“Best Goryeo Buddhist Painting” returns from Japan for Local Exhibition at Tongdosa Temple

The Korea Times, June 3, 2009
Seoul, South Korea — One of the best Buddhist painting of Suwol-Gwaneum-Do or literally Painting of Water Moon Avalokitevara Bodhisattva in Sanskrit, which had been in a Japanese jinja (??) or a Shinto Shrine for nearly 600 years, came to South Korean for a special exhibition at a Buiddhist temple.

Buddhist painting of Suwol-Gwaneum-Do or literally Painting of Water Moon Avalokitevara Bodhisattva

The Suwol-Gwaneum-Do Buddhist painting is from Kagami Jinja or Kagami Shinto Shrine in Karatsu City, Saga Prefecture, Japan.

The Buddhist painting was created by eight court painters in 1310 on the order of a Queen Kim of Goryeo Dynasty, but was pillaged by the Japanese pirates soon after. Japanese invaders took the painting to Japan and kept it there for nearly 600 years.

Queen Kim was the second wife of King Chungseon,the 26th monarch of Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392).

Dubbed “the largest and most beautiful Suwol-Gwaneum-Do Buddhist painting” by art historians, this Water Moon Avalokitevara Bodhisattva painting on the one silk scroll, started to be on exhibition from April 30, 2009 at Tongdosa Buddhist temple in Yangsan, South Gyeongsang Province.

The special public display of the Suwon-Gwaneum-Do, 4.19 by 2.54 meters, in Tongdosa Museum will continue until June 7, 2009.
Tongdosa Temple announced that it hosted the exhibition of the special Buddhist painting on the occasion of the 10 year anniversary of the opening of its Tongdosa Museum.

It is the second time for this greatest masterpiece Buddhist painting of Goyreo Dynasty to be exhibited in South Korea. In 1995 it was on displayed at Hoam Art Gallery south of Seoul.

Experts say that this Suwol-Gwaneum-Do is one of the world’s 38 Buddhist paintings of Goryeo Dynasty, depicting Suwol-Gwaneum or Water Moon Avalokitevara Bodhisattva.

It was Korea’s Goryeo Dynasty that top-quality Buddhist paintings were produced. There are some 160 Goryeo Buddhist paintings that exist in the world.

But there are no more than 10 of them that remain in South Korea. Japan has them all. There are only 20 Goryo Buddhist paintings scattered in Europe and America.

The rest of the paintings, over 130, were taken by force or sold illegally at best, to Japan long time ago. Most of them were pillaged by the Japanese invaders throughout history.

Experts agree that this Suwol-Gwaneum-Do painting is the most beautiful, the oldest, the largest one that still exists in the world.

Some art critiques compare this Buddhist masterpiece to “Mona Lisa” by Leonardo da Vinci. Others argue that it’s much better than “Mona Lisa.”

In Japan this painting is on public display for only 38 days per year out of concerns for conservation.

The temple souces said that they started contacting the Japanese Shinto shrine one year ago for this exhibition.

In 2003 the Suwol-Gwaneum-Do painting was displayed for 20 days at a San Francisco museum under the tile of “Goryeo Dynasty: Korea’s Age of Enlightenment (918 to 1392).”

But, exhibition period this time is double that of San Francisco exhibition. It is on exhibition at Tongdosa Temple for the full 40 days.

For details or inquiries please visit Tongdosa Museum’s website.

Korean English Dictionary of Buddhism

조계종 관련 용어 영문표기법

대한불교 조계종이 종단명칭과 종무기구를 비롯한 불교용어의 영문표기법을 확정했다.(→ 오른쪽이 바뀐 표기법)

조계종 Korean Buddhist Chogey Order → The Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism

(참)선 Seon(zen) →Seon meditation

스님 Monk → Monk / Buddhist Monk

선사 Seon Master

방장(스님) Spiritual Patriarch

주지스님 Chief → Abbot

행자 Novice → Apprentice

중생 Sentient being

예불(의식) Buddhist Service → Buddhist Ceremonial Service

오계 The Five Precepts

삼귀의 Three Refuges → The Three Refuges

사홍서원 The Four Great Vows

발우공양 Buddhist Meal with Traditional Bowls

포교당 Buddhist Center → Dharma Instruction Center/ Buddhist Center

– 가 –

교무: catechist
교무스님: catechist
교수 아사리: ordination catechist
가사(袈裟) robe
간경(看經) textual study.

간화선(看話禪) Koan meditation.
갈마 아사리: confessor, procedual specialist
강백: lecturer
강원(講院) lecture hall
객실(客室) guest room

(객진)번뇌(客塵煩惱) defilement
거사(居士) male devotee
겁(劫) aeon, kalpa
결가부좌(結跏趺坐) lotus posture
결제: retreat

결집(結集) council
경(經) sutra. Buddhist scriptures. Buddhist canon.
경장(經藏) sutra pitaka
계(戒) precept, sila
계(界) realm. world

계단: ordination platform
고(苦) suffering
고승(高僧) A illustrious monk
고제(苦諦) The noble truth of suffering
고행(苦行) ascetic practice

공(空) emptiness
공덕(功德) merit
공안(公案) koan/ kongan
공양(供養) offering
공양의식: offering ceremony

과거칠불(過去七佛) seven Buddhas of the past
과보(果報)/업보 karmic result
관세음보살(觀世音菩薩) Avalokitesvara, Bodhisattva of compassion
관음전(觀音殿) hall of the Bodhisattva of compassion
교(敎) The doctrinal teaching

교리(敎理) doctrine
교종(敎宗) The doctrinal School
구경각(究竟覺) final awakening
구산(九山) nine mountains
국보(國寶) national treasure

국사(國師) national preceptor. national master.
극락(極樂) pure land of Amitabha
극락전(極樂殿) Amitabha hall
금강경(金剛經) Diamond sutra
금당(金堂) Buddha Hall

금동(金銅) gilt-bronze
깨달음 Awakening The Enlightenment

– 나 –

나찰(羅刹) evil ghost
나한(羅漢) Arahat, Attained One
나한전(羅漢殿) Hall of the Arahat
논(論) canon, Abhidharma
논장(論藏) canon pitaka Abhidharma pitaka

농감스님: farmer monk

– 다 –

도감 provost
다도(茶道) tea ceremony.
다포: multiple brackets
다라니(陀羅尼) dharani
단경(壇經) The platform sutra

단주(短珠) beads/ rosary
단청(丹靑) cosmic design/ Red and blue
달마대사(達磨大師) Bodhidharma.
닫집 canopy.
당간(幢竿) A flag pole

당간지주(幢竿支柱) flag pole supporter
대세지보살(大勢至菩薩) Bodhisattva of power/ Mahastamparapta
대승불교(大乘佛敎) The great vehicle, Mahayana Buddhism
대웅전(大雄殿) dharma hall. Buddha hall
대장경(大藏經) tripitaka

대중울력: group work
덕(德) virtue
도(道) The way. leading to the cessation of suffering
독성(獨聖) hermit sage/recluse
독성각(獨聖閣) hall of the hermit sage

돈법(頓法) The doctrine of sudden awakening
돈오(頓悟) sudden awakening
돈오돈수(頓悟頓修) sudden awakening-sudden cultivation
돈오점수(頓悟漸修) sudden awakening-gradual cultivation
동안거(冬安居) winter retreat season.

등(燈) lantern

– 마 –

만다라(蔓茶羅) mandala.
만자(卍字) The Swastika (the symbol of good fortune)
마지 rice offering to the Buddha
망상(妄想) delusions
멸(滅) cessation

명등스님: lamplighter
명부전(冥府殿) hall of judgement of the dead
명색(名色) name and formation
목어(木魚) wooden fish
목탁(木鐸) Moktak/ wooden clacker. hallow wood block.

무명(無明) ignorance
무상(無常) impermanent
무색계(無色界) formless world
무심(無心) no-mind
무아(無我) no-self

묵언(默言) holy silence, no speaking
문수보살(文殊菩薩) Manjusuri, Bodhisattva of Wisdom
문자(文字) words
미륵(彌勒) Maitreya. The Buddha of the future.
밀교(密敎) Esoteric Buddhism, Vajrayana.

– 바 –

바라밀(婆羅蜜) perfection, paramita
바랑 Barang/backpack.
반가부좌(半跏趺坐) half lotus posture
반야(般若) wisdom
반야심경(般若心經) The Heart Sutra.

발기: commentator
발우(鉢盂) wooden bowls.
발우공양(鉢盂供養) formal meal.
방부: formal introduction
방생(放生) release of living beings/ animal-outing

방장(方丈) zen master
방장스님: Son Master
방편: skillful means
백장청규: Pure Rules of Pai-Chang
번뇌(煩惱) defilements.

법(法) Dharma
법고(法鼓) temple drum, dharma drum
법구(法具) Dharma instrument.
법당(法堂) Buddha hall, Dharma hall
법당: shrine hall

법랍: seniority
법랍순서: seniority order
법랍이 가장 오래된 승려: seniormost monk
법맥(法脈) Dharma lineage
법명(法名) Dharma name

법문(法門) Dharma talk
법성(法性) Buddha’s nature. nature of beings
법신(法身) dharma body. nature of Buddha’s mind. truth.
법호: Dharma-protector
법화경(法華經) Lotus Sutra

벽화(壁畵) wall painting
별채: separate compound
보리(菩提) Enlightenment
보리수(菩提樹) bodhi tree
보리심(菩提心) the thought of Enlightenment

보살(菩薩) bodhisattva
보살계: Bodhisattva-precepts
보시(布施) generosity/ charity/ giving
보신(報身) reward body
보현보살(普賢菩薩) bodhisattva of compassion

본사(本寺) head temple.
본성(本性) one’s original nature
부도(浮屠): stupa/pagoda
분별(分別) discrimination
분신 self-imolation

불(佛) Buddha. The Enlightened One.
불공(佛供) offering
불교교단(佛敎敎團) sangha.
불교의식(佛敎儀式) Buddhist ritual
불교종단(佛敎宗團) Buddhist Order

불교학(佛敎學) Buddhist Studies. study of Buddhism
불기(佛紀) Buddhist Era(B.E.)
불보사찰: Buddha-jewel monastery
불상(佛像) Buddha statue/ Buddha image
불성(佛性) Buddha nature

불이문(不二門) Gate of non-duality.
불전함(佛錢函) donation box
불제자(佛弟子) disciples of the Buddha
불탄일(佛誕日) Buddha’s birthday.
비구(比丘) monk. Bhikku

비구계 수계식: full ordination
비구니(比丘尼) nun. Bhikkuni.
비로자나불(毘盧 那佛) Viroccana. the cosmic Buddha
비석(碑石) stela/ memorial stone
비유(比喩) parables.

– 사 –

사(寺) temple. monastery
사구(死句) dead phrase
사경(寫經) copying Sutra
사리(舍利) relics/ ashes
사리불(舍利佛) Sariputra

사리탑(舍利塔) relics stupa
사무량심(四無量心) The four immeasurables.
3)sympathetic joy
사미(沙彌) novice
사미계: novice precepts
사미승: prospective ordinand

사미율의: the Sramanera Rules and Decorum
사성제(四聖諦) The Four Noble Truth
1) suffering,
2) cause of suffering,
3) cessation,
4) the path of cessation
사천왕: four heavenly kings/supernal Dharma-protector
사천왕문(四天王門) gate of the four Heavenly Kings (Four Guardians)
사판승: monk on the support staff of the monastery/ support monk

사홍서원(四弘誓願) Four Great Vows
1) I vow to save all beings.
2) I vow to end all sufferings.
3) I vow to learn all dharma teachings.
4) I vow to attain Enlightenment.
산신각(山神閣) mountain spirit shrine
삼귀의(三歸依) The Three Refuges.
1) I take refuge in the Buddha
2) I take refuge in the Dharma
3) I take refuge in the Sangha.
삼계(三界) three realms.
1) realm of desire
2) realm of form
3) realm of formlessness
삼독(三毒) three poisons.
1) greed, craving
2) hatred, anger
3) delusion, ignorance

삼배(三拜) three prostrations.
삼보(三寶) three jewels.
1) Buddha
2) Dharma
3) Sangha
삼보사찰(三寶寺刹) the three jewel monasteries.
1) The Buddha jewel monastery: Tongdosa.
2) The Dharma jewel monastery: Haeinsa.
3) The Sangha jewel monastery: Songgwangsa.
삼법인(三法印) Three Dharma Seals/ The Three Marks(Attributes/ Characteristics) of Existence.
1) impermanence. 2) suffering 3) no-self.
삼세(三世) three time period,
1) past
2) present
3) future.

삼장(三藏) three pitaka.
1) vinaya
2) sutra
3) Abhidharma.
삼직: three duties
삼악도(三惡道) three evil worlds(realms, destinies)
1) hell
2) hungry ghost
3) animal
상(相) characteristic
색(色) formation

생(生) birth
생로병사(生老病死) birth, old age, sickness and death.
석가모니(釋迦牟尼) Sakyamuni.
서방정토(西方淨土) The Western Pure Land.
석굴(石窟) stone cave.

석등(石燈) stone lantern.
석불(石佛) stone Buddha statue.
선(禪) Zen
선가(禪家) The Zen school.
선덕: meditative virtue

선문답(禪門答) Zen dialogue.
선방(禪房) Zen hall. Meditation hall.
선불교(禪佛敎) Zen Buddhism.
선사(禪師) Zen master.
선사제: commemorative service for the previous meditation master of the monastery

선승: Zen monk
선열당: meal room/ reflectory
선원 meditation compound
선원(禪院) Zen center, meditation hall.
설법전(說法殿) teaching hall.

성불(成佛)하세요! May you be Enlightened!
성지순례(聖地巡禮) the pilgrimage.
세간(世間) world
소승불교(小乘佛敎) Theravada Buddhism
수(受) feeling

수계(受戒) ordination.
수인(手印) mudra.
수행(修行) practice. cultivation.
스님(僧) monk. venerable.
승가(僧家) Sangha.

시왕(十王) Ten Kings.
시왕전(十王殿) The Ten Kings Hall.
시자 acolyte
식(識) consciousness.
신구의(身口意) body, speech, mind.

신도(信徒) lay people.
신도: lay supporter
신심(信心) The faith.
심(心) mind.
십선(十善) The ten wholesome actions.
1) No killing.
2) No stealing.
3) No adultery.
4) No lying.
5) No slandering.
6) No hash speaking.
7) No idle talking.
8) No greed.
9) No hatred.
10) No delusion.

십우도(十牛圖) The Ten Ox-herding painting
12연기(緣起) Dependent Origination.
18계(界) The Eighteen Realms.

– 아 –

아귀(餓鬼) hungry ghost.
아미타불(阿彌陀佛) Amitabha.
아수라(阿修羅) Asura. fighting god.
아승지겁(阿僧紙劫) countless aeon.
안거(安居) retreat.

암자(庵子) Hermitage.
암자: hermitage
약사불(藥師佛) The Medicine Buddha.
업(業) Karma. action
여래(如來) Tathagata. The Buddha.

연기설(緣起說) The theory of dependent origination.
연등(蓮燈) lotus lantern.
연비: burning of the arm
연지 finger burning
열반(涅槃) Nirvana

염불(念佛) chanting. reciting.
염주(念珠) prayer beads. Buddhist rosary.
예불(禮佛) A Buddhist service. Buddhist ceremony.
예불: daily service
오계(五戒) The Five Precepts.
1) No killing.
2) No stealing.
3) No sexual misconduct.
4) No lie.
5) No intoxicants.

오대(五大) The five elements.
1) earth,
2) water,
3) fire,
오도송(悟道頌) Enlightenment poem.
오온(五蘊) The five aggregates.
1) name and formation.
2) feeling.
3) perception.
4) action.
5) consciousness.
와불(臥佛) Reclining Buddha.
왕생(往生) transmigration. reborn.

요사(療舍) Monk’s living quarters.
요사채: dormitory
요령 handbell.
욕(慾) desire. thirst.
욕계(欲界) the world of desire.

욕불식: Bathing the baby Buddha ceremony
용(龍) a dragon.
용왕(龍王) The Dragon King.
운판(雲版) cloud shaped gong.
운수행각: pilgrimage

원(願) 원력(願力) aspiration. power of vow.
원주스님: proctor
유나: rector
유식(唯識) consciousness only.
육도(六道) The six realms.
1) hell beings
2) hungry ghost
3) animals
4) fighting spirits-asuras
5). human beings
6) heavenly beings

육도윤회(六道輪廻) The six samsaric destinies.
육바라밀(六婆羅蜜) six perfections.
(generosity. morality. patience. energy. meditation. wisdom)
윤회(輪廻) samsara. cycle of rebirth.
율(律) vinaya. orders.
율사(律師) vinaya master.

율장(律藏) vinaya pitaka.
은사: vocation master
응진각(應眞閣) hall of the Arahat.
“이 뭣고?” What is it? Who am I ?
이기심(利己心) selfish thoughts.

인(因) cause. reason.
인가(認可) recognition.
인과(因果) cause and effect.
인연(因緣) karmic affinity/ causes and conditions
인욕(忍辱) patience.

일심(一心) One Mind.
일여(一如) non-duality.
일주문(一柱門) one pillar gate/ single beam gate
입승 succentor

– 자 –

자리이타(自利利他) by benefitting oneself, one benefits others.
자비(慈悲) compassion.
자성(自性) self nature.
자성청정(自性淸淨) the original purity of one’s self nature.
장경각(藏經閣) the monastery library.

장군죽비: huge warning stick
장로(長老) Elder.
장삼(長衫) ceremonial robe. formal robe.
장엄(莊嚴) solemnity. sublimity.
장자불와: never lying down to sleep

재무: treasurer
적멸보궁(寂滅寶宮) Temple that keeps Buddha’s reliquary.
전각: shrine hall
전계 아사리: preceptor
(전)등록: lamp anthologies (Chen-lu)

전법(傳法) transmission.
전생설화(前生說話) The Jataka tales
절 bow. prostration.
정(定) samadhi. concentration.
정견(正見) right understanding/ view

정념(正念) right mindfulness.
정명(正命) right livelihood.
정사(正思) right thought.
정어(正語) right speech.
정업(正業) right action.

정정(正定) right concentration.
정정진(正精進) right effort.
제석(帝釋) the king of the Heaven.
조계종(曹溪宗) Chogye Order.
조사(祖師) patriarch.

조사당(祖師堂) the hall of patriarchs.
조실: guiding teacher
종각(鐘閣) bell tower
종고루: Bell and drum tower
종무소(宗務所) temple office.

종무소: office
종정(宗正) supreme patriarch.
좌복 cushion. seat.
좌선(坐禪) sitting meditation.
주지(主旨) abbot.

