What is enlightenment and what world is opened up?

If one conquers the hwadu and is awakened, it is like waking from a dream or like the shining of 100,000 suns in the sky. That world, like space, is boundless and limitless. All the things that exist in it are equal, lacking superior or inferior, valued and despised, intimate and estranged, right and wrong. There is only a world of no oppositions or troubles, and no strife. Moreover, all existences being united into one, to do something for another is to do it for oneself, and to do something for oneself is to do it for another.

If one is enlightened, one is independent, autonomous, voluntary and positive, and for oneself and for others there is limitless benevolence, and in all favorable and contrary realms one becomes a person of great freedom who is independent and free. These dynamic phenomena cannot be explained with words and cannot be expressed in writing. It is the same principle as the person themselves having to drink the water themselves and only then do they know if it is hot or cold.

That being so, enlightenment does not mean that there is a separate world. It is only the characteristic of life that one obviously lives here and now. As this is only too obvious, even if one intentionally informs them, it is like to make a wound on bare flesh. This, as Seon Master Zhaozhou said, is going and drinking a cup of tea. There is nothing to be gained by adding anything more. As it is already itself perfect, it cannot be gained and cannot be spoken of.

If one is awakened, it is plainly clarified. There is not the slightest skerrick of doubt and one clearly sees definitely where one has to go, what one has to do, and the path to go. And so, not only is there no unease or aimless wandering, but also the characteristics of a perfect life where every place one stands or sits is clearly displayed. Moreover, one escapes from all restraints alone and there is nowhere at all to rely on. This is called esaping alone without action (doktal muwi). Because there is nothing to depend on and nowhere at all to be attached to, being unattached is to dwell spiritually in a quiet and calm condition.

Seon Master Dahui’s master, Seon Master Yuanwu Keqin, said that as soon as one thoroughly realized the original face of no-mind and no-thought, one is staightaway enlightened, and that this no-mind no-thought state is seeing the nature and becoming Buddha.

The enlightened are like space, nothing at all can confine them. The enlightened are not shackled by (the ideas of) ordinary person or saint, as they are free whenever and wherever. In this way, enlightenment, being an ever so great freedom, is not restricted by any realm at all. The enlightened rest the mind, and being persons of the Way who are mindless and without matters, even though they are approached by various affairs, are not disturbed in mind by these. And so people of the Way must not be thought of as akin to leisurely strolling immortals outside of this world with nothing to do. This is because the enlightened correctly handle all things ceaselessly with a mind that has nothing to do, a mind that is at leisure.

Moreover, enlightenment through hwadu has no distinction of lay and monastic, no discrimination of male or female. In this excellent Dharma all things are united without discrimination. All sentient beings, for the reason that they are originally Buddha, the moment they approach the opportune condition that informs them of that orginal news, will be enlightened.

If one examines one’s own study, what should one do?

It is a rule that one receives the examination of study from the teacher. However, when the circumstances are not suitable, there is also a method of examination by oneself following the criteria recorded in the collected sayings of the patriarchs. In such a case, one definitely must not deceive oneself, and one must be able to coldly judge one’s own study. If one is resolute in only this mental attitude, one can examine whether one’s own study is right or wrong, deep or shallow, in accordance with the patriarchal masters’ recorded sayings.

 The methods of examination of Seon Masters Taego and Seosan

Seon Master Seosan in his Seon-ga gwigam presented a method that enabled one to examine study in the midst of everyday life on the basis of the method of examination of study of Seon Master Taego. This is his excellent method of self-examination through which one can try to definitely see the extent of one’s own study in the everyday. Through it he set up criteria of examination that are for the improvement of the practitioner’s own practice. If one, on this basis, looks daily at one’s own study, it can be a great help.

  1. Does one know the depth and warmth of the four favors?
    (Here the four favors are parents, country, master and donors.)
  2. Does one know if the filthy body of the four elements of earth, water, fire and wind is decaying moment by moment?
  3. Does one know whether the life of people is suspended between breathes?
  4. Having met people such as the Buddha and patriarchs already, has one not overtaken them?
  5. Having heard the eminent and holy Dharma, has one not completely forgotten those happy and fortunate thoughts?
  6. Without leaving the place of study, is one keeping to the regulations that are appropriate to a person cultivating the Way?
  7. Is one not spending time in useless gossip with those around one?
  8. Is one not engaging busily in right and wrong?
  9. Is one not shading the hwadu but rather making it clear at all times?
  10. Even when speaking with others, does the hwadu continue on uninterrupted?
  11. Even though one looks, hears and is aware of it, is one achieving the hwadu uninterruptedly in one piece?
  12. When looking back on study, is it sufficient to seize the Buddha and patriarchs?
  13. Will one be able to achieve the life of insight of the Buddha in this life?
  14. Is one thinking of the pain of hell while sitting, lying down and at ease?
  15. Can one escape from rebirth with this physical body?
  16. Is one’s mind not moved by any realms at all?
  17. If one cannot rescue this body in this life, in which life can one be rescued?
Besides the items of the examination introduced by Seon Master Seosan, Seon Master Taego presented the following extra items:

  1. Regardless of the rank of upper, middle and lower, does one respect them?
  2. Does one not talk of the faults of others or look for them?
 And it is hoped one will try to examine the items below:

  1. Is one establishing correct views properly and firmly?
  2. Are your practice and life in agreement?
  3. Is the conviction about the hwadu expanding daily?
  4. Is the desire for material things being disciplined?
  5. Has one established the power of a vow to save all sentient beings and to be definitively and greatly enlightened?
  6. Does one keep well the Vinaya at all times, whether in the retreat or not?
  7. Is the mind of right and wrong, or victory and defeat, lessening daily?

