Clear Mary

The stories of Zen Master Dok Sahn and Zen Master Guji are very interesting. They tell us about the purpose of Zen practice and Zen teaching. Both of these monks were great sutra masters. Both of them completely understood all the Buddha’s speech. They understood the whole Buddhist tradition, they understood various profound philosophies, and they understood all the eminent teachers. But when someone asked them for their own true speech, they could not say anything. They could not show their true nature to anybody. Understanding is not good and not bad. But what are you? This is very important. That point is beyond the reach of understanding. That point cannot be read in some book. Even Buddha himself cannot give you that point. The reason for this is because our true nature is before thinking. If you do Zen meditation, that point becomes clear, and is shining everywhere. It can do anything.

In Florida they have dog races. It is a very popular betting sport. People go to the dog track and bet money on the greyhounds, and if their dog wins, they win a lot of money. It is very simple. Everybody understands how the greyhounds race, yah? The dogs come out of a starting gate, and start heading around the track. Meanwhile, there is an electric rabbit that is carried along the inside rail of the track. Actually this is not a real rabbit. It is a fake rabbit with real rabbit fur on it. Dogs have very keen noses, and they follow a good smell. So this rabbit fur leads them around the track. All the dogs think they can catch the rabbit if they just run a little faster. Meanwhile, some man is watching the dogs and controlling the speed of the rabbit. If the dogs are very fast that day, he speeds the rabbit up; if they are slow, he slows it down. He always keeps this rabbit just within range of the dogs so that they think they can catch it. Every single day, the dogs go around and around and around this track. Race after race after race, the dogs just follow this rabbit.

One day, a very interesting thing happened at the races in Florida. There was a certain dog named Clear Mary. She was a very fast greyhound, and usually always won her races. But Clear Mary was also a very clever dog. One afternoon, she ran out of the starting gate with the other dogs, as usual. The rabbit hummed around the track, and the dogs sped after it. Running, running, running, running — around, around, around, around. Every day, sometimes several times a day, these dogs did the same thing, over and over and over again. And today they were doing it again, as usual. Chasing the electric rabbit.

But in the middle of the race, Clear Mary suddenly stopped. Many of the people in the grandstand stood up, fixing their binoculars on this dog. “What is happening?” they said. “What’s wrong with that dumb dog?” Some people had placed lots of bets on Clear Mary, so they were very angry. “Run! Run! You dumb dog! What’s wrong with you?”

But Clear Mary did not move for a few moments. She looked up at the grandstand. She looked at the tail ends of the other dogs scampering around the bend. And she looked at the rabbit, whirring around the bend and over to the other side of the oval track. Everything was completely still and silent for that moment at the races that day.

Suddenly, Clear Mary leapt over the guard rail that kept the dogs on the track. She sped straight across the big center infield like a flash. Leaping at just the right moment over the other guard rail, she caught the rabbit! Boom! Ha ha ha ha ha!

So that is a Zen mind. Everybody wants something in life. Everyone only follows their karma. They follow their ideas and their opinions, and believe that this is a true life. But Clear Mary is like a high-class Zen student. She was trained very strongly for many years only to follow the rabbit. Every day, she was taught to go around the track — around and around and around. But one day she stops and takes a close look. That is just like Zen practice: stopping and taking a close look at what is happening in life. Then she perceives something clearly, and just does it, one hundred percent. She doesn’t check inside or outside. Inside and outside – boom! – become one. That is a Zen mind. It’s very simple, yah?

On Lineage

1. No Buddha-Nature Outside of the Mind

Even though in the three different cosmos there have been so many chaotic events, all will be finally concluded in just one mind.

Former and later Buddhas have transmitted the mind to the mind without depending on the written world.

Student: if we do not depend upon any written word, with what and how do we conceive the mind?

Bodhidharma: When you are asking me, that is your mind. When I am responding to you, that is my mind;1 from the ancient, beginningless time, each and every movement in all different times and places is your original mind and your original Buddha.

That is the reason it has been said, the mind in itself is Buddha in himself.

Without this mind no one could seek different Buddha; because it is impossible to find either Bodhi(the wisdom of enlightenment) or Nirvana out-side of the mind.

Our self-nature is fulfilled in truth; it is already neither cause nor effect.

Self, as it is , is its own mind; the mind in itself is this Buddha.2

And, this mind is the Nirvana which is already perfectly radiant and serenely luminous3.

Insisting that there should be Buddha or Bodhi outside of the mind would be a critical fault.

Where could both Buddha and Bodhi be?

How can empty space be held?

Empty space is just a name; no form, no size, so, impossible to hold or to drop.

As if trying to hold empty space; seeking Buddha outside of the mind would be to no avail.

Since Buddha is a product of one’s mind, how can it be possible to seek Buddha outside of the mind? Former and later Buddhas have spoken the mind only:

Only the mind is Buddha,

Only Buddha is the mind;

Buddha exists not outside of the mind,

Mind exists not outside of Buddha.

If Buddha exists outside of the mind, where can it be? if Buddha exists not outside of the mind, from where did the idea of Buddha come?

Without seeing the original mind, and by exchanging false opinions, we stick to the dead substance(Buddha’s statue), and thus become unfree beings. If you do not believe this, you are fooling yourself, which is not at all helpful. Buddha does not have any deceptions, rather, confused indigent-beings do not realize or understand the fact that one’s mind is already the Buddha.

If you see Buddha is just your mind, then do not seek Buddha outside of the mind. Buddha cannot be liberated by Buddha, and Buddha cannot be seen if sought with the kind; for, that would result only that Buddha must be outside which is caused by an ignorance, knowing not that Buddha is no different from your own mind.

And, being Buddha already, do not worship Buddhas, or being your mind, do not think of(recite) Buddhas. Buddha in itself cannot read the sutras; Buddha in itself cannot uphold the precepts(of Sangha); Buddha in itself cannot violate the precepts; Buddha in itself does not have something to uphold or violate, and Buddha in itself does not cause the good or the bad.

If you truly seek Buddha, you must just see the self- nature; which is Buddha without seeing self-nature, no matter how well you recite(think of) Buddhas, read the sutras, bow in ceremonies, and uphold precepts, still no benefit will result.

Thinking of(reciting) Buddhas will promise you a happy next life. Reading the sutras will make you wise and knowledgeable, upholding the precepts will let you be born in heaven. Helping others will result in prosperous fortune; but, Buddha cannot be seen by doing these.

If you still do not know yourself clearly, you should be awakened to the essence of life-and-death by finding and meeting a Master who already has attained a great awakening.

One cannot be called Master if he has not4 yet seen self-nature. So, even if one has studied all sections of sutra volumes, he would still, without fail, fall into the sea of life-and-death and karmic cycle in the three different cosmos, without freedom from great sufferings.

Once upon a time there was a monk5 named Son Sung(善性). And, although he had mastered all twelve sections of the sutra volumes, he had not seen self-nature, and thus, he could not be freed from his karmic chain.

And, people today believe they can be enlightened by only studying a few sutras, believe they can be enlightened!

How terribly wrong they are!6

Without understanding one’s mind, memorizing groundless phrases is useless.

To seek Buddha, see the self-nature!

Self-nature is Buddha!

Buddha is being in himself; doingless and creationless one!

Without seeing self-nature, no matter how hard you look for Buddha, day and night, it is absolutely impossible(to see).

Even though we might say there say there is originally not a thing to be attained, if you do not yet understand it, you must, with sincere effort and work, find and meet a Master to open your mind.

Life-and-death is a great puzzle. Do not spend your life in vain.

Deceiving yourself does not help you in anyway.

Even if one has jewels stored in quantity as big as a mountain or, if one has a lot of followers, these things can only be seen while eyes are alive. But, when eyes are dead; are they still possible to be seen? Therefore, it is very obvious fact that anything we do is a fleeting apparition, like a dream or a ghost. Unless you quickly find a teacher, you will waste your life meaninglessly because of this; everyone already has Buddha-nature, but unless you depend on teacher’s help, no one can acknowledge and sanction your understanding. That is why it is almost impossible to attain great understanding without a teacher.

But one, who, by his own karmic privilege, has already attained the level of understanding of a sage; he does not gave to go find a teacher. Although everyone has a Buddha-nature before birth, if there is even one tiny residue of misunderstanding remaining, he must go and meet with the teacher who will open him and cultivate his understanding.

If one understands perfectly, he might be different from ordinary ones and not have to learn. But, if, still, he cannot make a crystal clear distinction between black and white; and feigning mastery, talk about Buddha-Dharma, he is actually humiliating the Buddha and destroying the Buddha-Dharma.

Such a speech, no matter how fluidly spoken is just talk of the devil, not of Buddha.

The leader of such speech-makers is the devil’s kind. And his followers are the devil’s disciple without a doubt, they will fall into the dark sea of life-and-death under devil’s direction.

Only the people who have not seen the self-nature talk about Buddha nonsensically; and they are great sin-makers, because by deception they lead people toward devilish ways. -p37-

If one is able to speak about the twelve sections of sutra volumes perfectly, yet does not see the self-nature, then still it is the devil speaking and producing offspring of the devil, not a disciple from Buddha’s family.

Thus, if one’s understanding is not crystal clear, how can he avoid life-and-death?

Seeing the self-nature is Buddha, not seeing the self-nature is indigent-being. If you believe Buddha-nature can be attained by separating from the indigent-being’s nature, then where could the Buddha be now? The nature of indigent-being is the Buddha-nature. Buddha does not ex-ist outside of the self-nature, Buddha is the self-nature.

Without this self-nature, Buddha cannot be attained. Without this Buddha, the self-nature cannot be attained.

1 cf. Sol Bong’s edition(1968). ‘If I have no Mind, how could I respond? If you have no Mind, how could you ask? Asking to mi is your Mind’ is missing here.

2 cf. Ibid,.’Bodhi’ was used instead of ‘Buddha’.

3cf. ibid., ‘Nirvana’ was explained as ‘A complete luminosity and tranquil radiance’.

4‘If not’ is added in Sol Bong’s edition.

5 The title ‘Bhikkhsus’, monk was not here.

6 cf. Reciting→Studying


II. Confused Mind Cannot Be Free from Karmic Resrlt

Student: Is it possible to become Buddha without seeing the self-nature, if one endeavors the perfected practice of chanting, reading sutras, upholding precepts, and exercising great discipline?

Bodhidharma: It is impossible.

Student: Why is it impossible?

Bodhidharma: If one says there is some dharma to be attained, big or small, then this is the dharma of the form of doing, the dharma of the cause and effect, the dharma of the necessity of inevitable result, and the dharma of karmic result; since these dharma cannot avoid the life-and-death, at what point could the way of Buddha be attained? To attain Buddha, one must see the self-nature. Without seeing the self-nature, speaking of cause-and-effect, and those above mentioned, are all outsiders’-dharma. Buddha, himself, cannot operate outsiders’-dharma; Buddha is the non-karmic person and is without the cause-and-effect. As soon as someone says there is some dharma to be attained, big or small, then he is actually humiliating the Buddha. How can he attain Buddhahood?

Attaching to one-mind, one-functioning, one-opinion, even one-idea, results in no room for Buddha here. Buddha has nothing to uphold nor to violate. Mind-nature is originally void; there is neither pure-dharma nor impure-dharma. Nothing to be practiced, nothing to be attained, no cause and no effects.

Buddha neither upholds nor violates the precepts, neither practices the good nor causes the bad, and neither endeavors to practice nor is languid. Buddha is the one who does nothing. As soon as you raise the thought of mind abiding somewhere or attaching to something, there is no longer room for Buddha.

When Buddha is called Buddha, it is already not the Buddha.

Do not raise a thought of Buddha.

If you do not realize this at all times and places, original mind cannot be grasped.

If one continuously raises a thought of nondoingness without seeing the self-nature, he is a great sinner and of great ignorance.

Dwelling in blank-minded emptiness, blinded like a drunken man, he cannot distinguish the good from the bad.

If you want to practice the non-doing-dharma, see the self-nature first, and then rest the thoughts stemming from the outer perspectives. Before seeing the self-nature, there is no place to enlighten and no place to attain.

Someone who ignores the truth of the cause-and-effect, while causing all kinds of bad karma and demeanor, and says that, ‘everything is originally empty’, and ‘there is nothing wrong even though I do some bad things’; without fail he will enter the Exitless Hell and the Lightless Hell eternally without a hope of getting out; because of this, a wise one would not raise this kind of thought.

Student: If there is already original mind in every listinction, in every movement, and at all times, Vhy can we not see it while this physical body is abnormal?

Bodhidharma: Original mind is always appearing in front of you; but just you, yourself, do not see it.

Student: If the mind is already there where I see what is the reason I cannot see it?

Bodhidharma: Have you ever dreamed?

Student: Yes, I have.

Bodhidharma: When you had a dream, was that your own body?

Student: Yes, that was my own body.

Bodhidharma: When you are talking, distinguishing, and moving, is this different from your self or the same as your self?

Student: It is not different.

Bodhidharma: If it is already not different, then this body, as it is, is your original dharma-body. This dharma-body itself is your original mind.

This mind, from the beginningless beginning, is nothing different from what it is now; it has never been born, it has never died; never perished, never increased, never decreased; never been dirty, never been immaculate; never been good, never been bad; has never come, has never gone; was never right, never wrong; never been a man. never been a woman’s shape either; never been a monk, never been a layman; never been old, never been a young man’s shape either; neither a saint, nor ordinary being; not Buddha, nor indigent-being; has had nothing to attain, has nothing to practice. Has had no cause, no effect, no energy, no form.

It is like empty space; it cannot be held nor dropped.

Even a mountain, river or great wall cannot obstruct this; whether entering or exiting, whether coming or going, it is free and divine.

It will cross over the ocean of the life-and-death and the mountains of five skandhas; all kinds of karma cannot even imprison this dharma-body.

Such a mind is so hard to see because it is deeprooted.

The mind is different from the physical material; that is, this mind is this Buddha.

Everyone wishes to see mind; yet, already he is in the midst of this bright light; moving his arms and legs in as many ways as the sands of the Ganges River; yet, as soon as he is questioned about what it is, he is absolutely silent, like a puppet. These movements are his own actions; why can it not be known?

Buddha said,

All indigent-beings are confused and from this,

They produce their future Karma,

Falling into the ocean of the life-and-death;

They are trying to escape from it,

But, instead, are falling back in.

Why? just because the self-nature was not yet seen.

If all indigent beings are not confused, why does no one see when they are questioned?

Why can one not know the one who moves arms and legs?

Even though the words spoken by all the sages were right, still, they just are unknown.

Therefore, you should know that it is difficult to comprehend the mind; Buddha being the only one who has completed it.

No other creature, except him; no one amongst human-beings or heaven-beings can do this. If the mind were understood clearly by wisdom; it might be called,

Dharma-nature or called, Complete Liberation.

Sometimes it is called, The-Great-King-of-Freedom Buddha; Because life-and-death cannot hinder(the mind) and even all dharma cannot control it.

Sometimes it is called, The-Unthinkable-On. Sometimes it is called, The True Body-of-the-Sage. Sometimes it is called, The-Eternal-Life-Without-Death. Sometimes it is called, The-Great-Sage.13

All the differentiations made by the divine-beings are not separated from the mind in itself; the mind has immeasurable size and it’s function is limitless.

Acting with eye, it sees the color, with ear it hears the sound, with nose it smells the odors, and with tongue it distinguishes the taste; and, furthermore, all different actions are self-mind.

Here, word-and-utterance is for all time severed,

Thought and its abiding place, also annihilated;

It is our mind.

Thereafter it was said,

The Buddha’s14 acts are uncountable and

So is his wisdom.

Uncountable acts are the mind in itself.

The conscious mind is the one that discerned everything and furthermore, since the mind is formless wisdom and is limitless, each and every functioning and movement is all it’s wisdom.

Because of that it was said,

Buddha’s acts are uncountable and so is his wisdom.

All acts by the four elements are the affliction-body which is working with life-and-death. On the other hand, there is the dharma-body which always abides nowhere. That is the reason why the dharma-body of Tathagata is perpetually changeless.

To support this, in the sutra, it is said;

Indigent-being should be understood as a substance Which originally embodied Buddha-nature.15

In the case of Mahakasapa, he just achieved a realization of the self-nature and nothing else.

Original self-nature is the mind; the mind is the self-nature.16 This Buddha’s mind, the former Buddha and later Buddha, are all transmitting the same mind.

There is no Buddha to be found outside.

The confused indigent-being, without knowing his own mind is Buddha, searches outside, day and night, for the Buddha and recites(thinks of) Buddha, bowing to Buddha. But where is the Buddha? Do not produce such a thought; just know the mind.

There is other Buddha17 outside of the mind.

The Sutra says,

Whatever has a form, as a whole, is delusory.


Wherever being is, there is Buddha.

Since the mind in itself is this Buddha, do not bow to Buddha again, being already the Buddha.

Even if a Buddha or Bodhisattva were suddenly to appear, you must never bow to them, because the mind is void and serene, it originally cannot have these phenomena; if you follow what is seen, you will be immediately captivated by the devil and totally fall into the corrupted way.

If it is clear that these phantoms are raised by the mind, then there is no need to bow to them. One who bows, knows no thing. One who knows, does not bow. If you bow to them, immediately you will be captivated by the devil. I am explaining this to protect the students from such corruption.18

It is a most important thing to realize that all Buddhas,19 in their original self-nature, do not have any images. If some extraordinary outer perspectives should appear, do not try to grab it nor be afraid of it, nor raise a doubt; since mind in itself is already pure, where can that image be?

Furthermore, do not even raise a thought of respect to Heaven, Dragon, Yoksa, Goods, sovereign Sakra and Brahmin Kingetc20. Nor, be afraid of them. Your mind is originally void and serene; all appearance is delusory image; do not follow or try to grasp it.

By raising a thought of Buddha or dharma and a thought of respect toward Buddha or Bodhisattvas, you are making yourself an indigent-being.

If you want to understand clearly, just do not attach to any kind of form; there is nothing else to say.

That is the reason why sutra says,

Whatever has a form, as a whole, is delusory;

There is no definite reality; illusion does not have any definite form.

This is called the ‘dharma of transitoriness.’

Just avoid grasping the form it will be at once with the divine truth. No wonder sutra says,

Detaching from all forms, is called lhe Buddhas.

13 Names are all different but the essence is one.

14 cf. ‘Tathagata’ instead of ‘Buddha’.

15 cf. ibid., You should know that Buddha-nature is ‘originally there with us’ instead of ‘originally embodied’.

16 cf. ibid., ……’is the same’ all Buddha-mind.

17 Ibid., p.117. There is no ‘other’ Buddha.

18 cf. p.117 top-left. Instead of ‘explain’ ‘lime to prove it’ as above.

19 cf. Buddha and ‘Tathagata’.

20 ‘The form’ of the……

III. Reason Not to Respect the Buddha-Statue

Student: Why should we not bow to Buddhas and Bodhisattvas?

Boddhidharma: Through magical powers, evil spirits from heaven, such as kings of devils and Asuras, etc. disguise themselves to appear as Buddhas and Bodhisattvas; they are outsiders, not the Buddhas. Since Buddha21 is your mind, do not bow to the wrong one.

What Buddha is,21 is divine self-awakening, according to different roots and different types of being; it sometimes blinks it’s eye, it sometimes raises it’s eyebrows, sometimes swings it’s legs; all these movements are the nature of divine self-awakening.

Self-nature is the mind. The Mind is Buddha. Buddha is the Way, and the Way is the Buddha. This particular word, ‘Buddha’22 is not comprehensible by indigent-being. However, the sutra says that,

Seeing the original self-nature is Buddha.22

If original self-nature is not seen, then Buddha cannot be. Even though one can talk about a thousand -p59- sutras and even more shastras, as long as self-nature is not seen, he is still an ordinary-being; that is not the dharma of Buddha.

The utmost truth is profound and impenetrable; not understood by word and impossible to be known by sutra. If original self-nature is seen, it matters not whether one is knowledgeable of letters. Divine nature, originally immaculate, cannot be tainted; seeing self-nature is immediately the Buddha. Each and every word is the functioning from the mind of the sage; but essence of the functioning is ultimately void and unaccomplished by names and utterances; so, how possibly attained by the twelve sections of sutra volumes?

Truth was, in its origin, already apprehended clearly; needing no practice nor attainment truth is neither the sound nor the color being too profound to be seen. The warmth or coolness of water can be known only to the one who drinks. Now, do not try to talk to others about this. Only Tathagata knows, human-beings and haven-beings, etc. absolutely have no way of knowing this matter and cannot realize it.

Ordinary-beings, because of their unencompassing wisdom are attached only to what appeares, without knowing the fact that their own mind is originally void and serene.

Therefore, if one attaches to phenomena of tran sitory-dharma, he naturally becomes an outsider.

If you understood that all dharma came from the mind, then you would not attach to anything. As soon as one attaches, no thing can be known.

If self-nature is seen, twelve sections of sutra volumes are unnecessary.

Thousands of sutras and even more shastras are only to explain the mind. When understanding occurs immediately, then word-dependent teaching is useless. Ultimate truth is wordless.

Teaching by word is only language,24 which is not real; truth does not name herself; whatever is named is illusory.

In a dream, you might see houses of fantasy or palaces, sometimes herds of elephants or horses, trees, forests, lakes, and even gazebos, but, do not, even in thought, become captivated by the rapture.

You should be so careful because they are creatures of delusion.

Up to the final moment of your life, if you do not chase outward forms,25 then all bewilderment will be cut off; but as soon as you raise illusory thought, you will immediately be led by the devil.26

Dharma-body is originally so pure that it has no sense-perception; only by confusion is one unknowing and unawakened.

By illusory cause-and-effect, one becomes enraptured, becomes attached, and then finally is not free.

If is never too late to awaken your original mind and body; if you realized your original mind and body, you would not be contaminated by habits.

Sometimes the sages join the ordinary way and disguise themselves in all different kinds of appearances to help all indigent-beings; no kind of karmacan hinder them; that is the reason they are called sages; free to be either progressive or regressive.

If they gad attained sagehood long before, then, having great virtuous power, even heaven and hell could not interrupt their ways and all different karma would simply follow their way.

Ordinary-beings are called ordinary-beings because they are confounded, not like sages who are bright inside and outside.

If there is any lack of confidence, do not be overcome by it; once that has happened, you will fall into the sea of birth-and-death, for which even regretting cannot help.

Even such things as poverty and suffering come from delusion. Realize the mind and awaken to it constantly. If one performs without having a thought of performance, he will immediately enter the world of Buddha’s vision.

One, who has initially awakened the mind, may still not be tranquil. For example, he might see some supernatural view in a dream, even so, he should not chase it nor lack confidence either; for everything was raised by mind which is not outside.

About the time when the remaining habitual potentialities(karmic power) have gone and self-nature of truth is fully disclosed. you may see a light which is brighter than sunshine coming to you. If you have this kind of experience, it will be an important element in becoming a Buddha. It is yours only personally and cannot be unfolded to anybody else.

Sometimes27 while you are walking, stopping, sitting, or lying down in the quiet forest, you might view, big or small, lightening, Do not talk about it with anyone and do not attach to it; it might be the light from your self-nature.

Sometimes while you are walking, stopping, sitting, or lying down at night, you might view bright-as-daylight-lightening, but, do not be surprised by it.

It may be a signal that your self-nature is getting brighter.28

Sometimes the moon and stars are so clear in your dreams, which may also be a sign that your self-mind is liberated from that phenomenal objectivity. You should not tell this to anyone either; this is your own experience. if it is so dark in your dream; just like you are travelling in the middle of the night, your mind has such a thick wall of which you should be carefully aware.

When one has seen original self-nature, there is no need to understand sutras or to recite Buddhas; learning widely to know a lot, rather than giving you some benefit, darkens your spirit.29

Various forms of teachings were set down for pointing out the mind to us; however, after the mind is seen, the written teaching is no longer worth reading. If, as an ordinary-being, you want to co-exist with sages, you should rest your karma and, for your lifetime, nourish the spirit in accordance with your own ability. The farther away you are from the truth, the more the hateful and pleasurable states arise,30 which is also self-deception without benefit. The sage is free within birth-and-death; coming and going, hiding and interrupts him; rather, he prevails31 over wicked devils.

When indigent-beings see the original self-nature, the rest of their habitual potentiality totally dissolves, until, finally, the spirit is no longer dark.

If you truly want to know Tao, do not attach to a single dharma; instead, rest your karma and nourish the spirit. When the rest of your habitual potentiality is dissolved, it will naturally be brightened, and finally, you will have no thing to study.

Since their understanding is not compatible with Buddha’s all the outsiders, no matter how hard they work to be enlightened, still go in countermotion to and far from Buddha’s blessed vision. In spite of their chanting Buddha’s blessed vision. In spite of their chanting Buddha’s name and reading the sutras with great effort, their darkened spirit cannot escape karmic result.

Buddha is a non-doer; how could he have something additional to do? What are you going to do after eagerly looking for fame and fortune?

Only the people who have not seen self-nature are reading the sutras and chanting Buddhas. They believe that long practices, such as; chanting six times a day, sitting for long periods without lying down, and learning widely to know a lot, are Buddha-dharma. But, these kinds of indigent-beings are actually humiliating the Buddha-dharma.

