of all modes! Both these will not know full enlightenment!’ And why? Because this path, this progress on which the sons of good family have set out leads not to the knowledge of all modes, but to the hells, the animal world, the world of Yama! Moreover if a Bodhisattva, who has not had his prediction, cherishes malice for one who has had it, and quarrels, fights, battles, and disputes with him, then he must put on the armour for as many aeons as he has produced in himself those evil thoughts, which cause quarrelling, fighting, battles, and disputes, unless, of cou