죽비(竹 ) Chukbi/ bamboo clapper.
중강: assistant
중도(中道) middle path.
중음(中陰) intermediate stage/ state.
증사: witness

지옥(地獄) hell.
지장보살(地藏菩薩) Ksitigarbha, Earth Store Bodhisattva.
지장전(地藏殿) Ksitigarbha hall. Hall of the hell.
지전 스님: verger
지혜(智慧) wisdom.

직세 스님: proctor
집착(執着) attachment.

– 차 –

찰나(刹那) an instant.
참선(參禪) Zen meditation
천상천하 유아독존: In heaven and on earth, I alone am foremost.
천태종(天台宗) T’ient’ai sect.
청신남(淸信男) a male Buddhist.

청신녀(淸信女) a female Buddhist.
청중 disciplinarian
초발심자경문: Admonitions to Beginners
촉(觸) touch. contact.
촛대: candle holder

총림(叢林) monastic teaching center.
총무: prior
총무원(總務院) Headquarters of the Order.
축원: supplication
축원을 하다: chant a supplication
recite a (special) prayer

출가(出家) renunciation.
취(取) grasp.
치(恥) ignorance/ delusion
치문경훈: the Adminitions to the Gray-robed Monks
칠보(七寶) the seven precious gems.

칠성각(七星閣) shrine hall of the Seven stars(Big Dipper)

– 타 –

탐(貪) greed.
탑(塔) stupa. pagoda.
탱화(幀畵) Buddhist wall painting.

– 파 –

파계(破戒) breaking the precepts.
팔고(八苦) eight sufferings.
(Suffering of birth, old age, sickness, death,
being apart with the loved ones, together with the despised ones,
not getting what want, flourishing of the body.)
팔상도(八相圖) pictures of the eight main events of the Buddha’s life.
팔만대장경(八萬大藏經) Tipitaka Koreana.
팔상전(八相殿) hall of eight pictures

팔정도(八正道) Noble Eightfold Path.
(right view, right thought, right speech, right action,
right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.)
포교(布敎) preaching, propagation.
포교당(布敎堂) Buddhist center/ missionary center
포살(布薩) confession
피안(彼岸) nirvana/ other shore

풍경(風磬) wind bell.
풍수지리(風水地理) geomancy.

– 하 –

하심(下心) humble minded.
하안거(夏安居) summer retreat season.
합장(合掌) palms together
항하(恒河) the Ganges river in India.
해우소: toilet

해인도: ocean-seal chart
해제 기간: free season
해탈문(解脫門) gate of the Liberation
행(行) karma. action.
행자(行者) postulant

행정승: office monks
행주좌와(行住坐臥) walking, standing, sitting, lying.
향로(香爐) incense burner.
향로: incense holder
헌향(獻香) offering an incense.

현교(顯敎) Exoteric Buddhism
혜안(慧眼) the eye of wisdom.
호국불교(護國佛敎) Buddhism for national protection.
호법장군: dharma-general
화(化) transformation.

화두: critical phrase
화신(化身) transformed body.
화엄경(華嚴經) Flower Garland Sutra.
환속(還俗) returning to lay life. secession from the order
환속하다: secede from the order

후불탱화(後佛幀畵) main platform painting.
후원: reflectory

– 불교방송에서 –

가사(袈裟) monastic robe
간경(看經) textual study.
간화선(看話禪) Koan meditation.
강원(講院) lecture hall
객실(客室) guest room
객진번뇌(客塵煩惱) defilement
거사(居士) male devotee
겁(劫) An aeon
결가부좌(結跏趺坐) lotus posture
결집(結集) council
경(經) sutra. Buddhist scriptures. Buddhist canon.
경장(經藏) sutra pitaka
경행(輕行) walking meditation
계(械) precepts, sila, good conduct
계(界) realm. world
고(苦) suffering
고승(高僧) A illustrious monk
고제(苦諦) The noble truth of suffering
고행(苦行) ascetic practice
공(空) emptiness
공덕(功德) merit
공부(工夫) cultivation practice
공안(公案) koan
공양(供養) offering
과거칠불(過去七佛) seven Buddhas of the past
과보(果報) karmic result
관(觀) insight.
관법(觀法) vipassana.
관세음보살(觀世音菩薩) Avalokitesvara, Bodhisattva of compassion
관음전(觀音殿) hall of the Bodhisattva of compassion
관행(觀行) contemplation of the mind
광명(光明) light and illumination
괘불(掛佛) large banner painting
교(敎) The doctrinal teaching
교리(敎理) doctrine
교종(敎宗) The doctrinal School
구경각(究竟覺) final awakening
구산(九山) nine mountains
국보(國寶) national treasure
국사(國師) national preceptor. national master.
극락(極樂) pure land of Amitabha
극락전(極樂殿) Amitabha hall
금강경(金剛經) Diamond sutra
금당(金堂) Buddha Hall
금동(金銅) gilt-bronze
깨달음 Awakening The Enlightenment

– 나 –
나찰(羅刹) evil ghost
나한(羅漢) Arahat, Attained One
나한전(羅漢殿) Hall of the Arahat
논(論) canon, Abhidharma
논장(論藏) canon pitaka Abhidharma pitaka

– 다 –
다도(茶道) tea ceremony.
다라니(陀羅尼) dharani
단견(斷見) annihilation view
단경(壇經) The platform sutra
단주(短珠) short beads.
단청(丹靑) cosmic design, Red and blue
달마대사(達磨大師) Bodhidharma.
닫집 canopy.
당간(幢竿) A flag pole
당간지주(幢竿支柱) flag pole supporter
대세지보살(大勢至菩薩) Bodhisattva of power
대승불교(大乘佛敎) The great vehicle, Mahayana Buddhism
대웅전(大雄殿) dharma hall. Buddha hall
대장경(大藏經) tripitaka
덕(德) virtue
도(道) The way. leading to the cessation of suffering
독성(獨聖) hermit sage
독성각(獨聖閣) hall of the hermit sage
돈교(頓敎) The sudden teachings
돈법(頓法) The doctrine of sudden awakening
돈오(頓悟) sudden awakening
돈오돈수(頓悟頓修) sudden awakening-sudden cultivation
돈오점수(頓悟漸修) sudden awakening-gradual cultivation
동안거(冬安居) winter retreat season.
등(燈) lantern

– 마 –
만다라(蔓茶羅) mandala.
만자(卍字) The Swastika (the symbol of good fortune)
마지 rice offering to the Buddha
망상(妄想) delusions
멸(滅) cessation
명부전(冥府殿) hall of judgement of the dead
명색(名色) name and formation
목어(木魚) wooden fish
목탁(木鐸) wooden clacker. hallow wood block.
무(無) no. not. not exist.
무념(無念) non-thought
무명(無明) ignorance
무상(無常) impermanent
무색계(無色界) formless world
무심(無心) no-mind
무아(無我) no-self
묵언(默言) holy silence, no speaking
문수보살(文殊菩薩) Manjusuri, Bodhisattva of Wisdom
문자(文字) words
미륵(彌勒) Maitreya. The Buddha of the future.
밀교(密敎) Esoteric Buddhism, Vajrayana.

– 바 –
바라문 Brahman
바라밀(婆羅蜜) perfection, paramita
바랑 Monks’s backpack.
반가부좌(半跏趺坐) half lotus posture
반야(般若) wisdom
반야심경(般若心經) The Heart Sutra.
발우(鉢盂) wooden bowls.
발우공양(鉢盂供養) formal monastic meal.
방생(放生) release of living beings
방장(方丈) zen master
번뇌(煩惱) illusion, defilements.
법(法) dharma, The Buddha’s teaching
법구(法具) dharma instrument.
법고(法鼓) temple drum, dharma drum
법당(法堂) Buddha hall, Dharma hall
법명(法名) dharma name
법문(法門) dharma talk
법맥(法脈) dharma lineage
법성(法性) Buddha’s nature. nature of beings
법신(法身) dharma body. nature of Buddha’s mind. truth.
법화경(法華經) lotus sutra
벽화(壁畵) wall painting
보리(菩提) Enlightenment
보리수(菩提樹) bodhi tree
보리심(菩提心) the thought of Enlightenment
보살(菩薩) bodhisattva
보시(布施) generosity
보신(報身) reward body
보현보살(普賢菩薩) bodhisattva of compassion
본사(本寺) head temple.
본성(本性) one’s original nature
부도(浮屠) stupa. pagoda.
분별(分別) discrimination
불(佛) Buddha. The Enlightened One.
불기(佛紀) Buddhist year.
불공(佛供) offering
불교(佛敎) Buddhism
불교교단(佛敎敎團) sangha.
불교미술(佛敎美術) Buddhist painting.
불교종단(佛敎宗團) Buddhist Orders.
불교의식(佛敎儀式) Buddhist rituals.
불교학(佛敎學) Buddhist Studies. study of Buddhism
불상(佛像) Buddha statue
불성(佛性) Buddha nature
불전함(佛錢函) donation box
불제자(佛弟子) disciples of the Buddha
불이문(不二門) Gate of non-duality.
불탄일(佛誕日) Buddha’s birthday.
비구(比丘) monk. Bhikku
비구니(比丘尼) Bhikkuni. nun
비로자나불(毘盧 那佛) Viroccana. the cosmic Buddha
비석(碑石) stela
비유(比喩) parables.

– 사 –
사(寺) temple. monastery
사구(死句) dead phrase
사경(寫經) Sutra duplication.
사리(舍利) relics
사리불(舍利佛) Sariputra
사리탑(舍利塔) relics stupa
사무량심(四無量心) The four immeasurables.
1)loving-kindness 2)compassion 3)sympathetic joy 4)equanimity.
사문(沙門) Sramana
사미(沙彌) novice
사부대중(四部大衆) the four-fold assembly.
사성제(四聖諦) The Four Noble Truth
1) suffering, 2) cause of suffering, 3) cessation, 4) the path of cessation
사천왕문(四天王門) gate of the four Heavenly Kings (Four Guardians)
사홍서원(四弘誓願) Four vows
1) I vow to save all beings.
2) I vow to end all sufferings.
3) I vow to learn all dharma teachings.
4) I vow to attain the Enlightenment.
산신각(山神閣) mountain spirit shrine
삼귀의(三歸依) The Three Refuges.
1) I take refuge in the Buddha
2) I take refuge in the Dharma
3) I take refuge in the Sangha.
삼계(三界) three realms.
1) desire world 2) subtle world 3) formless world
삼독(三毒) three poisons. 1) greed 2) hatred 3) delusion.
삼배(三拜) three prostrations.
삼보(三寶) three jewels. 1) Buddha 2) Dharma 3) Sangha
삼보사찰(三寶寺刹) the three jewel monasteries.
1) The Buddha jewel monastery: Tongdosa.
2) The Dharma jewel monastery: Haeinsa.
3) The Sangha jewel monastery: Songgwangsa.
삼법인(三法印) The Three Marks of Existence.
1) impermanence. 2) suffering 3) no-self.
삼세(三世) three time period, 1) past 2) present 3) future.
삼장(三藏) three pitaka. 1) vinaya 2) sutra 3) Abhidharma.
삼악도(三惡道) three evil worlds. 1) hell 2) hungry ghost 3) animal
상(相) characteristic
색(色) formation
생(生) birth
생로병사(生老病死) birth, old age, sickness and death.
생사(生死) birth and death.
석가모니(釋迦牟尼) Sakyamuni.
서방정토(西方淨土) The Pure Land.
석굴(石窟) stone cave.
석등(石燈) stone lantern.
석불(石佛) stone Buddha statue.
선(禪) Zen.
선가(禪家) The Zen school.
선문답(禪門答) Zen dialogue.
선방(禪房) Zen hall. Meditation hall.
선불교(禪佛敎) Zen Buddhism.
선사(禪師) Zen master.
선원(禪院) Zen center, meditation hall.
설법전(說法殿) teaching hall.
성불(成佛)하세요! May you be Enlightened!
성지순례(聖地巡禮) the pilgrimage.
세간(世間) world
소승불교(小乘佛敎) Theravada.
수(受) perception.
수계(受戒) ordination.
수인(手印) mudra.
수행(修行) practice. cultivation.
스님(僧) monk. venerable.
승가(僧家) Sangha.
승속(僧俗) monastic and householders.
시왕(十王) Ten Kings.
시왕전(十王殿) The Ten Kings Hall.
식(識) consciousness.
신구의(身口意) body, speech, mind.
신도(信徒) lay people.
신심(信心) The faith.
심(心) mind.
십선(十善) The ten wholesome actions.
No killing. No stealing. No adultery. No lying. No slandering.
No hash speaking. No idle talking. No greed. No hatred. No illusion.
십우도(十牛圖) The Ten Ox-herding.
12연기(緣起) Dependent Origination.
18계(界) The Eighteen Realms.

– 아 –
아귀(餓鬼) hungry ghost.
아미타불(阿彌陀佛) Amitabha.
아수라(阿修羅) Asura. fighting god.
아승지겁(阿僧紙劫) countless aeon.
안거(安居) retreat.
암자(庵子) Hermitage.
애(愛) desire.
약사불(藥師佛) The Medicine Buddha.
업(業) Karma. Behavior.
여래(如來) Tathagata. The Buddha.
연기설(緣起說) The theory of dependent origination.
연등(蓮燈) lotus lantern.
열반(涅槃) Nirvana (extinction)
염불(念佛) chanting. reciting.
염주(念珠) prayer beads. Buddhist rosary.
예불(禮佛) A Buddhist service. Buddhist ceremony.
오계(五戒) The Five Precepts.
No killing. No stealing. No sexual misconduct. No lie. No intoxicants.
오대(五大) The five elements. earth, water, fire, wind, air.
오도송(悟道頌) Enlightenment poem.
오온(五蘊) The five aggregates.
1) name and formation. 2) feeling.
3) perception. 4) action. 5) consciousness.
와불(臥佛) Reclining Buddha.
왕생(往生) transmigration. reborn.
요사(療舍) Monk’s living quarters.
요령 Buddhist handbell.
욕(慾) desire. thirst.
욕계(欲界) the world of desire.
용(龍) a dragon.
용왕(龍王) The Dragon King.
우상(偶像) idol.
운판(雲版) cloud shaped gong.
원(願) 원력(願力) aspiration. vow.
유식(唯識) consciousness only.
유부(有部) Sarvastivada school.
유정(有情) sentient beings.
육도(六道) The six realms.
1) hell beings 2) hungry ghost 3) animals
4) fighting spirits-asuras 5). human beings 6) heavenly beings
육도윤회(六道輪廻) The six samsaric destinies.
육바라밀(六婆羅蜜) six perfections.
(generosity. moral. patience. energy. meditation. wisdom)
윤회(輪廻) samsara. rebirth.
율(律) vinaya. orders.
율사(律師) vinaya master.
율장(律藏) vinaya pitaka.
응진각(應眞閣) hall of the Arahat.
“이 뭤고?” What is it? Who am I ?
이기심(利己心) selfish thoughts.
인(因) cause. reason.
인가(認可) recognition.
인과(因果) cause and effect.
인연(因緣) karmic affinity.
인욕(忍辱) patience.
일심(一心) One Mind.
일여(一如) non-duality.
일주문(一柱門) one pillar gate.
입산(入山) to become a monastic.

– 자 –
자리이타(自利利他) by benefitting oneself, one benefits others.
자비(慈悲) compassion.
자성(自性) self nature.
자성청정(自性淸淨) the original purity of one’s self nature.
장경각(藏經閣) the monastery library.
장로(長老) Elder.
장삼(長衫) ceremonial robe. formal robe.
장엄(莊嚴) solemnity. sublimity.
적멸보궁(寂滅寶宮) Buddha reliquary.
전법(傳法) transmission.
전생설화(前生說話) The Jataka tales.
절 bow. prostration.
정(定) samadhi. concentration.
정견(正見) right understanding.
정념(正念) right mindfulness.
정명(正命) right livelihood.
정사(正思) right thought.
정어(正語) right speech.
정업(正業) right action.
정정(正定) right concentration.
정정진(正精進) right effort.
제석(帝釋) the king of the Heaven.
조계종(曹溪宗) Chogye Order.
조사(祖師) patriarch.
조사당(祖師堂) the hall of patriarchs.
종각(鐘閣) bell tower
종무소(宗務所) temple office.
종정(宗正) supreme patriarch.
좌복 cushion. seat.
좌선(坐禪) sitting meditation.
주지(主旨) abbot.
죽비(竹 ) bamboo clapper.
중도(中道) middle path.
중음(中陰) time in between. intermediate stage.
지옥(地獄) hell.
지장보살(地藏菩薩) Ksitigarbha, Earth Store Bodhisattva.
지장전(地藏殿) Ksitigarbha hall. Hall of the hell.
지혜(智慧) wisdom.
집착(執着) attachment.

– 차 –
찰나(刹那) an instant.
참선(參禪) meditation
천태종(天台宗) T’ient’ai sect.
청신녀(淸信女) a female Buddhist.
청신남(淸信男) a male Buddhist.
촉(觸) touch. contact.
총무원(總務院) Headquarters of the Order.
총림(叢林) monastic teaching center.
출가(出家) renunciation.
취(取) grasp.
치(恥) ignorance.
칠보(七寶) the seven precious gems.
칠성각(七星閣) shrine hall of the Seven stars(Big Dipper)

– 타 –
탐(貪) greed.
탑(塔) stupa. pagoda.
탑돌이 circumambulation.
태몽(胎夢) birth dream.
탱화(幀畵) Buddhist wall painting.

– 파 –
파계(破戒) breaking the precepts.
팔고(八苦) eight sufferings.
(Suffering of birth, old age, sickness, death,
being apart with the loved ones, together with the despised ones,
not getting what want, flourishing of the body.)
팔상(八相) depictions of the eight main events of the Buddha’s life.
팔상도(八相圖) scenes from the Buddha’s life.
팔만대장경(八萬大藏經) Tipitaka Koreana.
팔상전(八相殿) hall of eight depictions.
팔정도(八正道) Noble Eightfold Path.
(right view, right thought, right speech, right action,
right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.)
포교(布敎) preaching, propagation.
포교당(布敎堂) Buddhist center.
포살(布薩) confession
피안(彼岸) nirvana.
풍경(風磬) wind bell.
풍수지리(風水地理) geomancy.

– 하 –
하안거(夏安居) summer retreat season.
하심(下心) humble minded.
합장(合掌) palm.
항하(恒河) the Ganges river in India.
호국불교(護國佛敎) Buddhism for national protection.
해탈문(解脫門) gate of the Enlightenment.
행(行) karma. action.
행자(行者) novice.
행주좌와(行住坐臥) walking, standing, sitting, lying.
향로(香爐) incense burner.
헌향(獻香) offering an incense.
혜안(慧眼) the eye of wisdom.
화(化) transformation.
화신(化身) transformed body.
화두(話頭) koan.
화엄경(華嚴經) Flower Garland Sutra.
환속(還俗) returning to lay life.
후불탱화(後佛幀畵) main platform painting.