All the Buddhas, earlier and later, only emphasize the necessity of seeing self-nature32. The greatest sin is to not see self-nature while ignorantly saying, ‘I have attained the higher-less truth.’33

Among the great disciples of Buddha’s time, Ananda34 was the most knowledgeable35 and experienced. Budda once reprimanded him, saying,

Let all Great-Listeners36 and Outsiders try to become knowledgless.

Because the attainment of Knowledge by numerous words leads to the dharma of cause-and-effect. This is the natural Karmic cycle of indigent-beings, that they cannot avoid birth-and-death, and that goes against the Buddha-dharma; it is actually the indigent-beings who humiliate the Buddha, and, even though you kill them, it would not be any sin.37 Because of that, a sutra says, that,

Since they38 have never awakened the faithful mind, it would not be a sin to kill an evil doer who cuts the root of the good.

If one has awakened to the faithful mind, this one is abiding at the level of Buddha; without seeing the self-nature you must not humiliate another wise one at all. For, self-deception is not beneficial by any means. The good and the bad are already distinct, heaven and Hell are crystal clear right in front of your eyes.

Although falling into the dark hell caused by not having awakened faithful mind, the unwise ones can neither understand nor notice it. Why? Because Karma was impacted so heavily,40 they could not believe it. It is just like a blind man not believing in sunshine. Even if someone told him about it, still, he would not believe it; the reason is only that he does not have the eye to discriminate the sunshine from the darkness.

The unwise ones are just like this; right this minute they are being born as animal; as one of various unknown creatures or sometimes of poor and lower class beings, and cannot determine at all what they want to be; they want to exist, but cannot, they want not be exist, but must.

Even though they are in such suffering every moment, when they are questioned directly, they would rather answer by saying.

My pleasure at the present time is

No different from being in heaven.

Therefore, it is easy for us to see thar all indigent-beings do not notice nor understand their origin and instead, define their present condition as ultimate satisfaction. They are evil-beings because of heavily stored karma. By knowing that self-mind is Buddha, anyone can be Buddha, whether one shaves his head and beard or not.

However, if self-nature is not seen, even though they are shaved, they are still outsiders.

21 cf. Sol Bong, ‘Buddha is a Sanskrit word, which means the nature of Enlightenment in Chinese. And, the nature of Enlightement is devine Enlightening’.

22 Ch’an(Son) was written instead of Buddha.

24 ‘word’ became ‘language’

25 If ‘mind’ was moved even a second.

26 ‘then, devil will control everything’

27 ……’silent’ night……

28 It is about ‘to disclose’ the brightness of your mind.

29 ‘dark’→’not clear’

30 ‘It will change the human-nature’.

31 ‘The devine-being would destroy’ the devils.

32 Everything is vanish. The……

33 Instead of ‘the higher-less truth’, ‘Annuttarasamyaksambodhi’ was used.

34 The name means ‘happiness’.

35 ‘was the best disciple among Shravaka, but Buddha himself is knowledgeless……’

36 outside ‘dualistic vehicle’

37 Sin and ‘fault’

38 ‘their origin has no faith’

40 Just because their Karmic power is heavy; ‘they cannot mobilize the faith and not free……’


IV. Tao Has Nothing to Do with Being Priest or Layperson

Student: The layperson has a wife and children, so he has not yet cut out the sexual desire. How can he become Buddha?

Bodhidharm’a: I have just talked about seeing nature, not the sexual desire. If you saw the self nature, sexual desire would already be void and serene; there would be nothing to attach; even though one may still have habitual potentiality, it would not be disruptive.

For what reason?

Self-nature is originally immaculate; although buried underneath physical body which holds the five skandhas, the self-nature is originally pure and cannot be tainted.

Truth(Dharma)-body originally does not have sense-perception; not of hunger and thirst, nor of cold and heat; it gas no diseases nor sickness; is neither blessed nor loved; is of no religious sect; undergoes neither suffering nor pleasure; is neither good nor bad, not long nor short and neither strong nor weak. Therefore, originally, there is nothing to be attained but, rather, just this physical body created those conditions of hunger and thirst, cold, heat, diseases and sicknesses, etc. If those cannot deceive you anymore, then behave however you want; for, even in the midst of life-and-death, you have already attained freedom and are able to roll the Dharma-wheel just like all the sages, without having obstacles. Then there is no place which is not comfortable.

But, if mind is still lacking clarity and all kinds of outside phenomena are still barriers to you, then it means there is no way to avoid karmic result.41

However, if self-nature were seen, even the butcher could naturally attain the Buddhahood.

41 ‘Do nothing is the best. If done’, one cannot avoid……

V. Even Butcher Can Attain the Buddhahood

Student: Killing is Butchers’ job; how can they attain Buddhahood?

Bodhidharma: I have told you just to see the self-nature; not about the resulting karma; although one who saw self-nature is creating karma, still, he is different from the confused ones; that is, all variety of karma would not imprison him.

From the beginningless beginning, just because ones have not seen the self-nature, they have been falling into the hell. Because of this karma, they produced and are still rolling the birth-and-death wheel; but if original nature were enlightened, karmic power would, at last, no longer be manufactured.

Without seeing the self-nature, chanting and prayer will not prevent you from cause-and-effect. Killing is, compared to this, of no great concern. If one, by seeing self-nature, totally eliminated the confused doubt, even killing live creatures would not be disruptive to him.

Twenty eight patriarchs from India before me have only transmitted mind. My coming to this country(China) is just to point out Sudden enlightenment43 which is the dharma of Mind-is-Buddha; I am not interested in practicing the precepts, excruciating training, ascetic practices, or magical ways of entering the fire or water, standing on the tip of the swords, the eating of only one meal a day, or sitting for long periods of time without lying down.

Those who practice such are all outsiders dependent upon dharma-of-doing. Your mind is those Buddhas mind, As long as you see the divine-awakening-nature in each and movement.

All the Buddhas, former and later, have taught a Dharma-of-transmitting-the-mind and no other dharma.

By seeing this mind,44 without knowing a letter, Buddhahood can be attained.

Although working hard even until physical body becomes ashes, without knowing the divine self-awakening-nature, Buddhahood46 cannot de attained.

Buddha is called either Truth-body(Dharma-body) or the awakened-mind. This mind is formless, cause-and-effectless, muscle-and-boneless; it is just like empty space; you cannot grab it.

And, above all, it is different from material-world and different from outsiders’ belief.

Only Tathagata, one man, knows this mind; any other creatures or confused ones do not know completely.

This mind is not separate from four elements of the physical body; without this mind one who moves does not exist. This body does not have knowing, just like weeds and trees; or like rooftile this corpse itself does not have feeling and sensation; how can it move?

When the mind moves, saying, doing, seeing, hearing, feeling, and knowing are all movement of the mind and movement of functioning. Because this movement is moving of the mind; moving itself is functioning. Without moving and functioning, there is no mind; and, without mind, there is no movement. Yet, what is moving is not mind; what the mind is does not move; because movement itself, does not have the mind; mind, itself does not have movement.47

Movement is not separate from mind; and mind is not separate from movement, but the mind is neither separation nor what is separated; the mind, also, is neither movement nor what is moved.

This is the function of the mind and on what the mind functions; this is the movement of the mind and what the mind has moved; this is the function of the mind itself and what the mind itself has moved.

This is the movement of the mind itself and what the mind itself has moved.

The mind is neither ‘movement’ nor’ ‘function’. The origin of functioning itself is empty; for no movement can be allowed in emptiness.

Both, movement and functioning are the mind. But no movement can be allowed in the essence of the mind. This is the reason, sutra says,

It moves without moving.

All day and night it goes and comes, but it has never gone and never come; all day and night it sees, yet it has never seen; laughed, yet has never laughed; listened, yet has never listened; knows all the time, yet has no knowledge; happy, yet has never been happy; walking around, yet it has never walked around; and finally, abiding(somewhere), yet has never abided.

That is the reason sutra says,

Word-and-utterance is for all time severed,

Thought and it’s abiding place are also annihilated.

Seeing, hearing, feeling, and knowing, themselves are completely serene; how possibly dan anger, pleasure, itching, and suffering be different from the original self?48

No matter how hard you look for them,49 you can find them no-where. Therefore sutra says,

Bad karmic elements will result in srffering, and good karmic elements of karma will result in happiness.

Anger results in falling into hell, happiness results in being born in heaven; however, if one sees the empty nature of anger and happiness without having attachment,50 then, he will immediately be free from karmic power.

So once more, If one has not seen the self-nature, no matter how well one teaches and speaks of the sutras and shastras, it would not be of any help.

Although it requires endlell discussion to explain all the necessities, nevertheless, I have here simply represented what is wrong and right, although details are still not adequate.

I will tell you by gatha:

The Mind, which calls the mind, ‘the mind’

Has, no way to be seen;

When expanded it wraps round the whole world,

When contracted, it permits not even the tip of a needle.

I am just searching for the mind;

Never looked for the Buddha

Everything in the three different cosmos is void;

I truly understand know no thing exists.

If you are looking for Buddha,

Just search the mind;

This mind which you are calling ‘the mind’,

This is the Buddha which is mind itself.

Even though originally I am searching for the mind,

The mind in itself already knows it all.

If you want to search for the mind,

The nature of Buddha,

Cannot be attained outside of the mind,

As soon as a mind arises,

Sin will also arise.

Transmission Gatha to the Second Patriarch;

I came to this country

To liberate all indigent-beings by transmitting Dharma;

One flower will open five leaves,

The fruit will be ripened naturally:

43 ‘Mahayana’s’ which says Mind is Buddha.

44 ‘among Indigent-beings’

45 ‘Seeking’ Buddha was used instead of ‘Attainment’.

47 ‘Functioning is the function of the mind’ was added.

48 ‘original’ man→’wooden’ man

49 ……’if one searches the karmic-path……’

50 In Sols edition ‘着’ is missing.


On Mind-Watching

I. Watch Your Mind

Bodhidharma 1 : The one, dharma of mind-watching embraces all activities; it is thus called, conclusive and fundamental.

Bodhidharma 2 : The mind is the source of the tenthousand dharmas; every dharma is derived from the mind; if the mind were understood, ten-thousand acitvites would also be completed.

As if every branch, flower and fruit of an immense tree were possible from one root; to toke care of the tree, one should sustain the root to provide life.

To destroy the tree, one should remove the root to allow it to die.

When the mind is understood, cultivating Tao is easily accomplished with little effort. If not, it is a useless effort without result.

Therefore, you should know that all the good and the bad comes from the mind in itself.

Looking for it outside the mind is not right.

II,A. Mind Motives of the Pure and Tainted Dharma

Bodhidharma:3 Four4 elements and five skandhas are originally void, and self-less. But, you should know there are two different functions of the mind.

What are the two?

The first is of the pure mind; the second is of the tainted mind.

The pure mind means the non-karmic and unmovable true mind-as-it-is.

The tainted mind means the quo-karmic, unenlightened, dark mind.

These two different minds are originally cohesive.

Under karmic conditions, they coexist without affecting each other.

Pure mind always enjoys5 the good cause. Tainted mind always thinks of evil works.

If the unmovable mind were awakened and understood, the enlightenment could not be tainted.

One is called a holy sage, who, free from suffering, attains Nirvanic Happiness. One entangled and covered by tainted, evil works is called an ordinary-being: He continuously falls into three different cosmos and receives many sufferings.

Why? Because the tainted mind blinds one to the essence of the unmovable true mind-as-it-is.

II.B. True Mind Is Not Disclosed because of Delusion

In the Ten-Mind-Worlds Sutra:

Within the body of an indigent-being is a diamond Buddha-nature;

Like the luminous radiance, of bright sunshine and as vast and limitless;

But, ‘its just not visible because of the black cloud of five skandhas;

Like a candle(which cannot be seen) inside a bottle.

Also, in the Nirvana Sutra:

All indigent-beings have the Buddha-Nature;

But have not attained Nirvana, because the unenlightened darkness has concealed it.

II.C. Good Dharma Is the Root of Enlightening

By Buddha-nature we understand the enlightenment.

If one enlightens himself, and self-gnostic wisdom is brightened by separation from what is covered, it is called the complete liberation.

Then, it is certain to be known that all good dharma is the root of the enlightenment.

By the root of enlightenment, each and every tree of virtue and merit will appear; and also, the fruits of Nirvana can be perfected.

This is what we call;6 right-mind-watching.

III.A. Evil Dharma Is the Root of Three Poisonous Minds

Hye Ka; What is the root of the unenlightened, dark mind and all sin?7

Bodhidharma: The unenlightened dark mind has eighty-four thousand sufferings (defilements) and lusts; the sins are as many as the sands of the Ganges River.

In short, they are all derived from three poisons; greedy mind, angry mind, and ignorant mind.

These three poisonous minds are like one immense tree having only one root but an immeasurable number of branches and leaves.

The three poisonous minds originally prevailed over all sins.

Furthermore, when this poisonous root creates all varieties of karmic sins, it is actually a hundred, thousand, or even ten-thousand times bigger than the simile of branches and leaves.

III.B. Original Face of Six Thieves

These three poisons came from the essential one body.

When it is transformd according to the six sense roots, it becomes six thieves; and six thieves are sex consciousnesses.

These six consciousnesses create evil karmas when they respond to the six roots; it will automatically be affected by the outer perspectives and become an obstacle for truth-as-it-is.

That is why we call them six thieves. As a result of these three poisons and six thieves causing confused body and mind, all indigent-beings fall into life-death and enter the six branches of the karmic-chain.

Thus, all the sufferings follow.

Is is like one great river formed by the gathering of many small, ceaselessly flowing streams to make ten-thousand miles of meandering river current.

IV.A. Cut Out the Three Poisons

If one cuts out the root and stream, then all flowing will cease; one who wishes to attain Nirvana [must] turn the three poisons into the three immaculate precepts [practice good dharma, liberate all indigent beings, and uphold the precepts] and turn the six thieves into the six paramitas.

Then, naturally, one will be free from all suffering.

IV.B. Three Different Cosmos Enlightenment Gives You Freedom from

Bodhidharma:8 All the karmic sequences in the three different cosmos only came from the mind.

If you awaken the mind, even though you are in the three different cosmos you will be free from them.

Three different cosmos are three kinds of poison: Greed, the world of desire; Anger, the world of visual form; and Ignorance, the formless world.

By these three poisons all bed karmic causes will be created and karmic effects will be built; thus, allowing entry into the six branches of karmic sequences(i.e., wandering around like a wheel).

These are what we call, three different cosmos.9

V. Confusion Creates the Six Branches

If10 an indigent-being practices the good without understanding the right motive (of the enlightenment), he cannot avoid the three different cosmos, and will be reborn in the Three Light Branches.

What are the three light branches?

If one practices the ten good conducts (three by body, four by mouth, and three by will) with a confused mind, but wishes happiness, then he cannot escape the desire of happiness, and he will be born in heaven.

If one practices the five great precepts with a confused mind, but still creates delusory hatred and love, then he cannot escape the feeling of anger, and he will be born in the human-body.

If one practices the evil dharma by clinging to the form of doing with a confused mind, but looks forward to fortune, then he cannot escape the ignorance of non-virtuous wishes; and he will be born an Asura branch.

These are the three light branches.

What are the three heavy branches? They are the creation of bad karma by the licentious use of the three poisonous minds.11

The abundantly greedy one will become the hungry ghost branch.

The abundantly angry one will fall into the hell branch.

The abundantly ignorant one will go to the animal branch..

The combination of these three heavy and light branches becomes the six branches.

Therefore, you should know that evil karma came from the mind. If the mind were controlled well, separated from all sins, then the karma in the three different cosmos would naturally disappear.

All suffering would vanish; that is why it is called Nirvana.

VI. By Three Poisonous Minds, a Centillion Number of Things Appear

Once he was asked12 about the centillion number of things.

Bodhidharma: This is also the three poisonous minds by which countless(in Sanskrit it is, asamkaya, in Chinese it means count-less, in English it is, centillion) centillion bad thoughts arise in the mind numbering as many as the sands of the Ganges River, each thought lasting for one kalpa. The Ganges sands are countless. Because the three poisonous evil thoughts are as many as the sands of the Ganges River, we say countless.

Self-nature of truth-as-it-is is already surrounded by the three poisonous minds. Until all bad thoughts numbering as many as the sands of the Ganges Rver are transcended; how can Nirvana be attained?

If one now eliminates greed, anger, and ignorance,13 it is the same as transcending centillion kalpas. The indigent-beings living in the last era of the world are dull;14 they just do not understand Tathagata’s deep and sublime truth and the three-centillion kalpas’ secret word, and say,

After three-centillion kalpas have passed,

One may become Buddha::

What a terrible misunderstanding! Which let the cultivators from the last era of the world would retreat from the way of great enlightenment.

VII. Further Elucidation of Three Immaculate Precepts and Six Paramitas

Hye Ka: As I am concerned, in order to attain the Buddha-Tao a student must practice the three immaculate precepts and six perfections. Why do you say to uphold only the dharma of watching the mind?

Without keeping the precepts, how can one attain the Buddhahood?

Bodhidharma: Three immaculate precepts mean eliminating the three poisonous minds. When one poisonous mind is eliminate, an immeasurable bundle of the good will be completed.

Three of them together mean if one could eliminate all three poisonous minds, then, the three immeasurable goodness could be gathered together in the mind.

Six perfections (in Sanskrit it means Paramita; in Chinese it means, cross-over-to-the-other-shore; in English it means, perfection) mean to give light to the six sense roots.

If the six sense-roots were immaculately purified without the taint of worldly defilement, then one would arrive at the other shore free from bewilderment. That is why we say, six paramitas.

Hye Ka15: In the three immaculate precepts, one vows to nullify all sins, vows to practice all the good, and vows to liberate all indigent-beings.

Now you are saying, only eliminate the three poisonous minds; is this not contradictory?

Bodhidharma: Whatever Buddha said in the sutra is true and has no fault.

The Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas took three different vows when they cultivated the conducts of the Bodhisattva.

In order to prevail over the three poisonous minds, they uphold the three great vows and keep the three immaculate precepts; to keep the precept means to prevail over the poisonous greed, because one vows to cut out various sins.

To practice meditation means to prevail over the poisonous anger, because one vows to cut out various sins.

To perfect the wisdom is to prevail over the poisonous ignorance, because one vows to liberate indigent beings.

By upholding the three immaculate dharmas of precept, meditation, and wisdom, one overcomes the three poisonous karmas and attains Buddhahood. If the three poisonous minds were controlled, everything would be diminished.

That is why we call it eliminating. If the three immaculate precepts were upheld, then every good would be fulfilled.

That is the reason it is called cultivation. Nullifying sin and cultivating the good will result in complete perfection; ‘I’s and others will benefit and free all indigent-beings.

That is why it is called liberation [perfection].

Therefore, practicing the precepts is not departed from the mind.

VIII. Pure Mind; Pure Buddha Country

If my mind is pure, every indigent-being’s mind is pure. As the sutra says:

When the mind is dirty, the indigent-being is also dirty. When the mind is pure, the indigent-being is also pure.

It also said,

In order to purify the Buddha-country, first purify your mind. When your mind is purified, Buddha-Country will be purified.

If you can control the three poisonous minds well, the three immaculate precepts will automatically be perfected.

IX. Further Explanation of the Six Paramitas

Hye Ka: The six paramitas are contribution, upholding precepts, patience and tolerance, zeal in progress, serenity, and wisdom. And now you have said, ‘when the six sense roots are pure, that is the six paramitas’; what does that mean?

Budhidharma: If you want to practice the six paramitas you have to purify the six sense roots; to do that you must prevail over the Six Thieves.

If you get rid of a thief in the eye, then you will be free from the color of outer perspectives; your mind would not be stingy anymore. And then you can call it unconditional contribution.

If you get rid of a thief in your ear, then you will be free from the sound of outer perspectives. That is why they call it upholding the precepts.

If you get rid of a thief in your nose, then you will be free of both stench and fragrance. That is the reason they call it patience and tolerance.

If you get rid of a thief in your tongue, then you will be free of any craving for evil taste. Whether speaking or reading, you would not raise any thought of dislike. That is why it is called, zeal in progress.

And if you get rid of a thief in your body, then you will be superb and immovable by any affection. That is why it is called, unmovable serenity.

If you prevail over the consciousness thieves, then you will not chase the ignorant darkness, will always practice the self-gnostic wisdom, and will cultivate all various virtue and merit. That is why it is called wisdom.

Besides, wisdom means, ‘carrying out’; so, the six perfections, like a ship, carry the indigent-being toward the other shore; that is why they call the six paramitas, or liberation, crossing-to-the-other-shore.

X. Milk of Truth

Student: I heard that Buddha drank three bucketfuls and six bowlfuls of milk before he attained Buddhahood.16

Why do you now say, complete liberation (Nirvana) can be attained by watching the mind?

Bodhidharma:17 The milk Buddha drank is not ordinary, impure milk, rather milk of the immaculate truth-as-it-is.

Three bucketfuls mean three immaculate precepts. Six bowlfuls mean six paramitas; Buddha attained the Tao by drinking of this immaculate truth-milk.

If one says rather, ‘Buddha drank the milk which comes from the carnal knowledge complicated by dirty and soured milk’, this is actually humiliating the Buddha.

The name, Tathagata implies the meaning of, frimness of a diamond, and imperishable and nonkarmic True-Body; it is already free from ordinary sufferings.

How can thirst be satiated by this impure milk?

A sutra says,

This ox does not reside in higher valley,

This ox does not eat crops or any chaff,

Nor play with other oxen.

Its body has purple jade-like golden color.

This ox is no different from the luminous omnipresent, Buddha18; with great love and compassion, it has pity for all indigent-beings. The immaculate Dharma-Body produced the sublime truth-milk of the three immaculate precepts and six perfections and nursed all who wished to attain complete liberation. Not just Buddha himself, right and true Tao.19

XI. What Is Church?

Student: In the Sutra it says that,

Building a church and carving holy images,

Burning incense, scattering flowers,

Burning everlasting candles, or

Having a ceremony six times a day;

By the virtue and merit of practice, anyone will attain the Buddha-Tao.

Now you are telling me one truth of mind-watching embraces all activities!

It must be a joke!

Bodhidharma: Indigent-beings have dull minds, lack wisdom and do not know the deep and sublime truth.

That is the reason uncountable expedient methods help all indigent-beings and expose the formless-doing through the form-if-doing.

Without cultivating the inside of your mind, just looking for fortune outside of your mind is not the right thing to do.

Building a church(immaculate zone in Sanskrit) means getting rid of the three poisonous minds and always having clean sense roots. By this, body and mind are humble and immaculate on either side; this is, the building of a church.

XII. Casting the Image of Buddha

For every indigent-being casting Buddha’s statue, is the motivated action to attain Buddha-Tao.

They symbolically make Tathagata’s figure and sublime form to cultivate all the actions of enlightenment.

This does not refer to statue that was made by the process of molding using gold or copper.

Therefore, one who wishes to attain the complete liberation should think of his own body as a melting pot, dharma as a fire, wisdom as a technician, and the three immaculate precepts and six perfection as a casting dome.

Thus, the Buddha-nature of truth-as-it-is, is melted and put into the casting dome of all precepts.

Follow and uphold all the teachings without missing a part.

Naturally, the true form of the image will be completed.

At last it can be called the perpetually sublime dharma-body, which is not the dharma from the form-of-doing.

While looking for the Tao, if one does not know how to draw or mold the true form, how, then, can he achieve virtue and merit?

XIII. What Are the Five Incenses?

Also, the burning of incense does not mean the ordinary form of incense, but the formless-doing or righteous dharma of incense.

It represents prevailing over stenches, eliminating the darkened, evil karmas, and, finally, burning them away.

There are five kinds of righteous truth incenses;

First is the incense of the precept; to nullify all sins and to practice all the good.

Second is the incense of the unmovable serenity; to have faith in the righteous mind without retreating.

Third is the incense of limitless wisdom; to watch the mind alertly from inside and outside of the body and mind.

Fourth is the incense of complete liberation; to release all entanglements of unenlightened darkness. Fifth is the incense of the self-perceiving eye of complete libearation; to always feel and watch clearly, completely of obstacles.

These five incenses are the highest incenses, which cannot be compared with any from the ordinary world.

Even in Buddha’s time, he said:

Burn the most valuable incenses with the wisdom-fire and offer to each and Buddha from the ten directions.

People today are so ignorant, they do not understand the true meaning of the incenses. They only try to use outside fire and different forms of material composition of incense for fortune-seeking which is impossible.

XIV. How to Scatter the Flowers?

Scattering the flowers also means the same thing. By spreading the virtuous flowers of the righteous dharma, one helpes sentient-beings. By utilizing all true self-nature-as-it-is, one omnipresently adorns the world. These virtuous flowers are what Buddha praises highly, and which cannot fade or be shed perpetually.

If anyone scatters these flowers, he will receive immaculate virtue and merit.

It should not be said that Buddha asked disciples or indigent-beings to cut beautiful silks or cut the flower blossoms in order to scatter the flowers. If someone says that Buddha requested that, then he is wrong.


Because, one who upholds the precepts should not destroy any part of the universe; even killing by mistake could be a great sin.

Then, how about the breaking of the precepts by deliberately hurting any part of nature?

How can they expect any fortune by this action? Even though of benefit, if detrimental, how can it be right?

