1.  Chinul is alluding here to the famous Parable of the Burning House from the Lotus Sutra. See Miao‐fa lien‐hua ching 2, T 262.9.12c‐13c; Leon Hurvitz, Lotus, pp. 58‐62. See also LCL, p. 497b. 17, and Wonhyo’s Palsim suhaeng chang, in Cho Myeong‐gi (ed.), Wonhyo taesa cheonjip, p. 605.

2.  By Tan‐hsia Tzu‐ch’un (丹霞子淳 1064‐1117), in the Ts’ao‐tung lineage; from his verse, the Wan chu‐yin(翫珠吟), appearing in CTL 30, p. 463b‐c. This passage is quoted also at THYL 8, p. 843b. “Hundred bones” (百骸 K. paekhae; C. po‐hai): an allusion to Chuang‐tzu 1, Ch’i wu lun sec. 2, p. 8.
3.  Adapted from Wonhyo’s Palsim suhaeng chang: Wonhyo taesa cheonjip, p. 605.
4.  Avatamsaka Sutra, chapter (Ju‐lai ch’u‐hsien p’in),HYC 51, p. 272c.

5.  In the Complete Enlightenment Sutra, YCC, p. 914a.
6.  Adapted from Ku‐ling Shen‐tsan 古靈神贊 (n.d.), disciple of Po‐chang Huai‐hai (720‐814); in Chodang chip 16, p. 104c.25‐26.
7.   LCL, p. 497b.26‐29.
8.  CTL 3, p. 218b; quoted also in THYL 5, p. 829c. Korean Igyeon (異見 C. yi‐chien) is   a common designation for devotees of non‐Buddhist Indian religious sects; compare K. osip igyeon paramun nyeo(五十異見婆羅門女), C. wu‐shih yi‐chien peo‐lo‐men nil,P’u‐sa pen‐sheng‐man lun(無相宗) 4, T 160.3.341c. 18‐19. Such sects were “heterodox” because they did not accept such basic Buddhist teachings as rebirth or karmic cause and effect; for a listing, see Ch’ang A‐han ching 7, T 1.1.42c. 1‐3. Bharati was a prime exponent of the signless teaching (musang chong)―one of the six major divisions of the Indian Buddhist tradition reputedly current in Bodhidharma’s time (CTL 3, p. 217b.3‐5). Bharati was sent by Bodhidharma to reconvert the South Indian kings who had reverted to heterodox beliefs and were reviling the three treasures; see CTL 3, p. 218a‐b.
9.  Kuei‐tsung Ts’e‐chen (歸宗策眞 ?‐979), also known as Hui‐ch’ao 慧超, was a disciple of Fa‐yen Wen‐i (885‐958), founder of the Fa‐yen school of the mature Ch’an tradition. For Kuei‐tsung’s biography, see CTL 25, p. 417a.3‐22. A similar exchange in which Kuei‐tsung asks the question and receives the same reply from Fa‐yen constitutes case 7 in the Blue Cliff Records; see Pi‐yen lu 1, 72003.48.147a.
10. This quotation appears in THYL 26, p. 920a. 12‐13; Ta‐hui does not cite his source, however, a not unusual occurrence in Ch’an texts.
11. The fourth answer to a series of ten questions asked by Kuei‐feng Tsung‐mi by the mountain man Shih; see CTL 13, p. 307b.l6‐19, and Encouragement to Practice, note
12. Adapted from Ma‐tsu Tao‐i; see Encouragement to Practice, note 71.
13. Adapted from Nan‐ch’uan P’u‐yuan (南泉普願 748‐835) in CTL 10, p. 276c; see Straight Talk on the True Mind, note 1.
14. By P’ang Yun (龐蘊 740‐808), lay disciple of Ma‐tsu Tao‐i; quoted in CTL 8, p. 263b.
15. One of the two major approaches to practice attributed to Bodhidharma; see Encouragement to Practice, note 34.
16.  Avalokitesvara’s method for tracing hearing to its source in the mind was praised by Sakyamuni Buddha as the ideal practice for people in a degenerate age; see Surangama Sutra, Leng‐yen ching 6, r945.19.128b‐129c.
17. By Ch’eng‐kuan (澄觀 738‐840), the fourth Hua‐yen patriarch, in his Ta‐fang‐kuangFo hua‐yen chingsui‐shuyen‐ich’aol,T 1736.36.lb.
18. In the Awakening of Faith, TCCHL, p. 575c.
19. By Li T’ung‐hsuan in his Exposition of the Avatamsaka Sutra, HHYCL 14, p. 809b; also quoted in Chinul’s Hwadmnon chdryo, p. 268.
20. THYL 26, p. 920a.
21. Adapted from Lao‐tzu 48; see Encouragement to Practice, note 70.
22. By Kuei‐feng Tsung‐mi; see CYCTH 2, p. 403a. This quote is attributed to Ho‐tse Shen‐hui(荷澤神會) in Tsung‐mi’s DCSPR, Part II, “the view of the Ho‐tse school” section; see also CHT, p. 872a.
23. CYCTH 1, p. 399b. On the terms “supreme vehicle Seon” and “pure Seon of the note 16, and DCSPR, note 118.