총림 : (s)Vana. Training monasteries. Four big monasteries in Korea that provide comprehensive training for monks.  The four monasteries are : T’ongdosa, Haeinsa, Songgwongsa, and Sudoksa
선사 : Zen master
비구스님 : monk, venerable, reverend, sunim
비구니스님 : Buddhist nuns
비구.비구니계 : The Bhikhu/Bhikkhuni precepts
강사스님 : lecturer, Head lecturer, Sutra teacher
강주 : dean
은사스님 : Vocation master, teacher
상좌/제자 : disciple
소좌/납자 : Zen practitioners
사형 : spiritual brother(elder)
사제 : spiritual brother(younger)
성직자 : priesthood
속인 : laypeople
거사 : laymen
보살 : laywomen
보살계 : The Bodhisattva precepts
불자 : Buddhist
행자 : trainees/postulants/Prospective ordinaned/A novice
사미 : novices
사미. 사미계 : The Sami/Samini precepts/Rules for novices
종정 : Supreme master/head/spiritual leader
방장스님 : Zen Master. Chief of the precincts. (This title is reserved for the Zen Masters of the four main training monasteries
율사 : Vinaya Master/Discipline teacher/precept Master
조실 : Official title of the resident Zen Master
주지 : Chief Monk. Abbot. Monastic who holds executive control over the support positions of the monastery.
총무 : a Sunim who is in charge of general affairs.
교무 : Catechist/a sunim who is in charge of education
재무 : a sunim who is in charge of financial affairs
총무원장 : President of order headquarters.
일주문 : one pillar gate, one span gate
사천왕문 : The Four heavenly kings. four Grardins gate
불이문 : Non-duality gate
대웅전 : main hall, dharma hall. main dharma hall. main buddha hall. main sanctuary
법당 :main Dharma hall
관음전 : Avalokitesvara hal, a boddhisattva known for compassion
지장전/명부전 : Ksitigarbha hall, a boddhisattva of the deceased
약사전 : healing Buddha hall
미륵전 : maitreya hall, future Buddha
극락전 : Amita Buddha hall
나한전/웅진전 : arhat’s hall
설법전 : Teaching hall -where people gather to hear a lecture
산신각 : shrine for mountain god
삼성각 : shrine for three stars
독성각 : shrine for lonely saint, independant
칠성각 : shrine for the seven stars
선방 :  meditation hall
종구 :  bell tower
공양간/후원 : dining place or kitchen
오사채 : living quarters
종무소 : offic, Temple office
종무소직원 : clerk
종각 : Bell Tower(Hall)
보물장 : Temple Museum
장경각 : Hall for storing Sutras, For keeping Sutras.
시자실 : attendant’s room
해우소 : toilet, ladies & gents
경내 : courtyard


불상 : statue
목불 : wooden statue
석불 : stone statue
벽화/탱화 : wall painting, Buddhist painting behind th Buddha statue
A buddhist scroll painting. A Buddhist religious painting
탑 : pagoda, stupa
석등 : stone lanterns
Things in Temple
복전함/불전함 : donation box/offering box
단청 : literal meaning is red and blue picture of many colors and designs painted on canopy in temples
온돌 : typical Korean style of underfloor heating
기와 : roof tile
풍경 : windbell
목탁 : wooden percussion instrument used for chanting and worship mokt’ak.
wooden bell-for keeping the rhythm when chanting.
사물 : The Four instruments
종 : bell, 북 : drum, 운판 : cloud-shaped gong, 목어 : wooden-fish
요령 : handbell
죽비 : Bamboo stick or clapper – dounded three times at the beginning and end of the meditation session
염주 : Beads-worn around the wrist and often used for recitation in order to keep concentration. Buddhist rosary.  Buddhist beads-108  or to 1000 used for counting bows

Things to eat
육식을 안한다 : refrain from meat
채식하다 : eat vegetables only
공양 : meal, offerings, Meal in a monastery
발우공양 : sunims’s taking formal and ceremonial meal
대중공양 : Festival meal
아침공양 : breakfast
점심공양 : lunch
저녁공양 : dinner
마지(올리다) : to offer rice to the Buddha
Things to wear
승복 : Buddhist robes
가사 : ceremonial garment worn over robes
장삼 : formal monastic robes
고무신 : rubber shoes
걸망 : rucksack/knapsack
누비옷 : quilted clothes

Names of Sutra

경전 : sutra/scripture/canon
대승경전 : The Mahayana Canon
화엄경 : Avtamsaka sutra/Flower Ornament(garland)sutra.
법화경 : Saddharmapundarika Sutra/Lotus sutra
열반경 : Nirvana sutra
능엄경 : Surangama sutra
능가경 : lankavatara sutra
원각경 : The sutra of perfect Enlightenment
사십이장경 : Forty-two sutra
반야경 : Prajnaparamitta sutra/Perfection of Wisdom sutra
금강경 : Vajracchedika sutra/Diamond sutra
반야심경 : Hridaya sutra/Heart sutra
어록 : record of sayings
유마경 : Vimalakirti
삼장 : 1)The Tripitaka, The three collections of Buddhist sutras, the Bu7ddhist Texts, are divided into three collections;
2)The three collections of Buddhist sutras: the Sutras(경),Vunaya(율), and Abhidharma(논) collections
대장경 : Great Scripture Store, Tuipitika.

Names of Bodhisattva

지장보살 : Chijang Bodhisattva is the one who delays his becoming a buddha until enlightenment for the people who suffer in the world.
Earth store Bodhisattva.  Ksitigarbha
관음보살 : Kwanum Bodhisattva is the one who is full of compassion and mercy. Avalokitesvara.
He/She listens to the sound of people and comforts the people
약사보살 : Yaksa is a  healing Bodhisattva who heals and cures the sickness of people.
The Medicine Buddha. Bhaisajyaguru
대세지보살 : Bodhisattva of power. Bodhisattva shown to the right of Amitabha Buddha. Represents wisdom. Mahasthamaprapta
보현보살 : symbolized by the elephant. Samantabhadra. Bodhisattava of Compassionate Action.
아미타불 :(s)Amitabha-buddha. Buddha of the Western Paradise.
The Buddha of the Light.
Buddhism Ceremony
성도일 : Buddha’s Enlightenment Day, in Korea held on the 8th day of the 12th lunar month
초파일 : Buddha’s birthday
부처님오신날 : the day Buddha came
사십구제 : Forth-ninth day Ceremony ; the memorial service held on the forty-ninth day after a person’s death

苦: Duhka,  bittcrncss 豆? ; unhappiness. suffering, pain, distrcss, miscry; diffcidulty. Thcre are lists of three four, five eight, and tcn catcgorics; the two are intcrnal, i.e. physical and mcntal and external, i.c. attacks from without.  The four are birth, growing old illness and death, The eight are these four along with the pain of parting from the loved of meeting with the hated, of failure in one’s aims, and that caused by the fine skand has; cf 四諦
苦苦: Duhkha-duhkhata. The pain or painialncss of pain; pain prouduced by miscry or pain; suffering arising from external circumstances, c.g. faminc, storm, sickness forture, etc.
苦行: Duskara-carya, undergoing diffculties, hardships, or sufferings; also Tapas, burning torment; hence asceticism rclisious austerity, martifotion.
三昧: Ekagra, aikagrya, Undeflected concontraltion, meditation – on, one object, V 一行三昧
一乘: Ekayana, One yana, the One yana the vhicle of one-ncss. 一佛乘  The one Buddha – Yana. The One vehiclc, i.e. Mahayana, which contains the final or complete law of the Buddha and not merely a part, or preliminary stage, as in Hinayana Mohayuanists claim it as the perfect and only way to the shore of parinirvana it is especially the doctrine of the 法華經   Lotus Scripture v. 大乘. 11之珠 The pearl of the one, Yana, i.c. The Lotus Scripture. 11圓宗The Tientai, or Lotus School of the perfect teaching, or the one vehide; V. 天台宗.11家. The one-vehide family or sect especially the Tien-tai or Lotus School. 11法(門) The one-vehicle method as revealed in the Lotus Sutra. 究貫敎The One vehicle in its final teaching, especially as found in the Lotus sutra. 11經; 11妙典(or 文) Another name for the Lotus sutra so called because it deelares the one way of salvation the perfact Mahayana. 11菩提 The one-vehicle enlighten ment or 11華嚴 Avatamsaka Schod; v. 五敎
一切: Sarva. All, the whole; 普遍, 具
一切如來: Sarvatathagata, all Tathafatas, all the Buddhas.
一切處: Samanta, Everywhere, universal; a universal dhyana, 無不相應眞言
The shinon or “True word” that responds everywhere.
一心: With the whole mind or heart; one mind or heart; also the bhutatathata, or the whole of thins; the universe as one mind or a spiritual unity, 稱名 With undivided mind to call on the name. 三惑; 同? 三惑 The then-t’a “three doubts” in the mind of a bodhisattva, proudcing fear of illusion, confusion through multipicity of duties, and ignorance i.e.. 見思; 無明 q.v. 三智 One mind and three aspects of knowledge the 別敎separates the three aspects into  and g.v; Tient’ai unifies them into 空, 假one immediate vision or regards the three as aspects of the one mind.
一時: Ekasmin samaye [Pali;ckamsamayam];on one accasion, part of the usual opening phrase
of a sutra-Thus have I heard .Once, ctc. A period, e.g.a session of expounding a sutra.  入定: To enter meditation by tranguil lizing the bady, mouth, and mind.身口意
入寂:  To enter into rest,or nirvana;also,to die, Also 入滅 or 入寂滅
八正道(分): Aryamarga, The eight right or correct ways the “eightfold noble path for the arhat to nirvana; also styled. 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八遊行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道, The eight are : (1)正見 samyag-arsti,  correct views in regard to the Four Axioms and frecdom from the common delusion, (2)正思 samyak-samkal pa, eorrect thought and purpose (3)正言 samyag-vac, correct speach avoidance of false and idle talk
(4)正業 samyak-karmanta, correct dead, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity (5)正命 Samyag ajiva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations (6)正精進 Samyag-vjajama correct zeal or energy in uninterrupted progreee in the way of nirvana (7)正念 Samyak, smrti, correct remcm brance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false (8)正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, abscortion, or anbstraction.
十二因緣: Dvadasang pratityasamutpada; the twelve nadanas; v, 尼 and 因 also; 十二緣起; (有)支; 率連; 棘園; 輪; 重?; 因緣觀; 支佛觀
They are the twelve links in the chain of existence; (1)無 vidya, ignorance, or unenlightment (2)行 Samskara action, activirty concotion, “dispositions, keith, (3)識 vijnana, consiousness (4)名色 namarupa name and form (5)六入 i.e. eye ear nose tonguc body, and mind (6)觸 sparsa, contect touch (7)受 vedana, scnsation feeling (8)愛 trsna thirst desire, craving (9)取 upadana laying hold of grasing (10)有 bhava baing existing (11)生 jati birth (12)老死 jaramarana dd age death.
十信: The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten in the fifty two bodhisattva postions: (1)信 faith  (2)念 remembrance, or unforgetfulness (3)精進 zealous progress (4)慧 wisdom (5)定 settled firm nessin concentration  (6)不退 non-retrogression (7)護法 protection of the Truth
(8)廻向reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Trugh
(9)戒 the nirvana mind in
(10)願 action at will in anything and everywhere.
十號: Ten titles of a Buddha: 如來 Tathag ata; 應供 Arhat 正?知 Samyak-sambuddha
明行足 Vidyacorana-sampanna  善逝 sugata, 世間解Lokavid, 無上士Anuttara
調御丈夫Purusa-damya-sarathi, 天人師Sasta deva manusyanam
佛世尊 lokamatha, or bhagalon
三味: The three flavours or pleasant savours; the monastic life, reading the scriptures meditation
三寶: Triratna, or Patnatraya, i.e. the Three precious Ones :佛 Buddha 法Dharma 僧Samgha
三毒: The theree poisons also styled 三根; 三株 they are 貧concupiscence or wrong desire, 瞋anger hatc or resentment and 痴stupidity gnorance, unintclligence or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth
三衣: The three regulation harments of a monk 袈裟 kasaya, 僧伽製, samhati assenably robe; uttarasanga, upper garment worn over the 安陀會Antarvasaka, vest or shirt
大乘四果: The four fruits or bodhisattva stages in Mahayana the fouth being that of a Buddha: 須陀洹 srota-apnna 사다함 sakrdagamin 阿那含 anagamin and 阿羅漢arhan. This is a 通敎 category.
大僧戒: The commands or prohibitions for bodhhisatvas and monks also styled.
大導師: The great vuide, i.e. Buddha or a Bodhisattva.
大悲: Mahakaruna “great pity” i.e. greatly pitiful a heart that seeks to save the suffering; applied to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas, especially to kuan-yin.
大慈: Great mercy, or compassion.
大比丘: Great bhinkyu, i.e. one of virtue and old age; similar to 大和尙
大沙門: The great shaman, i.e. Buddha; also any bhilcsu in full orders.
大法: The great Dharma, or Law.
大弟子: sthavira, a chief disciple, the Fathers of the Buddhist church; an elder; an abbot; a priest licensed to preach and become an abbot; also.
大衆: The great assembly, any assembly, all present, everybody.
大覺: The superme bodhi, or enlightenment and the enlightening power of a Buddha.
女色: Female beacuty-is chain, a serious delusion a gievous calamity
山僧: “Hill monk” self-deprecatory term used by monks.
不妄語: Musavada-veramani,, the fourth commandmenmt thou shalt not lie ; no false speaking
不?慾: Abrahamacarya-veramani, the third commandment, thou shalt not commit adultery
不放勉: No slackness or loosensess; concentration of mind and will on the good.
不殺生: Pranatipatad vairamani, the first commandment,
Thou shalt not kill the living.
中道: The “mean” has various interpretions in general it denotes the mean betweeen taio extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism or eternal subgtantial existence ald annihilation between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminobgy of 有 or 無  substance or noting or that which has form and is there are measurable and ponderable,.
方便; Upaya, Convenient to the place or situation, suited to the condition opportune, appropriate; but  is interpreted as 方法 methood mode, I am, and 便 as 便用convenient for use, i.e. a convenient or expedient mathod; also 方正as 便 and as 巧妙which implies strategically correary.
世世生生; Transmigration affter traansmigration in the six states of mortal existence
世俗; Laukika; common or ordinary things custom, expcriences, common or wondly ways.
世尊; Lokajyestha, words most venerable, or Lokantra, lord of worlds.
世界; Loka世間 ; the finite world the world, a world, which is of two kinds;
出家; Pravraj; to leave hoime and bewcome a monk or nun.
布施; Dana 檀那; the sixth paramita almsgiving i.e. of goods, or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and also hereafter in the forms of reinearnation, as neglect or refusal in the fo will produce the opposite consequences.
末法; The last of the three periods 正, 像, and 末; that of degeneration and extinction of the Buddha-law
生佛; Buddha alive; a living Buddha; also 生 i.e. 衆生 all the living and 佛 i.e. Buddha
因果; Cause and effect every cause has its effect as every effect arises from a cause.
因緣; Hetupratyaya, cause; causes; 因 hetu, is primay cause 緣 pratayaya, secondary cause or causes, e.g. a seed is 因 rain dew, farmer, etc, are 緣
色慾; Sexual desire, or passion
色身; Rupa-kava. The physial body, as controsted with the 法身 dharma-kaya, the immaterial spiritual or immortal body.
佛子; Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva; a believer in Buddhism for every beliver is becoming Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, becuase all are of Buddha-nature.
佛性; Buddhata, The Buddha-nature i.e. gnosis enlightenment; potential bodhi remaing in every gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment; for the Buddha-nature remains in all as wheat nature remains in all wheat.
佛敎; Buddhas teaching; Buddhism.
佛法; Buddhadharma; the Dharma or Laq preached by the Buddha the principles unerlving these teaching the truth attained by him.
佛眼; The eye of Buddha, the enlightened one who sees all and is omniscient
佛語; The words, or seyings, of Buddha.
佛身; Buddhakaya, a general term for the Trikaya or threefold embodiment of Buddha.
佛陀; There are numberous monks from India and Central Asia bearing this as part of their names
成佛; To become Buddha as a bodhisattva does on reaching super me perfect bodhi
我想; The thought that the ago has reality.
我慢; Abhimana, as ma-mada.
我相; Egoism the concept of the ego as real
戒; Sila, 新羅, precept command prohobition discipline rule; morelity
戒律; Sila and Vinaya.  The rules
法輪; Dharma-cakra, the wheel of the Law Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil and all apposition like lndras wheel and which rolls on from man to man place to place age to age.
法雨; The rain of Buddha-truth which fertilizes all beings.
修行; Carya, conduct to abserve and do to mend one’s ways; to cultivate oneself in right practice; be religious or pious.
般若; Prajna “to know, understand” “Wisdom” M.W Intp 慧 wisdom;智慧 understanding or wisdom; 明 clear intelligent the sixth paramita.
敎化; To transform by instruction; teach and convert; to cause another to give alms.
敎理; The foundamental principles of a religion its doctrines or dogmas, e.g. the four trughs the twelve nidanas the eight tob noble path.
欲心; A desirous, covetous, passionate or lusful heart.
欲樂; The joy of the five desires
惡口; Evil month, evil speech; a slanderous, evil-speaking person.
惡業; Evil conduct in thought word or deed which leads to evil recompense; evil Karma.
菩提; Bodhi ;  from budh; knowledge understanding perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp.
愛惑; The illusion of love, or desire
愛憎; Love and hate, desire and dislike
愛欲; Love and desire; love of family
業; Karman, karma :action work deed: “moral duty” “product, result, effect” M.W  The doctrine of the act; deads especially in  their relation to succeeding forms of transmigration.
業報; Karma-reward; the retribution of karma, good or evil.
頓悟; Sudden Illumination
無念; No Thinking
不生不滅; No birth and No Death
如如; Suddness
큰 法堂; The Big Main Hall
解脫門: The Gate of Nirvana
掛佛; The Hanging-up painting of the Buddha The palanduin
大佛像; Wooden Buddhas I mage
大雄殿; Main sanctuary. TaeungJon
大雄殿佛像; Statue of vairocana Buddha Buddha I mage in the Main Hall
觀; Vipasyanaj Vidarsana.
To look into study examine contemt ate; contemplation, insight; a study a Taoist monactery to consider illusion and discern illusion or discern the seeming from the real; to contemplate and mentally enter into truth.
觀世音; Regards of the worlds sounds or cries the so-called Goddess of Mercy; also known as 音,
釋迦牟尼; Sakyamuni, the saint of the sakya tribe Muni is saint holy man, sage ascetic, monk; it is intp.
釋迦; Sakya the clean or family of the Buddha, said to be derived from saka. vegetables but intp in chiness as powerful, strong and explained by powerful also erroneously by  charitable which belongs rather to association with sakyamuni.
禪靜; Dhyana and its chiness translation duieting of thought or its control or suppression silent meditation Dhyama and Samadhi.
覺性; The enlightened mind free from all illusion.
覺者; An enlightened one especially a Buddha, enlightening self and others
禪房; Meditation abode a room for meditation a cell a bermitage general name for a momastery.
禪師; A master or teacher of meditation or of the chian school
禪悅; Joy of the mystic trance
禪; To level a  place for an atter to sacrifice to the hills and fountains to abdicate.
應供; Worthy of worship atr of the term anhat; one of the ten titles of a Tathagata.
諸法; Sarvadharma; Sarvabhava; all things; every dgarna law, thing method, etc
僧俗; Monks and the laity
緣起; Arising from conditional causation; everthing arises from conditions and not being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature;
僧伽; Sangha, an assemble, collection
company, society.  The corporate assembly of at least three monks under a chairman empowered to hear confession, grant absolution and ordain
解脫門; The door of release the stage of meditation charater ized by vacuity and absence of perception or wishes.
煩惱; Klesa “pain affliction distress” ” care, trouble”
塔; Stupa; tope;
a tumulus or mound for the bones or remains of the dead or for other sacred relics, especially of the Buddha, whether relics of the body or the mind, e.g. bones or scriptures.
菩提; Bodhi; from budh; knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightemed mind; anciently intp
敎理; The fundermental principles of a religionits doctrines or dogmas e,g. the four trughs the tweles nidanas the eight fold noble path
梵鐘; A temple or monaster bell.
十大弟子; The ten chief disciples of Sakyamuni, each of whom was master of one poser or gift.
三處傳心; The three places where Sakyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind or thought direct and without speech to Kasyapa
大乘起信論; Mahayana-sraddhotpada-sastra, attributed to Asvaghosa 마명(without sufficient evidence), tr. by Paramartha A.D. 553 and Siksananda between 695-700 ; there are nineteen commentaries on it.  It is described as the foundation work of the Mahayana. Tr. into Enghlish by Timothy Richard and more correctly by T. Suzuki as The Awakening of Faith.
布施; dana. charity or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others
持戒; sila, keeping the commandments
忍辱; ksanti, patience under insult
精進; virya, seal and progress
禪定; dhyana, meditation or contemplation
智慧; prajana, wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth.
It is the last which carries across the samsara(sea of incarnate life) to the shores of nirvana.  The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance, the 唯識論 adds four other paramitas.
識; perceptions: the theory of nine kinds of non-actvity
三輪; or three soverrign powers for converyiong others are those of
極樂; birth in the happy land of Amitabha by transformation through the Lotus.
法身; the dharmakaya, or spiritual body, born or formed on a disciple’s conversion.
佛菩薩; the transformation of a buddha or bodhisattva, in any form at will, without gestation or intermediary conditions
Buddha-body.  A narrower interpretation is his appearance in human form expressed by 應身, while 化身 is used for his manifold other forms of appearances.
十戒Siksapada.  The ten prohivitions(in Pali form)consist of five commanaments for the layman;
(1) not to destroy life 不殺生 panatipataveramani;
(2) not to steal 不偸盜adinnadanaver;
(3) not to commit adultery 不?慾 abrahmacaryaver;
(4) not to lie 不妄語 musavadaver;
(5) not to take intoxicating liquor 不飮酒suramereyyamajjapamadatthanaver.  eight special commandment for laymen consist of the preceding five plus;
(6) not eat food out of regulated hours 不非時食 vikala-bhojanaver;
(7)not to use farlands of perfume 不着香華?不香塗身 malagandha-vilepana-dharana-mandana-vibhusanatthana
(8) not to sleep on high or broad beds(chastity) 不坐臥高廣大牀 uccasayana-mahasayana.  The ten commnadments for the monk are the preceding eight plus;
(9) not to take part in singing, dancing, musical or theatrical perfcrmances, not to see or listen to sucb 不歌舞倡技不往觀聽 nacca-gita-vadita-visukadassanaver.
(10) to refrain from acquiring uncoined or coined gold, or silver, or jewels 不得捉錢金銀寶物 jataruparajata-patiggahanaver.  Under the Mahayana these ten commands for the monk were changed, to accord with the new environment of the monk to the following : not to kill, not to steal, to avoid all unchastity, not to lie, not to slander, not to insult, not to chatter, not to covet, not to give way to anger, to harbour no scepticism.
修行; accordant
方便; universal accordance with conditions of the receptivity of others
說法; powers of universal explication of the truth
神通; universal superhuman powers
供養諸佛; power of universal service of all Buddhas
成就衆生; the perfection of all beings universally
斷惑; universal cutting off of delusions
十牛圖; The ten ox-pictures, the first, a man looking for an ox, then sceing its tracs, then seeing the ox, catching it feeding it, riding it home, ox dies man lives, both dead, return whence they came, and enter the dust.
十智; The ten forms of understanding. I Hinayana (1)世俗智 common understading (2) 法enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four truths in this life ; (3)類 ditto, applied to the two upper reaims 上二界; (4),(5),(6)(7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g.苦智 : (8)他心 understanding of the minds of others (9)盡 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10)無生 nirvana wisdom; v 26