XV. What Is Lighting the Candle?

Everlasting candle means the truly awakened mind; candle refers to the brightness of the self-gnostic enlightenment.

Therefore, one who is looking for complete liberation should think of his body as the base of the candleholder and his mind as candleholders; faith as a wick, the incense of the precept at wax or oil,20 and the lighting of wisdom as candle-light.21

You should burn this bright candle(destroyer of darkness) all the time; radiating toward unenlightened darkness and prevailing over it.

If you become enlightened by these dharmas, one by one, it means one candle’s light carries over to ten-thousand candles and, finally, to a limitless number.

That is why it is called, the everlasting candle.

Once upon a time there was a Buddha named, lantern-lighter; which is like the lighter of the everlasting candle. An indigent-being did not understand the expediency of the method that Buddha used in his speech, so instead, he demonstrated delusory behavior and attached to the form of doing by burning the sesame oil, lighting the empty rooms, and sincerely thinking, that he is taking refuge in the sutras.

What a great mistake!

Why? If Buddha radiated light from a hair between two eyebrows, it would enlighten the ten-thousand plus eight-thousand worlds.

And if his whole body radiated the light then it would enlighten the whole world from ten directions.

How can we even talk about benefit from ordinary candlelight?

Watch this meaning carefully; you will know what is wrong.

XVI. How to Operate the Tao?

To operate the Tao six times a day implies to operate the Buddha-Tao in the six sense roots all the time.

By operating all good-conducts of enlightenment(so as) to control the six sense roots without abandoning them, is called operating six different kinds of Tao.

Stupa is nothing but body and mind; bright wisdom is the real ceremony of encircling the stupa.22

Past sages attained Nirvana23 by operating this Tao, but people today do not understand this, they would not be called Men of Tao.24

The ignorant ones, without operating within, rater look outside for karmic result thereby tiring themselves, by encircling the stupa day and night.25

But, that is not be beneficial for self-nature at all. What a pity it is!

XVII. How to Discipline Body and Mind

Discipline means, ‘everything stays in order’; this means, cultivate the body and mind eagerly and unchaotically.

It also implies, ‘protection’; that is, righteously uphold the conduct of the precepts; disallow the six carnal bad feelings, control the three poisonous minds; awaken enthusiastically; be alert; and keep the body and mind pure.

Then if all is done, we can call it maintaining disciplines.

XVIII. What Is the Propper Nourishment?

There are five different kinds of nourishment.

First, the enthusiastic dharma nourishment; depend on the Buddha’s right dharma, uphold it with pleasure, and cultivate it.

Second, the meditative, joyful nourishment; inside and outside are tranquil and bright; mind and body are joyful.

Third, the mindful nourishment; always thinking of Buddha mindfully, mind and mouth are in accord with each other.

Fourth, the vowing nourishment: either coming or going, staying, sitting, or lying down, always determined with good vows.

Fifth, the great liberation nourishment; mind is always immaculate and should not be tainted by worldly dust.

That is the reason it is called,26 ‘proper nourishment.’

XIX. What Is Fasting?

‘Fasting’ means eliminating the eating of dark and sinful karma; the confused and ignorant people do not understand this and, as a result, create all types of evil karmas by the licentious body and mind and the craving of passionate lust without shame.

They think only of outside fasting, saying that they have kept the discipline; it is like the foolish children calling a decaying corpse a living person.

It is a mistake.

XX. What Is True Prayer?

Prayer means always being in accordance with Truth(Dharma). The essential meaning of doing-prayer can be understood by the action itself. Although it may be of changing appearance, still, the essential meaning cannot be discarded. But, the doing-prayer has what is apparently exposed and what is hidden.

If one understood this, he might be in accord with the dharma.

Generally speaking, prayer means; first respecting highly; second, kneeling down in submission. In this case if one respects thetrue self-nature, and if unenlightened darkness has knelt down in submission, then it can be called prayer.

Since they respect, they do not humiliate. Since it knelt down, it cannot be negligent. If sinful thought permanently vanishes and good thought steadily stays, then, even though it is not seen from the outside, one is continually in prayer. What is appearently exposed is the physical appearance when they bow in respect. In order to submit their minds and humble themselve, the ordinary-beings kneel down in respect to on outer image of Buddha.

When it is functionig, then it is exposed(as bowing). When that functioning is eliminated, then it is hidden. Only when self-nature and physical form are in mutual accord can inside-wisdom be brightened through physical prayer.

When one is attached to only the outside form of prayers, then he will be negligent, having greed, anger, and ignorance; raises sinful thought inside and have only false prayer outside, which is not real prayer. This is deceiving the sages and fooling the wise ones. The karmic consequence of which endures!

XXI. What Is Bathing?

Hye Ka: As was mentioned in the Hot-House Sutra,

If one helps the monks bathe,

Then he will receive immeasurable fortune.27

Can it be accomplished by just mind-watching?

Bodhidharma: Bathing the monks does not mean the ordinary form of doing with physical functioning.28

It was presented as a metaphor to explain the fundamental truth, including seven things;29

First, clean water;

Second, lighting the fire;

Third, soap;

Fourth, tooth brush;

Fifth, cleaning powder;

Sixth, oil; and

Seventh, under clothes.

If one uses these seven dharmas30 to wash and freshen the body, by what can he eliminate dirt from the three poisonous darknesses.

What are the seven dharmas?

First, truthful precepts; warm the moral flaw and cleanse it like clear water washing off all the dirt.

Second, wisdom; Be watchful both inside and outside; just like the flame of fire warms water.

Third, distinction; identify and separate sins; just like soap eliminates all dirt.

Forth, truthfulness; eliminate all untruthful talk; like a tooth brush eliminates stenches from the mouth.

Fifth, right faith: after right determination there is no other secondary thinking; like washing powder rubbed on the body clears up an infection.

Sixth, breath control; control all heavy inclinations; like the oil makes skin soft and lustrous.

Seventh, knowing shame; neglect all bad karmas; like underclothes cover up a naked body.

These seven things are all the hidden dharma inside the sutra. People today just do not know this.

What is the Hot-House? Hot-house implies the physical body. With the fire of wisdom, clean and warm the bathtub of the precepts. Wash the truth-as-it-is and the Buddhahood inside of body; adorn the self with the seven dharmas

All the monks at that time were very bright and wise; they understood what Buddha tried to say and practiced as it was said. And finally they attained the virtues and reached the holy stages. But today’s indigent-being is ignorant, dull, and without understanding of this and only says, ‘ordinary water will wash these bodies’, while saying, ‘we sincerely take refuge in Buddha’s teaching’.

Is that not wrong?

And furthermore, true Buddha-nature-as-it-is has no mark of ordinary-being and, dirt of the bewilderment originally has no form; how can corporeal water wash the body of unenlightened darkness? It does not make any sense, so how can Tao be understood?

So, contemplate it like this;

This body originally came from an impure greed, where it stinks and excretions are mixed and full, inside and outside.

Although you want to be clean by washing the the body, like trying to wash dirty soil; it can never be purified. So you should know that washing outside, naturally, has nothing to do with what Buddha has to say.

XXII. What Is Chanting?

Bodhidharma31: To chant (recite Buddha) is to practice righteous thought.

Imperfect understanding (which is believing that only certain indigent-beings will be enlightened) is unreliable (devilish thinking).

Right thought will necessarily result in true pleasure.32 By unreliable thought, on the other hand, how can we cross over to the other shore?

Buddha33 means to protect oneself from creation of sin by awakening and watching the body and mind.

Thinking is re-minding, that means, re-collecting the conducts of the precepts without forgetting and practicing diligently.

Understanding this significance at last can be called right-thinking, Therefore, you should know well, thought comes from the mind, not from the word.

By the net, fish can be caught. By speaking, the meaning can be captured.

If it has already the name of ‘reciting’, then one should recite the essence of (thinking of Buddha).

Without the reality of the essence of chanting, it is useless to recite only the empty name. What benefit can result?

Also, remembering and recollecting are far different in name and meaning. Using only the mouth is chanting, doing with the mind is recollecting.

Therefore, reciting comes from the mind. It is the gateway of awakening-cultivation. On the other hand, chanting from memory belongs to the mouth, which belongs to the form of the sound. Attaching to the form of sound and looking for fortune is wrong.

XXIII. Gathered Forms Returning to the Mind

Therefore, the sutra says,

Whatever has a form, as a whole, is delusory.

And also said,

If by figure one would see me,

If by voice one would hear me,

This one is practicing the evil truth;

Cannot see the Tathagata.

By these contemplations we could easily know that whatever has form cannot be permanent.

Therefore you should know well that all sages in the past time cultivated virtue and merit by talking of nothing but this mind.

Mind is the source of all sages. Mind is the master of all sins. The highest true pleasure34 also comes from the mind. On the other hand, all karmic cycles of the three different cosmos are also raised from this mind.

Mind is the entrance-of-liberation from the ordinary world. Mind is also the landing-pier of Nirvana. One who knows the entrance should not worry about whether he can accomplish it or not.

XXIV. Do Not Fallaciously Build Buddha-Statue of Temple

Foolish people today think that erecting the visual form of a building is of great virtue and merit.

They spend a lot of money and materials.

By doing it they fallaciously kill creatures on the earth and in the water.

And they uselessly, they use manpower to build; wasting the wood boards and blocks and coloring them. It exhausts themselves and confuses others shamelessly.

Now what enlightenment will result?

While one talk about dharma of form-of-doing, they eagerly follow it, but, when they are told of the dharma of formless-doing, they become like a non-responsive blockhead.

While looking for small entertainment, they do not foresee the great suffering in the future.

This kind of study will not only tire them but also cause them to turn their back upon the right way and to turn toward the evil path.

Deceivingly they say, gain the fortunes.

XXV. Final Advice on Mind-Watching

Just watch your mind and be alert. Turn your attention from the outside and radiate within. So let the awakening and watching be perpetually alive and bright.

Cut off the three poisonous mind. Permanently melt them away. Close the door of the six Thieves entrance, so they cannot sneak in.

Then, immeasurable, as the sands of the Ganges River, virtue and merit, various adornment, and dharma will be attained.

Pass over the old beings and attain the holy result. A second could be a far distance away. Since enlightenment is between now and the blink of an eye, why should we wait for grey hairs?

True Dharma gate is so profound and bottomless, how can we talk of it all? We have only been talking of a simple way of watching the mind to let it be seen a little.


Buddhism came to China 2,000 years ago. As early as 65 A.D, a community of Buddhist monks was reported living under royal patronage in the northern part of Kiangsu Province, not far from the birth place of Confucious, and the first monks probably arrived a 100 years earlier. Since then, tens of thousands of Indian and Central Asian monks have journed(journeyed) to China, none has had the impact of Bodhidharma.

Unknown to all but a few disciples during his life time, Bodhdharma is the patriarch of millions of Zen Buddhists and students of kung-fu. He’s also the subject of many legends. Along with zen and kung-fu, Bodhidharma, we are told, also brought tea to China. To keep from falling asleep while meditating, he cutting his eyelids, and, and where they fell, tea bushes grew. Since then, tea has become the beverage of not only monks but everyone in the Orient. Faithful to this tradition, artists invariably depict Bodhidharma with bulging, lidless eyes.

As often happens with legends, it’s become impossible to saperate fact from fiction. Not only are his dates uncertain, I’ve met at least one Buddhist scholar who doubted that Bodhidharma ever existed. But at the risk of writing about a man who never lived, I’ve put together a likely biograhy based on the earliest records available to provide a backdrop for the sermons attributed to him.

Bodhidharma was born around the year 440 in Kanchi, the capital of Southern Indian kingdom of Pallava. He was the third son of King Simhavarman and a Brahman by birth. When he was young, he was converted to Buddhism, and later, he received instruction in the Dharma from Prajnatara, whom his father had invited from the ancient Buddhist heartland Magadha. It was also Prajantara who told Bodhidharma to go to China. Since the traditional overland route was blocked by Huns in the 5th century, and since Kanchi was a commercial power as well as a center for Buddhist studies,  Bodhidharma left by ship from the nearby port of Mahaballiputram. After skirting the Indian coast and the Malay Peninsula for three years, he finally arrived in Southern China around 475.

At that time, the counry was divided into the Northern Wei and Liu Song dynasties. This division of China into a series of northern and southern dynasties began in the early third century and conntinued until the country was reunited under the Sui dynasty in the late six century. It was during this period of division and strife that Indian Buddhism developed into Chinese Buddhism. This political division also led to differences in the kind of Buddhism practiced in the North and  South. The more millitary minded northerners emphasized meditation and magic. The more intellectual southerners preferred philosopical discussion and intuitive grasp of principles.

When Bodhidharma arrived in the latter part of the fifth century, there were approximately 2,000 Buddhist temples and 36,000 clergy in the South. In the North, a census in 477 counted 6,500 temples and nearly 80,000 clergy. Less than fifty years later, another census conducted in the North raised these figures to 30,000 temples and 2,000,000 clergy, or aboubt five percent of the population. This undoubtedly included many people who were trying to avoid taxes and conscription or who sought the protection of the Church for other, non religious, reasons. But clearly, Buddhism north of the Yangze was spreading among the common people. In the South, it reamined largely confined to the educated elite until well into the sixth century.

Following his arrival in the port of Nanhai, Bodhidharma probably visited Buddhist center in the South and began learning Chinese, if he hadn’t done so already on his way from India. According to Tao-yuan’s ‘Transmission of the lamp’ finished in 1002, Boddhidharma arrived in the South as late as 520 and was invited to the capital in Chienkang for an audience with Emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty, successor to the Liu Sung. During this meeting, the Emperor asked about the merit of performing religious works, and Boddhidharma responded with the doctrine of emptiness. The Emperor didn,t  understand, and Boddhidharma left.  No early records, however, mention such a meeting.

In any case, Bodhidharma crossed the Yangze – according to legend, on a hollow reed – settled in the North.  At first, he stayed near the Northern Wei capital of Pingcheng. Later, in 494, Emperor Hsiao-wen moved his capital south to Loyang on the northern bank of the Lo river, and most of the monks living in the Pingcheng area moved too, Bodhidharma among them. According to Tao-hsuan’s Further Lives of Exemplary Monks, the first draft of which was written in 645, Bodhidharma ordained a monk by the name of Seng-fu. When Bodhidharma moved to Loyang, Sheng-fu moved to the South. Since ordination normally requires a three-year apprenticeship, Bodhidharma must have already been in the North by 490 and must have been reasonably conversant in Chinese by then.

A few years later,in 496, the Emperor ordered the construction of Shaolin Temple on the highest of China’s five sacred mountains, Mount Sung, in Honan Province south of Loyang. The temple was built for Fo-t’o(Buddhata?), another meditation master from India, not for Bodhidharma. But While zen masters have come and gone at the temple for the past 1,500 years, Bodhidharma is the only monk anyone but a Buddhist historian associates with Shaolin. It was here,on Mount Sung’s western Shaoshih Peak that  Bodhidharma is said have spent nine years facing a rock wall near the temple meditating. Shaolin later became famous for training monks in in kung-fu, and  Bodhidharma is honored as the founder of this art as well. Coming from India, he undoubtedly instructed hisdisciples in some form of yoga, but no early records mention him teaching any exercise or martial art.

By the year 500, Loyang was one of the largest cities in the world, with a population of over half a million. When Emperor Hsuan-wu died in 516, and the Empress Dowager Ling assumed control of the governmet, one of the first things she did was order work to begin on Yong-ning temple. The construction of this temple and its 400-foot high pagoda nearly exausted(exhausted) the imperial treasury. According to a record of Loyang’s temples written in 547 by Yang Hsuan-chih, golden wind – chimes that hung along the temple’s eaves could be heard for three miles, and the spire of the temple’s pagoda could be seen over 30 miles away. Yang’s account also includes the comments of a monk from the west named Bodhidharma, who calls it the most imposing structure he had ever seen. Since the temple wasn’t built until 516 and was destroyed by fire in 534, Bodhidharma must have been in the capital around 520. Early records say he travelled throughout the Loyang area, coming and going with the seasons. In the capital, though, he must have stayed at Yung-ming Temple. Not to be confused

with Yung-ning Temple, Yung-ming was built a few years earlier by Emperor Hsuan-wu  at the beginning of the sixth century as a headquarters for foreign monks. Before the mass evacuation of the city during the collapse of the Northern Wei in 534, the temple reportedly housed over 3,000 monks from countries as far as Syria.

Despite the sudden popularity of Buddhism in China, Bodhidharma found few disciples. Besides Sheng-fu, who moved to the South soon after his ordination, the only other  disciples mentioned are Tao-yu and Hui-k’o, both of whom are said to have studied with  Bodhidharma for five to six years. Tao-yu, we’re told, understood the Way but never taught. It was Hui-k’o that  Bodhidharma entrusted the robe and bowl of his lineage and, according to Tao-hsuan, a copy of Gunabhadra’s translation of the Lankavatara sutras. In the sermons translated here, though, Bodhidharma quotes mostly from Nirvana, Avatamsaka, and Vimilakirti Sutras and uses none of the terminology characteristic of the Lankavatara. Perhaps it was Hui-k’o, not  Bodhidharma , who thought so highly of this sutra

In his transmission of the lamp, Tao-yuan says that soon after Bodhidharma transmitted the patriarchship of his lineage to Hui-k’o, he died in 528 on the fifth day of the tenth month, poisoned by a jealous monk. Tao-hsuan’s much earlier biography of Bodhidharma says only that he died on the banks of the Lo River. He doesn’t mention the date or cause of death. According to Tao-yuan, Bodhidharma’s remains were interred near Loyang at Tinglin Temple on the Bear Ear Mountain. Tao-yuan adds that three years later a official met Bodhidharma walking in the mountains of Central Asia. He was carrying a staff from which hung a single sandal, and he told the official he was going back to India. This meeting aroused the curiosity of other monks, and they agreed to open  Bodhidharma’s tomb. But all they found was a single sandal, and ever since then,  Bodhidharma has been pictured carrying a staff from which hangs the missing sandal.

With the assassination of Emperor Hsiao-wu several years later in 534, the Northern Wei split into the Western and Eastern Wei dynasties, and Loyang came under attack. Since the powerful Kao family of the Eastern Wei was renowned for its patronage of Buddhism, many of the monks living in Loyang moved to the Eastern Wei capital Yeh. Hui-k’o moved to Yeh  too, and eventually he met T’an-lin there. T’an-lin worked first in Loyang and later in Yeh writing prefaces and commentaries to new translations of Buddhist sutras. After meeting Hui-k’o, he became interested in Bodhidharma’s approach to Buddhism and added a brief prefaces to the Outline of Practice. In this preface, he says that Bodhidharma was from Southern India and that following his arrival in China, he had found only two worthy disciples, namely Hui-k’o and Tao-yu. He also says that Bodhidharma taught wall-meditation and the four practices descrived in the Outline.

If this is all we know about Bodhidharma, why is he the most famous of all the millions of monks who taught and studied the Dharma in China? For the simple reason that he is credited with bringing zen to China. Of course, zen, as meditation, had been taught and practiced for several hundred years before Bodhidharma arrived. And, as far as doctrine is concerned, much of what he had to say had been said before, by Tao-sheng for exemple, a hundred years earlier. But Bodhidharma’s approach to zen was unique. As he says in these sermons, “Seeing your nature is zen. . . Not thinking about anything is zen. . . Everything you do is zen.” While others viewed zen as purification of the mind or as a stage on the way to Buddhahood, Bodhidharma equated zen with Buddhahood – and Buddhahood with the mind, the everyday mind. Instead of telling his disciples to purify their minds, he pointed them to rock walls, to the movements of tigers and cranes, to hollow reed floating across the Yangze, to a single sandal. For Bodhidharma, zen wasn’t meditation. Zen was the sword of wisdom. As did other masters, he undoubtedly instructed his disciples in Buddhist discipline, meditation, and doctrine, but he used the sword that Prajnatara had given him to cut their minds free from rules, trances and scriptures. Such a sword, though, is hard to grasp and hard to use. Small wonder that his sole successor, Hui-k’o, was a one-armed man.

But such a radical understanding of zen didn’t originate with Bodhidharma, nor with Prajnatara. It’s said that one day Brahma, lord of creation, offered the Buddha a flower anf asked him to preach the Dharma. When the Buddha held up the flower, his audience was puzzled. Except for Kashyapa, who smiled. This is how zen began. And this is how it was transmitted. With a flower, with a rock wall, with a shout. This approach, once it was made known by Bodhidharma and his successors, revolutionized the understanding and practice of zen in China.

Such an approach doesn’t come across very well in books. But in his Further Lives of Exemplary Monks, Tao- hshuan says that Bodhidharma’s teachings were written down. Most of scholar agree that the Outline of Practice is one such record, but opinion is divided concerning the other three sermons translated here. All three have long been attributted to Bodhidharma, but in recent years, a number of scholars have suggested that these sermons are the work of later disciples. Yanagida, for exemple, thinks that the Blood Stream Sermon was written by a member of the Oxenhead Zen School, which flourished in the seventh and eighth centuries. He also thinks that the wake-up sermon was an eighth-century work of the Northern Zen School and the Breakthrough Sermon was by Shen-hsiu, the seventh-entury patriarch of the Northern School.

Unfortunately, documentary evidence that would conclusively prove or disprove the traditional attribution is lacking. Until the present century, the earliest copies of these sermons were fourteenth-century version of T’ang dynasty(618-907) originals in the collection of Japan’s Kanazaws Bunko. But with the discovery earlier in this century of thousands of T’ang dynasty Buddhist manuscripts in China’s Tunhuang caves, we now have seventh and eighth century copies of these sermons. Clearly, they were compiled by monks who trace their ancestry to Bodhidharma at a very early date. If it wasn’t Huik’o, it might have been one of his disciples, or perhaps T’anlin who wrote them down. In any case, in the absence of convincing evidence to the contrary, I see no reason why they shouldn’t be accepted as the sermons of the man to whom they’ve been attributed for more than 1200 years.

Bodhidharma’s disciples were few. And the zen tradition that traced its ancestry to him didn’t begin its full flowering until nearly two hundred years after his death. Given the spontaneity and detachment fostered by  Bodhidharma’s approach to zen, it’s easy to see why these sermons were eventually neglected by native Chinese zen masters. By comparison, Bodhidharma’s sermons seem somewhat alien and bare. I only found them myself by accident in an edition of Huangpo’s Essentials on the transmission of Mind. That was twelve years ago. Since then, I’ve grown quite fond of their bare-bone zen, and I’ve often wondered why they aren’t more popular. But popular or not, here there are again. Before they fade once more into the dust of time, read them through once or twice. And look for the one thing that Bodhidharma brought to China. Look for the print of the mind.

Red Pine, Taiwan

The Great Master Bodhi-dharma’s Teaching on the Two Enterings and the Four Practices

By Bodhi-dharma
Translated into English by Red Pine, 1987
(Inaccurate Translation)

MANY roads lead to the Path, but basically there are only two: reason and practice.

To enter by reason means to realize the essence through instruction and to believe that all living things share the same true nature, which isn’t apparent because it’s shrouded by sensation and delusion. Those who turn from delusion back to reality, who meditate on walls,’ the absence of self and other, the oneness of mortal and sage, and who remain unmoved even by scriptures are in complete and unspoken agreement with reason. Without moving, without effort, they enter, we say, by reason.

To enter by practice refers to four all-inclusive practices: Suffering injustice, adapting to conditions, seeking nothing, and practicing the Dharma.

First, suffering injustice. When those who search for the Path encounter adversity, they should think to themselves, “In Countless ages gone by, I’ve turned from the essential to the trivial and wandered through all manner of existence, often angry without cause and guilty of numberless transgressions.

Now, though I do no wrong, I’m punished by my past. Neither gods nor men can foresee when an evil deed will bear its fruit. I accept it with an open heart and without complaint of injustice. The sutras say ” when you meet with adversity don’t be upset because it makes sense.” With such understanding you’re in harmony with reason. And by suffering injustice you enter the Path.

Second, adapting to conditions. As mortals, we’re ruled by conditions, not by ourselves. All the suffering and joy we experience depend on conditions. If we should be blessed by some great reward, such as fame or fortune, it’s the fruit of a seed planted by us in the past. When conditions change, it ends. Why delight In Its existence? But while success and failure depend on conditions, the mind neither waxes nor wanes. Those who remain unmoved by the wind of joy silently follow the Path.

Third, seeking nothing. People of this world are deluded. They’re always longing for something-always, in a word, seeking. But the wise wake up. They choose reason over custom. They fix their minds on the sublime and let their bodies change with the seasons. All phenomena are empty. They contain nothing worth desiring. Calamity forever alternates with Prosperity! To dwell in the three realms is to dwell in a burning house. To have a body is to suffer. Does anyone with a body know peace? Those who understand this detach themselves from all that exists and stop Imagining or seeking anything. The sutras say, “To seek is to suffer. To seek nothing is bliss.” When you seek nothing, you’re on the Path.

