The idea of the Saddharma-pundarika-sutra (法華經) mentioned in the oldest edition of 《Youkjo-Dangyoung》 from Donhwang.
/ Dongguk University Gyeongju Campus
The ideas of the Saddharma-pundarika-sutra(法華經) mentioned in the Sutra calle《Youkjo-Dangyoung(육조단경)》and Hyeneung(慧能)‘s standpoint about the thoughts are as follows.
The first is the idea of sudden awakening(頓悟). Everyone has the Buddha-nature of wisdom(般若佛性) in his own interior and it called ‘Jasungbul(自成佛)’ – to become Buddha by oneself. But Hyeneung said that they could reveal their Buddha-nature of wisdom if people had entire mind on emptiness(空) without preoccupation and non-dualistic(不二的) cognizance beyond a relative dualism. In terms of that, he interpreted Sahong-seowon(四弘誓願) – The four universal vows of a Buddha or bodhisattva – was what people wanted to live a non-dualistic life to reveal their interior Buddha-nature.
The Second is what his thought is based on popularization of Buddhism. His standpoint is not Buddhism of an intellectual-oriented but easily becoming Buddha whoever comprehend their own nature(自性), which made an epoch in the aspects of the secularization movement of Buddhism. It doesn’t matter whether they read the discourses of Buddha or not. It is important how realize the Buddha-nature of wisdom that they have innately. The Sutra, in terms of that, expressed by the letters cannot be the ultimate objective. It is just what we need because the Sutra help us make sure becoming Buddha by themselves. So does reading Saddharma-Pundarika(法華經).
Thirdly, he thought the three vehicles(三乘) and the vehicle of one-ness(一乘) were an skillful means to explain the differentiation appearing in phenomenon. A human being isn’t identical. Everything like personality or appearance and so forth is different. However, that differences are substantially same when we take a side view of having Jasungbul(自成佛). An essential value of life hasn’t any distinction although there are some differences of phenomenon in Jasungbul which is represent as one-Buddha vehicle or the method of realizing the Buddha-nature of wisdom or existence of defilements and so on. Not only recognizing each difference but also emphasizing the identity in the essential dimensions is both respecting the relative values and recognizing the worldly values. The whole things can be understood in the same view, either a metaphor on trees nad plants or explanation about Dharma of the four vehicles(四乘), the goat, deer, ox carts and the great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra.
Finally, Hyeneung‘s standpoint about the idea of the Dharma-flower mentioned above is so much creative. But we shouldn’t lookover that the pioneering thinkers of Dharma-flower as Chuntae-Jieui(天台智顗) and Gasang- Giljang (嘉祥吉藏) etc. pave the way for bringing out that ideology. Even if there are no direct materials which can give us the proof of mutual-relationship of influences, some resemblance is found in both the way of thinking and the thinking system.