Mahayana.  A Tathagata’s ten powers of understanding or wisdom (1)三世 perfect understanding of past, present, and future (2) ditto of Buddha Law (3)法界無碍 unimpeded understaing of the whole Buddha-realm (4)法界無邊 unlimited or infinite ditto (5)充滿一切 of ubiquity (6)普照一切世間 of universal enlightenment (7)住持一切世界 of omnipotence or universal control (8)知一切衆生 of omniscience re all living beings (9)知一切法 of moniscience re the laws of universal salvation (10)知無邊諸佛 of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom v. 華嚴經 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the “five Seas” 五海 of worlds, living beings karma nassions and Buddhas.

十惡 Dasakusala. Thje ten “not right” or evil things are killing. stealing. stealing. adultery. lying double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language, covetousness, anger, perveted views ; these produce the ten resultant evils 業(道). Cf. 十善 ; 十戒

十行; The ten necessary activities in the fifty-two stages of a bodhisattva. following on the 十信 and 十主 ; the two latter indicate personal development 自利 These ten lines of action are for the universal welfare of thers. 利他; They are joyful service; beneficial service never resenting with cut limit; never out of order ; appearing in any form at will unimpeded ; exalting the paramitas amongst all beings perfecting the Buddha-law by complete virtur ; manifesting in all things the pure, final, true reality.  Superior order, grade or class. 上生 ; 中生 ; 下生 The three highest of the nine stages of birth in the Pure Land, v. 中, 下 and 九品. 蓮臺 The highest stages in the Pure Land where the best appear as ; otus flowers on the pool of the seven precious things; when the lotuses open they are transformed into beings of the Pure Land.

三世; The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來 or 過, 現, 未, past present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like a flowing stream, Also 未生, 已生,     後滅, or 未, 現, 過unborn, born, dead. The 華嚴經 Huna-yen sutra has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future, i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. 三際. 三千佛 Also The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas-of the past, called 莊嚴 kalpa the present 賢, and the future 星宿. Their names are variously fiven in several sutras a complete list is in the 三千佛名經. 不可得 Everything past. present, future, whether mental or material, is intangible, fleeting and cannot be held; v. 心. 了遠 A Buddha’s pertect knowledge of past present and future. 佛 The Buddhas of the past present and future, i.e. Kasyapa, Sakyamuni, and Maitreya. 假實 The reality or otherwise of things or events past. present amd future. Some hinayana schools admit the reality of the present but dispute the reality of the past 已有 and the future 營有. Others take different views. all of which have been exhaustively discussed. See Vibhasa sastra 婆沙論 77, or 俱舍論 20. 實有法體恒有 The Sarvastivadah school maintains that as the three states (past present future) are real so the substance of all things is permanent; i.e. time is real. matter is eternal. 心 Mind. or thought, past, present or future, is momentary always moving unreal and cannot be laid hold of. 成佛 idem. 三生. 智 One of a Tathagata’s ten kinds of wisdom. i.e. knowledge of past, present, and future. 無障  ?智戒 The wisdom-law or moral law that frees from all impediments.  past, present, and future.  Also styled 三昧耶戒; 自性本源戒; 三平等戒; 菩提心戒; 無爲戒 and 眞法戒. 覺母 A name for Manjusri 文殊; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas past, present, and future. 間 There are two difinitions : (1) The realms of 器 matter, of 衆生 life and 智正覺 mind especially the Buddha’s mind (2) The 五陰 psychological realm(mind) 衆生 realm of life and 國土or 器 material realm.
三乘; Triyana, the theree vehicles or conveyances which carry living beings across samsara or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvana.  The three are styled 小, 中 and 大 Some-times the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Sravaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple ; 緣覺 Pratyeka-buddha that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩 Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahayana, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. the three are also depicted as 三車 three wains. drawn by a goat a deer an ox.  The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-behicle. which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples capacity, the Lotus Sutra being the unifying complete and final exposition.  The three vehicles are differently explained by different exponents e.g.
三劫; The theree asankyjeya kalpas the three countleas aeons, the period of a bodhisattva’s development; also the 莊嚴, past the present 賢, and the future 星宿 kalpas.  There are other groups. 三千佛 The thousand Buddhas in each of the three kalpas.
三昧; The three flavours, or pleasant savours, The monastic life, reading the scriptures, meditation.
三天; The trimurti-Siva. Visnu, and Brahma. 使 v. 三使. 四仙 v. 二天三仙 and 鳩摩羅Kuveradeva and 若提子 Nirgrantha son of jnatr, i.e. pf tje Jnatr clan.
三學; The “three studies’ or yehicles of learning-discipline, meditation, wisdom ; (a) 戒learning by the commandments or prohibitions so as to guard against the evil consequences of error by mouth. body or mind i.e. word, deed or thought (b)定 by dhyana or quietist meditations (c)慧 by philosophy, i.e. study of principles and solving of doubts.  Also the Tripitaka ; the 戒 being referred to the 律 vinaya, the 定 to the 經sutras, and the 慧 to the 論 sastras.
三寶; Triratna or Patnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones; 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma. 僧Sangha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecclesia or order.
三師七證; The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordination to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid.
三界; The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home the eight for the devout at home and the five for the ordinary laity.
布施; Dana 檀那; The sixth paramita, almsgiving, i.e. of go or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and als hereafter in the forms of reinearnation, as neglect o refusal will produce the opposite consequences.
本性; The spirit one possesses by nature; hence the Buddha-nature; the buddha-nature withing ; one’s own nature.
末寺; Subsidiary buildings of a monastery.
末世; The Third and last period of Buddha-kalpa; the first is the first 500 years of correct doctrine, the second is the 1,000 years of semblance law, or approximation to the doctine, and the third a myriad years of itts decline and end.
本質; Original substance the substance itself; any real object of the senses.
定命; Samyagajiva, the fiffth of the 八正道, right livelihood, right life : ‘asstaining from any of the fobidden modes of living.”
正定; Samyaksamadhi. right astractions or concentration so that the mind become vacant and recepttive the eighth of the 八正道: “right concentration, in the shape of the Four Meditations.” Keith.
正?智; Samyaksambuddha 三?三佛陀; omniscience, completely enlightened the universal knowledge of  a buddha. hence he is the 海 ocean of omniscience. Also 覺; 等正覺
正念; Samyaksmrti, right remembrance the seventh of the 八正道; “right mindfulness the looking on the body and the spirit in such a way as to remain ordent. self-possessed and minidful having overcome both hankering and dejection “Keith.
正思惟; Samyaksamkalpa, right thought and intent, the second of the 八正道; “right aspiration towards renunciation. benevolence and kindness. “keith.
正業; Samyakkarmanta. righ action purity of body avoiding all wrong, the fourth of the 八正道; “right action, abstaining from taking life, or what is not fiven or from carnal indulgence. “keith.
正精進Samyagvyayama. right effort, zeal or progress. unitermitting perseverance, the sixth of the 八正道; “right effort to suppress the sising of evil states to eradicate those which have arisen to stimulate good states and to perfect those which have come into being. ” Keith.
正覺; Sambodhi, the wisdom or omniscience of a Buddha.
正見; Samyagdrsti, right view, understading the four noble truths; the first of the 八正道: “knowledge of the four noble truths. “keith.
正語; Samyagvak, right speech; the third of the 八正道; “abstaining from lying, slander, abuse, and idle talk. “Keith.
正等覺; Samyagvuddhi, or-bbodhi ; the perfect universal wisdom of a buddha.
生住異滅Birth stay change(or decay) death.
生老病死; Birth, age, sickness, death, the 四苦 four afflictions that are the  lot of every man.  The five are the above four and 苦 misery, or suffering.
行住坐臥; Walking, standing, sitting, lying-in every state
行者; An abbot’s attendant ; also acarin, performing the duties of disciple.
佛像; Buddha’s image or pratima.  There is a statement that in the fifth century A. D the images in China wre of Indian features. thich lips, high nose, long eyes, bull jaws. etc… but that after the T’ang the form became “more effeminate”
佛第子; Disciples of Buddha, whether monks or laymen.
佛智; Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, Buddha-wisdom, i,e, supreme.  universal gnosis. awareness or intelligence; sarvajnata omniscience.
佛法; Buddhadharrma ; the Dharma or Law preached by the buddha the principles underlying these teachings, the truth attained by him. its embodiment in his being.