Fourth, practicing the Dharma.’ The Dharma is the truth that all natures are pure. By this truth, all appearances are empty. Defilement and attachment, subject and object don’t exist. The sutras say, “The Dharma includes no being because it’s free from the impurity of being, and the Dharma includes no self because it’s free from the impurity of self.” Those wise enough to believe and understand these truths are bound to practice according to the Dharma. And since that which is real includes nothing worth begrudging, they give their body, life, and property in charity, without regret, without the vanity of giver, gift, or recipient, and without bias or attachment. And to eliminate impurity they teach others, but without becoming attached to form. Thus, through their own practice they’re able to help others and glorify the Way of Enlightenment. And as with charity, they also practice the other virtues. But while practicing the six virtues to eliminate delusion, they practice nothing at all. This is what’s meant by practicing the Dharma.

Bodhi-dharma’s Bloodstream Sermon

By Bodhi-dharma
Translated into English by Red Pine, 1987
(Inaccurate Translation)

Everything that appears in the three realms comes from the mind. Hence Buddhas of the past and future teach mind to mind without bothering about definitions.

Student: But if they don’t define it, what do they mean by mind?

Bodhidharma: You ask. That’s your mind. I answer. That’s my mind. If I had no mind how could I answer? If you had no mind, how could you ask? That which asks is your mind. Through endless kalpas” without beginning, whatever you do, wherever you are, that’s your real mind, that’s your real buddha. This mind is the buddha” says the same thing. Beyond this mind you’ll never find another Buddha. To search for enlightenment or nirvana beyond this mind is impossible. The reality of your own self-nature the absence of cause and effect, is what’s meant by mind. Your mind is nirvana. You might think you can find a Buddha or enlightenment somewhere beyond the mind’, but such a place doesn’t exist.

Trying to find a Buddha or enlightenment is like trying to grab space. Space has a name but no form. It’s not something you can pick up or put down. And you certainly can’t grab if. Beyond mind you’ll never see a Buddha. The Buddha is a product of the mind. Why look for a Buddha beyond this mind?

Buddhas of the past and future only talk about this mind. The mind is the Buddha, and the Buddha is the mind. Beyond the mind there’s no Buddha and beyond the Buddha there’s no mind. If you think there is a Buddha beyond the mind’, where is he? There’s no Buddha beyond the mind, so why envision one? You can’t know your real mind as long as you deceive yourself. As long as you’re enthralled by a lifeless form, you’re not free. If you don’t believe me, deceiving yourself won’t help. It’s not the Buddha’s fault. People, though, are deluded. They’re unaware that their own mind is the Buddha. Otherwise they wouldn’t look for a Buddha outside the mind.

Buddhas don’t ferry Buddhas to the shore of liberation. If you use your mind to look for a Buddha, you won’t see the Buddha. As long as you seek Buddhas outwards, you’ll never see that your own Heart is the Buddha. Don’t use a Buddha to worship a Buddha, and don’t use the mind to invoke a Buddha. Buddhas don’t recite sutras, Buddhas don’t keep precepts, and Buddhas don’t break precepts, Buddhas don’t keep or break anything. Buddhas don’t do good or evil.

To find a Buddha, you have to see your nature. Whoever sees his nature is a Buddha. If you don’t see your nature, being mindful of Buddhas, reciting sutras, making offerings, and keeping precepts are not equal to it. Being mindful of Buddhas results in good karma, reciting sutras results in a good intelligence; keeping precepts results in a good rebirth in heavens, and making offerings results in future blessings — but no buddha. If you don’t understand by yourself, you’ll have to find a teacher to know the root of births and deaths. But unless he sees his nature, such a person isn’t a good teacher. Even if he can recite the twelve groups of scriptures he can’t escape the Wheel of Births and Deaths. He suffers in the three realms without hope of release. Long ago, the monk Good Star was able to recite the twelve groups of scriptures. But he didn’t escape the Wheel, because he didn’t see his nature. If this was the case with Good Star, then people nowadays who recite a few sutras or shastras and think it’s the Dharma are fools. Unless you see your own Heart, reciting so much prose is useless.

To find a Buddha have to see your nature directly. Your nature is the Buddha. And the Buddha is the person who’s free: free of plans, free of cares. If you don’t see your nature and run outwards to seek for external objects, you’ll never find a buddha. The truth is there’s nothing to find. But to reach such an understanding you need a good teacher and you need to struggle to make yourself understand. Life and death are important. Don’t suffer them in vain.

There’s no advantage in deceiving yourself. Even if you have mountains of jewels and as many servants as there are grains of sand along the Ganges, you see them when your eyes are open. But what about when your eyes are shut? You should realize then that everything you see is like a dream or illusion.

If you don’t find a teacher soon, you’ll live this life in vain. It’s true, you have the buddha-nature. But the help of a teacher you’ll never know it. Only one person in a million becomes enlightened without a teacher’s help. If, though, by the conjunction of conditions, someone understands what the Buddha meant, that person doesn’t need a teacher. Such a person has a natural awareness superior to anything taught. But unless you’re so blessed, study hard, and by means of instruction you’ll understand.

People who don’t understand and think they can do so without study are no different from those deluded souls who can’t tell white from black.” Falsely proclaiming the Buddha-Dharma, such persons in fact blaspheme the Buddha and subvert the Dharma. They preach as if they were bringing rain. But theirs is the preaching of devils not of Buddhas. Their teacher is the King of Devils and their disciples are the Devil’s minions. Deluded people who follow such instruction unwittingly sink deeper in the Sea of Birth and Death. Unless they see their nature, how can people call themselves Buddhas they’re liars who deceive others into entering the realm of devils. Unless they see their nature, their preaching of the Twelvefold Canon is nothing but the preaching of devils. Their allegiance is to Mara, not to the Buddha. Unable to distinguish white from black, how can they escape birth and death?

Whoever sees his nature is a Buddha; whoever doesn’t is a mortal. But if you can find your buddha-nature apart from your mortal nature, where is it? Our mortal nature is our Buddha nature. Beyond this nature there’s no Buddha. The Buddha is our nature. There’s no Buddha besides this nature. And there’s no nature besides the Buddha.

Student: But suppose I don’t see my nature, cant I still attain enlightenment by invoking Buddhas, reciting sutras, making offerings, observing precepts, Practicing devotions, or doing good works?

Bodhidharma: No, you can’t.

Student: Why not?

Bodhidharma: If you attain anything at all, it’s conditional, it’s karmic. It results in retribution. It turns the Wheel. And as long as you’re subject to birth and death, you’ll never attain enlightenment. To attain enlightenment you have to see your nature. Unless you see your nature, all the talks about cause and effect are the dharmas of the Exterior-Paths. Buddhas don’t practice Exterior-Paths dharmas. A Buddha is free of karma, free of cause and effect. To say He attains anything at all is to slander a Buddha, how can the speaker achieve the Awakening?
If you are attached to even one thought, one ability, one understanding, or one view, you can not match the Buddha. A Buddha does not keep or break anything, the nature of His Heart is basically empty, neither pure nor impure. He is free of practice and realization, He is free of cause and effect.

A Buddha doesn’t observe precepts. A Buddha doesn’t do good or evil. A Buddha isn’t energetic or lazy. A Buddha is someone who does nothing, if anyone is attached to anything, he cannot see the Buddha. A Buddha isn’t a Buddha, don’t interpret Him as a Buddha. If you dont see what I’m talking about, at any times and anywhere, you just don’t realize your original Heart. People who don’t see their nature and try to stop their thinkings all the time are great sinful poeple and fools. They will fall into the Memoryless-Emptiness. They’re like drunks. They cannot tell good from evil. If you intend to practice non-doing, you have to see your nature before you can put an end to all states and conditions. To attain the Buddha’s Way without seeing your nature is impossible. Still others commit all sorts of evil deeds, claiming karma doesn’t exist. They erroneously maintain that since everything is empty committing evil isn’t wrong. Such persons fall into a hell of endless darkness with no hope of release. Those who are wise hold no such conception.

Student: But if our every movement or state, whenever it occurs, is the mind, why don’t we see this mind when a person’s body dies?

The mind is always present. You just don’t see it.

Student: But if the mind is present, why don’t I see it?

Bodhidharma: Do you ever dream?

Student: Of course.

When you dream, is that you?

Student: Yes, it’s me.

And is what you’re doing and saying different from you?

Student: No, it isn’t.

Bodhidharma: But if it isn’t, then this body is your real body. And this real body is your mind. And this mind, through endless kalpas without beginning, has never varied. It has never lived or died, appeared or disappeared, increased or decreased. Its not pure or impure, good or evil, past or future. It’s not true or false. It’s not mate or female. It doesn’t appear as a monk or a layman, an elder or a novice, a sage or a fool, a Buddha or a mortal. It strives ‘for no realization and suffers no karma. It has no strength or form. It’s like space. You can’t possess it and you can’t lose it. Its movements can’t be blocked by mountains, rivers, or rock walls. Its unstoppable powers penetrate the Mountain of Five Skandhas and cross the River of Samsara.” No karma can restrain this real body. But this mind is subtle and hard to see. It’s not the same as the sensual mind. Every I one wants to see this mind, and those who move their hands and feet by its light are as many as the grains of sand along the Ganges, but when you ask them, they can’t explain it. They’re like puppets. It’s theirs to use. Why don’t they see it?

The Buddha said people are deluded. This Is why when they act they fall into the river of endless rebirth. And when they try to get out they only sink deeper. And all because they don’t see their nature. If people weren’t deluded why would they ask about something right in front of them? Not one of they understands the movement of his own hands and feet. The Buddha wasn’t mistaken. Deluded people don’t know who they are. A Buddha and no one else know something so hard to fathom. Only the wise knows mind, this mind call nature, this mind called liberation. Neither life nor death can restrain this mind. Nothing can. It’s also called the Unstoppable Tathagata,” the Incomprehensible, the Sacred Self, the Immortal, the Great Sage. Its names vary but not its essence. Buddhas vary too, but none leaves his own mind. The mind’s capacity is limitless, and its manifestations are inexhaustible. Seeing forms with your eyes, hearing sounds with your ears, smelling odors with your nose, tasting flavors with your tongue, every movement or state is your entire mind. At every moment, where language can’t go, that’s your mind.

The sutras say, “A Tathagata’s forms are endless. And so is his awareness.” The endless variety of forms is due to the mind. Its ability to distinguish things, whatever their movement or state, is the mind’s awareness. But the mind has no form and its awareness no limit. Hence it’s said, “A Tathagata’s forms are endless. And so is his awareness.” A material body of the four elements” is trouble. A material body is subject to birth and death. But the real body exists without existing, because a Tathagata’s real body never changes. The sutras say, “People should realize that the buddha-nature is something they have always had.” Kashyapa only realized his own nature.

Our nature is the mind. And the mind is our nature. This nature is the same as the mind of all Buddhas. Buddhas of the past and future only transmit this mind. Beyond this mind there’s no Buddha anywhere. But deluded people don’t realize that their own mind is the Buddha. They keep searching outside. They never stop invoking Buddhas or worshipping Buddhas and wondering Where is the buddha? Don’t indulge in such illusions. Just know your mind. Beyond your mind there’s no other Buddha. The sutras say, “Everything that has form is an illusion.” They also say, “Wherever you are, there’s a Buddha.” Your mind is the Buddha. Don’t use a Buddha to worship a Buddha.

Even if a Buddha or bodhisattva” should suddenly appear before you, there’s no need for reverence. This mind of ours is empty and contains no such form. Those who hold onto appearances are devils. They fall from the Path. Why worship illusions born of the mind? Those who worship don’t know, and those who know don’t worship. By worshipping you come under the spell of devils. I point this out because 1 afraid you’re unaware of it. The basic nature of a Buddha has no such form. Keep this in mind, even if something unusual should appear. Don’t embrace it, and don’t fear it, and don’t doubt that your Mind is basically pure. Where could there be room for any such form? Also, at the appearance of spirits, demons, or divine conceive neither respect nor fear. Your mind is basically empty. All appearances are illusions. Don’t hold on to appearances. If you envision a Buddha, a Dharma, or a bodhisattva” and conceive respect for them, you relegate yourself to the realm of mortals. If you seek direct understanding, don’t hold on to any appearance whatsoever, and you’ll succeed. I have no other advice. The sutras say, “All appearances are illusions.” They have no fixed existence, o constant form. They’re impermanent. Don’t cling to appearances and you’ll be of one mind with the Buddha. The sutras say, “‘That which is free of all form is the Buddha.”

Student: But why shouldn’t we worship Buddhas and bodhisattvas?

Bodhidharma: Devils and demons possess the power of manifestation. They can create the appearance of bodhisattvas in all sorts of guises. But they’re false. None of them are Buddhas. The Buddha is your own mind. Don’t misdirect your worship.

Buddha is Sanskrit for what you call aware, miraculously aware. Responding, arching your brows blinking your eyes, moving your hands and feet, its all your miraculously aware nature. And this nature is the mind. And the mind is the Buddha. And the Buddha is the path. And the path is Zen. But the word Zen is one that remains a puzzle to both mortals and sages. Seeing your nature is Zen. Unless you see your nature, it’s not Zen.

Even if you can explain thousands of sutras and shastras, unless you see your own nature yours is the teaching of a mortal, not a Buddha. The true Way is sublime. It can’t be expressed in language. Of what use are scriptures? But someone who sees his own nature finds the Way, even if he can’t read a word. Someone who sees his nature is a Buddha. And since a Buddha’s body is intrinsically pure and unsullied, and everything he says is an expression of his mind, being basically empty, a buddha can’t be found in words or anywhere in the Twelvefold Canon.

The Way is basically perfect. It doesn’t require perfecting. The Way has no form or sound. It’s subtle and hard to perceive. It’s like when you drink water: you know how hot or cold it is, but you can’t tell others. Of that which only a

Tathagata knows men and gods remain unaware. The awareness of mortals falls short. As long as ,they’re attached to appearances, they’re unaware that their minds are empty.

And by mistakenly clinging to the appearance of things they lose the Way. If you know that everything comes from the mind, don’t become attached. Once attached, you’re unaware. But once you see your own nature, the entire Canon becomes so much prose. Its thousands of sutras and shastras only amount to a clear mind. Understanding comes in midsentence. What good are doctrines? The ultimate Truth is beyond words. Doctrines are words.

They’re not the Way. The Way is wordless. Words are illusions. They’re no different from things that appear in your dreams at night, be they palaces or carriages, forested parks or lakeside ‘lions. Don’t conceive any delight for such things. They’re all cradles of rebirth. Keep this in mind when you approach death. Don’t cling to appearances, and you’ll break through all barriers. A moment’s hesitation and you’ll be under the spell of devils. Your real body is pure and impervious. But because of delusions you’re unaware of it. And because of this you suffer karma in vain. Wherever you find delight, you find bondage. But once you awaken to your original body and mind,” you’re no longer bound by attachments.

Anyone, who gives up the transcendent for the mundane, ill any of its myriad forms, is a mortal. A Buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. Such is his power that karma can’t hold him. No matter what kind of karma Buddha transforms it. Heaven and hell are nothing to him. But the awareness of a mortal is dim compared to that of a Buddha who penetrates everything inside and out. If you’re not sure don’t act. Once you act, you wander through birth and death and regret having no refuge. Poverty and hardship are created by false thinking. To understand this mind you have to act without acting. Only then will you see things from a Tathagata’s perspective.

But when you first embark on the Path, your awareness won’t focused. But you shouldn’t doubt that all such scenes come from your own mind and nowhere else.

If, as in a dream, you see a light brighter than the sun, your remaining attachments will suddenly come to an end and the nature of reality will be revealed. Such an occurrence serves as the basis for enlightenment. But this is something only you know. You can’t explain it to others. Or if, while you’re walking, standing, sitting, or lying in a quiet grove, you see a light, regardless of whether it’s bright or dim, don’t tell others and don’t focus on it. It’s the light of your own nature.

Or if, while you’re walking, standing, sitting, or lying in the stillness and darkness of night, everything appears as though in daylight, don’t be startled. It’s your own mind about to reveal itself.

Or if, while you’re dreaming at night, you see the moon and stars in all their clarity, it means the workings of your mind are about to end. But don’t tell others. And if your dreams aren’t clear, as if you were walking in the dark, it’s because your mind is masked by cares. This too is something of” you know. if you so your nature,, you don’t need to read sutras or invoke buddhas. Erudition and Knowledge are not only useless but also cloud your awareness. Doctrines are only for pointing to the mind. Once you see your mind, why pay attention to doctrines?

To go from mortal to Buddha, you have to put an end to karma, nurture your awareness, and accept what life brings. If you’re always getting angry, you’ll turn your nature against the Way. There’s no advantage in deceiving yourself. Buddhas move freely through birth and death, appearing and disappearing at will. They can’t be restrained by karma or overcome by devils. Once mortals see their nature, all attachments end. Awareness isn’t hidden. But you can only find it right now. It’s only now. If you really want to find the Way, don’t hold on to anything. Once you put an end to karma and nurture your awareness, any attachments that remain will come to an end. Understanding comes naturally. You don’t have to make any effort. But fanatics don’t understand what the Buddha meant. And the harder they try, the farther they get from the Sage’s meaning. All day long they invoke Buddhas and read sutras. But they remain blind to their own divine nature, and they don’t escape the Wheel.

A Buddha is an idle person. He doesn’t run around after fortune and fame. What good are such things in the end? People who don’t see their nature and think reading sutras, invoking Buddhas’, studying long and hard, practicing morning

and night, never lying down, or acquiring knowledge is the Dharma, blaspheme the Dharma. Buddhas of the past and future only talk about seeing your nature. All practices are impermanent. Unless they see their nature people who claim to have attained unexcelled, complete enlightenment” are liars. Among Shakyamuni’s ten greatest disciples, Ananda was foremost in learning. But he didn’t know the Buddha. All he did was study and memorize. Arhats don’t know the Buddha. All they know are so many practices for realization, and they become trapped by cause and effect. Such is a mortal’s karma: no escape from birth and death. By doing the opposite of what lie intended, Such people blaspheme the Buddha. Killing them would not be wrong. The sutras say, “Since icchantikas are incapable of belief, killing them would be blameless, whereas people who believe reach the state of Buddhahood.”

Unless you see your nature, You shouldn’t go around criticizing the goodness of others. There’s no advantage in deceiving yourself. Good and bad are distinct. Cause and effect are clear. Heaven and hell are right before your eves. But fools don’t believe and fall straight into a hell of endless darkness without even knowing it. What keeps them from believing is the heaviness of their karma. They’re like blind people who don’t believe there’s such a thing as light. Even if you explain it to them, they still don t believe, because they’re blind. How can they possibly distinguish light?

The same holds true for fools who end up among the lower orders of existence or among the poor and despised. They can’t live and they can’t die. And despite their sufferings, if you ask them, they say they’re as happy as gods. All mortals even those who think themselves wellborn, are likewise unaware. Because of the heaviness of their karma, such fools can’t believe and can’t get free.

People who see that their mind is the Buddha don’t need to shave their head” Laymen are Buddhas too. Unless they see their nature, people who shave their head are simply fanatics.

Student: But since married laymen don’t give up sex, bow can they become Buddhas?

Bodhidharma: I only talk about seeing your nature. I don’t talk about sex simply because you don’t see your nature. Once you see your nature, sex is basically immaterial. It ends along with your delight in it. Even if some habits remain’, they can’t harm you, because your nature is essentially pure. Despite dwelling in a material body of four elements, your nature is basically pure. It can’t be corrupted.

Your real body is basically pure. It can’t be corrupted. Your real body has no sensation, no hunger or thirst’, no warmth or cold, no sickness, no love or attachment, no pleasure or pain, no good or bad, no shortness or length, no weakness or strength. Actually, there’s nothing here. It’s only because you cling to this material body that things like hunger and thirst, warmth and cold, sickness appear Once you stop clinging and let things be, you’ll- be free, even of birth and death. You’ll transform everything. You’ll possess Spiritual powers ” that cant be obstructed. And you’ll be at peace wherever you are. If you doubt this, you’ll never see through anything. You’re better off doing nothing. Once you act, you can’t avoid the cycle of birth and death. But once you see your nature, you’re a Buddha even if you work as a butcher.

Student: But butchers create karma by slaughtering animals. How can they be Buddhas?

Bodhidharma: I only talk about seeing your nature. I don’t talk about creating karma. Regardless of what we do, our karma has no hold on us. Through endless kalpas without beginning, its only because people don’t see their nature that they end up in hell. As long as a person creates karma, he keeps passing through birth and death. But once a person realizes his original nature, he stops creating karma. If he doesn’t see his nature, invoking Buddhas won’t release him from his karma, regardless of whether or not he’s a butcher. But once he sees his nature, all doubts vanish. Even a butcher’s karma has no effect on such a person. In India the twenty-seven patriarchs only transmitted the imprint of the mind.

And the only reason I’ve come to China is to transmit the instantaneous teaching of the Mahayana This mind is the Buddha. I don’t talk about precepts, devotions or ascetic practices such immersing yourself in water and fire, treading a wheel of knives, eating one meal a day, or never lying down. These are fanatical, provisional teachings. Once you recognize your moving, miraculously aware nature.

Yours is the mind of all Buddhas. Buddhas of the past and future only talk about transmitting the mind.

They teach nothing else if someone understands this teaching, even if he’s illiterate he’s a Buddha. If You don’t see your own miraculously aware nature, you’ll never find a Buddha even if you break your body into atoms.

The Buddha is your real body, your original mind. This mind has no form or characteristics, no cause or effect, no tendons or bones. It’s like space. You can’t hold it. Its not the mind or materialists or nihilists. Except for a Tathagata, no one else- no mortal, no deluded being-can fathom it.

But this mind isn’t somewhere outside the material body of four elements.Without this mind we can’t move. The body has no awareness. Like a plant or stone, the body has no nature. So how does it move? It’s the mind that moves. Language and behavior, perception and conception are all functions of the moving mind. All motion is the mind’s motion. Motion is its function. Apart from motion there’s no mind, and apart from the mind there’s no motion. But motion isn’t the mind. And the mind isn’t motion. Motion is basically mindless. And the mind is basically motionless. But motion doesn’t exist without the mind. And the mind doesn’t exist without motion. Theres no mind for motion to exist apart from, and no motion for mind to exist apart from. Motion is the mind’s function, and its function is its motion. Even so, the mind neither moves nor functions, the essence of its functioning is emptiness and emptiness is essentially motionless. Motion is the same as the mind. And the mind is essentially motionless. Hence the Sutras tell us to move without moving, to travel without traveling, to see without seeing, to laugh without laughing, to hear without hearing, to know without knowing, to be happy, without being happy, to walk without walking, to stand without standing. And the sutras say, “Go beyond language. Go beyond thought.” Basically, seeing, hearing, and knowing are completely empty. Your anger, Joy, or pain is like that of puppet. You search but you won’t find a thing.

According to the Sutras, evil deeds result in hardships and good deeds result in blessings. Angry people go to hell and happy people go to heaven. But once you know that the nature of anger and joy is empty and you let them go, you free yourself from karma. If you don’t see your nature, quoting sutras is no help, I could go on, but this brief sermon will have to do.

(Two verses omitted)

Bodhi-dharma’s Breakthrough Sermon

By Bodhi-dharma
Translated into English by Red Pine, 1987
(Inaccurate Translation)

Student: If someone is determined to reach enlightenment, what is the most essential method he can practice?

Bodhidharma: The most essential method, which includes all other methods, is beholding the mind.

Student: But how can one method include all others?

Bodhidharma: The mind is the root from which all things grow if you can understand the mind, everything else is included. It’s like the root of a tree. All a tree’s fruit and flowers, branches and leaves depend on its root. If you nourish its root, a tree multiplies. If you cut its root, it dies. Those who understand the mind reach enlightenment with minimal effort. Those who don’t understand the mind practice in vain. Everything good and bad comes from your own mind. To find something beyond the mind is impossible.

Student: But bow can beholding the mind be called understanding?

Bodhidharma: When a great bodhisattva delves deeply into perfect wisdom, he realizes that the four elements and five shades are devoid of a personal self. And he realizes that the activity of his mind has two aspects: pure and impure. By their very nature, these two mental states are always present. They alternate as cause or effect depending on conditions, the pure mind delighting in good deeds, the impure mind thinking of evil. Those who aren’t affected by impurity are sages. They transcend suffering and experience the bliss of nirvana. All others, trapped by the impure mind and entangled by their own karma, are mortals. They drift through the three realms and suffer countless afflictions and all because their impure mind obscures their real self.

The Sutra of Ten Stages says, “in the body of mortals is the indestructible buddha-nature. Like the sun, its light fills endless space, But once veiled by the dark clouds of the five shades, it’s like a light ‘inside a ‘at, hidden from view.” And the Nirvana Sutra says, “All mortals have the buddha-nature. But it’s covered by darkness from which they can’t escape. Our buddha-nature is awareness: to be aware and to make others aware. To realize awareness is liberation,” Everything good has awareness for its root. And from this root of awareness grow the tree of all virtues and the fruit of nirvana. Beholding the mind like this is understanding.

Student: You say that our true Buddha-nature and all virtues have awareness for their root. But what is the root of ignorance?

Bodhidharma: The ignorant mind, with its infinite afflictions, passions, and evils, is rooted in the three poisons. Greed, anger, and delusion. These three poisoned states of mind themselves include countless evils, like trees that have a single trunk but countless branches and leaves. Yet each poison produces so many more millions of evils that the example of a tree is hardly a fitting comparison. The three poisons are present in our six sense organs’ as six kinds of consciousness’ or thieves. They’re called thieves because they pass in and out of the gates of the senses, covet limitless possessions, and mask their true identity. And because mortals are misled in body and mind by these poisons or thieves, they become lost in life and death, wander through the six states of existence, and suffer countless afflictions. These afflictions are like rivers that surge for a thousand miles because of the constant flow of small springs.

