The formations come into being of Ganhwa-Seon(看話禪)
Kim, Ho-Gui / The Buddhist Research Institute, Dongguk Univ.
The zen-school of Tang(唐) dynasty was the essence of China zen buddhism. But, in Song(宋) dynasty, the zen action and zen thought went off their color. So, gradually vicious practices and side effects appeared in many aspect.
The Ganhwa-Seon(看話禪) was a practice of zen-buddhism. Especially, Ganhwa-Seon emphasis so called Hwadu(話頭). That is, Ganhwa(看話) means have a look at the Hwadu. This Ganhwa-Seon come into being in Song-dynasty of Chinese by Daehye-Jonggo(大慧宗杲 : 1089-1163). Here we can ratiocinate some reasons, namely, the formations come into being of Ganhwa-Seon.
Firstly, We can examined that Daehye-Jonggo have the critical attitude for the thought of Silent-Penetration(黙照) by Jinhul-Chungryo(眞歇淸了). At that times, a group of the thought of Silent-Penetration lapsed into a state of coma. In many ways, this was a target of the critical attitude by Daehye-Jonggo, so called, a fancy, a foolish imaginings, a stupefaction, a sleeping sickness, a delusion, and the borderland between sleeping and waking, etc.
Secondly, the attitude of a peace-at-any-price principle about all seon-practice. The ways of prudentialism was originated from the closing years of Tang-dynasty. The secondly effect on seon-buddhism were prevalent every seon-masters at the time of the early days in Song-dynasty.
In this state of affairs, Daehye-Jonggo had the critical attitude for the thought of Silent-Penetration and the ways of prudentialism. So, he standed by his many opinions in his “The Discrimination between right and wrong on Seon-practice(辨邪正說)”. At that time, Daehye-Jonggo(大慧宗杲 1089-1163) set up against that problem and that followers. As a part of that preventive measure, he preached sermons for not only Buddhist priests but also high officials that The Discrimination between right and wrong on seon-practice.
Here we can abstract his taught for them in eight ways.
First, discriminate the expedients.
Second, Alert absence of expedients.
Third, Do not ignore of enlightenments.
Fourth, Do not depend on letters and notions.
Fifth, Only adhere The Muja-Hwagu(無字話頭) instead of divisionism.
Sixth, Do not consider at own discretion.
Seventh, Seek after for seon masters.
Eighth, Bear in mind the faiths.
These eight ways were as it used at that times, and are as it useful for modern seon practice and buddhist priests. Here we can examined some reasons about the formation come into being of Ganhwa-Seon(看話禪)