불교용어집(2008. 8 현재
한글표기 현재 안
조계종 중앙종무기관 및 직위
대한불교조계종 The Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism
대한불교조계종 유지재단 Foundation for Preservation of Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism
중앙종무기관 Central Directorate of Religious Affairs
종헌 Constitution of the Jogye Order
종령 Ordinance of the Jogye Order
종책 Policies of the Jogye Order
종정(스님) Supreme Patriarch  / Spiritual Leader
총무원장 Head of Administration /  President
포교원장 Executive Director of Dharma Propagation
교육원장 Executive Director of Monastic Training
종회의장 Speaker of the Central Council
호계원장 Executive Director of Precepts Council
부장 Director (부; Department)
국장 Deputy Director 
차장 Assistant Deputy Director
과장 Section Manager (of XX Dept.)
팀장 Leader of ~ Team
팀원 Member of ~ Team
행정관 Division Manager
계장 Managing Clerk of XX (Dept.)
주임 Assistant Manager (of XX Dept.)
사원 Staff Member (of XX Dept.)
총무원 (Administrative) Headquarters of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism
총무부 Department of General Affairs
기획실 Department of Planning
사회부  Department of Social Affairs
문화부 Department of Cultural Affairs
호법부 Department for Regulations /
Department for Regulation Enforcement
재무부 Department of Financial Affairs
감사국 Office of Inspection
사서실 Department of Secretarial Affairs / Services
포교원 Bureau of Dharma Propagation
포교부 Department of Dharma Propagation
포교국 Office of Dharma Propagation
신도국 Office of Lay Buddhist Affairs
포교연구실 Department of Propagation Research
교육원 Bureau of Monastic Training
교육부 Department of Education  
교육국 Office of Education
연수국 Office of Study & Training  
불학연구소 Research Institute for  Buddhist Studies
원로회의 Council of Elders
원로회의 의장 The Head of Council of Elders
대한불교조계종 중앙종회 Central Council of the Jogye Order
중앙종회사무처 Office of General Affairs for the Central Council
의장단 Board of Councillors
수석부의장 Senior Vice-Chairman of the Central Council
부의장  Vice-Chairman of the Central Council
중앙종회의원 Member of the Central  Council
사무처장 Director of General Affairs
전문위원 Expert Advisor
호계원 Board of Adjudication 
Ceremonial Planning Group /
Celebration Cemmittee for Buddha’s Birthday
지방종무기관 Office for Local Religious Affairs
국제교류위원회 Committee for International Relations and Exchanges
조계종(공익)기부재단 (Public interest) Charitable Foundation of Jogye Order
마하이주민지원단체협의회 Maha  Council for Supporting Immigrants 
한국불교문화사업단 Cultural Corps of Korean Buddhism
템플스테이 통합정보센터 Integrated Templestay and Buddhist Center
불교중앙박물관 Central Buddhist Museum
조계종 사회복지재단 Korean Buddhist Foundation for Social Welfare
Office of Legal Affairs
Counselor of Legal Affairs
조계종 출판사 Jogye Order Publishing
전법회관 Dharma Propagation Hall
교구 및 사찰 표기
본사 Head Temple
교구본사 District Head Temple
제7교구본사 Head Temple for the 7th District of the Jogye Order
군종교구 The special military religious district of the Jogye Order
사무장 Office Manager
말사 Branch Temple
암자 Hermitage
포교당 Dharma Propagation Center
삼보사찰 Monasteries of the Three Jewels
1) The Buddha Jewel Monastery: Tongdo-sa
2) The Dharma Jewel Monastery: Haein-sa
3) The Sangha Jewel Monastery: Songgwang-sa
총림 Comprehensive Temple /
Temples Providing Every Facet of Monastic Training
강원 Monastic College
선원 Seon Training Center
율원 Vinaya College
스님 표기
방장(스님) Spiritual Head
주지스님 Abbot
선사 Seon (Zen) Master 
스님(승려) Monk (Nun) / Buddhist Monk
비구(비구니) Bhiku (Bhikuni)
사미 (사미니) Novice / Sramanera (Sramanerika)
행자 Postulant (Monastic Trainee)
동자승 Child Monk (Preadolescent Monastic Trainee)
중앙신도회 Lay Buddhist Association for Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism 
3교구 신도회 The Lay Buddhist Association of 3rd District
대한불교청년회 Korean Youth Buddhist Association
한국대학생불교연합 Korea Buddhist University Federation
파라미타 청소년협회 Paramita Youth Association of Korea
한국불교종단협의회 Association of Korean Buddhist Orders 
전국 비구니회 Korean Bhiksuni Association
조계종 공익기부재단 Charitable Foundation of Jogye Order
조계종 사회복지재단 Korean Buddist Foundation for Social Welfare
조계종 출판사 Jogye Order Publishing
한국불교문화사업단 Cultural Corps of Korean Buddhism
조계종 포교사단 Division of Dharma Propagation of Jogye Order
조계종 국제포교사단 International Dharma Intructors Association of Jogye Order
불교여성개발원 Buddhist Women’s Development Institute
불교상담개발원 Korean Buddhist Institute of Counselling
템플스테이 통합정보센터 Integrated Templestay and Buddhist Center
사무총장 The Secretary General
건 물
성보박물관  Buddhist Museum
법당 Dharma Hall, Buddha Hall
대웅전 Great Hero Hall, Main Buddha Hall
대적광전 The Hall of Great Peace and Light
비로전 Vairocana(Cosmic Buddha) Hall
무량수전/극락전 Paradise Hall, Amitabha Buddha Hall
미륵전 Maitreya Hall
관음전/원통전 Avalokitesvara Hall /
Hall of the Bodhisattva of Compassion
명부전/지장전 Judgement Hall /
Hall of Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva
나한전/응진각 The Disciples’ Hall / Arhats’ Hall
팔상전 Shrine hall with portrayals of the eight main events of the Buddha’s life / Hall of Eight Depictions
설법전 Dharma talk hall, Teaching Hall
조사전 Hall of the Patriarchs
산신각 Mountain God(Spirit) Shrine
칠성각 Shrine Hall for the Seven Stars
삼성각 Three Sages Shrine
보장전 Temple Museum /
Hall for the Temple Treasures
장경각 Hall for the Buddhist Texts(Sutras)
선방 (Seon) Meditation Hall
요사채 Monks’ residence /
Monks’ living quarters
후원 A kitchen and dining hall of a temple
사찰 구조물 및 불구
금강계단 The Diamond Precepts Platform
일주문 One Pillar Gate
불이문 Gate of Non-duality
해탈문 Gate of Nirvana (Liberation)
사천왕문 Gate of the Four Guardians
Pagoda, Stupa
부도 A stone memorial monument /
Monks’ stupa
석등 Stone Lantern
종각/종루 Bell Tower, Bell pavilion
법고/북 Dharma drum / Temple drum
범종/종 Temple bell
목어 Wooden fish
운판 Cloud-shaped gong
목탁 Wooden Fish
죽비 Bamboo clapper(stick), Bamboo rod
요령 Hand bell
촛대 Candle Holder
향로 Incense burner
염주 Prayer beads, Buddhist rosary, Mala
단주 Bracelet beads, Buddhist beads
법구 Dharma Instruments
불단 An altar for making offerings to the Buddha
불전함 Donation Box
불화 Buddhist Painting
궤불 Buddhist scroll painting
탱화 Buddhist religious painting / Thangka
후불탱화 Main platform painting behind the Buddha image
궤불 Large Scroll Painting
벽화 A wall painting / A Mural
단청 Cosmic designs
주련 Wooden banner of epigrams /
Sayings of the Buddha or great masters, which are carved on a woodblock on the pillar of the temple
심우도(십우도) Ten Ox-herding Pictures
수인 Mudra / Hand gestures
사리탑 Pagoda
스님의 복색과 수행
예불(의식) Puja / Prayers
염불 Chanting
축원 Praying, Prayer, Supplication, Invocation
좌복 Meditation cushion
가사 Ceremonial Cape
장삼 Ceremonial robes (Formal monastic robes)
연등 Lotus lantern
풍경 Hanging Bell with Fish Clapper
출가 Becoming a monastic 
윤회 Samsara / Cycle of Rebirth
구족계 Full Monastic Precepts
사미계 Novice Precepts
공양게 Pre-meal Chant
발우공양 Ritual Meal
(참)선 Seon meditation (=Zen)
49재 The seven seventh-day memorial services /
Forty-ninth Day Ceremony; the memorial service held on the forty-ninth day after a person’s death
기도 prayer 
화두 Hwadu / Koan / Critical Phrase
승적 Registration of Ordination
오계 The Five Precepts
하안거 Summer (Meditation) Retreat
동안거 Winter (Meditation) Retreat
법회 및 경전
법회 Buddhist Ceremony
포살법회 Uposatha Ceremony 
입재식 Opening Ceremony
불기 Buddhist religious implements, B.E.
회향식 Closing Ceremony  / Dedication of Merit
축사 Congratulatory Speech
격려사 Encouragement Speech 
발심수행장 Inspiring Yourself to Practice
개회 Opening Announcement
봉행사 Offering Remarks
봉행식 Offering Ceremony
방생 Saving Lives / Ransoming Animals Lives / Freeing Animals
제등행진 Lantern parade
관욕 의식 Ceremony of Bathing the Buddha (statue)
법어 Dharma Talk / Dharma Speech
삼귀의 Three-fold Refuge
사홍서원 (The) Four Great Vows
1) I vow to save all beings
2) I vow to end all sufferings
3) I vow to learn all dharma teachings
4) I vow to attain enlightenment
반야심경 Heart Sutra
금강경 Diamond Sutra
화엄경 Garland Sutra / Avatamska Sutra
법화경 Lotus Sutra /  Saddharma Pundarika Sutra
불보살 명호
석가모니불 Sakyamuni Buddha
아미타불 Amitabha
약사여래 Bhechadjaguru / Medicine Buddha
관음보살(관세음) Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva / Bodhisattva of Mercy
문수보살 Manjushiri Bodhisattva / the Bodhisattva of wisdom and intellect.
보현보살 Samantabhadra Bodhisattva
지장보살 Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva
교리 관련
육바라밀 (the) Six Perfections / Six Paramitas
1) charity  2) morality  3) patience  4) energy 
5) meditation  6) wisdom
복(福) Good Fortune
중생 Sentient Beings
불화  Buddhist Painting 
팔고 Eight kinds of Sufferings
1) Suffering of birth  2) Suffering of old age
3) Sickness  4) Death  5) Being apart from loved ones  6) Being together with despised ones  7)Not getting what one wants  8) Being attached to the five elemental aggregates of which one’s body, mind, and environment are composed
팔정도 The Eightfold Noble Path
삼계 Three Realms(Worlds)
1) Realm of desire, whose inhabitants are motivated appetites and sexual desire
2) The Form Realm, whose inhabitants have neither appetite nor sexual desire
3) The Formless Realm, whose inhabitants have no physical forms
삼독 Three Poisons(defilements)
1) desire 2) anger 3) ignorance
삼법인 The Three Universal Truths / The Three Dharma Seals
1) Impermanence
2) Non-Self
3) Suffering
사성제 the Four Noble Truths
보살 Bodhisattva
인과(법) (The Laws of) Cause & Effect.   
연기(설) (the Theory of) Dependent Origination

Buddhism Glossary

Buddhism Glossary





adj.: healthy; n.: antidote, panacea, universal remedy.


Generic term applied to a collection of traditional doctrines and precepts; also means the home or collecting-place of the law or truth; the peerless law; the ultimate absolute truth.  The Four Agamas are as follows: (1) Dirghagama, “law treatises on cosmogony; (2) Madhyamagama, “middle” treatises on metaphysics; (3) Samyuktagama, “miscellaneous” treatises on abstract contemplation; (4) Edottaragama, “numerical” treatises on subjects treated numerically.The sutras of Theravada are referred to at times as the Agamas.


House, dwelling, receptacle; also, used in the sense of a Bodily organ, e.g., the ear for sound, etc.


Sandalwood incense.

Alaya Consciousness

The fundamental consciousness of all sentient beings. As defined by the Yogacara School, Alaya means the “storehouse”, implying that this consciousness contains and preserves all past memories and potential psychic energy within its fold; it is the reservoir of all ideas, memories and desires and is also the fundamental  cause of both Samsara and Nirvana.


see charity.

Amitabha(Amida, Amita, Amitayus)

Amitabha is the most commonly used name for the Buddha of Infinite Light and Infinite Life.  A transhistorical Buddha venerated by all Mahayana schools (T’ien T’ai, Esoteric, Zen  …) and, particularly, Pure Land. Presides over the Western Pure Land (Land of Ultimate Bliss), where anyone can be reborn through utterly sincere recitation of His name, particularly at the time of death.

Amitabha Buddha at the highest or noumenon level represents the True Mind, the Self-Nature common to the Buddhas  and  sentient  beings  –   all encompassing  and all-inclusive. This deeper understanding provides the rationale for the harmonization of Zen and Pure Land, two of the most popular schools of Mahayana Buddhism. See also “Buddha Reatation,” “Mind,” “Pure Land.”

Amitabha Sutra

See “Three Pure land Sutras.”


(Skt.) Opposite of asrava.


The incomparably, completely and fully awakened mind; it is the attribute of buddhas.


States of woe: the three realms of existence characterized by extreme discomfort and delusion–i.e., hell-states, animal-birth and the hungry ghosts, or pretas.


Arhatship is the highest rank attained by Sravakas. An Arhat is a Buddhist saint who has attained liberation from the cycle of Birth and Death, generally through living a monastic life in accordance with the Buddhas’ teachings. This is the goal of Theravadin practice, as contrasted with Bodhisattvahood in Mahayana practice. (A Dictionary of Buddhism.)  The stage is preceded by three others: 1. Stream Winner, 2. Once-Returner, 3. Non-Returner. See also “Sravakas.”


One of the Four All-Embracing Virtues: performance of conduct profitable to others in order to lead them toward the truth.


Any individual ennobled by his/her own continuing effort on the path to enlightenment.

Asamkhiya (kalpa)

Term related to the Buddhist metaphysics of time. Each of the periodic manifestations and dissolutions of universes which go on eternally has four parts, called asamkhiya kalpas.


(Skt.) Pain causing impurity, defilement.


Titanic demons, enemies of the gods, with whom-especially Indra-they wage war.


In the Four Noble truths, Buddha Shakyamuni taught that attachment to self is the root cause of suffering:

From craving [attachment] springs grief, from craving springs fear; For him who is wholly free from craving, there is no grief, much less fear. (Dhammapada Sutra. In Narada Maha Thera, The Buddha and His Teachings.)

If you don’t have attachments, naturally you’re liberated … In ancient times, there was an old cultivator who asked for instructions from a monk, “Great Monk, let me ask you, how can I attain liberation?”  The Great monk said, “Who tied you up?”  This old cultivator answered, “Nobody tied me up.” The monk said, “Then why do you seek liberation?” (Hsuan Hua, tr., Flower Adornment Sutra, “Pure Conduct,” chap. 11.)

For the seasoned practitioner, even the Dharma must not become an attachment. As an analogy, to clean one’s shirt, it is necessary to use soap. However, if the soap is not then rinsed out, the garment will not be truly clean. Similarly, the practitioner’s mind will not be fully liberated until he severs attachment to everything, including the Dharma itself.


The name is a compound of Ishwara, meaning Lord, and avalokita, looked upon or seen, and is usually translated as the Lord Who Observes (the cries of the world); the Buddhist embodiment of compassion as formulated in the Mahayana Dharma. Also called Kuan Yin, the Bodhisattva of Compassion. Guan Yin is one of the triad of Amitabha Buddha, represented on his left, Usually recognizable by the small Buddha adorning Her crown. Guan Yin can transform into many different forms in order to cross over to the beings. Guan Yin is one of the most popular Bodhisattva in China.

Avatamsaka (Flower Ornament) Sutra

The basic text of the Avatamsaka School. It is one of the longest sutras in the Buddhist Canon and records the highest teaching of Buddha Shakyamuni, immediately after Enlightenment.   It is traditionally believed that the Sutra was taught to the Bodhisattvas and other high spiritual beings while the Buddha was in samadhi. The Sutra has been described as the “epitome of Buddhist thought, Buddhist sentiment and Buddhist experience” and is quoted by all schools of Mahayana Buddhism, in particular, Pure Land and Zen.

Awakening vs. Enlightenment

A clear distinction should be made between awakening to the Way (Great Awakening) and attaining the Way (attaining Enlightenment). (Note: There are many degrees of Awakening and Enlightenment. Attaining the Enlightenment of the Arhats, Pratyeka Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, etc. is different from attaining Supreme Enlightenment, i.e., Buddhahood.)

To experience a Great Awakening is to achieve (through Zen meditation, Buddha Recitation, etc.) a complete and deep realization of what it means to be a Buddha and how to reach Buddhahood. It is to see one’s Nature, comprehend the True Nature of things, the Truth. However, only after becoming a Buddha can one be said to have truly attained Supreme Enlightenment (attained the Way). A metaphor appearing in the sutras is that of a glass of water containing sediments. As long as the glass is undisturbed, the sediments remain at the bottom and the water is clear. However, as soon as the glass is shaken, the water becomes turbid.  Likewise, when a practitioner experiences a Great Awakening (awakens to the Way), his afflictions (greed, anger and delusion) are temporarily suppressed but not yet eliminated.  To achieve Supreme Enlightenment (i.e., to be rid of all afflictions, to discard all sediments) is the ultimate goal. Only then can he completely trust his mind and actions. Before then, he should adhere to the precepts, keep a close watch on his mind and thoughts, like a cat stalking a mouse, ready to pounce on evil thoughts as soon as they arise. To do otherwise is to court certain failure, as stories upon stories of errant monks, roshis and gurus demonstrate.

Awakening of the Faith (Treatise)

A major commentary by the Patriarch Asvaghosha (lst/2nd cent.), which presents the fundamental principles of Mahayana Buddhism.   Several translations exist in English.





Ban T’o

Suddhidanthaka in Sanskrit.  Ban T퉛 was a disciple of Buddha, and he was very forgetful; for when the Buddha taught him the second sentence of a gatha of a sutra he would forget the first one, and when he was taught the third one he would forget the second one.  Ultimately, however, with persistence he became an Arhat.


The intermediate existence between death and  reincarnation — a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days,  after which the Karmic body from previous lives will  certainly be reborn.


Religious mendicant;  Buddhist fully ordained monk. Bhiksuni is the equivalent term designating a woman.


“Most virtuous”; honorific title apllied to a Buddha.


Sanskrit word, the Buddha of Medicine, who quells all diseases and lengthens life. His is the Buddha in the Pure Land of the Paradise of the East.


The true character of reality. The real as thus, always or eternally so. True Suchness.


Sanskrit for Enlightenment. Also Perfect knowledge or wisdom by which a person becomes a Buddha.


Bodhi-path: The way or path to the Supreme Enlightenment of Buddhahood.

Bodhi Mind (Bodhicitta, Great Mind)

The spirit of Enlightenment, the aspiration to achieve it, the Mind set on Enlightenment.  It involves two parallel aspects: i) the determination to achieve Buddhahood and ii) the aspiration to rescue all sentient beings.


Truth-plot, holy sits, place of Enlightenment, the place where the Buddha attained Enlightenment.


Those who aspire to Supreme Enlightenment and Buddhahood for themselves and all beings. The word Bodhisattva can therefore stand for a realized being such as Avalokitesvara or Samantabhadra but also for anyone who has developed the Bodhi Mind, the aspiration to save oneself and others.


The way of the practitioner of Mahayana Buddhism.  One following this path aspires to the attainment of Enlightenment for the sake and benefit of all sentient beings.

Brahma Net Sutra (Brahmajala Sutra)

This is a sutra of major significance in Mahayana Buddhism.  In addition to containing the ten major precepts of Mahayana (not to kill, steal, lie, etc.) the Sutra also contains forty-eight less important injunctions.  These fifty-eight major and minor precepts constitute the Bodhisattva Precepts, taken by most Mahayana monks and nuns and certain advanced lay practitioners.


Lit., Brahma or purified life, usually connoting the practice of celibacy.


Or Indra’s net, characterized by holding a luminous gem in every one of its eyes. (Hindu mythology).


The highest of the four Castes in Hinduism. They served Brahma, his offering, the keepers of the Vedas, i.e. priestly.


Lit., the Awakened One; one who through aeons of spiritual development has attained Anuttara-Samyak-Sambodhi. This epithet usually refers to Sakyamuni Buddha, who lived and taught in India some 2,600 years ago.

Buddha Nature

The following terms refer to the same thing: Self-Nature, True Nature, Original Nature, Dharma Nature, True Mark, True Mind, True Emptiness, True Thusness, Dharma Body, Original Face, Emptiness, Prajna, Nirvana, etc.

According to the Mahayana view, [buddha-nature] is the true, immutable, and eternal nature of all beings. Since all beings possess buddha-nature, it is possible for them to attain enlightenment and become a buddha, regardless of what level of existence they occupy … The answer to the question whether buddha-nature is immanent in beings is an essential determining factor for the association of a given school with Theravada or Mahayana, the two great currents within Buddhism. In Theravada this notion is unknown; here the potential to become a buddha is not ascribed to every being. By contrast the Mahayana sees the attainment of buddhahood as the highest goal; it can be attained through the inherent buddha-nature of every being through appropriate spiritual practice. (The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen.)

See also “Dharma Nature.”

Buddha Recitation

See “Buddha-Remembrance”.


General term for a number of practices, such as i) oral recitation of Amitabha Buddha’s name and ii) visualization/contemplation of His auspicious marks and those of the Pure Land.

In reciting the buddha-name you use your own mind to be mindful of your own true self: how could this be considered seeking outside yourself?

Reciting the buddha-name proceeds from the mind. The mind remembers Buddha and does not forget. That’s why it is called buddha remembrance, or reciting the buddha-name mindfully.

The most common Pure Land technique is recitation of Amitabha Buddha’s name. See also “Amitabha,” “Pure Land.”


Lit., Teaching of Enlightenment.
Originally apllied to designate the teaching of Shakyamuni Buddha; supplanted
by the term “Buddhism” in its later historical development.


A statue or Image of the Buddha,
used for devotional purposes.






Tumulus, a mausoleum; a place where
the relics of Buddha were collected; hence, a place where the sutras or
images are placed.


The nine cakravala or concentric
mountain ranges or continents, separated by eight seas, of a universe.


White candana, or white sandalwood.


See Zen.


Lit., mind still and quiet: the
Chinese translation of the Sanskrit terms Dhyana-Samadhi, meaning deep
contemplative practice or yogic absorption.


or almsgiving, the first Paramitas.
There are three kinds of charity in terms of goods, teaching (Dharma) and
courage (fearlessness). Out of the three, the merits and virtues of 
the teaching of the Buddha Dharma is the most surpassing. Charity done
for no reward here and hereafter is called pure or unsullied, while the
sullied charity is done for the purpose of personal benefits. In Buddhism,
the merits and virtues of pure charity is the best.


Countless Universes.


In practice there are three contemplations; seeing such
abstractions: (1) by fixing the mind on the nose, navel, etc. (2) by stopping
every thought as it arises; (3) by dwelling on the thought that no thing
exists of itself, but from a preceding cause.

Chung Yin Shen

See Bardo.


The talismanic pearl, a symbol of bestowing fortune and
capable of fulfilling every wish.


Mind or heart. the two terms being
synonymous in Asian religious philosophy.

Conditioned (compounded)

Describes all the various phenomena
in the world – made up of separate, discrete elements, “with outflows,”
with no intrinsic nature of their own. Conditioned merits and virtues lead
to rebirth within samsara, whereas unconditioned merits and virtues are
the causes of liberation from Birth and Death.   See also “Unconditioned.”






The practice of generosity or charity:
one of the Paramitas as well as one of the All-Embracing Virtues, where
it means, in the latter, giving others what they want just to lead them
towards the truth.

Dedication of Merit

See “Transference of Merit.”