But if someone cuts off their source, rivers dry up. And if someone who seeks liberation can turn the three poisons into the three sets of precepts and the six thieves into the six paramitas, he rids himself of affliction once and for all.

Student: But the three realms and six states -of existence are infinitely vast. How can we escape their endless afflictions if all we do is behold the mind?

Bodhidharma: The karma of the three realms comes from the mind alone. If your mind isn’t within the three realms, it’s beyond them. The three realms correspond to the three poisons- greed corresponds to the realm of desire, anger to the realm of form, and delusion to the formless realm. And because karma created by the poisons can be gentle or heavy, these three realms are further divided into six places known as the six states of existence.

Student: And how does the karma of these six differ?

Bodhidharma: Mortals who don’t understand true practice and blindly perform good deeds are born into the three higher states of existence within the three realms. And what are these three higher states? Those who blindly perform the ten good deeds and foolishly seek happiness are born as gods in the realm of desire. Those who blindly observe the five precepts and foolishly indulge in love and hate are born as men in the realm of anger, And those who blindly cling to the phenomenal world, believe in false doctrines, and pray for blessings are born as demons in the realm of delusion. These are the three higher states of existence.

And what are the three lower states? They’re where those who persist in poisoned thoughts and evil deeds are born. Those whose karma from greed is greatest become hungry ghosts. Those whose karma from anger is greatest become sufferers in hell. And those whose karma from delusion is greatest become beasts. These three lower states together with the previous three higher states form the six states of existence. From this you should realize that all karma, painful or otherwise, comes from your own mind. If you can just concentrate your mind and transcend its falsehood and evil, the suffering of the three realms and six states of existence will automatically disappear. And once free from suffering, you’re truly free.

Student: But the Buddha said, “Only after undergoing innumerable hardships for three asankhya kalpas did I achieve enlightenment,” Why do you now say that simply beholding the mind and over-coming the three poisons is liberation?

Bodhidharma: The words of the Buddha are true. But the three-asankhya kalpas refer to the three poisoned states of mind. What we call asankhya in Sanskrit you call countless. Within these three poisoned states of mind are countless evil thoughts, And every thought lasts a kalpa. Such an infinity is what the Buddha meant by the three asankhya kalpas, Once the three poisons obscure your real self, how can you be called liberated until you overcome their countless evil thoughts? People who can transform the three poisons of greed, anger, and delusion into the three releases are said to pass through the three-sankhya kalpas. But people of this final age are the densest of fools. They don’t understand what the Tathagata really meant by the three-asankhya kalpas. They say enlightenment is only achieved after endless kalpas and thereby mislead disciples to retreat on the path to Buddhahood.

Student: But the great bodbisattvas have achieved enlightenment only by observing the three sets of precepts”‘ and practicing the six Paramitas, Now you tell disciples merely to behold the mind. How can anyone reach enlightenment without cultivating the rules of discipline?

Bodhidharma: The three sets of precepts are for overcoming the three poisoned states of mind, When you overcome these poisons, you create three sets of limitless virtue, A set gathers things together-in this case, countless good thoughts throughout your mind. And the six paramitas are for purifying the six senses. What we call paramitas you call means to the other shore. By purifying your six senses of the dust of sensation, the paramitas ferry you across the River of Affliction to the Shore of Enlightenment.

Student: According to the sutras, the three sets of precepts are, “I vow, to put an end to all evils. I vow to cultivate all virtues. And I vow to liberate all beings.” But now you say they’re only for controlling the three poisoned states of mind. Isn’t this contrary to the meaning of the scriptures?

Bodhidharma: The sutras of the Buddha are true. But long ago, when that great bodhisattva was cultivating the seed of enlightenment, it was to counter the three poisons that he made his three vows. Practicing moral prohibitions to counter the poison of greed, he vowed to put an end to all evils. Practicing meditation to counter the poison of anger, he vowed to cultivate all virtues. And practicing wisdom to counter the poison of delusion, he vowed to liberate all beings. Because he persevered in these three pure practices of morality, meditation, and wisdom, he was able to overcome the three poisons and reach enlightenment. By overcoming the three poisons he wiped out everything sinful and thus put an end to evil. By observing the three sets of precepts he did nothing but good and thus cultivated virtue. And by putting an end to evil and cultivating virtue lie consummate all practices, benefited himself as well as others, and rescued mortals everywhere. Thus he liberated beings.

You should realize that the practice you cultivate doesn’t exist apart from your mind. If your mind is pure, all buddha-lands are pure. The sutras say, “if their minds are impure, beings are impure. If their minds are pure, beings are pure,” And “To reach a buddha-land, purify your mind. As your mind becomes pure, buddha-lands become pure.” Thus by overcoming the three poisoned states of mind the three sets of precepts are automatically fulfilled.

Student: But the sutras say the six Paramitas are charity, morality, patience, devotion, meditation, and wisdom. Now you say the paramitas refer to the purification of the senses. What do you mean by this? And why are they called ferries?

Bodhidharma: Cultivating the paramitas means purifying the six senses by overcoming the six thieves. Casting out the thief of the eye by abandoning the visual world is charity. Keeping out the thief of the ear by not listening to sound is morality. Humbling the thief of the nose by equating smells as neutral is patience. Controlling the thief of the mouth by conquering desires to taste, praise, and explain is devotion. Quelling the thief of the body by remaining unmoved by sensations of touch is meditation. And taming the thief of the mind by not yielding to delusions but practicing wakefulness is wisdom, These six paramitas are transports. Like boats or rafts, they transport beings to the other shore. Hence they’re called ferries.

Student: But when Sbakyamuni was a bodhisattva, he consumed three bowls of milk and six ladles of gruel prior to attaining enlightenment. If he bad to drink milk before be could taste the fruit of buddhahood, how can merely beholding the mind result in liberation?

Bodhidharma: What you say is true. That is how he attained enlightenment. He had to drink milk before he could become a Buddha. But there are two kinds of milk. That which Shakyamuni drank wasn’t ordinary impure milk but Pure Dharma-talk. The three bowls were the three sets of precepts. And the six ladies were the six paramitas. When Shakyamuni attained enlightenment, it was because he drank this pure dharma-rnilk that he tasted the fruit of Buddhahood. To say that the Tathagata drank the worldly concoction of impure, rank-smelling cow’s milk is the height of slander. That which is truly so, the indestructible, passionless Dharma-self, remains forever free of the world’s afflictions. Why would it need impure milk to satisfy its hunger or thirst?

The sutras say, “This ox doesn’t live in the highlands or the lowlands. It doesn’t eat grain or chaff. And it doesn’t graze with cows. The body of this ox is the color of burnished gold.” The ox refers to Vairocana. Owing to his great compassion for all beings, he produces from within his pure Dharma-body the sublime Dharma-milk of the three sets of precepts and six paramitas to nourish all those who seek liberation. The pure milk of such a truly pure ox not only enabled the ‘tathagata to achieve buddhahood but also enables any being who drinks it to attain unexcelled, complete enlightenment.

Student: Throughout the sutras the Buddha tells mortals they can achieve enlightenment by performing such meritorious works as building monasteries, casting statues, burning incense, scattering flowers, lighting eternal lamps, practicing all six periods” of the day and night, walking around stupas, observing fasts, and worshipping. But if beholding the mind includes all other practices, then such works as these would appear redundant.

Bodhidharma: The sutras of the Buddha contain countless metaphors. Because mortals have shallow minds and don’t understand anything deep, the Buddha used the tangible to represent the sublime. People who seek blessings by concentrating on external works instead of internal cultivation are attempting the impossible, What you call a monastery we call a sangbarama, a place of purity. But whoever denies entry to the three poisons and keeps the gates of his senses pure, his body and mind still, inside and outside clean, builds a monastery.

Casting statues refers to all practices cultivated by those who seek enlightenment. The Tathagata’s sublime form can’t be represented by metal. Those who seek enlightenment regard their bodies as the furnace, the Dharma as the fire, wisdom as the craftsmanship, and the three sets of precepts and six paramitas as the mold. They smelt and refine the true buddha-nature within themselves and pour it into the mold formed by the rules of discipline. Acting in perfect accordance with the -Buddha’s teaching, they naturally create a perfect likeness. ‘Me eternal, sublime body isn’t subject to conditions or decay. If you seek the Truth but dont learn how to make a true likeness, what will you use in its place?

And burning incense doesn’t mean ordinary material incense but the incense of the intangible Dharma, which drives away filth, ignorance, and evil deeds with its perfume. There are five kinds of such Dharma-incense. First is the incense of morality, which means renouncing evil and cultivating virtue. Second is the incense of meditation, which means deeply believing in the Mahayana with unwavering resolve. Third is the incense of wisdom, which means contemplating the body and mind, inside and out. Fourth is the incense of liberation, which means severing the bonds of ignorance. And fifth is the incense of perfect knowledge, which means being always aware and nowhere obstructed. These five are the most precious kinds of incense and far superior to anything the world has to offer.

When the Buddha was in the world, he told his disciples to light such precious incense with the fire of awareness as an offering to the Buddhas of the ten directions. But people today don’t understand the Tathagata’s real meaning. They use an ordinary flame to light material incense of sandalwood or frankincense and pray for some future blessing that never comes.

For scattering flowers the same holds true. This refers to speaking the Dharma, scattering flowers of virtue, in order to benefit others and glorify the real sell. These flowers of virtue are those praised by the Buddha. They last forever and never fade. And whoever scatters such flowers reaps infinite blessings. If you think the Tathagata meant for people to harm plants by cutting off their flowers, you’re wrong. Those who observe the precepts don’t injure any of the myriad life forms of heaven and earth. If you hurt something by mistake, you suffer for it. But those who intentionally break the precepts by injuring the living for the sake of future blessings suffer even more, How could they let would-be blessings turn into sorrows?

The eternal lamp represents perfect awareness. Likening the illumination of awareness to that of a lamp, those who seek liberation see their body as the lamp, their mind as its wick, the addition of discipline as its oil, and the power of wisdom as its flame. By lighting this lamp of perfect awareness they dispel all darkness and delusion. And by passing this Dharma on to others they’re able to use one lamp to light thousands of lamps. And because these lamps likewise light countless other lamps, their light lasts forever.

Long ago, there was a Buddha named Dipamkara, or lamplighter. This was the meaning of his name. But fools don’t understand the metaphors of the Tathagata. Persisting in delusions and clinging to the tangible, they light lamps of everyday vegetable oil and think that by illuminating the interiors of buildings they’re following the Buddha’s teaching. How foolish! The light released by a Buddha from one curl between his brows can illuminate countless worlds. An oil lamp is no help. Or do you think otherwise?

Practicing all six periods of the day and night means constantly cultivating enlightenment among the six senses and persevering in every form of awareness. Never relaxing control over the six senses is what’s meant by all six periods. As for walking around stupas, the stupa is your body and mind. When your awareness circles your body and mind without stopping, this is called walking around a stupa. The sages of long ago followed this path to nirvana. But people today don’t understand what this means. Instead of looking inside they insist on looking outside. They use their material bodies to walk around material stupas. And they keep at it day and night, wearing themselves out in vain and coming no closer to their real self.

The same holds true for observing a fast. It’s useless unless you understand what this really means. To fast means to regulate, to regulate your body and mind so that they’re not distracted or disturbed. And to observe means to uphold, to uphold the rules of discipline according to the Dharma. Fasting means guarding against the six attractions on the outside and the three poisons on the inside and striving through contemplation to purify your body and mind.

Fasting also includes five kinds of food. First there’s delight in the Dharma. This is the delight that comes from acting in accordance with the Dharma. Second is harmony in meditation. This is the harmony of body and mind that comes from seeing through subject and object. Third is invocation, the invocation of Buddhas with both your month and your mind. Fourth is resolution, the resolution to pursue virtue whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down. And fifth is liberation, the liberation of your mind from worldly contamination. These five are the foods of fasting. Unless a person eats these five pure foods, he’s wrong to think he’s fasting.

Also, once you stop eating the food of delusion, if you touch it again you break your fast. And once you break it, you reap no blessing from it. The world is full of deluded people who don’t see this. They indulge their body and mind in all manner of evil. They give free rein to their passions and have no shame. And when they stop eating ordinary food, they call it fasting. How absurd!

It’s the same with worshipping. You have to understand the meaning and adapt to conditions. Meaning includes action and nonaction. Whoever understands this follows the Dharma.

Worship means reverence and humility it means revering your real self and humbling delusions. If you can wipe out evil desires and harbor good thoughts, even if nothing shows its worship. Such form is its real form. The Lord wanted worldly people to think of worship as expressing humility and subduing the mind. So he told them to prostrate their bodies to show their reverence, to let the external express the internal, to harmonize essence and form. Those who fail to cultivate the inner meaning and concentrate instead on the outward expression never stop indulging in ignorance, hatred, and evil while exhausting themselves to no avail. They can deceive others with postures, remain shameless before sages and vain before mortals, but they’ll never escape the Wheel, much less achieve any merit.

Student: But the Bathhouse Sutra says, “By contributing to the bathing of monks, people receive limitless blessings.” This would appear to be an instance of external practice achieving merit. How does this relate to beholding the mind?

Bodhidharma: Here, the bathing of monks doesn’t refer to the washing of anything tangible. When the Lord preached the Bathhouse Sutra, he wanted his disciples to remember the Dharma of washing. So he used an everyday concern to convey his real meaning, which he couched in his explanation of merit from seven offerings. Of these seven, the first is clear water, the second fire, the third soap, the fourth willow catkins, the fifth pure ashes, the sixth ointment, and the seventh the inner garment He used these seven to represent seven other things that cleanse and enhance a person by eliminating the delusion and filth of a poisoned mind. The first of these seven is morality, which washes away excess just as water washes away dirt. Second is wisdom, which penetrates subject and object, just as fire warms water. Third is discrimination, which gets rid of evil practices, just as soap gets rid of grime. Fourth is honesty, which purges delusions, just as chewing willow catkins purifies the breath. Fifth is true faith, which resolves all doubts, just as rubbing pure ashes on the body prevents illnesses. Sixth is patience, which overcomes resistance and disgrace, just as ointment softens the skin. And seventh is shame, which redresses evil deeds, just as the inner garment covers up an ugly body. These seven represent the real meaning of the sutra. When he spoke this sutra, the Tathagata was talking to farsighted followers of the Mahayana, not to narrow-minded people of dim vision. It’s not surprising that people nowadays don’t understand.

The bathhouse is the body. When you light the fire of wisdom, you warm the pure water of the precepts and bathe the true Buddha nature within you. By upholding these seven practices you add to your virtue. The monks of that age were perceptive. They understood the Buddha’s meaning. They followed his reaching, perfected their virtue, and tasted the fruit of Buddhahood. But people nowadays can’t fathom these things. They use ordinary water to wash a physical body and think they’re following the sutra. But they’re mistaken. Our true buddha-nature has no shape. And the dust of affliction has no form. How can people use ordinary water to wash an intangible body? It won’t work. When will they wake up? To clean such a body you have to behold it. Once impurities and filth arise from desire, they multiply until they cover you inside and out. But if you try to wash this body of yours, you have to scrub until it’s nearly gone before it’s clean. From this you should realize that washing something external isn’t What the Buddha meant.

Student: The sutras say that someone who wholeheartedly invokes the Buddha is sure to be reborn in the Western Paradise. Since is door leads to Buddhahood, why seek liberation in beholding the mind?

Bodhidharma: If you’re going to invoke the Buddha, you have to do it right. Unless you understand what invoking means, you’ll do it wrong. And if you do it wrong, you’ll never go anywhere.

Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either. And to invoke means to call to mind, to call constantly to mind the rules of discipline and to follow them with all your might. This is what’s meant by invoking. Invoking has to do with thought and not with language. If you use a trap to catch fish, once you succeed you can forget the trap. And if you use language to find meaning, once you find it you can forget language. To invoke the Buddha’s name you have to understand the Dharma of invoking. If it’s not present in your mind, your mouth chants an empty name. As long as you’re troubled by the three poisons or by thoughts of yourself, your deluded mind will keep you from seeing the Buddha and you’ll only waste your effort. Chanting and invoking are worlds apart, Chanting is done with the mouth. Invoking is done with the mind. And because invoking comes from the mind, it’s called the door to awareness. Chanting is centered in the mouth and appears as sound. If you cling to appearances while searching for meaning, you won’t find a thing. Thus, sages of the past cultivated introspection and not speech. This mind is the source of all virtues. And this mind is the chief of all powers, The eternal bliss of nirvana comes from the mind at rest. Rebirth in the three realms also comes from the mind. The mind is the door to every world and the mind is the ford to the other shore. Those who know where the door is don’t worry about reaching it. Those who know where the ford is don’t worry about crossing it.

The people I meet nowadays are superficial. They think of merit as something that has form. They squander their wealth and butcher creatures of land and sea. They foolishly concern themselves with erecting statues and stupas, telling people to pile up lumber and bricks, to paint this blue and that green. They strain body and mind, injure themselves and mislead others. And they don’t know enough to be ashamed. How will they ever become enlightened?

They see something tangible and instantly become attached. If you talk to them about formlessness, they sit there dumb and confused. Greedy for the small mercies of this world, they remain blind to the great suffering to come. Such disciples wear themselves out in vain. Turning from the true to the false, they talk about nothing but future blessings.

If you can simply concentrate your mind’s Inner Light and behold its outer illumination, you’ll dispel the three poisons and drive away the six thieves once and for all. And without effort gain possession of an infinite number of virtues, perfections, and doors to the truth, Seeing through the mundane and witnessing the sublime is less than an eye-blink away, Realization is now. Why worry about gray hair? But the true door is hidden and can’t be revealed. I have only touched upon beholding the mind.

(One verse omitted)



Known in English as: Bodhidharma
Tamil: போதிதர்மன்
Sanskrit: बोधिधर्म
Simplified Chinese: 菩提达摩
Traditional Chinese: 菩提達摩
Chinese abbreviation: 達摩
Hanyu Pinyin: Pútídámó
Wade-Giles: P’u-t’i-ta-mo
Tibetan: धर्मोत्तर Dharmottāra
Korean: 달마 Dalma
Japanese: 達磨 Daruma
Malay: Dharuma
Thai: ตั๊กม๊อ Takmor
Vietnamese: Bồ-đề-đạt-ma

Golden Teaching of the Mind Cultivation

I. Disclose What Is True by Exposing the Sufferings

The torridness and suffering of three different cosmos are like a house on fire; how long can we tolerate such a long suffering in there?

To be free from the karmic wheel, nothing could be better than seeking Buddha (enlightening); but before you seek Buddha, you should know that is just the mind. Do not search for the mind from afar; it is not separated from this body.

Physical body is not true and is subject to birth-and-death; but True Mind is like empty space which is neither finite nor destructive. Therefore, a sutra says,

While the hundred bones will be

Smashed and scattered,

Returning to the elements of fire and wind,

This-One-Thing is eternally self-gnostic,

Engulfs Heaven and Earth.

II. Cultivation of Tao by Confused Mind Wouldn’t Be Benificial

Alas, people today have been confused for so long without understanding the mind-in-itself is true Buddha and the self-nature is real dharma(Truth). In order to search for the Truth(dharma), ones would rater seek after a variety of distant sages; or, even though seeking for Buddha, they do not watch their own mind.

If, while searching for the way of enlightenment(Buddha-Dharma), one insists on saying that Buddha is outside the mind and dharma is outside the self-nature, and then attaches to these opinions; even though one burns his body and scorches his arms for a million kalpas to express great determination or smashes his bones, sits for long periods of time without lying down to sleep, eats only one meal a day or, furthermore, studies all the sutras, etc., the result will only be tiring work for oneself and as fruitless as trying to cook rice by boiling sand.

III. Sage and Ordinary Beings Are on the Same Path; Just Enlighten a Mind

If one’s mind is enlightened(by seeing self-nature), the innumerable dharma-teaching, as numerous as the sands of the Ganges River, and the limitless and profound implications will follow without effort.

Therefore, the World-Honored-One looked throughout and said,

Each and every indigent-being is thoroughly

Fulfilled by wisdom and virtue of the Tathagata.

and also,

All kinds of delusory changes of each and every indigent-being have directly come from Tathagata’s complete enlightenment and sublime mind.

Because of this it is very clear that Buddha(enlightenment) cannot be attained separate from the mind. All past Tathagatas were the ones who have enlightened just the mind. The present sages and wise-ones are those who have already perfected the mind-cultivation. And, finally, the future students will also necessarily depend upon this mind(to cultivate Tao); therefore, the one who wishes to accomplish the Tao should not seek for it outside

The True Self-nature has no affection,

‘Tis originally complete and fulfilled:

Merely depart from delusory Karmic-context,

‘Tis the Buddha-as-it-is.

IV. Even Though This One Thing Is with Indigent-Being in Everyday Movement, They Do Not Understand It

Student: Since Buddha-nature is already within this body, that means it is not separate from ordinary people; why can I not see this Buddha-nature?

Would you please elucidate once more in order that I may be fully awakened?

Pojo: It is already disclosed within your body; you just do not see it. Who is, at last, this one, who, during the day feels hunger and thirst, cold and heat, anger and joy? The physical body is the temporary collation of four elements; soil, water, fire and wind. The essence is rigid and insensible. How can each of them in themselves possibly see, hear, feel, or be conscious? Seeing, hearing, feeling, and being-conscious, though, are themselves certainly your Buddha-nature. This is the reason Yim Je(Lin Chi) said,

The four elements of this corpse

Is not able to talk and listen to dharma,

Empty space is not able

To talk and listen to dharma.

In front of your eye

It is alone and bright, of itself;

Without having any kind of possible form,

Yet talks and listens to dharma.

This, not having-any-kind-of-form, is the seal of all Buddha-Dharma(Truth-as-it-is) and, also, your original mind.

V. The Ancient Sages Clearly Proved It

Since Buddha-nature is evidently present before you, why do you have to seek it outside? I am afraid you would not believe this; I would like to show you a couple of ancient cases, so listen carefully and nullify your doubt.

Once upon a time there was a king who believed in Outsiders-Dharma(heterodoxy), and he asked the Venerable Bharati:

King: What is the Buddha?

Bharati: Seeing the self-nature is Buddha.

King: Did you see the self-nature?

Bharati: I saw the Buddha-nature.

King: Where does the self-nature abide?

Bharati: Self-nature abides where it functions.

King: What kind of functioning is it? And by what reason can I not see it right now?

Bharati: Even though it is apparently functioning right now, only King, yourself does not see it.

King: Do I have that too?

Bharat: When you are in functioning, not a thing is not with you. But, if you are not in functioning it is not easy to see even your own body.

King: When it is functioning, in how many places can it act?

Bharati: When it acts, it can be done through eight different places.

King: Would you explicate those eight different disclosures.

Bharati: When it is in the womb it is called a fetus with an energy; when it is born it is called a person, in the eyes it is called seeing, in the ears it is called hearing, in the nose it is called smelling, or it is called speaking with the tongue, Grabbing things with hands, and taking strides with the legs; when it is spread out everywhere it wraps round the world as many times as there are sands of the Ganges, and when most concentrated cannot even fill a speck of dust. The one who understands calls this Buddha-nature. But, one who dose not understand calls this either soul or spiritual entity.

After hearing this, the king’s mind was opened. Here is another case. One man asked the Venerable Gui Jong(Kuie Tsung):

Student: What is the Buddha?

Gui Jong: I would like to tell you, but I am afraid you would not believe it.

Student: Whatever you say should be rectifiable, how dare I try not to believe it?

Gui Jong: You are the one who Buddha is.

Student: How should I uphold it?

Gui Jong: When eyes are irritated, empty space-flowers are pouring down hither-and-thither.

This man then was awakened by this.

You could actually travel hand-in-hand with all the ancient sages by understanding and believing this Kong-an which will help you to understand how they achieved and were accorded their enlightenment.

VI. Cultivating Should Be Followed after Enlightening: the Miraculous Work Cannot Emerge Immediately

Student: You said you saw the self-nature. If one has really seen the self-nature, he is already a sage who should perform miraculous work, unlike the ordinary people. Why cannot students today(mind-cultivators) perform those miraculous work?

Pojo: Do not speak so ludicrously with little care. If you do not make clear the distinction between right and wrong, then you will be the deluded and the confused one.

Most people talk about the truth by mouth but in their mind they have retreated from it and have said, ‘I am not qualified’; that is the same mistake you are making now.

Learning the Way without understanding initial and final later matters clearly, or talking about what is true without understanding both the fundamental and conclusive matter; these are called delusory thoughts, which cannot be called cultivation.

This not only persecutes oneself but also harms others.

Should not one be careful?

There are so many gateways to the Tao, but essentially they can be spoken of as sudden enlightenment and gradual cultivation.

Even though it has been said that sudden enlightenment with sudden cultivation is the way of awakening by only the highest minded, in fact, this can encompass the past fruits that they have been enlightened up to this lifetime and at certain chance moments. If they are awakened totally, then it should be said that we are talking about one’s mind which was suddenly enlightened before and cultivated later.