24. By Pao‐chih in his Gat ha in Praise of the Mahayana (Ta‐ch’eng tsan), CTL 29, p. 450a. 1.
25. Yung‐ming Yen‐shou in his Mirror of the Source Record, Tsung‐ching lu 38, T 2016.48.638a.
26. By Kuei‐feng Tsung‐mi in CYCTH 2, p. 403a. 5; see also DCSPR and CHT, p. 872a.4.
27. LTTC, p. 358c.
28. LTTC, p. 352c. 19‐20.
29. Literally, “it only borrows their way and boards at their house.” For this allusion, see Chuang‐tzu 4, T’ien‐yun sec. 14, p. 84.
30. Kuei‐fengTsung‐mi in CYCTH 3, p. 407c; see also DCSPR
31. FromYung‐mmgYen‐shou’s Mirror of the Source Record A, Tsung‐ching lu 1, T 2016.48.419c.24.
32. Adapted from the Avatamsaka Sutra, (Fan‐hsingp’in), HYC17, p. 89a, and HYCb 8, p. 449c. 15.

33. Wei‐hsin chueh, 72018.48.996c.
34. “Fallen into darkness” can refer to hell―as in the Ti‐tsang ching, where it is said that the T’ieh‐wei Mountains (鐵圉山 Cakravadaparvata), which form the perimeter of hell, “are dark and devoid of any light from the sun or moon” (Ti‐tsangp’u‐sapen‐ytian ching 1, 7412.13.782a.4‐S). The phrase can also refer to a spirit realm, however―”the ghosts of darkness” (see Fo pen‐hsing chi ching 41, ri90.3.845b.4). The former alternative is probably intended here.
35. For this simile, see TsaA‐han ching 16, 799.2.108c.
36. See Ku shih 古詩, WH 249.29.6b; compare Ts’ao Tzu‐chien(曹子建)’s Sung Ying shih shih 送應氏詩, WH 82.20.32a.
37. cf. Chin‐kang ching, 7235.8.749b. 18‐23.
38. Shih Wu‐chu’s verse in Sung Biographies of Eminent Monks; see Encourage ment to Practice, note 76.
39. Adapted from the Lun‐yil; see Encouragement to Practice, note 68.
40. An allusion to Chuang‐tzu 4, Ch’iu shui sec. 17, p. 91; see also Tsung‐ching lu  1, 72016.48.420b. 10.
41. See Tsung‐ching lu 1, 7 2016.48.420b.ll, for this allusion; see also PWYF 587.2.
42. Chin‐kang ching, 7235.8.749a‐b.
43. Chin‐kang ching, 7235.8.750c.

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