Delusion (Ignorance)

“Delusion refers to belief in something
that contradicts reality. In Buddhism, delusion is … a lack of awareness
of the true nature or Buddha nature of things, or of the true meaning of
existence.  “According to the Buddhist outlook, we are deluded by
our senses– among which intellect (discriminating, discursive thought)
is included as a sixth sense. Consciousness, attached to the senses, leads
us into error by causing us to take the world of appearances for the world
of reality, whereas in fact it is only a limited and fleeting aspect of
reality.” (The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen.)


Evil influences which hinder cultivation.
These can take an infinite number of forms, including evil beings or hallucinations.
Disease and death, as well as the three poisons of greed, anger and delusion
are also equated to demons, as they disturb the mind.

The Nirvana Sutra lists four types
of demon: i) greed, anger and delusion; ii) the five skandas, or obstructions
caused by physical and mental functions; iii) death; iv) the demon of the
Sixth Heaven (Realm of Desire).

The Self-Nature has been described
in Mahayana sutras as a house full of gold and jewelry. To preserve the
riches, i.e., to keep the mind calm, empty and still, we should shut the
doors to the three thieves of greed, anger and delusion. Letting the mind
wander opens the house to “demons,” that is, hallucinations and harm. Thus,
Zen practitioners are taught that, while in meditation, “Encountering demons,
kill the demons, encountering Buddhas, kill the Buddhas.”  Both demons
and Buddhas are mind-made, Mind-Only.

For a detailed discussion of demons,
see Master Thich Thien Tam, Buddhism of Wisdom and’ Faith, sect. 51.


Goddess in general attendance on
the regents of the sun and moon.


Lit., “A shining one”. An inhabitant
of the heavenly realms, which is characterized by long life, joyous surroundings
and blissful states of mind. In the Buddhist tradition, these states are
understood to be impermanent, not eternal.

Deva King

The four Deva Kings in the first,
or lowest, Devaloka on its four sides are the following: East-Dhrtarastra;
South-Virodhaka; West-Viropaksa; North-Dhanada, or Vaisravana.


Extended mantra used in esoteric
branch of Buddhism to focus and expand the mind. Its words, or sounds,
should not communicate any recognizable meaning.


a) The teachings of the Buddhas
(generally capitalized in English); b) duty, law, doctrine; c) things,
events, phenomena, everything.


The Law-doctrine that is the reality
behind being and non-being. It is interpenetrative and all-inclusive, just
as the rotation of the earth holds both night and day.

Dharma-Ending Age, Degenerate
Age, Last Age.

The present spiritually degenerate
era, twenty-six centuries after the demise of Shakyamuni Buddha. The concept
of decline, dissension and schism within the Dharma after the passing of
the Buddha is a general teaching of Buddhism and a corollary to the Truth
of Impermanence. See, for example, the Diamond Sutra (sect. 6 in the translation
by A.F. Price and Wong Mou-lam). The time following Buddha Shakyamuni’s
demise is divided into three periods: i) the Perfect Age of the Dharma,
lasting 500 years, when the Buddha’s teaching (usually meditation) was
correctly practiced and Enlightenment often attained; ii) the Dharma Semblance
Age, lasting about 1,000 years, when a form of the teaching was practiced
but Enlightenment seldom attained; iii) the Dharma-Ending Age, lasting
some ten thousand years, when a diluted form of the teaching exists and
Enlightenment is rarely attained.

Dharma Gate

School, method, tradition.

Dharma Nature

The intrinsic nature of all things.
Used interchangeably with “emptiness,” “reality.” See also “Buddha Nature.”


The Bodhisattva who later became
Amitabha Buddha, as related in the Longer Amitabha Sutra.  The Bodhisattva
Dharmakara is famous for forty-eight Vows, particularly the eighteenth,
which promises rebirth in the Pure Land to anyone who recites His name
with utmost sincerity and faith at the time of death.


See “Three bodies of the Buddha.”


The practice of concentration–i.e.,
meditation. Also, more specifically, the four form concentrations and the
four formless concentrations.

Diamond Sutra

“An independent part of the Prajnaparamita
Sutra, which attained great importance, particularly in East Asia. 
It shows that all phenomenal appearances are not ultimate reality but rather
illusions, projections of one’s own mind … The work is called Diamond
Sutra because it is ‘sharp like  a  diamond  that 
cuts  away  all  unnecessary conceptualizations and brings
one to the further shore of enlightenment.'” (The Shambhala Dictionary
of Buddhism and Zen.)

Difficult Path of Practice (Path
of the Sages, Self-Power Path)

According to Pure Land teaching,
all conventional Buddhist ways of practice and cultivation (Zen, Theravada,
the Vinaya School …), which emphasize self-power and self-reliance. This
is contrasted to the Easy Path of Practice, that is, the Pure Land method,
which relies on both self-power and other-power (the power and assistance
of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas).


Wrongdoing, evil action, misdeed,
sin; external sins of the body and the mouth; a light sin.

Dusts (Worldly Dusts)

A metaphor for all the mundane
things that can cloud our bright Self-Nature. These include form, sound,
scent, taste, touch, dharmas (external opinions and views). These dusts
correspond to the five senses and the discriminating, everyday mind (the
sixth sense, in Buddhism).


Lit., two vehicles. The two vehicles
or practice paths of Sravakayana and Pratyekabuddhayana.


An unusual term indicating one
who has practiced the Tao  with great diligence and blessing during
his lifetime and  who, after his death, does not want to enter just
any womb,  but prefers to wait for some auspicious condition, usurping 
such a good position from another, less highly developed  spirit.





Easy Path of Practice

Refers to Pure Land practice. The
Easy Path involves reliance on the power of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas,
in particular Buddha Amitabha (“other-power”) in addition to one’s own
cultivation(“self-power”). Usually contrasted with primary reliance on
self-power (Difficult Path of Practice), taught in other Buddhist schools.
Equal reliance on self-power and other-power distinguishes the Pure Land
School from most other schools of Buddhism.  The distinction is, however,
a matter of emphasis, as all schools of Buddhism rely, to a greater or
lesser extent, on both self-power and other-power. See also “Other-power”.

Eight Divisions of Gods and Dragons

Devas (gods), Nagas (Dragons) and
others of eight divisions (classes): deva, nagas, yakas, ganharvas, asuras,
gaudas, kinaras, mahoragas.

Eight Sufferings

(1) Suffering of Birth; (2) Suffering
of Old Age; (3) Suffering of Sickness; (4) Suffering of Death; (5) Suffering
of being apart from the loved ones; (6) Suffering being together with the
despised ones; (7) Suffering of not getting what one wants; (8) Suffering
of the flouishing of the Five Skandhas.

Eight Winds

Winds of Eight Directions. Most
people are usually moved by the winds of the eight directions: (1) Praise;
(2) Ridicule; (3) Suffering; (4)Happiness; (5) Benefit; (6) Destruction;
(7) Gain; (8) Loss.

Eightfold Path

The eight right ways leading to
the cessation of sufferings. (1) Right View; (2) Right Thought; (3) Right
Speech; (4) Right Action; (5) Right Livelihood; (6) Right Effort; (7) Right
Remembrance; (8) Right Concentration.

Endurance (World)

See “Saha World.”


See “Awakening vs. Enlightenment.”

Evil Paths

The paths of hells, hungry ghosts,
animality. These paths can be taken as states of mind; i.e., when someone
has a vicious thought of maiming or killing another, he is effectively
reborn, for that moment, in the hells.

Expedient means (Skillful means,
Skill-in-means, Upaya)

Refers to strategies, methods,
devices, targetted to the capacities, circumstances, likes and dislikes
of each sentient being, so as to rescue him and lead him to Enlightenment.
“Thus, all particular formulations of the Teaching are just provisional
expedients to communicate the Truth (Dharma) in specific contexts.” (J.C.
Cleary.) “The Buddha’s words were medicines for a given sickness at a given
time,” always infinitely adaptable to the conditions of the audience.


Literally, followers of non-Buddhist
paths. This term is generally used by Buddhists with reference to followers
of other religions.





Five Bhikshus

The first five of Buddha’s converts:
Ajnata-Kaundinya, Asvajit, Bhadrika, Dasabala-Kasyapa, and Mahanama-Kulika.
They were the first five disciples that Shakyamuni preached when he became

Five Corruptions

See “Five Turbidities.”

Five Desires (Five Sensual Pleasures)

Desires connected with the five
senses, i.e., form, sound, aroma, taste and touch.

Five Eyes

1. human eye; 2. devine eye; 3.
dharma eye; 4. wisdom eye; 5. Buddha eye.

Five Fundamental Conditions of
Passions and Delusions

1. Wrong views which are common
to triloka; 2. Clinging or attachment in the desire realm; 3. Clinging
or attachment in the form realm: 4. Clinging or attachment in the formless
realm which is still mortal; 5. The state of unenlightenment which is the
root-cause of all distressful delusion.

Five Natures

The natures of (1) Bodhisattvas,
(2) Sravakas and  Pratyekabuddhas, (3) ordinary good people, (4) agnostics, 
(5) heretics.

Five Offenses

The five rebellious acts or deadly
sins: (1) parricide; (2) matricide; (3) killing an arhat; (4) shedding
the blood of a Buddha;  (5) destroying the harmony of the sangha,
or fraternity.

Five Precepts

The precepts taken by lay Buddhists,
prohibiting i) killing, ii) stealing iii) lying, iv) sexual misconduct,
v) ingesting intoxicants. See also “Ten Precepts.”

Five Skandhas

The five groups of elements (Dharmas)
into which  all existences are classified in early Buddhism. The five 
are: Rupa (matter), Vedana (feeling), Sanjna (ideation);  Samskara
(forces or drives) Vijnana (consciousness or  sensation). Group, heap,
aggregate; the five constituents of  the personality; form, feeling,
perception, impulses,  consciousness; the five factors constituting
the individual


Five Turbidities (Corruptions,
Defilements, Depravities, Filths, Impurities)

They are. 1. the defilement of
views, when incorrect, perverse thoughts and ideas are predominant; 2.
the defilement of passions, when all kinds of transgressions are exalted;
3. the defilement of the human condition, when people are usually dissatisfied
and unhappy; 4. the defilement of the life-span, when the human life-span
as a whole decreases; S. the defilement of the world-age, when war and
natural disasters are rife. These conditions, viewed from a Buddhist angle,
however, can constitute aids to Enlightenment, as they may spur practitioners
to more earnest cultivation.

Flower Store World

The entire cosmos, consisting of
worlds upon worlds ad infinitum, as described in the Avatamsaka Sutra.
It is the realm of Vairocana Buddha, the transcendental aspect of Buddha
Shakyamuni and of all Buddhas. The Saha World, the Western Pure Land and,
for that matter, all lands and realms are within the Flower Store World.

Four Aspects (of Buddha Dharma)

(1) the teaching; (2) the principle;
(3) the practice; (4) the fruit/reward/result.

Four Elements

All matters are formed and are
composed by four conditioned causes :

(1) earth, which is characterized
by solidity and durability; (2) water, which is characterized by liquid/fluid
and moisture; (3) fire, which is characterized by energy and warmth; (4)
wind, which is characterized by gas/air movement.

Four Fruits of the Arhat

See under Arhat entry.

Four Great Bodhisattva

They represent the four major characters
of Bodhisattva:

1.Manjusri – Universal Great Wisdom

2.Samantabhadra – Universal Worthy
Great Conduct Bodhisattva;

3.Ksitigarbha – Earth Store King
Great Vow Bodhisattva;

4.Avalokitesvara – Guan Shr Yin
Great Compassion Bodhisattva.

Four Great Vows (Four Universal

The four vows held by all Bodhisattvas.
These vows are called great because of the wondrous and inconceivable compassion
involved in fulfilling them. They are as follows: Sentient beings without
number we vow to enlighten; Vexations without end we vow to eradicate;
Limitless approaches to Dharma we vow to master; The Supreme Awakening
we vow to achieve.

Four Noble Truths

1)Sufferings; 2)Cause of Sufferings;
3)Cessation of sufferings; 4)The Path leading to the cessation of sufferings.

Four Pure Lands

A classification by the Pure Land
and T’ien T’ai schools of the pure realms subsumed under the Land of Amitabha
Buddha, as described in the sutras. They are:

i) the Land of Common Residence
of Beings and Saints (Land Where Saints and Ordinary Beings Dwell Together),
where all beings, from the six lower worlds (hells, hungry ghosts …)
to the Buddhas  and Bodhisattvas, live together (further divided into
two, the Common Residence Pure Land and Common Residence Impure Land);

ii) the Land of Expediency (Land
of Expedient Liberation), inhabited by Arhats and lesser Bodhisattvas;

iii) the Land of Real Reward, inhabited
by the highest Bodhisattvas;

iv) the Land of Eternally Quiescent
Light, in which the Buddhas dwell.

These distinctions are at the phenomenal
level. At the noumenon level, there is, of course, no difference among

Four Reliance (to learning Buddhist

The four standards of Right Dharma
which buddhist should rely on or abide by:

(1) to abide by the Dharma,
not the person;

(2) to abide by the sutras of ultimate
truth, not the sutras of incomplete truth;

(3) to abide by the meaning, not
the word;

(4) to abide by the wisdom, not
the consciousness.

Four Unlimited Mind

The mind of Bodhisattva: 1. Kindness;
2. Compassion; 3. Delight; 4. Renunciation.

Four Virtues

The four Nirvanic virtues: (1)
Eternity or permanence; (2) Joy; (3) Personality; (4) Purity. These four
important virtues are affirmed by the sutra in the transcendental or nirvana-realm.

Four Ways (of learning Buddhist

(1) Belief/faith; (2) Interpretation/discernment;
(3) Practice/performance; (4) Verification/assurance. These are the cyclic
process in learning a truth.

Four Wisdom

The forms of wisdom of a Buddha.
(1) the Great- Mirror wisdom of Aksobhya; (2) the Universal Wisdom of 
Ratnaketu; (3) the Profound Observing Wisdom of Amitabha;  (4) the
Perfecting Wisdom of Amoghsiddhi.

Fourfold Assembly

Or the Four Varga (groups) are
bhiksu, bhiksuni, upasaka and upasika, i.e. monks, nuns, male and female





Good Spiritual Advisor

Guru, virtuous friend, wise person,
Bodhisattva, Buddha — anyone (even an evil being!) who can help the practitioner
progress along the path to Enlightenment. This notwithstanding, wisdom
should be the primary factor in the selection of such an advisor: the advisor
must have wisdom, and both advisor and practitioner must exercise wisdom
in selecting one another.

Great Awakening

See “Awakening vs. Enlightenment.”

Great Vehicle

See Mahayana.




Hua T’ou

Lit., ante word. The reality prior
to the arising of thought.

Heaven of the Thirty-Three

A heaven in the Realm of Desire,
with thirty-two god-kings presided over by Indra, thus totaling thirty-three,
located at the summit of Mt. Sumeru (G.C.C. Chang).

Heretical views

The sutras usually refer to sixty-two
such views. They are the externalist (non-Buddhist) views prevalent in
Buddha Shakyamuni’s time.


The Lesser Vehicle; a term applied
by the Mahayana to those schools of Buddhism that practice to  attain 
the  fruits  of  Sravakayana  and Pratyekabuddhayana
and do not attempt to attain the Anuttara-Samyak-Sambodhi of Buddha.

Holy One

Holy or Saintly One; One who has
started on the path to  Nirvana.






One who has no interest in the
path to Awakening, or one whose good roots are completely covered.






Jambu River gold; the golden sand
of the Jambu river.


A park near the city of Sravasti,
said to have been obtained from Prince Jeta by Anathapindika, in which
monasterial buildings were erected; the favorite resort of Sakyamuni.

Jewel Net of Indra

This is a net said to hang in the
palace of Indra, the king of the gods. At each interstice of the net is
a reflecting jewel, which mirrors not only the adjacent jewels but the
multiple images reflected in them. This famous image is meant to describe
the unimpeded interpenetration of all and everything.






Periodic manifestations and dissolutions
of universes which go on  etemally.  Great  kalpas 
consist  of four  asamkhiya  kalpas corresponding to childhood.
maturity, old age and the death of the universe.


Volition, volitional or intentional
activity. Karma is always followed by its fruit, Vipaka. Karma and Vipaka
are oftentimes referred to as the law of causality, a cardinal concern
in the Teaching of the Buddha.

Common karma: the difference
between personal and common karma can be seen in the following example:
Suppose a country goes to war to gain certain economic advantages and in
the process, numerous soldiers and civilians are killed or maimed. If a
particular citizen volunteers for military service and actually participates
in the carnage, he commits a personal karma of killing. Other citizens,
however, even if opposed to the war, may benefit directly or indirectly
(e.g., through economic gain). They are thus said to share in the common
karma of killing of their country.

Fixed karma: in principle,
all karma is subject to change. Fixed karma, however, is karma which can
only be changed in extraordinary circumstances, because it derives from
an evil act committed simultaneously with mind, speech and body. An example
of fixed karma would be a premeditated crime (versus a crime of passion).


The monk퉠 robe, or cassock.


An inconceivably short mind-moment.


Patience or forbearance, one of
the Six Paramitas.


The second of the four Hindi Castes
at the time of Shakyamuni, they were the royal caste, the noble landlord,
the warriors and the ruling castes.






A distinctive mark, sign, indication,
characteristic or designation. A Buddha is recognized by his thirty-two
characteristic physiological marks.

Lankavatara Sutra

The only sutra recommended by Bodhidharma,
the First Zen Patriarch in China. It is a key Zen text, along with the
Diamond Sutra (recommended by the Sixth Patriarch), the Surangama Sutra,
the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra … The last four sutras are
referred to frequently in Pure Land commentaries.

Last Age

See “Dharma-Ending Age.”

Law of Interdependent Causation

It states that all phenomena arise
depending upon a number of casual factors. In other word, a phenomenon
exists in condition that the other exist; it has in condition that others
have; it extinguishes in condition that others extinguish; it has not in
condition that others have not. For existence, there are twelve links in
the chain:

  • Ignorance is the condition for karmic
  • Karmic activity is the condition for
  • Consciousness is the condition for
    the name and form;
  • Name and form is the condition for
    the six sense organs;
  • Six sense organs are the condition
    for contact;
  • Contact is the condition for feeling;
  • Feeling is the condition for emotional
  • Emotional love/craving is the condition
    for grasping;
  • Grasping is the condition for existing;
  • Existing is the condition for birth;
  • Birth is the condition for old age
    and death;
  • Old age and death is the condition
    for ignorance; and so on.

Lesser Vehicle

The early Buddhism. A term coined
by Mahayanists to distinguish this school of Buddhism [whose modern descendent
is Theravada] from Mahayana. It is so called because the teaching of this
school puts emphasis on one’s own liberation, whereas the teaching of Mahayana
stresses the attainment of Buddhahood for all sentient beings. Theravada
is now prevalent in southeast Asia, while Mahayana has spread over the
northern area (China, Vietnam, Korea, Japan …) (G.C.C. Chang).