If so, these two, the sudden and gradual gateways are each and every sage’s pathway; that is, all sages have been enlightened first and cultivated themselves later to attain the Tao.

That miraculous work should naturally emerge with careful and re-examined cultivation after the enlightenment; it cannot emerge immediately after enlightenment.

A sutra says,

Although in truth, one has been purified by sudden enlightenment, still in a practical sense, no thing can be refined immediately. Therefore, one should coherently cultivate himself one by one.

And, Kyu Bong(Kuie Feng) defined the relation-ship between sudden enlightenment and gradual cultivation.

Even though we know the frozen lake consists of water, it will melt only by the power of the sun’s shine; and even though we know that ordinary beings, themselves, are originally Buddha; still it has to be integrated and practiced by the power of what is true; when ice is melted, water will flow and wet everything by natural application. If deluded mind has diminished, mind will be divine and bright of itself and will disclose the functioning with radiance and luminosity.

For this reason the real miraculous work will not emerge by one or two day’s endeavor; rather will emerge by gradual re-examination and practice.

Furthermore, the real miraculous work is an apparitional matter for the truly enlightened man and a peripheral matter for the sages. Even though they can do it, they have no concern for the practice. Only ignorant people carelessly say, ‘if one is enlightened in one thought, immediately he should be able to produce unlimited and profound functions of miraculous work’. These are confused ones who cannot distinguish the fundamentals from the conclusive matters (Without knowing what comes first, what goes last, and what is beginning and what is final, if one is looking for Buddha-Tao..……) ; it is like trying to cover up the round hole with a square peg.

VII. Enlighten Initially and Cultivate Gradually

Student: If enlightenment is sudden in its nature, why do we have to cultivate gradually, or, if cultivation is the gradual cultivation in it’s nature, how can we talk about sudden enlightenment? Would you please elucidate further what both sudden enlightenment and gradual cultivation are!

Pojo: It is called sudden enlightenment; for, when the ordinary being was confused; four elements were believed as body, and delusion was believed as mind.

Without understanding self-nature is true Dharma-body, and without understanding divinely self-gnostic perception is the true Buddha, he travels around to seek the Buddha outside the mind.

But by suddenly encountering the Master-Mentor who can show the right door, in a flash you would turn your mind and see original self-nature: for, this self-nature itself does not have bewilderment is originally fulfilled. This is nothing different from all the Buddhas’; hence it is called sudden enlightenment.

It is called Gradual Cultivation; for, even though it is understood that original self-nature is not different from the Buddha, habitual tendencies from beginningless beginning cannot be easily dropped right away.

That is the reason to cultivate after the enlightenment, to refine and re-examine until able to conceive the divine embryo; doing this for a long time, one might become a sage.

It is as if a new born baby had come with all the organs already fulfilled, complete and normal; still, the motivity is not fully developed yet, and will require a long period of time to mature.

VIII. To Look for an Expedient for Awakening is Wrong

Student: By what kind of expedient can we reflect on ourselves to suddenly enlighten the self-nature?

Pojo: It is already your own mind. What other expedient do you need? If you create an expedient to know your mind, it is like someone who wishing to see his eyes again, complains that he does not have eyes, because he cannot see his own eyes. But, already it is his eyes. How else could he see but with his own eyes?

If you see that your eyes have never been removed, that is seeing your eyes. Again, there is not even a mind that wants to see, so how can there be a thought of not seeing?

Just so, the divine-self-gnostic-perception is already your own mind.

Again, how can you possibly want to perceive(your mind) again?

Although you want to perceive(the mind),

Yet it will never be perceived.

While comprehending what is not-to-be-perceived

Suddenly this is the seeing Self-nature.

IX. Beholding Directly the Empty, Tranquil, and Divine Self-Gnostic Perception

Student: For the highest minded one, he will be awakened immediately upon hearing; but, for the middle and lower minded ones there are still some doubts. Would you reveal to us an expedient by which the confused one can be awakened?

Pojo: Truth (Tao) has nothing to do wishing to be awakened, caused from confusion. Just listen carefully to what I am about to speak:

Each and every dharma is like a dream, and,

Like an apparition;

Therefore, deluded mind is originally tranquil, and

Inexhaustable outer perspective is originally empty.

Where all dharma is empty without exception, this divinely self-gnostic wisdom is perplexed. This empty, tranquil, and divine-self-gnostic mind is your original face which is the dharma-seal secretly transmitted among the Buddhas, Patriarchs, and all the other sages throughout the three different cosmos.

If this mind were awakened, that means, without using the intermediate steps, you will directly go up to Buddha’s level, and your every step will transcend the three different cosmos and will return -p189- you to your own home by completely nullifying all doubts.

Abruptly you will become a teacher of Heaven and Earth and you will be most fulfilled with both beneficial compassion and wisdom. It is like being offered thousands and thousands of gold coins everyday from Heaven and Earth, with yet, still more to come.

Also, you can be called,

‘one-who-has-completed the greatest work for mankind.

X. Directly Pointing Out that the Humman Mind Is What Buddha Is

Student: In what of my activities is the mind empty and tranquil as well as divinely self-gnostic?

Pojo: Presently the questioning one is the empty and tranquil as will as divinely self-gnostic mind. Why are you still looking outside instead of reflecting upon yourself?

I will point out your original mind in your activities so that you may be awakened right away. Listen carefuly with an open mind.

From morning ’til night, all day long,

You are seeing, hearing, laughing, and talking,

You are being angered or being pleased,

Insisting that

You are right or criticizing

That something is wrong, etc.;

You are doing all different kinds of activities;

Now tell me, at last, what drives you?

If you said, this physical body drives it, then why, for one who are already died though not yet decomposed, can his eye not see it, can his ear not hear it, can his nose not smell it, can his tongue not talk, can his body not move, can his hand not grab, and can his legs not take strides?

It is obvious that whatever is seeing, whatever is hearing, whatever is moving must be your mind as-it-is; not your physical body.

The nature of the four elements in this(physical) body is void like a shadow in the mirror and like a moon in the water.

How can these four elements possibly be able to always know clearly and, without confusion, feel brilliantly, performing as many wonderful functionings as number of the sands of the River Ganges? Because of that it is said,

Miraculous work and the wonderful functioning,

Are not different from drinking water or

Striking the match.

XI. Directly Pointing Out the Entrance by Which Avalokita(Perceiving the Sound) Was Enlightened

Pojo: There are many ways to the truth; here I will let you return to the origin by showing you one entrance. Are you hearing the sound of crows and magpies?

Student: Yes, I am hearing.

Pojo: Go back to the listener and hear, too, of your nature of hearing. Are there various sounds there?

Student: Here there are not a variety of sounds nor distinctions at all.

Pojo: Wonderful. This is the entrance of Avalokita’s (perceiving the sound) way of Truth. Let me ask you again, when you said, ‘there are not a variety of sounds nor distinctions at all,’ if there was already no thing there at all, at that time, don’t you mean it became an empty space(empty and void)?

Student: It is originally not even empty, rather it is bright and clear; it has never been perplexed.

Pojo: What is the essence of what is not empty?

Student: Since it is formless and invisible; it cannot be attained by word.

Pojo: This is the life of all Buddhas and Patriarchs Do not carry any further doubt. If this is formless and invisible, can it be big or small? If there is neither big nor small, does it have boundary or limit? Because there is neither boundary nor limit, there is neither inside nor outside. Because of neither inside nor outside, there is neither farther away nor nearby. Because there is neither farther away nor nearby, there is neither you nor I. If there is neither you nor I, there should be neither going nor coming. If there is neither going nor coming, there is neither birth nor death. If there is neither birth nor death, there should be neither past nor present. If there is neither past nor present, there should be neither confusion nor enlightenment. If there is neither confusion nor enlightenment, there should be neither ordinary-being nor the sage. If there is neither ordinary-being nor sage, there should be neither impurities nor purities. If there are neither impurities nor purities, there should be neither right nor wrong. If there is neither right nor wrong, it is possible to grasp this neither by names nor by words.

If these things already do not exist at all, then every sense organ and object of sense perception, and, furthermore, each and every delusion, and various forms, names, and words are also unattainable; is it not originally empty and tranquil and is there no thing originally? -p197-

However, where all dharmas are void, the divinely self-gnostic faculty itself is not perplexed at all. Because it is different from inorganic material, self-nature itself is being divinely gnostic which is already your empty, tranquil, and divine self-gnostic faculty and your pure mind in itself.

This pure, empty and tranquil mind is the same as the very pure and luminous Buddha’s mind from past, present and future; it is also the fountain of indigent-being’s enlightening nature. If one is awakened by this and upholds it, then he is sitting in Oneness-as-it-is which is the highest immovable Nirvanic Stage. But, it one is confused and turns away from this, then he will fall into the six sense-realms and will travel around for several kalpas. For this reason it was said that,

When one mind is confused follows

To the six sense-realms,

It is called ‘gone’ or ‘moved’.

When one mind is recovered by Understanding

The Dharma world, it is called ‘come’ or ‘still’.

The names, ‘confusion‘ and ‘enlightenment‘ are different but the origin is the same. It is said, Dharma is the indigent-being’s mind. This void and tranquil mind cannot be increased in the sage and nor decreased in the ordinary-being. It is also said,

Even in the wisdom of the sages,

It is not beaming;

Hidden in the ordinary being’s mind

It is not perplexed either.

Since it cannot be increased in the sage nor decreased in the ordinary-being, how can it possibly be different from Buddhas and Patriarchs? The only difference is that ordinary-beings oreserve the dead reality in their thoughts.

XII. Cultivate Yourself

If you have become convinced in faith, you might be able to suddenly rest your doubt. Also, if you have determined will and truly raise righteous comprehension, then you will directly taste and approve that level by yourself. This is the right place to be enlightened for the truthful student; there would be no further caste or priorities. Because of this it is called Sudden and also said,

By the good motive of faith when all the virtue and merit of Buddhas will accord with yours without the slightest difference;

At last, you will accomplish the ultimate and true faith itself.

XIII. Re-explanation of Gradual Cultivation after Enlightenment

Student: One already enlightened to the truth and since there are no castes or priorities, why should one need to cultivate gradually in order to reach that same goal?

Pojo: I have already explained explicitly but you have not yet broken through the confusion. It is not difficult to explain again. Just listen very carefully with an open mind.

From the beginningless beginning to now, ordinary-beings have wandered in five karmic realms; Hell, Asura, Animal, Human and Heaven during the time of birth-coming and death-going they have firmly attached to the form of the ‘I’ and have molded the self-nature by converted delusion and habitual unenlightened darkness. Even though one has realized that our self-nature is originally void and tranquil and nothing different from Buddhas, still, the old habit is extremely difficult to nullify immediately.

Therefore when they are faced with progressive and regressive situation, the anger-pleasure and right-wrong will arise and disappear haphazardly. So, the rough and delicate bewilderments are not different, but if one does not re-examine them with wisdom, how can he possibly eliminate the habitual darkness and attain the Great Calm-and-Rest?

According to the old saying,

Enlightenment itself, when it is completed suddenly is the same as the Buddha’s, but, habitual tendencies from several lifetimes are still deeply congested.

Or again,

Wind has ceased, waves still climbing over,

Truth came before, delusion still assaults.

Also, the Venerable Master Chong Ko (Ta Hui Tsung Kao) said,

Some brilliant ones might be enlightened without putting in great endeavor and give up further cultivation, raising a thought, saying, ‘it is easy’; suddenly they return to the land of Karmic-wheel, as thay were wandering days and months after.

How possibly can anyone overlook their cultivation after only the initial glimpse of awakening?

Therefore, after the awakening you should care-fully re-examine and study it for a long time. And you should not chase delusion whenever it arises.

The gradual decrease of delusion will lead you to the time where there is no more delusion; then, it will become perfect. This is the reason all the wise sages have practiced the ox-herding (cultivation) after enlightenment.

We are discussing the later cultivation; since the nature of delusions is originally void, and the nature of the mind, itself, is originally pure, severing the evil-doing is to have nothing to sever, and practicing the good is to have nothing to practice. Now it can be called true severing and true practice. This is the reason it has been said,

Each and every cultivation is completely rooted in no-mindedness.

Kyu Bong (Kuei Feng) made a clear distinction of primary-enlightenment before cultivation:

The nature of sudden enlightenment originally has no defilement; and the self-gnostic-nature without be-wilderment is originally completed: if one practices by this understanding, it is called the highest vehicle meditation (Son). It is also called Tathagata’s immaculate Meditation.

Cultivating one thought after another will, without a doubt, result in one hundred-thousand samadhis, which is the same dharma that has been transmitted since Bodhidharma.

After sudden enlightenment, one should cultivate oneself gradually; the relationship between these is like two wheels of a vehicle, one cannot exist without the other.

Some people insist that mind cultivation could be best accomplished by immovable sitting; by controlling body and mind, like a stone and a weed; they call this cultivating the mind. But this is a very wrong concept, and they do not understand the fact that the nature of the good and the bad is originally void. Therefore, it is said,

Sravakas try to cut out their confusion in every thought.

But the mind which is trying to cut is a thief.

Killing, stealing, adultery, and deluded speaking are raised from our self-nature. As long as you contemplate this rising with great awareness, then rising is not the rising since the one in itself who raises a thought is already void-and-tranquil. What else can you cut? Therefore it has been said:

Do not be afraid of the coming of delusion,

Rather be alert for your tardiness of awakening.

And further said,

Awaken as soon as thought comes;

As soon as awakened, immediately no thing remains.

Therefore, for the enlightened man, all various unnatural bewilderments become the most marvelous dessert.

As long as the confusion is rootless, the three-empty-space-flowered-worlds are like smoke before the wind and the illusory six sense-roots are like the melting ice in hot water.

If you cultivate and contemplate every thought in this way without negligence, while upholding serenity and wisdom equally, then like and dislike will finally be diminished, and instead the compassionate wisdom will be naturally augmented. And also, the sins and karma-chamber will vanish, re-placed by the steady and consistent appearance of virtue, merit, and spiritual exercise. When bewilderments have ended, birth-and-death will come to an end.

If even a tiny bit of bewilderment is permanently cut off and the great wisdom of fulfilled awakening is alone bright, then immediately a thousand-billion bodies will be manifested according to each and every character of the roots in all of the world through all of the ten directions.

Like the moon shining the middle of the sky and appearing in each and every pond, immeasurable applications will follow each and every indigent-being. Thus we call him who liberates all indigent-beings equally, with gladness and without worry, the Great-Enlightened-World-Honored-One.

XIV. Exposing the True Serenity (samadhi) and Wisdom (prajna)

Student: I am still not sure of your explanation of the way we can uphold serenity and wisdom equally in order to cultivate gradually after enlightenment. Would you expound further in detail how to operate upon my ignorance and to enter the Nirvanic gate?

Pojo: If you are concerned about the dharma and its meaning, the entrances to the truth can number one-thousand; but, those are either serenity or wisdom. Concerning the most central ones, they can be summarized as belonging to the categories of either essence or function of the self-nature; which is, as we have said previously, ‘the void-and-tranquil and divinely self-gnostic faculty.

Serenity (samadhi) is the essence; wisdom(prajna) is the function; but, the functioning is of essence. Therefore, wisdom is not separated from serenity and essence is of functioning; therefore, serenity is not separated from wisdom. Since serenity as-it-is, is wisdom itself, therefore, it is tranquil and ceaselessly gnostic. And the wisdom as it is, is the serenity itself, therefore, it is gnostic and ceaselessly tranquil. Our teacher from Cho gye said (Sixth Patriarch).

Having no entanglement in the foundation of mind,

Is the serenity of self-nature. having no ignorance in the foundation of mind, is the wisdom of self-nature.

If one has awakened to this point and understood without entanglement; and when the veiling and the luminosity are not dual, then this means the suddenly enlightened one exercises both serenity and wisdom at the same time.

Some insist that,

First of all, entangled mind should be managed by perfect quiescence; then, chaotic mind should be managed by vigilant awareness, and that by these first and latter managements, one will equally control the entanglement and chaos and enter into the tranquility.

This means that one is doing what has been done by the lower minded one who is gradually awakened.

Although one is mentioning equal control of entanglement and chaos, one is already mistaken in trying to cultivate his mind by being quiescent. How can he be called a master who is freely cultivating both without separation from the original tranquility and from the original divinely self-gnostic nature? Once more, the Sixth Patriarch said:

Self-awakened and self cultivated faculties

Are far away from the subject of argument;

Who argues before and after

Is just confused one.

At the Masters’ level, upholding serenity and wisdom equally have nothing to do with great effort; originally he has no form of doing and no further achievements required.

His seeing the colors and hearing the sounds are formless doing as are his dressing, eating food, defecating and urinating; talking with someone is formless doing and furthermore, so are taking a walk, stopping, sitting, lying down, speaking, being silent, being joyful or angry-all are always the same. It is like an empty boat which when on top of the wave is higher but then sinks lower; like water passing through the mountain valley, sometimes straight and sometimes meandering in its course; or like from one thought to the next without perceptions.

Today he is free; and tomorrow too, free as a lark. No matter what karmic object comes, he accords without hindrance, and about the good and the bad, neither does he practice nor, does he discount them. He is beyond right or wrong. He has perfected seeing and hearing.

Since there is not even a speck of dust(to oppose), why should we put in such effort to be separate from dust; since there is not a thought from which you can raise delusory feeling, why should we eagerly try to nullify mental attachment in general?

While self-reflective re-examination is not steady and mind is still not settled, various obstacles are thick and habitual tendency is heavy; yet the power of the unenlightened mind is great. One for whom the mind is not comfortable because the power of wisdom is still weak, and while facing a situation of good or bad, will easily cling to either noisy or calm outside conditions; there is, for him, a way to study(the mind) to rid himself of these collections of perspectives. Here is an old saying:

When the six sense roots collect the outer perspectives

And the mind does not chase the collection of those perspectives;

That is the serenity.

When the mind and outer perspectives are both void, it is luminously radiant without confusion;

That is the wisdom.

Although this is the form-pursuers’ door of serenity and wisdom; or rather, the lower-minded activities from the gradual school, it is very necessary to be utilized for the purpose of mind cultivation.

First, if the mind is entangled heavily, calm your chaos by utilizing your serenity appropriately. Do not let the mind chase the collection of outer perspectives; instead, let it be in accord with the original nature of tranquility.

Second, if the mind is often sleepy, discover what is true by utilizing your wisdom, contemplate what is empty and let the luminous radiance without confusion be in accord with the original self-gnostic nature (without learning).

By utilizing serenity, calm your chaotic thoughts, and by utilizing wisdom, awaken from your Senseless Blankness. After finishing all tasks of destroying both the noise and the calm, you will be one with originality, and, even if you are faced with the outer perspectives, from one thought to the next you will be one with Tao. If one freely exercises both, he will be named non-doer. Thus, this is the one who saw the Buddha-nature and who upholds serenity and wisdom equally.

XV. Mutual Exposition of the Serenity and Wisdom

Question: According to your conclusion, there are two cultivating doors after enlightenment by which to concurrently uphold serenity and wisdom; one is self-gnostic-nature door of serenity and wisdom, the other is form-pursuers’ door.

1. Of the Self-gnostic-nature door it is said:

Free and still; it is originally doingless, but is gnostic of itself; since there is not even a speck of dust to oppose, why should we put in such effort to be separated from dust; since there is not a thought from which you can raise delusory feeling, why should we eagerly try to remove mental attachment?

So we can say,

This is what the suddenly enlightened man

Upholds his serenity and wisdom concurrently,

Without being separated from self-nature.

2. Of the form-pursuers’ door it is said:

Calm your chaos appropriately,

Discover what is true;

Contemplate what is empty,

By concurrently controlling chaos and sleepiness,

Until the level of doinglessness is reached.

So we can say,

This is the gradual form-pursuers’ door which

Is for the inferior-minded activities of

Controlling chaos and sleepiness.

But still, some doubt about these two doors of serenity-and-wisdom remains.

If this is what has to be done by everyone, which door should be primary; first to the self-gnostic-nature door of the serenity and wisdom followed by the form-pursuers’ door, or going first to the form-pursuers’ door to control sleepiness and chaos followed by the self-gnostic-nature door?

Suppose one has to depend upon the serenity and wisdom of the self-gnostic-nature itself is already free in its tranquil intellect and there should not be any further work to do.

On the other hand, why should one need to uphold serenity and wisdom by the form-pursuers’ door?

Wouldn’t it be just like having carved white jade by which the beauty of jade would be ruined?

Suppose one has to go to the self-gnostic-nature door after accomplishing definite goals utilizing the form-pursuers’ door of serenity and wisdom. That means this is the gradual way of mind cultivation-inferior-minded. How can it possibly be said, ‘the one from the path of sudden-enlightenment should be awakened before cultivation by the formless study?’

Student: If both are concurrent without occurring before and after and since the serenity and wisdom of both the gradual and the sudden are distinctly different, how can it be accomplished concurrently? On the one hand the man from the sudden-enlightened path should be free from studying because he relies on the self-gnostic-nature. On the other hand the inferior-minded person, by relying on the form-pursuers’ door, should cultivate himself eagerly to be improved.

Those of both paths are distinctly different; there are those of the sudden, while the others are of the gradual. Those of the prior are superior while the latter are inferior. How can you explain, then, their being together in the sense of the path of cultivation-after-enlightenment?

Pojo: I have already explained to you clearly: you, yourself raise the doubt. Just understand the meaning and do not follow the words and everything will be clear without argument. According to what we have seen of both doors, one who practices self-gnostic-nature of serenity and wisdom depends upon the sudden enlightenment path by formless examination. One who practices serenity and wisdom at the sudden enlightenment door, utilizing effortless effort and practicing serenity and wisdom together without separation in perfect quiescence, cultivates his own self-nature and attains Buddha Tao by himself.

The ones who practice serenity and wisdom through (compared to those above) the form-pursuers’ door gradually cultivate before they become enlightened which is very inferior-minded: practicing the riddance of outer perspective from one thought to the next by trying to cut out confusion and enter the stillness.

The activities of both, the sudden and gradual, are very different and shouldn’t be overlooked.

However, the reason, in the cultivation-after-enlightenment-path, that they utilize the form-pursuers’ expedient methods of cultivation is not because they totally depend on inferior-minded activities but rather choose these expedients as temporary paths to traverse and as rest spots. Why? Because even on the path of sudden enlightenment there are also superior and inferior-minded ones, And so, one behavior is not indicative of the wholeness of one’s enlightenment.

If one’s bewilderment is not heavily coated and body and mind are easy-joyful, then, when facing the good or the bad, one is obstructed by neither the good nor the bad; also, the eight fundamental vices and three faculties of perception are already tranquil. One is able to practice the serenity and wisdom of self-gnostic-nature freely and concurrently, because his nature is divinely true and doing-less. Either moving or resting he is always in serenity(ch’an), having accomplished the nature-as-it-is. Why is it necessary for him to do the form-pursuers’ expedient method of cultivation? Do not search for the remedy without the disease.

Even though one is already suddenly awakened, if his bewilderment is heavily coated and his habitual inclinations are strong and rigid, when facing the outer perspectives, from one thought to the next, he creates delusory opinions. When facing external karmic relations from one thought to the next, one creates the opposed relativities and, getting lost in the sleepiness and chaos, he is obscuring luminous radiance of self-gnostic quiescence. Such a one should depend on the serenity and wisdom of the form-pursuers’ door to cultivate himself by that expedient method and control himself from sleepiness and chaos in order to be one with the non-doer.

Even though he utilizes the expedient method to control his habitual inclinations; and, because it was suddenly awakened before that the nature of mind in itself is originally pure and the nature of bewilderment is originally empty, he wouldn’t be deceived by the path of the inferior-minded, defiled cultivation.

Fir what reason? Generally speaking, cultivating before awakening, even though one studies hard in every thought without forgetting, still whatever one faces(outer perspectives) one would wonder about and thus find it impossible to be obstruction-less. It is just like a heavy weight on his chest. Terrible anxiety is hanging around in front of his eyes. Only after a long period of time has passed and great practice has ripened, will one’s body and mind’s bewilderment be eased. Even though he becomes easy now, still the roots of the wondering are ceaseless. It is as if the wild bushes were compressed by stone; it is still not completely free from the life-and-death boundary. Because of this all sages say,

Cultivation-before-awakening is not real cultivation.

For the one who is awakened, in spite of having expedient methods of cultivation, in each and every thought, he does not have wondering; because of that, he cannot be defiled. When days and months have passed, he will naturally be unified to the divinely true and sublime nature, and is gnostic of himself; free and still. In every thought he might encounter the collection of outer perspectives but, even so, he will cut out all bewilderments permanently without separating from self-nature and uphold the serenity and wisdom concurrently. He will finally attain the annutarasamyaksambodhi and thus be neither undifferentiatingly nor differentiatingly at the level of the superior-minded.

The serenity and wisdom in the form-pursuers’ door is still for the gradual-cultvators’ activities; but, for the masters’ level it is the same as the refining of gold from its raw are form.

If one understands this meaning, he wouldn’t be confused as to whether or not the two doors of serenity and wisdom are different.

XVI. Conclusion of Encouraging the Cultivation

I want mind-cultivators to review this deep meaning and not retreat by thwarting doubt. How can one give up this way if he is looking for the highest Buddha Tao with great determination.