Lotus Grades

The nine possible degrees of rebirth
in the Western Pure Land.  The more merits and virtues the practitioner
accumulates, the higher the grade.

Lotus Sect

A Buddhist sect founded by the
great Master Hui Yuan  about 390 A.D. at his monastery on Mount Lu
in Kiangsi Province   in China. The Lotus Sect believes in and
honors Amitabha Buddha and declares that, through the chanting of his name
and by purifying and finally ridding oneself of desire, one can be reborn
in the Pure Land. There one is born of a lotus, and, depending on one’s
degree of purification and practice, one is born into one of the nine grades
of the lotus: upper superior,   middle superior, lower superior,

Lotus Sutra

Or Saddharma-pundarika, Dharma
Flower, or “The Lotus of the True Law.” The sutra is the basis for the
Lotus sect (T’ien-t’ai in Chinese). Among the sutras of the Mahayana canon.

One of the earliest and
most richly descriptive of the Mahayana sutras of Indian origin. It became
important for the shaping of the Buddhist tradition in East Asia, in particular
because of its teaching of the One Vehicle under which are subsumed the
usual Hinayana [Theravada] and Mahayana divisions. It is the main text
of the Tendai [T’ien T’ai] school. (Joji Okazaki.)

This School has a historically close
relationship with the Pure Land School. Thus, Master T’ai Hsu taught that
the Lotus Sutra and the Amitabha Sutras were closely connected, differing
only in length.

Lotus Treasury World

See “Ocean-Wide Lotus Assembly.”






Also, Mahasattva; a great Bodhisattva
who has  reached the advanced stage of Enlightenment.


Great compassion.


Also, Kasyapa; one of Buddha’s
disciples. The Ch’an  Sect, according to its tradition, claims him
as its first  patriarch.


A great or superior king.


The mother of Shakaymuni. She was
a Koliyan Princess and married to Suddhodana.


Lit., great vehicle; the dominant
Buddhist tradition of East Asia. Special characteristics of Mahayana are
1. Emphasis on bodhisattva ideal, 2. The accession of the Buddha to a superhuman
status, 3. The development of extensive philosophical inquiry to counter
Brahmanical and other scholarly argument, 4. The development of elaborate
devotional practice.


See Maha-Bodhisattva.

Mahasthamaprapta (Shih Chih,

One of the three sages in Pure
Land Buddhism, recognizable by the water jar (jeweled pitcher) adorning
Her crown. Usually represented in female form in East Asian iconography.
Amitabha Buddha is frequently depicted standing between the Bodhisattvas
Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta.


Sanskrit word, literally means
friendly and benevolent. He will be the next Buddha in our world. He is
now preaching in Tusita Heaven. In China, he is usually represented as
the fat laughing Buddha.




The name of the seventh of the
eight consciousnesses. I  refers to the faculty of thought, the intellectual
function  of consciousness.


A jewel, gem, precious stone; especially
a pearl bead or other globular ornament.


A syllable, word or verse which
has been revealed to a seer in meditation, embodiment in sound of a deity;
spell or incantation.


Characteristics, forms, physiognomy. 
Marks are contrasted with essence, in the same way that phenomena are contrasted
with noumenon. True Mark stands for True Form, True Nature, Buddha Nature,
always unchanging. The True Mark of all phenomena is like space: always
existing but really empty; although empty, really existing. The True Mark
of the Triple World is No-Birth/No-Death, not existent/not non-existent,
not like this/not like that. True Mark is also called “Self-Nature,” “Dharma
Body,” the “Unconditioned,” “True Thusness,”  “Nirvana,”  “Dharma 
Realm.11    See  also “Noumenon/Phenomena.”

Meditation Sutra

One of the three core sutras of
the Pure Land school.  It teaches sixteen methods of visualizing Amitabha
Buddha, the Bodhisattvas and the Pure Land. This sutra stresses the element
of meditation in Pure Land. See also “Three Pure Land Sutras,” “Vaidehi,”

Merit and Virtue

These two terms are sometimes used
interchangeably. However, there is a crucial difference: merits are the
blessings (wealth, intelligence, etc.) of the human and celestial realms;
therefore, they are temporary and subject to Birth and Death. Virtues,
on the other hand, transcend Birth and Death and lead to Buddhahood. Four
virtues are mentioned in Pure Land Buddhism: eternity; happiness; True
Self; purity.     An identical action (e.g., charity)
can lead either to merit or virtue, depending on the mind of the practitioner,
that is, on whether he is seeking mundane rewards (merit) or transcendence
(virtue).  Thus, the Pure Land cultivator should not seek merits for
by doing so, he would, in effect, be choosing to remain within samsara.
This would be counter to his very wish to escape Birth and Death.

Middle Vehicle

Also called Middle Doctrine School
or Madhyarnika; one of the two main schools of Mahayana thought; it upholds
the Void as the only really real or independent, unconditioned Reality.


Key concept in all Buddhist teaching.

Frequent term in Zen, used
in two senses: (1) the mind-ground, the One Mind … the buddha-mind, the
mind of thusness … (2) false mind, the ordinary mind dominated by conditioning,
desire, aversion, ignorance, and false sense of self, the mind of delusion
… (J.C. Cleary, A Buddha from Korea.)

The ordinary, deluded mind (thought)
includes feelings, impressions, conceptions, consciousness, etc. The Self-Nature
True Mind is the fundamental nature, the Original Face, reality, etc. As
an analogy, the Self-Nature True Mind is to mind what water is to waves
— the two cannot be dissociated. They are the same but they are also different.
To approach the sutras “making discriminations and nurturing attachments
is no different from the Zen allegory of a person attempting to lift a
chair while seated on it. If he would only get off the chair, he could
raise it easily.  Similarly, the practitioner truly understands the
Dharma only to the extent that he “suspends the operation of the discriminating
intellect, the faculty of the internal dialogue through which people from
moment to moment define and perpetuate their customary world of perception.”
(See this book, Introduction.)

See also the following passage:

The mind … “creates”
the world in the sense that it invests the phenomenal world with value.
The remedy to this situation, according to Buddhism, is to still the mind,
to stop it from making discriminations and nurturing attachments toward
certain phenomena and feelings of aversion toward others. When this state
of calmness of mind is achieved, the darkness of ignorance and passion
will be dispelled and the mind can perceive the underlying unity of the
absolute. The individual will then have achieved the state of enlightenment
and will be freed from the cycle of birth and death, because such a person
is now totally indifferent to them both. (Burton Watson, The Zen Teachings
of Master Lin-Chi.)

Mindfulness of the Buddha

Synonymous with Buddha Recitation.
See “Buddha Recitation.”

Mount Sumeru

The central mountain of every universe.
Also called  Wonderful Height, Wonderful Brilliancy, etc.





Nagarjuna (2nd/3rd cent.)

“One of the most important philosophers
of Buddhism and the founder of the Madhyamika school. Nagarjuna’s 
major  accomplishment  was  his systematization  of
the teaching  presented  in the Prajnaparamita Sutras. Nagarjuna’s
methodological approach of rejecting all opposites is the basis of the
Middle Way (Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen.)


Name of a deva, a strong, manly
hero having divine power.


See “Three bodies of the Buddha.”


The deathless; the cessation of
all suffering. The very opposite of the Wheel of Birth-and-Death; it is
what those in the Buddhist tradition aspire to experience. The Absolute,
which transcends designation and mundane characterization.

Nirvana Sutra

The last of the sutras in the Mahayana
canon. It emphasizes the importance of Buddha-nature, which is the same
as Self-Nature.

Non-Birth (No-Birth)

“A term used to describe the nature
of Nirvana. In Mahayana Buddhism generally, No-Birth signifies the ‘extinction’
of the discursive thinking by which we conceive of things as arising and
perishing, forming attachments to them.” (Ryukoku University.)  See
also “Tolerance of Non-Birth.”





Ocean-Wide Lotus Assembly

The Lotus Assembly represents the
gathering of Buddha Amitabha, the Bodhisattvas, the sages and saints and
all other superior beings in the Land of Ultimate Bliss. This Assembly
is “Ocean-Wide” as the participants are infinite in number — spreading
as far and wide as the ocean. The term Ocean-Wide Assembly is generally
associated with the Avatamsaka Sutra, a text particularly prized by the
Pure Land and Zen schools alike.


A sage who has only one rebirth
left before reaching Arhatship and escaping birth and death.

One-Life Bodhisattva

A Bodhisattva who is one lifetime
away from Buddhahood.  The best known example is the Bodhisattva Maitreya.

One-Vehicle Dharma

The one Yana, the vehicle of Oneness.
The one  Buddhayana, the One Vehicle, i.e., Mahayana, which contains 
the final or complete Law of the Buddha and not merely a  part, or
preliminary stage, as in Hinayana.


The issue of other-power (Buddhas’
power) is often misunderstood and glossed over by many Buddhists. However,
it must be pointed out that, in Buddhism, other-power is absolutely necessary
if a Bodhisattva is to attain Ultimate Enlightenment.  The Lankavatara
Sutra (the only sutra recommended by Bodhidharma) and the Avatamsaka Sutra
(described by D.T. Suzuki as the epitome of Buddhist thought) are emphatically
clear on this point:

As long as [conversion]
is an experience and not mere understanding, it is evident that self-discipline
plays an important role in the Buddhist life . but .. we must not forget
the fact that the Lanka [Lankavatara Sutra] also emphasizes the necessity
of the Buddha’s power being added to  the Bodhisattvas’, in their
upward course  of  spiritual  development  and 
in  the accomplishment of their great task of world salvation. (Daisetz
Teitaro Suzuki, tr., The Lankavatara Sutra, p. xviii.)

The Avatamsaka Sutra states:

Having purified wisdom and means
in the seventh stage …

The great sages attain acceptance
of non-origination …

On the basis of their previous
resolution, the buddhas further exhort them …:

“Though you have extinguished the
burning of the fire of affliction,

Having seen the world still afflicted,
remember your past vows;

Having thought of the welfare of
the world, work in quest Of the cause of knowledge, for the liberation
of the world.”

(T. Cleary, tr., The Flower Ornament
Sutra, Vol II, p. 86)

See also “Easy Path of Practice.”






Lit., defeat or the conditions
leading to the defeat of the Bodhicitta. Also. the conditions leading to
the defeat of the Bhiksu’s life.


: Refers to the six practices,
the perfection of which  ferries one beyond the sea of suffering and
mortality to  Nirvana. The six Paramitas are the following: (1) Dana, 
charity or giving, including the bestowing of truth on  others; (2)
Sila, keeping the discipline; (3) Ksanti,  patience under suffering
and insult; (4) Virya, zeal and  progress; (5) Dhyana, meditation
or contemplation; (6)  Prajna, wisdom, the power to discern reality
or truth. It is  the perfection of the last one — Prajna — that
ferries  sentient beings across the ocean of Samsara (the sea of incarnate
life) to the shores of Nirvana.


The Buddha’s final Nirvana, entered
by him at the time of death.

Polar Mountain

In Buddhist cosmology, the universe
is composed of worlds upon worlds7 ad infinitum. (Our earth is only a small
part of one of these worlds). The Polar Mountain is the central mountain
of each world.


The North Star, polestar; star
of the second magnitude, standing alone and forming the end of the tail
of the constellation Ursa Minor; it marks very nearly the position of the
north celestial pole.


True or transcendental wisdom.
Last of the paramitas. One of the highest attainments of Buddhist practice.

Pratyeka Buddha

A solitary Buddha; one who has
achieved Awakening through insight into the dependent origination of mind
and body. Pratyekabuddhas lead only solitary lives, and they do not teach
the Dharma to others nor do they have any desire to do so.


Hungry ghosts. who are tormented
by continual and unsatisfied cravings. The preta-realm is one of the three
states of woe (apaya-bhumi) and one of the six realms of existence.


Lit., loving or affectionate speech.
This beautiful and affectionate speech is one of the Four All-Embracing
Virtues and is used to lead sentient beings toward the truth.

Pure Land

Generic term for the realms of
the Buddhas. In this text it denotes the Land of Ultimate Bliss or Western
Land of Amitabha Buddha. It is not a realm of enjoyment, but rather an
ideal place of cultivation, beyond the Triple Realm and samsara, where
those who are reborn are no longer subject to retrogression. This is the
key distinction between the Western Pure Land and such realms as the Tusita
Heaven. There are two conceptions of the Pure Land: as different and apart
from the Saha World and as one with and the same as the Saha World. When
the mind is pure and undefiled, any land or environment becomes a pure
land (Vimalakirti, Avatamsaka Sutras …). See also “Triple Realm.”

Pure Land School

When Mahayana Buddhism spread to
China, Pure Land ideas found fertile ground for development. In the fourth
century, the movement crystallized with the formation of the Lotus Society,
founded by Master Hui Yuan (334-416), the first Pure Land Patriarch. 
The school was formalized under the Patriarchs T’an Luan (Donran) and Shan
Tao (Zendo).  Master Shan Tao’s teachings, in particular, greatly
influenced the development of Japanese Pure Land, associated with Honen
Shonin (Jodo school) and his disciple, Shinran Shonin (Jodo Shinshu school)
in the 12th and 13th centuries.   Jodo Shinshu, or Shin Buddhism,
places overwhelming emphasis on the element of faith.

[Pure Land comprises the
schools] of East Asia which emphasize aspects of Mahayana Buddhism stressing
faith in Amida, meditation on and recitation of his name, and the religious
goal of being reborn in his “Pure Land” or “Western Paradise.” (Keith Crim.)

Note: An early form of Buddha Recitation
can be found in the Nikayas of the Pali Canon:

In the Nikayas, the Buddha
… advised his disciples to think of him and his virtues as if they saw
his body before their eyes, whereby they would be enabled to accumulate
merit and attain Nirvana or be saved from transmigrating in the evil paths
… (D.T. Suzuki, The Eastern Buddhist, Vol.3, No.4, p.317.)

Pure Land Sutras

See “Three Pure Land Sutras.”














See entry under Lotus Sutra.

Saha World

World of Endurance. Refers to this
world of ours, filled with suffering and afflictions, yet gladly endured
by its inhabitants.


God of the sky who fights the demons
with his vajra, or thunderbolt.


A wise and virtuous person, an
accomplished one who is  second in rank to a saint.


Or Salavana, the grove of sal(teak)
trees near Kusinagara, the place of the Buddha’s death.


Deep concentration: the state of
one-pointedness of mind characterized by peace and imperturbability. Samadhi
is also one of the Paramitas and is indispensable on the path to Bodhi.


Cooperation with and adaptation
to others for the sake of leading them towards the truth. Samanarthata
is one of the Four All-Embracing Virtues.


Also called Universal Worthy or,
in Japanese, Fugen. A major Bodhisattva,  who personifies  the
transcendental practices and vows of the Buddhas (as compared to the Bodhisattva
Manjusri, who represents transcendental wisdom). Usually depicted seated
on an elephant with six tusks (six paramitas). Best known for his “Ten
Great Vows.”


Quiet, tranquillity, calmness of mind, absence of mind.


See “Three bodies of the Buddha.”


Cycle of rebirths; realms of Birth
and Death.


Lit.,  harmonious community. 
In  the Buddhadharma, Sangha means the order of Bhiksus, Bhiksunis,
Sramaneras and Sramanerikas. Another meaning is the Arya Sangha, made up
of those individuals, lay or monastic, who have attained one of the four
stages of sanctity. Also, the Bodhisattva Sangha.

Sangharama Body

A monastery with its garden or
grove, a  universal body.


Learned language of India. Canonical
texts of Mahayana Buddhism in its Indian stage were written in Sanskrit.


Major disciple of Shakyamuni Buddha,
foremost in wisdom among His Arhat disciples.


Commentary; the commentaries constitute
one of the three parts of the Buddhist canonical scrptures.


One’s own Original Nature, one’s own Buddha Nature.


See “Difficult Path of Practice.”

Seven Treasures

Gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal,
agate, red pearl and carnelian. They represent the seven powers of faith,
perseverance, sense of shame, avoidance of wrongdoing, mindfulness, concentration
and wisdom.


Blessed, endowed with supernatural
faculties. This same term refers to the Sankrit alphabet also and is, likewise,
transliterated as Hsi-ta in Chinese.


The four siddhanta.  The Buddha
taught by (1) mundane of ordinary modes of expression; (2)individual treatment,
adapting his teaching to the capacity of his hearers; (3) diagnostic treatment
of their moral diseases; and (4) the perfect and highest truth.


A lay-disciple who maintains the
eight precepts, either temporarily or as preparation for leaving home.


Moral precepts. These number 5,8,10,250
or 350. Also, one of the Paramitas.

Six Directions

North, South, East, West, above
and below, i.e., all directions. In the Avatamsaka Sutra, they are expanded
to include points of the compass in between and are referred to as the
Ten Directions.

Six Dusts

See “Dusts.”

Six Organs

The six indriyas, or sense organs:
eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

Six Planes of Existence (Six

The paths within the realm of Birth
and Death. Includes the three Evil Paths (hells, hungry ghosts, animality)
and the paths of humans, asuras and celestials. These paths can be understood
as states of mind. See also “Evil Paths.”

Sixth Patriarch

Hui Neng (638-713), the Sixth Patriarch
of the Chinese Zen school and author of the Platform Sutra.


As taught by the Buddha, the skandhas
are the components of the human so-called entity that is constantly changing.
They are: I. Name/form; 2. Feeling; 3. Conception; 4. Impulse; 5. Consciousness.

Skillful Means

See “Expedient Means.”

Small Vehicle

See entry under Hinayana.

Spiritual power

Also called miraculous power. Includes,
inter alia, the ability to see all forms (deva eye), to hear all sounds
(deva ear), to know the thoughts of others, to be anywhere and do anything
at will.


Lit., laborer; applied to those
who wholeheartedly practice toward enlightenment; root word of the designation
for novice monk.


A novice monk holding the 10 precepts.


A novice nun holding the 10 precepts.


“Lit., ‘voice-hearers’: those who
follow [Theravada] and eventually become arhats as a result of listening
to the buddhas and following their teachings”  (A. Buzo and T. Prince.)
See also “Arhat.”

Sudhana (Good Wealth)

The main protagonist in the next-to-last
and longest chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra. Seeking Enlightenment, he
visited and studied with fifty-three spiritual advisors and became the
equal of the Buddhas in one lifetime. Both his first advisor and his last
advisor (Samantabhadra) taught him the Pure Land path.


Pure Rice King, the father of Shakyamuni,
ruled over the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu on the Nepalese border.


The lowest of the four Hindi Castes
at the time of Shakyamuni. They were peasants, slaves and serfs.


Lit., exalted, excellent; the mythical
“world mountain” that rises through the center of a Buddhist universe.

Surangama Sutra

Also called Heroic Gate Sutra.

The “Sutra of the Heroic
One” exercised a great influence on the development of Mahayana Buddhism
in China [and neighboring countries]. It emphasizes the power of samadhi,
through which enlightenment can be attained, and explains the various methods
of emptiness meditation through the practice of which everyone … can
realize … enlightenment ä (Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and


An aphorism; a thread of suggestive
words or phrases summarizing religious and philosophical instruction. In
buddhism, it refers to a discourse by the Buddha or one of his major disciples.
The Sutra collection is one of the three divisions of the Buddhist scriptures.






Path or Way. The Sanskrit equivalent
to this Chinese term is marga.


Usually translated as “Thus Come

He who came as did all Buddhas,
who took the absolute way of cause and effect, and attained to perfect
wisdom; one of the highest titles of a Buddha (Charles Luk).

Ten Directions

North, South. East, West; N-F,
N-W, S-F, S-W, Zenith and Nadir.

Ten Evil Acts (Ten Evil Deeds,
Ten Sins)

1. Killing; 2.stealing; 3. sexual
misconduct; 4. lying; 5. slander; 6. coarse language; 7. empty chatter;
8. covetousness; 9. angry speech; 10. wrong views. See also “Ten Precepts.”

Ten Great Vows

The famous vows of the Bodhisattva
Samantabhadra in the Avatamsaka Sutra. These vows represent the quintessence
of this Sutra and are the basis of all Mahayana practice. Studying the
vows and putting them into practice is tantamount to studying the Avatamsaka
Sutra and practicing its teachings. See also “Samantabhadra.”

Ten Precepts

Include an expanded version of
the Five Precepts of body and mouth (not to kill, steal, engage in illicit
sex, lie, or take intoxicants) with the addition of the virtues of the
mind (elimination of greed, anger and delusion). See also “Five Precepts,”
“Ten Evil Acts.”

Ten Stages of a Bodhisattva’s

They are the following:  (1)
Joy at having overcome former difficulties and at now  entering the
path to Buddhahood; (2) Freedom from all  possible defilement, the
stage of purity; (3) The stage of  further enlightenment; (4) Glowing
wisdom; (5) Mastery of the  utmost or final difficulties; (6) The
open way of wisdom  that is beyond purity and impurity; (7) Proceeding
afar,  above the concept of “self” in order to save others; (8) 
Attainment of calm imperturbability; (9) Achievement of the  finest
discriminatory wisdom; knowing, expediently, where  and how to save;
possessing the ten powers; (10) Attainment  of the fertilizing powers
of the Law Cloud.

Ten Virtues

The virtuous modes of behavior,
which are the positive counterparts to the Five Precepts.


Lit., the School of the Elders;
one of the two main forms of Buddhism known in the world today; practiced
chiefly in south-east Asia; has the Pali Canon for textual foundation;
this tradition advocates the Arahantship.

Third Lifetime

In the first lifetime, the practitioner
engages in mundane good deeds which bring ephemeral worldly blessings (wealth,
power, authority, etc.) in the second lifetime. Since power tends to corrupt,
he is likely to create evil karma, resulting in retribution in the third
lifetime. Thus, good deeds in the first lifetime are potential “enemies”
of the third lifetime. To ensure that mundane good deeds do not become
“enemies the practitioner should dedicate all merits to a transcendental
goal, i.e., to become Bodhisattvas or Buddhas or, in Pure Land teaching,
to achieve rebirth in the Pure Land — a Buddha land beyond Birth and Death.

In a mundane context, these three
lifetimes can be conceived of as three generations. Thus, the patriarch
of a prominent family, through work and luck, amasses great power, fortune
and influence (first lifetime). His children are then able to enjoy a leisurely,
and, too often, dissipated life (second lifetime). By the generation of
the grandchildren, the family’s fortune and good reputation have all but
disappeared (third lifetime).

Thirty-seven Limbs of Enlightenment

These are: a. the four mindfulnesses;
b. the four right efforts; c. the four bases of miraculous powers; d. the
five roots; e. the five powers; f. the seven factors of enlightenment;
and g. the eightfold noble path (G.C.C. Chang).

Three bodies of the Buddha (Skt.

1. Dharmakaya: The Dharma-body,
or the “body of reality”, which is formless, unchanging, transcendental,
and inconceivable. Synonymous with suchness, or emptiness. 2. Sambhogakaya:
the “body of enjoyment”, the celestial body of the Buddha. Personification
of eternal perfection in its ultimate sense. It “resides” in the Pure Land
and never manifests itself in the mundane world, but only in the celestial
spheres, accompanied by enlightened Bodhisattvas. 3. Nirmanakaya: the “incarnated
body” of the Buddha. In order to benefit certain sentient beings, a Buddha
incarnates himself into an appropriate visible body, such as that of Sakyamuni

The incarnated body of the Buddha
should not be confused with a magically produced Buddha. The former is
a real, tangible human body which has a definite life span, The latter
is an illusory Buddha-form which is produced with miraculous

powers and can be withdrawn with
miraculous powers (G.C.C. Chang).

Three Evil Paths

See “Evil Paths.”

Three Jewels (Three Precious
Ones, Three Treasures)

In Sanskrit, Rathatraya. Buddha,
Dharma and Sangha; sometimes referred to as the Teacher, the Teaching and
the Taught.

Three Karmas

The three conditions, inheritances
or karmas, of which there are several groups, including the karmas of deeds,
words and thoughts.

Three Poisons

Craving, aversion and delusion;
also, these are termed the three root-stains  or the three roots of

Three Pure Land Sutras

Pure Land Buddhism is based on
three basic sutras:

a) Amitabha Sutra (or Shorter
Amitabha Sutra, or Smaller Sukhavati-Vyuha, or the Sutra of Amida);

b) Longer Amitabha Sutra (or Longer
Sukhavati-Vyuha, or the Teaching of Infinite Life);

c) Meditation Sutra (or the Meditation
on the Buddha of Infinite Life, or the Amitayus Dhyana Sutra).

Sometimes the last chapter of the Avatamsaka
Sutra (“The Practices and Vows of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra”) is considered
the fourth basic sutra of the Pure Land tradition. Note: in Pure Land,
the Longer Amitabha Sutra is considered a shorter form of the Lotus Sutra.

Three Realms (Triple Realm, Three

The realms of desire (our world),
form (realms of the lesser deities) and formlessness (realms of the higher
deities). The Western Pure Land is outside the Triple Realm, beyond samsara
and retrogression. See also “Pure Land.”

Three Refuges

Taking refuge and possessing confidence
in the Buddha’s Awakening, in his Teaching and in the Sangha of enlightened

Three Vehicles

The yanas of Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas
and Bodhisattvas.

T’ien T’ai (Tendai) School

A major school that takes the Lotus
Sutra as its principal text. Historically, it has had a close relationship
with Pure Land. See also “Lotus Sutra.”

Tolerance of Non-Birth

“Tolerance” (insight) that comes
from the knowledge that all phenomena are unborn. Sometimes translated
as “insight into the non-origination of all existence/non-origination of
the dharmas.”

A Mahayana Buddhist term
for the insight into emptiness, the non-origination or birthlessness of
things or beings realized by Bodhisattvas who have attained the eighth
Stage [Ground] of the path to Buddhahood. When a Bodhisattva realizes this
insight he has attained the stage of non-retrogression. (Ryukoku University.)

The Pure Land School teaches
that anyone reborn in the Pure Land attains the Tolerance of Non-Birth
and reaches the stage of non-retrogression, never to fall back into samsara.
See also “Non-Birth.”

Transference of Merit

The concept of merit transference,
or sharing one’s own merits and virtues with others, is reflected in the
following passage:

Some of us may ask whether
the effect of [evil] karma can be… [changed] by repeating the name of
Kuan-Yin. This question is tied up with that of rebirth in Sukhavati [the
Pure Land] and it may be answered by saying that invocation of Kuan-Yin’s
name forms another cause which will right away offset the previous karma.
We know, for example) that if there is a dark, heavy cloud above, the chances
are that it will rain. But we al50 know that if a strong wind should blow,
the cloud will be carried away somewhere else and we will not feel the
rain. Similarly, the addition of one big factor can alter the whole course
of karma

It is only by accepting the idea
of life as one whole that both Theravadins and Mahayanists can advocate
the practice of transference of merit to others. With the case of Kuan-Yin
then, by calling on Her name we identify ourselves with Her and as a result
of this identification, Her merits flow over to us. These merits which
are now ours then counterbalance our bad karma and save us from calamity.
The law of cause and effect still stands good. All that has happened is
that a powerful and immensely good karma has overshadowed the weaker one.
(Lecture on Kuan-Yin by Tech Eng Soon – Penang Buddhist Association, c.
1960. Pamphlet.)

Triloka or Trailoka

See “Threee Realms.”


Lit., three baskets: The earliest
Buddhist canonical text consisting of three sections: 1. Buddha’s discourses
(sutras), 2 Rules of Discipline (Vinaya), 3. Analytical and explanatory
texts or commentaries (sastras); usually referred to as the Pali canon.

Triple Jewel

See “Three Treasures.”

Two Truths

1) Relative or conventional, everyday
truth of the mundane world subject to delusion and dichotomies and 2) the
Ultimate Truth, transcending dichotomies, as taught by the Buddhas.

According to Buddhism,
there are two kinds of Truth, the Absolute and the Relative. The Absolute
Truth (of the Void) manifests “illumination but is always still,” and this
is absolutely inexplicable. On the other hand, the Relative Truth (of the
Unreal) manifests “stillness but is always illuminating,” which means that
it is immanent in everything. (Hsu Heng Chi/P.H. Wei).

Pure Land thinkers such as the Patriarch
Tao Ch’o accepted “the legitimacy of Conventional Truth as an expression
of Ultimate Truth and as a vehicle to reach Ultimate Truth. Even though
all form is nonform, it is acceptable and necessary to use form within
the limits of causality, because its use is an expedient means of saving
others out of one’s compassion for them and because, even for the unenlightened,
the use of form can lead to the  revelation of form as nonform” (David
Chappell). Thus to reach Buddhahood, which is formless, the cultivator
can practice the Pure Land method based on form.


A term originally used to mean
“sect”, but later  appropriated by the intuitional school known as
Ch’an  (Japanese, Zen) for use in special contexts.




Unconditioned (Transcendental)

Anything  “without outflows,”
i.e., free of the three marks of greed, anger and delusion. See also “Conditioned.”


Buddhist lay disciple (man/woman),
who formally received five precepts or rules of conduct.






The Queen of King Bimbisara of
Magadha, India. It was in response to her entreaties that Buddha Shakyamuni
preached the Meditation Sutra, which teaches a series of sixteen visualizations
(of Amitabha Buddha, the Pure Land …) leading to rebirth. in the Land
of Ultimate Bliss.


A precious substance, perhaps lapis
lazuli or beryl.


The main Buddha in the Avatamsaka
Sutra. Represents the Dharma Body of Buddha Shakyaniuni and all Buddhas.
His Pure Land is the Flower Store World, i.e., the entire cosmos.


One of the four maharaja-deva graudians
of the first or lowest devaloka on its four sides. Vaisravana guards the


The third of the four Hindi Castes
at the time of Shakyamuni. They were merchant, entrepreneurs, traders,
farmers, manufacturers, etc., but not well-educated.


God of the sea and of the waters;
guardian of the western quarter of the compass.


True or sacred knowledge or lore;
name of celebrated works which constitute the basis of the first period
of the Hindu religion.

Vimalakirti Sutra

Also called Vimalakirti Nirdesa
Sutra. A key Mahayana sutra particularly popular with Zen and to a lesser
extent Pure Land followers. The main protagonist is a layman named Vimalakirti
who is the equal of many Bodhisattvas in wisdom, eloquence, etc. He explained
the teaching of Emptiness in terms of non-duality … “The true nature
of things is beyond the limiting concepts imposed by words.” Thus, when
asked by Manjusri to define the non-dual Truth, Vimalakirti simply remained


Disciplined conduct, referring
specifically to the monastic rules for the disciples who have left home;
also, one of the three divisions of the Buddhist scriptures.


Discernment; also, insight, correct perception or view.


See “Merit and Virtue.”

Virya: Energy

The energy necessary to maintain
and progress in spiritual development. Also, one of the Paramitas.


See Meditation Sutra for explanation.

The visualizations [in
the Meditation Sutra] are distinguished into sixteen kinds [shifting from
earthly scenes to Pure Land scenes at the third Visualization]: (1) visualization
of the sun, (2) visualization of water, (3) visualization of the ground
[in the Pure Land], (4) visualization of the trees, (5) visualization of
the lake[s], (6)  unified  visualization  of  the 
[50  billion] storied-pavilions, trees, lakes, and so forth, (7) visualization
of the [lotus throne of Amitabha Buddha], (8) visualization of the images
of the Buddha [Amitabha] and Bodhisattvas [Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta],
(9) visualization of the [Reward body of Amitabha Buddha, i.e., the form
in which He appears in the Pure Land], (10) visualization of Avalokitesvara,
(11) visualization of Mahasthamaprapta, (12) visualization of one’s own
rebirth, (13) [see below], (14) visualization of the rebirth of the highest
grades, (15) visualization of the rebirth of the middle grades and (16)
visualization of the rebirth of the lowest grades. (K.K. Tanaka, The Dawn
of Chinese Pure Land Doctrine.)

The 13th Visualization has been summarized
as follows:

If one cannot visualize
the [Reward body of Amitabha Buddha], focus on the small body, which is
sixteen cubits high (the traditional height of Shakyamuni while he dwelt
on earth); contemplate an intermingling of the [Reward] and small bodies.
(1oji Okazaki, p.52.)

Visualizations 14-16 refer to the nine
lotus grades (of rebirth), divided into three sets of three grades each.





Way (Path, Tao)

The path leading to Supreme Enlightenment,
to Buddhahood.


The life of a Buddha or Bodhisattva,
which is sustained by wisdom, just as the life of an ordinary being is
sustained by food.










In the Vedas, the god of the dead.


Sankrit term, commonly translated
as vehicle; means spiritual vehicle, path or career.


The wife of Siddhartha Goutama.
Later became a nun.

Yogacara School.

Another name for the Mind-Only
school, founded in the fourth century by the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu.






A major school of Mahayana Buddhism,
with several branches. One of its most popular techniques is meditation
on koans, which leads to the generation of the Great Doubt. According to
this method:

The master gives the student
a koan to think about, resolve, and then report back on to the master.
Concentration intensifies as the student first tries to solve the koan
intellectually. This initial effort proves impossible, however, for a koan
cannot be solved rationally. Indeed, it is a kind of spoof on the human
intellect. Concentration and irrationality — these two elements constitute
the characteristic psychic situation that engulfs the student wrestling
with a koan. As this persistent effort to concentrate intellectually becomes
unbearable, anxiety sets in.  The entirety of one’s consciousness
and psychic life is now filled with one thought. The exertion of the search
is like wrestling with a deadly enemy or trying to make one’s way through
a ring of flames. Such assaults on the fortress of human reason inevitably
give rise to a distrust of all rational perception.  This gnawing
doubt [Great Doubt], combined with a futile search for a way out, creates
a state of extreme and intense yearning for deliverance. The state may
persist for days, weeks or even years; eventually the tension has to break.
(Dumoulin, Zen Buddhism, Vol. I, p.253.)

An interesting koan is the koan of
Buddha Recitation. Unlike other koans, it works in two ways. First of all,
if a cultivator succeeds in his meditation through this koan, he can achieve
awakening as with other koans. However, if he does not succeed, and experience
shows that many cultivators do not, then the meditation on the Buddha’s
narne helps him to achieve rebirth in the Pure Land.  This is so provided
he believes (as most practitioners in Asia do) in Amitabha and the expedient
Pure Land.  Thus, the Buddha Recitation koan provides a safety net,
and demonstrates the underlying unity of Zen and Pure Land.




Dalmado 달마도 達磨圖 Kim Myeong-guk, Joseon dynasty, 1636~1637 or 1643년 water-based ink on paper 83 x 58.2cm

Known in English as: Bodhidharma
Tamil: போதிதர்மன்
Sanskrit: बोधिधर्म
Simplified Chinese: 菩提达摩
Traditional Chinese: 菩提達摩
Chinese abbreviation: 達摩
Hanyu Pinyin: Pútídámó
Wade-Giles: P’u-t’i-ta-mo
Tibetan: धर्मोत्तर Dharmottāra
Korean: 달마 Dalma
Japanese: 達磨 Daruma
Malay: Dharuma
Thai: ตั๊กม๊อ Takmor
Vietnamese: Bồ-đề-đạt-ma


Thirty-three forms of Avalokitesvara

33관세음보살도 (三十三觀世音菩薩圖)

1. Willow-branch  楊柳觀音 양류관음

2. Dragon -head   龍頭觀音 용두관음

3. Sutra-holding  持經觀音 지경관음

4. Circle of Light  圓光觀音 원광관음

5. Royal Ease  遊戲觀音 유희관음

6. White-robe 능정관음(能靜觀音)

7. White-robe  白衣觀音  백의관음

8. Lotus-reclining 蓮臥觀音 연와관음

9. Life-lengthening 延命觀音 연명관음

10. Waterfall-gazing 瀧見觀音 롱견관음

11. Medicine-giving 施藥觀音 시약관음

12. Fish-basket 魚籃觀音 어람관음

13. Virtuous-King Brahma 德王觀音 덕왕관음

14. Water-moon 水月觀音 수월관음

15. Tara  군다리관음(軍茶利觀音)

16. Nilakantha, Blue-necked 青頸觀音 청경관음

17. Awe-inspiring heavenly general 威德觀音 위덕관음

18. Full Moon 만월관음(滿月觀音)

19. Cave-dwelling 岩戶觀音 암호관음

20.Lotus-holding 持蓮觀音 지련관음

21. Calm and Serene 能靜觀音 능정관음

22. Anavatapta 阿耨觀音 아뇩관음

23. Abhetti 阿摩提觀音 아마제관음(阿摩提觀音) 아마례관음(阿摩禮觀音), 아마협관음(阿摩鋏觀音)

24. Parnasvari 葉衣觀音 엽의관음

25. Vaidurya 琉璃觀音 유리관음, 향왕관음(香王觀音)

26. Tara 多羅尊觀音 다f라존관음

27. Cintamanicakr, Many Jewels 眾寶觀音 여의륜관음(如意輪觀音)

28. Six Periods 六時觀音 육시관음

29. Universal Compassion 普悲觀音 보비관음

30.Wife of  Ma Lang 馬郎婦觀音 마랑부관음

31. Sahasrabhuja 천수관음(千手觀音)

32. Non-dual 不二觀音 불이관음(不二觀音)

33.Water-sprinkling 灑水觀音  쇄수관음

* Ekadasamuhka, Eleven-headed  십일면관음(十一面觀音)