I sincerely ask that you not to become attached to the word; just understand the essential meaning and let each and every essence return to the origin of the self. When it does finally accord with the fundamentals of the Teaching, then the wisdom-without-teacher will naturally be revealed Trueness-as-it-is will be bright and will not be obscure, and you will not depend on any other enlightened one to accomplish your wisdom-body itself.

This is the most sublime wisdom which every-body has, but of which only the superior-mahayana-minded who have planted the seed of Prajna in the formerlife can raise the right faith(belief). (Others) do not just disbelieve; in addition, they actually humiliate which will result in their going into the Exitless Hell.

But, even if they don’t believe it, if they keep the connection to the Tao even by only having just caught wind of it for a second, their virtue and merit will be immeasurable. The Gateway to the Mind-Only said,

Though they wouldn’t believe by hearing, still the seed of Buddha will be produced by them.

Though they didn’t accomplish by learning, their for-tunes are more than the fortunes of human beings and heaven-being. So, still their spirtual cause to attain Buddhahood will not be lost.

Considering our past life-cycle of karma, for several thousand kalpas, how long have we suffered and fallen into the Lightless-hell and Exitless-hell? On the other hand, how often have we tried to accomplish Buddha-Tao but did not have a chance to meet a helpful wise friend; but, instead, caused various bad karmic power and wandered around ignorantly without being awakened by this friend?

Oh, what a miserable thing it would be to have happen! In no way could this be allowed to be repeated!

What was the real cause for our being born now as a human-being and the greatest-being in the world to have a chance to uphold the right way of cultivation? It is as rare as a blind turtle(who just by accident) met a floating board in the ocean, or a mustard seed (which, coincidentally) was pierced through by a tiny needle dropped from heaven. There are, by no means, enough words to express this luck.

If we constantly delay by raising any thought of retreating or thought of tardiness, then in the blink of an eye we will lose this life and fall into a bad path and receive all sufferings. Even if we try to listen, praise Buddha-Dharma, believe it, comprehend it and uphold it in order to be free from sufferings, would it still be possible? At the final moment; even though you regret it, it is already too late to be beneficial.

Do not be tardy as a Tao-cultivation! Do not attach to greediness or lustfulness.

Do not forget to study as if trying to blow out a fire on your own head!

Time is incalculably fast; morning dew-like physical body, setting sun-like life of vain! Today, everything seems alive. Tomorrow, it is not guaranteed by any!

Carve these words in your heart very well!

If one utilizes the form of doing goodness to be liberated from the triple-karmic-suffering, it will result in excellent rewards and happiness, either in heaven or earth. However, what will happen if one utilizes this highest and deepest truth-door?

No matter for haw short a time one mobilizes the true faith, the virtue and merit is too great to be explained by any kind of analogy. In a sutra;

One who offers with precious-seven-jewels to the worldly indigent-beings

From three-thousand-thousand worlds and lets them be satisfied;

And further, one who liberates those indigent-beings and lets them attain four kinds of enlightenment,

Then, his virtue and merit will be immeasurable.

But, still, this is a lower virtue and merit than that attained by having thought of the right dharma (truth) for even a moment while taking a spoonful of food. Therefore, you can understand that this teaching is the highest, the most virtuous, and meritious. Also the sutra said,

One thought from immaculate mind is the temple.

Even superior to the merits of erecting as many seven-jeweled stupas as number the sands of the Ganges River.

Jeweled-Stupa wjll finally perish to the dust;

One thought from immaculate mind will attain righteous enlighement.

One who would cultivate the Tao should carve these words into his heart-mind very well and be watchful.

If you do not liberate this body in this lifetime, in which life can it be liberated? If you do not cultivate now, you will be afar for ten-thousand kalpas. Even though it is difficult, if you work hard, it will gradually be easier, and, finally your refining powers will automatically increase.

Alas! Today, after a long hunger, people received a great banquet, but, they do not know how to raise even a morsel of food to their lips; after a long disease, they finally met the doctor, yet, they do not know how to take the medicine, and they say, what should I do? what should I do?

But, what should I do for one who does nothing?

The worldly activities can be seen and the result experienced; people laud one for even one small attainment as if it were a rarity, but our teaching style of awakening mind-nature cannot be seen.

Here, word-and-utterance is for all time severed,

Thought and its adiding place are also annihilated;

It is our mind.

Therefore, Heavenly Maras (devils) and heretics cannot degrade, Indra and Brahmins and Heaven cannot praise; how possibly can ordinary unknowledgeable beings even be comparable?

Alas! How can a frog in a well acknowledge the width of blue ocean? How can baby fox understand the lion’s roar?

In the last era of the dharma, if one takes refuge in any part of the sutra, he will be able to mobilize a sincere faith; and by this, if he will actualize it, you should know that he has just restored his good ulterior motives with several Buddha for immeasurable millions of kalpas and planted all right karmic causes to produce great wisdom. You should know that he is the superior-minded one. Therefore in the Diamond Sutra it is said,

You should know that if one moilizes the faith in any part of the sutra, he already has planted all various ulterior motives to immeasurable Buddhas.

And also it said,

This was spoken for one who mobilized Mahayana mind. Also for the one who mobilized highest-vehicle mind.

I want the mind-cultivators, as truth-seekers, to not be afraid of anything. Rather, be brave, your-selves; you may not realize the good karmic connections awaiting you from your past life.

Without believing the highest Tao, in principle, if one pretends to be stupid, insists it is hard and using this excuse, does not cultivate the Tao in this life (no matter how many good roots he has created in his past lives) the good roots are now cut off and cultivating the Tao becomes more difficult and, finally further away. Now, you are where the treasure is. Do not pass by with an empty hand. Once you lose the human body, it is almost impossible to be born again with a human body for a million kalpas. Do not do it! Since you already know where the treasure is, why do you not investigate it?

Why do you denigrate yourself by saying that you are lonely and poor?

If you want to keep the treasure, drop this leather bag (corpse)!

Sublime Functioning of True Mind

I. True Mind-Right Faith

In the Hua-Yen Sutra,

Faith is the Spring of Tao (Truth),

The Motherhood of Virtue and Merits;

It will nourish each and every good ulterior motive.

And also in the Mind-Only Shastra,

Faith is like a water-purifying-jewel;

It will purify the dirty water.

According to this we should know faith as the frontiersman of ten-thousand good conducts.

Therefore, every sutra begins with ‘Thus have I heard’, To manifest the faith in the sincerity.

Student: What is the difference between patriarchal faith and doctrinal faith?

Pojo: There are many differences; in the doctrinal teaching the intent is to teach the truth of cause-and-effect for human and heaven-beings. By this, those who wish to receive fortune and happiness will, by practicing the Ten Good-conducts, create good karmic motives. As a result, they will be born in a happy land either as a human or a heaven-being.

On the other hand, those who wish peace and tranquility are taught of the karmic connection between birth and death; that righteousness is the cause while the Four noble Truths; i.e. suffering, its causation, its extinction, and the path (to Nirbana) are the noble effects.

Or, again, those who believe in the attainment of Buddhahood are taught (to believe) that the six paramitas over three samkhyea kalpas are a cause, and the accomplishment of right enlightenment(Bodhi and Nirvana) is the effect.

But, the Patriarchal door does not depend on the truth of cause-and-effect through karmic actions; rather, just on the belief that the self is originally Buddha. Everyone has divinely true self-nature and has accomplished the essence of complete enlightenment ( Nirvana); which does not depend on another, but is perfect in itself. In the Gatha, of Third Patriarch, Sung Chan(Seng chan):

Tao is as pervasive as space, neither excessive nor deficient; although it is, only because of a thought, which is inclined to choose or relinguish.

And in the Gatha of Ji Gong (Chih Kung):

The formless body inside of visualized body, birth-and-deathless Way in the way of unenlightened darkness.

And Young ka (Yung chia) sang,

The true nature of unenlightened darkness is the Buddha-nature; the illusory empty body is the Dharma Body(of the Truth).

Therefore, one should know that the indigent-being is originally the Buddha. Although one mobilizes the right faith, he should understand clearly that which is said in Young Myung’s (Yen Shou) Gatha:

Faith without understanding increases the unenlightened Darkness. Understanding without faith increases the evil opinion.

Therefore, you should know that faith and understanding must combine for one to enter the gateway swiftly.

Student: What if one has not entered the Buddha-Tao Yet, but has already mobilized the mind of faith; is it beneficial?

Pojo: According to the Awakening of Faith:

One who, hearing this Dharma, does not have any fearful feeling, will finally become a transmitter of Buddha; he will be sealed by all Buddhas. The one who teaches innumerable numbers of indigent-beings throughout the three-thousand times three-thousand worlds and allows them to learn and practice ten-good-conducts, still cannot be compared with, and is inferior to, the one who has raised a righteous thought of this dharma even for a very short time.

In the Wisdom-Paramita Sutra,

Buddha3 will see and know all who mobilized an immaculate faith, even if in one thought; he will attain immeasurable virtue and merit.

It is like this; a one-thousand mile trip begins with one right first step! One wrong step will result in a thousand miles of going the wrong way. In order to go to the Country of Formless-Doing, first, have right initial faith! If one loses this faith, all the good will be gone by then. This is the reason all patriarchs say:

Once there is a tiny crack;

Split will be as great as the distance from sky to earth.

II. True Mind and Its Many Names

Student: Here we have mobilized the right faith, but still I, do not know what is the true mind.

Pojo: What is not deluded is called true. What divinely reflects is called the mind. In the Surangama Sutra it was clearly explained.

Student: Is the true mind the only name or does it have other names?

Pojo: There is a difference in naming in the teaching of Buddha versus in the teaching of the patriarchs, In the teaching of Buddha, for instance, in the Bodhisattva’s Precept Sutra it is called Mind-ground, because it creates ten-thousand of the good. In the Wisdom Paramita Sutra it is named Bodhi (enlightening), because it is the essence of the Buddha. In the Hua Yen Sutra, (Flower Adorn-mint Sutra) it is called Dharma World, because it is harmoniously interpenetrating. In the Diamond Sutra it is called Tathagata because there is no place to come.

In the Prajna Paramita Sutra it is called Complete Stillness (Nirvana), because all the sages depend on this. In the Golden Lightning Sutra it is called, Thus-as-it-is, because it is perpetually true and unchangeable. In the Immaculate Name Sutra it is called Truth-Body, because karmic-consequential-body and transformation-body are dependent on this. In the Awakening of Faith it is called Truth Suchness, because it is never born and never perishes.

In the Nirvana Sutra it is called Buddha-nature because it is the wellspring of Triple Bodies.

In the Complete Enlightenment Sutra it is called Dharani, because it is a fountain of virture and merit.

In the Lions Roar of Queen Srimala Sutra it is named Tathagatagarbha (Chamber of Tathagata), because even though hidden, it encompasses everything.

In the Perfect Understanding Sutra it is called Complete-Enlightenment, because it breaks through the cloudiness and is luminously radiant of itself. Because of this, Venerable Master Soo(Yen Shou) said in his Gateway of Mind-Only,

On dharma, ten-thousand names; creates the name according to their karmic condition

Which it is impossible for us to name them all.

Student: We have known the Buddha’s teaching; now, what is the Patriarch’s teaching?

Pojo: In the patriarchal gateway names and words are severed; they do not even let one name represent them; how can they have several names? But, according to one’s level of self-conception and according to one’s mind-orientation(higher or lower-minded) it can be called by different names.

Sometimes it is called Self, because that is the essence of the self-nature of indigent-beings.

Sometimes it is called Right Eye, because it sheds light on each and every form of intentional conduct.

Sometimes it is called Sublime Mind. because it is empty, yet divinely self-gnostic.

Sometimes it is called Old Self-Master, because affiction has been moved by this.

Sometimes it is called Bottomless Bowl, because it is always rich and everywhere prosperous.

Sometimes it is called Stringless Harp, because it plays right-at-this-moment.

Sometimes it is called Endless Lantern, because it shines upon and destroys illusory sentiments.

Sometimes it is called Rootless Tree, because its roots and eyes are imperishable.

Sometimes it is called Hair-Removing Sword, because it cuts out the roots of bewilderments.

Sometimes it is called Effortless Land, because it is as immovable as the ocean and as transparent as poverty.

Sometimes it is called Keyless Lock, because it closes off the six sensations.

And, furthermore, it is called, Mud-Ox, Wood-en-Horse, Mind-Source, Mind-Seal, Mind-Mirror, Mind-Moon, Mind-Jewel, etc.; all the names of which are impossible to innumerate.

If you realized this True Mind then you would realize all these names. But, if you are not certain of this True Mind you will be blocked to all these names.

Therefore, you should carefully watch this True Mind.

III. The Sublime Essence of the True Mind

Student; We have understood the names of True Mind. But what is its essence?

Pojo: In the Lightning Wisdom Sutra,

-Wisdom has no forms, has no Birth and Death form.

And in the Awakening of Faith,

True nature of the self-as-it-is neither excessive nor deficient, whether it is in every ordinary-being, or in every Shravaka in every Pratyekabuddha, or in every Bodhisattva and Buddha. It has never been born before nor will it perish. It is always as it has been; self-nature already satisfied in all the virtues and merits of itself.

Therefore, according to these Sutras and Shastras, we can conclude that the true mind itself is surpassing the cause-and-effect and past and present.

Not insisting on a difference between ordinary-being and the sage, and just like the omnipresently pervasive empty-space, sublime essence is still and quiet, far away from rhetorical argument; neither moving nor shaken; but it always transparently abides. Because of that it is called Old self-Master or also called, One-from-King-of-Voice-Before-Beginning(Bhisma-garjita-ghosa-svara-raja) or sometimes called Self-Before-the Beginning-of-the-Universe. If a thought were placid, there would be no irritations.

Each and every mountain, river, tree, weed, forest, and every dharma in the world, whether dirty or clean, came from this.

In the Complete Enlightenment Srtra is a Gatha,

Good man! The highest-Dharma-King

Has a great Dharani Door,

Which is called Complete Enlightenment;

Every pure Truth-as-it-is, Bodhi, Nirvana,

And Paramita is derived from this

To teach all Bodhisattvas-Mahasattvas.

And Kyu Bong (Kuie Feng) sang,

The mind is concave, sublime and pure, also divinely bright without going or coming; it passes through three different times at the same time, not in the middle nor outside; it passes through the ten directions.

Since it has never been born nor destroyed, how can it possibly be harmed by four Mountains? Since its self-nature and form have vanished, how can it possibly be blinded by five colors?

And, also, in a Gatha by Young Myung (Yun Ming) from The Gateway of Mind-Only,

Generally speaking, this mind becomes a king of ten-thousand Dharmas; because all of the sublime and all of the divine are here gathered. Also Three Vehicles and Five Different Natures, (ordinary good people, Shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas, indifferent being, and outsiders) are depending on this as a motherhood of ten-thousand sages; it is most excellent of itself; it is alone most emminent. Therefore it is incomparable and nothing is parallel with it; that is, the source of great Truth; the Essence of True Dharma.

What Bodhisattvas from three different times have so far studied, is what has been studied of this Mind.

What Buddhas from three different periods of time have so far experienced, is what has been experienced of time have so far experienced, is what has been experienced of this Mind.

What all the Sutras from Tripitaka have thus far exposed, is what has been exposed of this Mind.

Whatever each and every indigent-being has confused, is whatever has been confused of this Mind.

Whatever each cultivator has awakened, is whatever has been awakened of this Mind.

What all the Patriarchs have transmitted from one to the other, is what has been transmitted of this mind.

What all the world’s students wish to contemplate, is nothing but the contemplation of this mind.

If one masters this Mind, all matters will be right and every affair will be completely will be right and every affair will be completely disclosed. If this Mind is confused, everything will be topsyturvy everywhere and each and every thought will be insane. Every indigent-being has this essence; it is their original Buddha-nature; it is the source of everything in the world.

Therefore, this is the reason, Buddha was completely silent for a while at Vulture Peak and why, under the huge rock, Subhuti has forgotten the word and why Bodhi-dharma faced the wall in the Shao Lin Hut, and why Vimalakirti shut his mouth in the Vaisali Castle; all these are exposing the sublime body of the mind.

Therefore, one who comes to the Patriarchal door must, first of all, understand the essence of this mind.

IV. Sublime Functioning of True Mind

Student: I understood the sublime essence, then, next, what is the sublime function?

Pojo: Citing an old sage,

When wind blows, mind shakes tree,

When clouds gather, self-nature raises the dust,

If one forces clarity on today’s matter,

It will darken the original man.

This is the functioning of sublime essence. The sublime essence of true mind originally does not move. It is peaceful, tranquil, real, and constant; its sublime function is exposed with the real and constant essence.

So, the sublime essence should be attained while being carried with the flow.

By one Patriarch,

Mind flows with outer perspectives,

Where it flows is unspeakably profound.

If one understood the nature of this flowing,

Neither joy nor sorrow would be real.

Therefore, whenever it moves or distinguishes things; either going to the east, moving to the west, eating food or putting on clothes, lifting up a spoon or fork, or glancing left or right; these are all representations of the sublime-functioning of the true-mind.

Because ordinary-beings are confused, when they dress they assume it is the real action of dressing, and when they eat, they assume that it is the real action of eating; but they are chasing only forms in every matter even though it(True Mind) is with them in everyday life. They just cannot feel it and do not understand it, even though it is in front of their eyes.

For one who understands the self-nature, he would not be deceived while he is moving or distinguishing. Thus here is one Patriarch’s gatha,

When it is in the womb it is called a fetus with an energy; when it is born it is called a person; in the eye it is called seeing; in the ears it is called hearing; in the nose it is called smelling; or with the tongue it is called speaking, grabbing things with hands and taking strides with the legs; when it is spread out every-where, it wraps ’round the world’ as many times as number the sands of the River Ganges. And, when most concentrated cannot even fill a speck of dust. The one who knows calls this Buddha-nature: But, one who does not know calls this either ‘soul’ or ‘spiritual entity’.

Therefore, To oh(Tao Wu) danced with his fan, Bi Ma(Mi Mo) waved his staff, Ku Ji (Chu Ti) raised a finger, Hun Ju (Hsin Chou) hit the ground, and Woon Am(Yun Yen) teased the lion; all these conducts are the disclosure of the great functioning of the Mind.

If you are not deceived in the ordinary life, naturally nothing can be a hindrance in any direction.

V. Are the Essence and Function of the True Mind Same or Different?

Student: Are the essence and the function of the true mind same or different?

Pojo: Speaking of the form they are not the same. But in nature they are not different.(Therefore, the essence and function is neither one nor two.) How do we know? Let us try to argue as an experiment. The sublime essence is unmovable, but off from the relativities, and separated from various forms.

Except the one who is awakened to self-nature, and is able to accord with this, no one can even imagine what this is.

The sublime essence accords with karmic conditions; but deluded, we assume this illusory existence to have real existence, and of talking about discriminating the being from the non-being, then it is not the same.

On the other hand, its function came from that essence, which means, it function is not separate from essence, and since essence creates its function, essence is not separate from its function. One cannot be separate from another, that is, they are not different.

For instance, water’s essence is moisture, but it has no motion. The form of wave is motion which is caused by wind. The nature of water is motionless, and the nature of wave is in motion, which are not the same.

But, there cannot be water without waves; waves cannot be without water.

The nature of moisture itself is same and not different, which tells us the sameness and difference between essence and function.

VI. True Mind Lives with Confusion

Student: If everyone has the essence and function of true-mind, then, why is the ordinary-being different from the sage?

Pojo: True-mind is the same whether it is with the ordinary-being or with the sage. But ordinary ones have lost their immaculate self-nature because of their objectified, deluded cognition. Due to this obstruction, the true-mind cannot be disclosed, just like the shade of the tree in the darkness and the spring-stem under the ground; it is there but cannot be seen.

In the sutra,

Good man, it is like a pure Mani Gem with light diffused into five different colors in every direction. The ignorants believe that the Gem possesses all those colors; good man, the immaculate nature of complete enlightenment manifests in body and mind and discloses itself according to the various outer perspectives. Just so, within the immaculate Complete Enlightenment, the ignorants assume body and mind possess actual self-natures.

In Sung Jo’s(Seng Chao) Shastra;

Among earth, heaven, and the universe, there is one treasure; it is hidden inside mountain of corpse, which represents the mind hidden inside relative hindrance.

Also, Cha Un(Tau En),

From the beginning there is a Dharma-Body; it is the same whether in Buddha or in ordinary being, hidden by delusion and relatively hindered by bewilderment; that’s why it is called, ‘The Chamber of Tathagata.’

And from Pai Hui (Pei Xiu),

It is, all day long, completely enlightened; it did not become a complete enlightenment because of ordinary ones themselves.

Even though the True Mind is hidden under the bewilderment, it cannot be altered; just like white jade thrown and hidden in the mud; the luster remains unchanged.

VII. The True Mind Does Not Have Deluded Confusion

Student: If we have to study the true mind, and since we are ordinary ones, how can we possibly be free from delusion and become sages?

Pojo: An ancient sage said,

Where the deluded mind is nowhere, that is Bodhi.

Birth, Death, and Nirvana are all originally the same.

And in a Sutra,

When the delusory body of indigent-being vanishes, illusory mind also will vanish; when illusory mind vanishes, illusory dust will vanish; when illusory dust vanishes, illusory vanishing will vanish too. When illusory vanishing vanishes, what is not illusory cannot vanish. It is just like polishing the mirror(ancient copper mirror); when the rust is removed, brightness comes naturally.

Young ka (Yung Chia) sang,

Mind is root, Dharma is dirt; both are like dust on the mirror; when the dust is removed, brightness is naturally exposed; when neither mind nor body adhere, self-nature becomes true.

This is the direct way from delusion to the truth.

Student: Chang ja (Chuang Tzu) said,

The hotness of mind can even burn the fire; the coldness of mind can freeze the ice; while it stretches and bends, in its speed, it can caress the four oceans twice over. When it abides, it can be deep like an old  well; when it moves, it can be high like the sky: That is the human Mind.

By that statement, Chang Ja was referring to the fact that the mind of ordinary-beings is very difficult to control. Now, how about your case in the Ch’an school?

Pojo: By the Dharma of mindlessness, delusion can be controlled.

Student: If one becomes mindless, that means, he is like a vagetable or a tree. Would you explain more about that mindlessness?

Pojo: When I said, mindlessness it did not mean that there is no mind in itself, but that there is no thing in the mind; this we like to call mindlessness. When we say, empty bottle, that means there is no thing inside of the bottle, we are not talking about the bottle itself.

By one Patriarch,

Just nothing to do in the mind, and no mind in the form of doing; it will become concave sooner or later and will be divinely tranquil and profound.

This is saying that the deluded mind does not exist, but that the sublime functioning of the true-mind does.

Many of the patriarchal masters have talked about the ways to study mindlessness which here -p293- I will summarize in ten categories.

First: Watch wakefully. While you study you should cut out delusion and protect yourself from it. As soon as one thought arises, it should be destroyed immediately by wakefulness. When illusory thought has been destroyed by awakening, after-thought should not be born. But don’t even uphold what was awakened as a knowledge, because disregarding both illusion and awakening is called mindlessness. A Patriarch warned us:

Do not be afraid of the coming of delusion;

Rather, be alert for your tardiness of awakening.

And a Gatha,

Do not search for the Truth; Just rest your opinion.

This the study of resting illusion.

Second: Drop and rest. While you study, uphold neither the good nor the bad. When mind arises, abruptly drop it. When you are faced with outer perspectives abruptly rest them.

Encouraged by an ancient sage here,

Do it as if finishing a piece of raw muslin until it is white, do it like cool autumn rains falling, and do it -p295- like the Candleholder in the old temple.

Remove even the finest dust and separate yourself from discriminations; finally, when you act like you know nothing, and like a retarded one, then you will be near.

This is the way of studying to rest and drop illusion.

Third: Abandon the mind and leave behind outer perspectives. While you study, rest the various delusions completely, without concern for outer perspectives. Just drop your own mind. After thought is dropped, whether outer perspectives remain or not, it will not be hindered. How can it be hindered? According to the ancient sages, this is the dharma which ‘removed’ the man but did not remove the outer perspectives. Someone previously said,

Here is a flower garden,

But none of my close friends is.

And Layman Pang,

If you are mindless in front of every perspective, even if you are surrounded by them, what could be hindered?

This is the way of studying to rest delusions, by abandoning the mind and leaving behind the outer perspectives.

Fourth: Disregard the outer perspectives and leave behind the mind. While you study you should be vigilantly aware of all inside and outside perspectives as being void and tranquil, and uphold only the mind left behind. Once an ancient sage said,

Do not be together with Ten-thousand Dharmas, and, do not stand before all outer perspectives. If mind attaches to them, mind will be illusory. Since there is not even an outer perspective, where can the illusion be?

This is the same as another ancient,

Remove the outer perspective; do not remove the man.

Another portrayal of the same,

In the wonderful flower-garden flowers were already Feded away; people and traffic are still busy.

And again,

Where are three thousand sword-men right now? Chang-ja (Chuang-tzu) is planning to keep the world calm just by himself.

Fifth: Disregard the mind and outer pespectives. That is, while you study, first of all you should empty outer perspectives and then eliminate the mind. If the mind and the perspectives, inside and outside, are calmed down, trom where can illusion arise?

A gatha by Kwan Gye (Kuan Ch’i),

No walls in the room, no doors on any side,

It is as clear as having just been flushed out;

‘Tis as obvious as though naked.

This is the way of Dharma which removes the man and the outer perspectives, as taught by the Patriarchs. I still remember the saying of someone,

The clouds are scattered, and the water has flowed;

It is completely void; heaven and earth are empty.

The same also said,

Both man and ox cannot be seen;

It is indeed when the moon is bright.

This is the way to study the resting of both mind and outer perspectives.

Sixth: Seave behind both the mind and the outer perspectives. While you study, mind abides where the the mind is, while the outer perspectives stay where the outer perspectives should stay.

Even though the mind and the outer perspectives confront each other, the mind does not take the outer perspectives while the outer perspectives do not follow the mind. If each of them does not mix -p301- with the other, then naturally, delusion could not be raised and Tao could not be obstructed. When a sutra says,

Because this dharma abides where the dharma should be, worldly phenomena are always abiding as well;

It is the same as the Patriarchs saying,

Do not remove either the man or the outer perspectives.

Someone expressed,

The crescent moon reflects on the sea,

How many people will be at the viewing-pavilion.

As did another,

Because of thousands and thousands of blossoms of the mountain flower, the vagabonds forget to return.

This is the way to study to eliminate the delusion leaving behind both the mind and the outer perspectives.

Seventh: Study everything inside and outside as one whole body. While you study mountain, river, earth, sun, moon, stars, body, and world, etc., know that all dharma together is the body of one true mind. Since it is completely void and perfectly clear there should be no difference whatsoever. Thus, the great world systems even become one small piece. Now, where can delusion be raised? This is the reason Sung Jo (Seng Chao) said,

Heaven and earth have the same origin as I;

Everything in the Universe has the same body as I.

This is the study of eliminating delusion by becoming a whole body inside outside.

Eighth: Study the one complete functioning of both inside and outside. While you study you study you should be vigilantly aware of each and every Dharma and the movements of body and mind and the places either inside or outside as one sublime functioning of the true mind. As soon as some thought arises, that is immediately nothing but one sublime functioning appearing in front of you.

Since everything is already sublime functioning, where can the illusory mind stay? As Yung Ka (Yung Chia) mentioned,

The True Self-nature of the unenlightened Darkness

Is precisely the Buddha-Nature;

Empty body, like apparition, is the Dharma-Body.

Chi Kong (Chih Kung) also said this in his Gatha,

During the first hour of morning inside of masked dance, the body of the sage is hidden;

Not knowing there is a saint.

Without knowing this body is a sage and without knowing that sitting and lying down are originally the Tao, we stay so busy inviting the useless sufferings.

This is how to study the resting of delusion by complete functioning of inside and outside.

Ninth: Study the essence itself as a functioning itself. While yu study, be in accord with the one taste of void and stillness of the true essence in which divine self-gnostic brightness is hidden. This becomes the essence itself as functioning itself.

Said by Bung Ka (Bung Cia),

It is right to be vigilantly aware while calm and still, but it is wrong to be vigilantly aware while deluded; It is right to be vigilantly aware while calm and still, but it is wrong to be in senseless blankness while calm and still.

If senseless blankness is not allowed while it is already calm and still; if delusion is not allowed while vigilantly aware, then how can various delusions be raised? This is the way to study the elimination of delusion by the essence itself as the functioning itself.

Tenth: Transcend both the essence and function. While you study, do not discriminate inside from -p307- outside, do not divide east, west, north and south. Assume the four sides and the eight directions are as one great Nirvanic Gate. By not discriminating between essence and functioning, and leaving nothing behind, everything becomes one small piece; then from where could deluded mind come? One ancient sage succintly said,

In a whole body there are no scars from stitches;

Upper and lower are totally one whole sphere.

Which refers to the study of eliminating the mind by transcending the essence and the functioning.

As stated, there are ten different ways of studying. But, just pick one of them, and when the study is ripened, the delusion will naturally vanish and the true mind will appear. Get along with your natural abilities and former karmic inclinations, find out which way is suitable for you and watch carefully.

This studying should be effortless and mindless. I have talked a lot of how to rest and drop the deluded mind.

And because this is so important, I did not mind talking in detail.

So far I have explained much; please do not retreat from or half-heartedly toss-to-the winds, what I have said.

VIII. The Four Conduct-Modes of the True Mind

Student: We have heard how to rest our deluded mind. Now, do we have to just sit (meditate) to practice or is it possible even while in motion or in rest?

Pojo: All sutras and shastras explore sitting practice because it is convenient. However, it is also possible while we are in motion or in rest, one can be gradually refined and fully practical only by ceaseless training.

In the Awakening of Faith,

If one wishes for ‘cessation’ (meditative tranquility), he should abide in a quiet place, sit straight, and control his will. He should not depend upon his breathing, upon any form or color, not upon empty space nor upon the four elements; soil, water, fire, or wind; and furthermore, one should not depend upon sight, audition, perception, elements; soil. water, fire, or wind; and furthermore, one should not depend upon sight, memory, or consciousness. Whatever kind of thought comes, you should cut it out as well as cut out this thought of cutting out, because all dharmas have no origin in thought (delusion).

From one thought to the next, mind itself cannot be born; and from one thought to the next, mind itself cannot be perished; also, by following the mind, your mind cannot be grasped.

If the mind is scattered, one should immediately focus and abide in right thinking.

This right thinking is only the mind which has no outer perspectives.

This mind does not even have its own form and cannot be gained by thought. Whether you stand up from your seat, come and go, walk or stand, or further do all different movements, you should always think of an expedient method according to your abilities, train yourself for a long time and achieve mastery; then your mind will cease.

After the mind has ceased, one will become gradually braver and sharper and will enter the samadhi of Truth as-it-is; thereby, overcoming deep defilements. Also, sincere faith will be increased and will quickly lead to entry into the retreatless level. Only the skeptics, disbelievers and humiliators, and those hidden by thick karmic-sin and the too-arrogant are exceptions to entry into the retreatless level.

The above is referring to the four conduct-modes of the true mind.

In the Complete Enlightenment Sutra it was also mentioned,

First of all, depend on Tathagata’s Samatha Practice, by upholding the precepts firmly, and staying with crowds harmoniously, or sitting in a quiet room.

On the other hand, Young Ka (Yung Chia),

Coming-and-going or sitting down is Ch’an;

Whether you speak or are silent,

Move or are still,

Essence is always the same.

The above also refers to the four conduct-modes of the true mind.

Summarizing what we have said regarding the results of studying; to enter the Tao is difficult even though sitting still; so, how can we expect to gain entry easily while walking or standing? But if one’s functioning of study were masterfully ripened, even though a thousand sages appeared in front of him, he would not even move an inch. And if ten-thousand devils appeared he would not even look.

Why is impossible to study while moving or sitting? It is just like one who is revenging his enemy; whether walking, stilled, lying down, eating, or all the various movements, he cannot forget his enemy for one moment. The same is true when one loves somebody.

Hatred and love are both inside-the-mind-matters; even though such things are great, why are they not for someone who is studying?

If you uphold a sincere faith, Tao in the four conduct modes would not be lost.

IX. Where the True Mind Is

Student: You said.’ the true mind will be disclosed if we rest our deluded mind’. Where is the essence and functioning of the true mind right now?

Pojo: The essence of the true mind is omnipresent, as Young Ka (Yung Chia) said,

It is right here, not far away from where you are now; also, it has always been transparent; as soon as you look for it, you should know it cannot be seen.

And a sutra gives us a good explanation,

Because it has the nature of empty space, it does not move even an inch, and nothing arises nor disappears in the Tathagata-Chamber.

The Great Pop-An (Fa Yen) also shows us where the mind is,

Everywhere is the path to Bodhi;

Everything is the forest of Virtuous Merit.

The sublime functioning of the true mind is reflected according to what is perceived, as an echo is reflected from an empty valley. As Popdung said,

Now and before, without decreasing its reflection,

It is right front of these eyes.

Small pieces of clouds arise in the valley,

A lone crane is descending at the far end of the sky.

And take a look at what said old Hwa Yen from Wipu (Wei fu),

Buddha-Dharma is in your everyday life; where you walk, stay, sit, and lie down; where you drink a cup of tea, and eat a meal, where you speak, and converse with others, where you act and distinguish things; to uphold the mind and to raise a thought are again wrong.

As you see, even though the essence is omnipresent and is functioning always with you; because each one of us has different karmic conditions, each function is also appearing differently, not because there is no sublime function. If one wishes to enter the ocean of formless-doing, and to be life-and-deathless, do not let the abode of true mind’s essence and function be confused.

X. The True Mind Does Not Perish

Student; We have heard before that one who has seen the self-nature is free from birth-and-death. But all the past patriarchs have died, and people today who cultivate their Tao also experience birth-and-death. How can we be free from birth-and-death?

Pojo: Originally there is no birth-and-death. It exists because delusion exists because exists because delusion exists; like one, whose eyes are infected, seeing flowers in the space. If one who has no infection were to tell him that there is no flower in the space, he would not believe it. And after the eye infection heals, the space-flower will also automatically disappear. Now he believes there is no space-flower.

But even before that flower disappeared, the space-flower was void. It did not exist all all. But the one with an infected eye was attached to the flower.

Even though one without birth-and-death says there is no birth-and-death, the man of illusion, mistakenly believing birth-and-death, will finally realize that there is originally no birth-and-death. Even before birth-and-death were nullified by resting delusory speculation, there is really no birth-and-death, simply one’s misjudgement.

It is said in the sutra,

Good man, all indigent-beings are topsy-turvy, from the beginningless beginning;

Think four elements as their true bodies, as if one has confused the four directions.

‘Tis like infected eye seeing space-flower; as if space-flower disappears, it cannot be said there is definite place for flower to disappear.

Why? Because there is no place for it to happen. Because the indigent-being sees the illusory birth-and-death from the place, where life-and-death do not exist at all. That is why it is called ‘the wandering in the life-and-death’.

If one understood the true mind of complete enlightenment, there would not be any birth-and-death. The reason we cannot be free from birth-and-death, although we understand it, is because the cultivation of Tao (study) is not yet fully deep-ened.

Once Ambapoli asked Manjusri: ‘I have understood cleary that birth-and-death is originally no birth-and-no death, but why am I still not free from birth-and-death?

Manjusri answered:

Because your strength of the mind is not fully developed.

Later, Master Jin asked Master Soo the same question.

I have understood clearly that birth is originally no-birth, but why am I still not free from birth-and-death?

Master answer;

Bamboo shoot will eventually become bamboo; if raft is made from bamboo shoot, could it be used right now?

Therefore, knowing birth-and-deathlessness is less than experiencing no-birth and no-death; experiencing no-birth and no-death is less than being in accord with birth-and-deathlessness; but, being in accord with birth-and-deathlessness is less than operating the life with birth-and-deathlessness.

People today do not even know birth-and-deathlessness; do you think they are able to experience it, be in accord with it, or operate their life with it?

One who misunderstands birth-and-death necessarily would not believe the birth-and-deathless dharma.

XI. Primary and Secondary Motives of the True Mind

Student: As we have mentioned, the true mind will be disclosed after the deluded mind is rested. Now, before resting the deluded mind, do we have to drop the outer delusion to be mindless, or is there another way to control the deluded mind?

Pojo: Primary and secondary motives are different things.

To rest the deluded mind with mindlessness is the primary motive.

To train yourself with all the good conducts is the secondary motive.

For example, if a bright mirror is covered with dust, you can remove the dust by hand, but still, you necessarily need a polishing cream to make it shine brightly; here, dust is defilement, handling it is a mindless-study, the polishing cream is all the good conducts, and the brightness of the mirror is the true mind.

In the Awakening of Faith:

Question: To accomplish the faithful mind effectively, what mind should we mobilize?

Answer: There are three different ways. The first, is by the straight mind, because it is thinking of Truth-as-it-is, righteously. The second is by the profound mind, because it gathers all good conducts. The third is by the great compassionate mind, because it tries to liberate all kinds of be wilderments by the indigent-being.

Question: As you mentioned moments ago, the dharma world has only one form; that is, the essence of Buddha cannot be divided. Then, instead of thinking one truth-as-it-is, why do we have to learn all kinds of good conduct?

Answer: As an analogy, even though the essence and self-nature of a great Mani Jewel has brightness and clarity, still it can have some flaws. So too, one can understand treasury self-nature, but it cannot be luminous if it is not cultivated and examined by various expedient methods. Although Truth-as-it-is of the indigent-being’s nature is originally empty and pure in its essence and self-nature, still, immeasurable dusts of bewilderment remain. Even if one is aware of Truth-as-it-is, he must integrate it for himself by expedient methods to purify the self-nature. Dirt is immeasurable and ommipresent in all dharmas. By good conduct it should be removed. If you cultivate all good dharmas, naturally one will return to the dharma of Truth-as-it-is and become one with it.

That is what Awakening of Faith shows us about the primary motive of resting the deluded mind and the secondary motive of training by good conduct. When you cultivate good conduct, you should accord with mindlessness and not attach to cause-and-effect. As soon as you attach to cause-and-effect, the ordinary-being and heaven-being will fall into the next karmic sequence which means hard to attain Truth-as-it-is, and finally will not be free from birth-and-death.

If you accord with mindlessness, immediately you will experience the Truth-as-it-is; it is the expedient of that experience and the secret way of liberation from birth-and-death which will lead you to vast virtue and merit.

As the Diamond Sutra said,

Subhuti, if any Bodhisattva makes an offering

Without abiding in any form,

Then virtue and merit will be immeasurable.

Instead, people today who practice Ch’an (Zen) and just begin to see there is an original Buddha-nature, abruptly think they are divine Truth-holders. They do not exercise good self-conduct, so is it not impossible for them to enlighten their true mind? Rather, they become lazy. If they cannot even be free from the bad ways, how can they be free from life and death? What a terrible mistake it is!

XII. Virtue and Merit of the True Mind

Student: There is no doubt that mindful cultivation will result in certain virtues and merits. Then from where did the virtue and merit come if cultivation is mindless?

Pojo: Mindful cultivation will result in the effect of the form of doing. Mindless cultivation will result in disclosing the virtue and merit of the self-nature. All these virtues and merits are originally completed, but because of delusion are not disclosed. But, if delusion were cut out, virtue and merit would naturally be disclosed. Young-Ka showed us the original perfection of virtue and merit in the self-nature by saying,

Three Bodies and Four Wisdoms are complete and fulfilled within this being:; eight karmec liberations and six magical works are carved in the bottom of mind.

A sage also said,

If one man sits quietly for even one second,

It is still superior to the merits of erecting.

As many seven-jeweled stupas as number the sands of the Ganges River;

Jeweled-stupa will finally perish to the dust,

While one thought from immaculate mind

Will attain the right Enlightenment.

The strength from the mindless study is far greater than the mindful study. When Suryo (Shui Liao) from Hong Ju (Hung Chou) went to Majo to ask, ‘What is the reason Bodhidharma, the first patriarch, came from the West?’ Instead of being given an answer, he was kicked out by Majo, but suddenly enlightened, and said: ‘What a strange thing it is!

Thousands of samadhis with immeasurable sublime truths were completely disclosed at the end of the hair.

Then, he bowed to Majo and left, which proves that virtue and merit do not come from outside but are intrinsically sufficient in our self-nature in itself. The Fourth Patriarch said to Na Young (Fa Jung),

All dharma returns to one square inch of mind, virtue and merit, as many as the sands of the Ganges River, are all in the spring of mind.

Various precepts, tranquilities, wisdoms, magics and miraculous changes are complete and not separate from your original mind.

As Patriarch mentioned, mindless virtue and merit are already great; but one who attaches to the form of virtue and merit does not mobilize this kind of faith at all.

XIII. Experience and Re-examination of the True Mind

Student: When the true mind appears, how do we know it is fully ripened and unhindered?

Pojo: While studying the Tao, one might see the true mind before him. If karmic inclinations are not diminished, while facing the mature outer perspectives, he sometimes forgets the right memory. It is like the ox which obeys well only while the shepherd is pulling him; the shepherd is not yet able to give up his whip. Only when the ox is fully trained, so that even when pulled to an open crop-field; he would not damage the crops; only then can the whip be released. At this level, the ox-herding man, using no whip, would not worry about damaging the crops.

Just so, after a man of Tao attains the true mind, first he should carefully refine and nourish his understanding so that great power and functioning will eventually result; he can then naturally help the indigent-beings.

If you want to experience and examine the true mind, first of all, imagine in front of your eyes, the outer perspectives you used to hate or delight in. If you still raise the thought of hatred or delight as usual, then the Mind of Tao is not yet mature. If the thought was not raised, then the mind of Tao is mature.

Even though you are at that level, still that is not yet the level of naturally unraised hate and delight. You should re-experience and re-examine while you deliberately face the conditions of hatred and delight.

If the mind still is not moved at all, then the mind has become unhindered just like the white ox, free in the open field, not damaging the crops. That is the reason why, from long ago, there have sometimes been ones who cursed Buddha and reviled the Patriarchs in order to bring their minds in accord with their understanding, by re-examining it under these conditions. However, some students who just began patriarchal Ch’an study, without knowing their distance from the Tao and having practiced little, imitate the way of cursing Buddha and reviling the Patriarchs which is just premature cunning.

XIV. True Mind Has no Knowledge

Student: When the true mind and deluded mind are facing the outer perspectives, how do you discriminate the true from the deluded?

Pojo: Facing the outer perspectives with a deluded mind entails having knowledge with which one either agrees and goes along with or disagrees and goes against. Then, greed, hatred, and ignorance are raised.

Since the three poisonous minds are already raised, then you would know clearly that is the deluded mind. So, A Patriarch said,

Mind disease comes from conflict,

Whether you go along or go against.

So, therefore, you should know that thinking that this is right or that this is not right is the deluded mind.

If it were the true mind it would be self-gnostic without having knowledge; which differs from vegetables and trees since it has steady thinking, is omnipresently luminous, and it sees the outer perspectives without hatred or delight but with emptiness and brightness.

Being self-gnostic without knowledge is the true mind.

In the shastra of Sung-Jo.

Holy mind is so profound that it has no form; it cannot be said, ‘it exists’. The more you use, the busier would it be; it cannot be said, ‘it does not exist’.

Because it is not non-existence, it knows without something known; because it is not non-existence, it knows without having knowledge.

Because it knows without knowledge it cannot be different from the sage-mind. Again, the deluded mind is attached to being when it is and attached to non-being when it is not. It includes either being or non-being and does not know the Golden Mean.

As Young-Ka said,

If you abandon the deluded mind, and invite the true mind, then abandonment and invitation themselves are also delicate deceits.

The student has a lingering disease in which he is deceived, thinking the thief for his son.

If that is truly the true mind, you would not fall into either Being nor into non-being, whether it is or is not, and you would always abide in the golden mean.

Let me remind you, one patriarch said thusly,

Do not chase the outer perspectives of being,

Do not abide even in the wisdom of emptiness;

If one mind is straight forward,

Everything will be completed by itself.

In Shastra of Sung-Jo,

For the sage-being, existence is not as existence;

Nonexistence is not as non-existence.

Invite neither existence nor non-existence,

Abandon neither existence nor non-existence.

It is just like sunshine staying with dust; it is omnipresent in every branch of five sense organs, it goes quietly, suddenly returns, sounds comfortable, but sometimes looks like nothing is happening; yet does everything.

But the deluded mind is as we have discussed, not the same as this.

Here, the truth and delusion are two different things; the true mind is the steady and unchangeable mind; the deluded mind is the unsteady and changeable mind.

Student: What is the steady and unchangeable mind?

Pojo: Everyone has his own divine radiance which is as transparent as empty-space and as omnipresent. For ordinary knowledge it is called reason. For the sake of activities of spirits it is expediently called the true mind.

Because there is no discrimination at all, when the true mind is faced with karmic conditions, it would not be perplexed.

Because there is no thought to eliminate or invite and since omnipresent turth whatever it faces, it would not be changed by ten-thousand outer perspectives.

It is sublime while flowing with others, but without separating from itself as it is always transparent. Looking for it, it is just yourself, yet it cannot be seen. This is True Mind.

Student: What is the unsteady and changeable mind?

Pojo: In the outer perspectives there are differences between sages and ordinary men; tained and pure, cut off and constant, theoretical and practical, birth and death, moving and still, going and coming, beautiful and ugly, good and bad, and cause and effect.

If you try to describe in detail, there can be ten-thousand different things all of which are unsteady and changeable outer perspectives.

We call it ‘deluded mind’, because unsteady and changeable outer perspectives of life-and-death are contrasted with the formersteady-and-unchangeable-true-mind. The true mind is originally (perfected) against unsteady and changeable outer perspectives. It does not create any differences.

That is why it is called the steady-and-unchangeable-true-mind.

Student: If the true mind is steady and unchangeable and does not create differences, why did Buddha tell us of cause-and-effect, good-and-bad, and karmic sequences?

Pojo: Because the deluded mind does not know various outer perspectives they create various thoughts while following the outer perspectives. Thar is why the Buddha told us the dharma of cause-and-effect; to control the deluded mind. But the true mind does not follow various outer perspectives, and does not create various thoughts. Buddha did not say about any other dharmas; where can cause-and-effect be?

Student: Then, is the true mind not created but still, steady and unchangeable?

Pojo: It is not. The discriminating function of the true mind is not created by outer perspectives, but it consorts with sublime functioning, and because of that, would not adversely affect cause-and-effect.

XV. Where the True Mind Goes

Student: One who did not understand the true mind, because he was confused about it, would create the good and the bad. Then, since he created the good, he would e born on a good path, or, because of the bad, he would be born on a bad path.

Accordingly, I would not doubt the principle of karmic sequence. But, one who understood the true mind, because he rested all deluded attitudes, and was in accord with the true mind, would not have good or bad causes. If so, then, after this corpse passes away where would this one spirit take refuge?

Pojo: Do not judge that having a place of refuge would be better than not having a place. Nor judge a man who has no place to go just like a prodigal son, by saying, ‘having no place to take refuge’. Nor judge the abidingless lonely soul among the ghosts.

Do you wish especially to have some place to take refuge?

Student: Yes, I do.

Pojo: If you completely understood the self-nature, it would not be that way. Because only indigent-beings are confused about the nature of enlightenment and they gather all the karmic cause by deluded love and thought and are born into the six branches of the karmic cycle; and will thus receive the result of the good or the bad.

For example, if you take karmic effect in heaven and of no other place. Since everything follows that karmic cause, the place in which you should be reborn is, they say, very satisfying because it is in accord with where you are.

They like the place where they were reborn and they would not like any other place. The place in which they should be reborn they call. ‘refuge’, while the place in which they should not be reborn they call. ‘somebody’s refuge’. Therefore, if you have deluded sentiment, you are creating deluded cause. If you have deluded cause, then deluded effect will result. If deluded result ensues, then there will be a refuge-place. If there is a refuge place, then you and I will be divided. If ‘I-and-you’ is divided then there is something right or wrong.

Now, the one who completely understands the true mind will accord with life-and-deathless self-enlightening-nature and will cause life-and-death-less sublime-functioning. Sublime-essence is true and perpetual, originally having no life-and-death because it follows cause-and-effect.

However, since functioning is from the essence itself, functioning itself is already essence itself. How can it have life-and-death? It is like essence of water which is the nature of moisture and its functioning is the wave. The nature of moisture is life-and-deathless, so too with the nature of moist nature of wave have life-and-deathless. How can the moist nature of wave have life-and-death? But wave cannot exist without moist nature. Therefore, wave does not have life-and-death either.

All the sages said,

Whole world is true man’s right eye.

Whole world is one church.

Because this is the place where the enlightened one can dwell and have sanctity.

Once true mind is completely understood, four different lives and six different karmic-cycles will -p353- immediately vanish; mountain, river, and, whole earth are nothing but the true mind. There is no other place to take refuge other than this true mind. Since there is no delusory cause in three different cosmos there is no delusory effect in six branches.

Since there is no delusory effect, of what refuge place can we talk or think? You and I are not separate. Since already I and you are not different, where are the right and the wrong? This ten-direction world is only one true mind. It will be one whole body. There is no other refuge place. It can be born as an expedient appearing by free-will without obstacles.

In the Transmission of the Lamp, minister On Jo(Wen Tsao) asked master Kyu Bong (Kjeu Feng),

On-jo: The one who has understood the truth, after one period of life has passed; where does he take refuge?

Kyu Bong: There is no indigent-being who does not have divine nature of enlightenment. Not even a slight difference from Buddha; if this true self-nature were awakened, originally there is no birth. Where can the refuge place be? It is not perplexed, but divinely radiant. It is wakeful awareness which has no place to come. It is wakeful awareness which has no place to come. It has no place to come, no place to go. Just know it is void and tranquil essence.

Do not confuse it with physical body. Just know divinely self-gnostic mind. Do not confuse with delusion.

Even if deluded thought arises, if you do not chase it., when the time comes, you wouldn’t be entangled with karma. Even though you are in a state of purgatory.

Whatever the direction you choose, you will be completely free either in Heaven or in Human; you will take refuge wherever you wish to be. This is where True Mind goes after physical body has passed on.