How is the examination and seal of approval achieved?

After Patriarch Bodhidharma in Patriarchal Seon, if one looks at what structures the study through the hall sermon or dialogue had progressed through, one can confirm the universal procedures of examination and the seal of approval. The study of Patriarchal Seon passes through the process of mental resolution, consultation questions, investigation, inquiry and seal of approval. The spirit of Patriarchal Seon continued in this way, and Ganhwa Seon passes through the same process.

The mental resolution is the earnest thirst that one would be enlightened and escape all frustrations and without fail become a person of great freedom. Therefore the mental resolution can be the departure point of Seon practice. It is the way of life that has to continue constantly, and is the motive power for achieving the aim.

Consulting questioning means after having made the mind resolute, to find a teacher and request the teaching. It is also called requesting the question. In this way the teacher responds to the questions of the practitioners who come asking of the Dharma, and through various opportune conditions, directly try to show them their minds. Those concrete methods are the sermon and the dialogue. In the process of the sermon and the dialogue, the practitioner through the mediation of language comes to awaken the mind. And according to the case, through the shout or the staff or other direct actions, this was to explode open the original face. If the practitioners, in the process of the teacher’s replies, met with an opportune condition, they were directly enlightened. Such cases were called “enlightened at a word,” that is, “enlightened at the end of a word.” This corresponds to an excellent person of superior ability.

If the practitioner in the process of consulting and questioning the teacher cannot be enlightened at the end of a word, they will fall into doubt and confusion. In that case, one continues to cherish the doubt about the hwadu presented by the teacher and continues to investigate thoroughly. Such a process is called investigation. When there is no causation with the teacher one has first sought, here the practitioner wanting to resolve the doubt and confusion that is developed in one’s breast, seeks another teacher by going on pilgrimage. In cases that are not so, one serves the teacher and while vigorously practicing, one will gamble one’s life on resolving the questions that are blocking up one’s breast.

Inquiry means the definite discernment of the condition and extent of the practitioner’s enlightenment by the teacher. If the practitioner has gained enlightenment, he seeks the teacher in seeking the seal of approval, and at that time the teacher presents various problems and through the procedure of confirmation determines whether the practitioner’s enlightenment was sound or not. This was called inquiry.

Through the strict procedure of inquiry, if one had conquered the hwadu and the enlightenment was confirmed, the teacher handed down the seal of approval. If one received the seal of approval from the teacher, and the practitioner himself had not a spot of suspicion, and one had definitive, great enlightenment. However, if the practitioner cannot receive the seal of approval from the teacher, he must continue the investigation of the hwadu. This process continues on until the final moment of great enlightenment.

What are the examination and the seal of approval?

The examination is the practitioner being asked about the condition of his own study and having it confirmed by the teacher. If one tries to reach the state in which one is skilled in all the other things of the world, while one must receive an examination from the guide and must strive and endeavor, only when one has received a fine examination to make certain from a bright-eyed supervisor of Seon practice can one proceed along the correct path. In paricular, the path proceeding to enlightenment through the investigation of the hwadu may also develop into very detailed and unanticipated circumstances. The movements of the mind that may arise internally in a practitioner, if they are not guided by a teacher, may harbor the danger that can proceed in a mistaken direction.

Therefore the practitioner has to occasionally seek out the teacher to ask about whether his study is proper or whether it is or is not going along a mistaken path, and what points need repairing and what are to be perfected, and according to the master’s guidance he must correct them and in order to mature his study he must be examined. In cases when the examination between the master and the disciple does not go well, practitioners may not be able to have an interest in the hwadu meditation and may fall into outrageous paths. For that reason the examination is important.

The seal of approval means the final process of practice in which one receives recognition that one is enlightened through the examination of whether the practitioner is enlightened or not to the hwadu. That is, when the practitioner has conquered the hwadu, the teacher examines that realm and if the practitioner is correctly enlightened, then he gives his nod and the seal of approval.

In Seon the seal of approval has a very important meaning. It is indeed just like the instant when one dots the eyes of a painted dragon in which one dots the eyeball of the dragon to vivify it and make it move. In Seon this final nod of approval in particular is important because when a practitioner says he is enlightened, there are no objective criteria to confirm that enlightenment. In other words, there is no exeternally visible yardstick through which to verify and ensure whether the practitioner is truly enlightened, or mistakenly enlightened, or if not, still incomplete in enlightenment. Therefore there are cases when the person is under the illusion that he is enlightened according to his own opinion. By gaining a minor knowledgeable view through study and being attached to that, or by interrupting the study, one may fall into a side-track, and so a deluded person of the Way is produced.

And so the practitioners, no matter how sure they are that the enlightenment they have experienced is correct, must receive a formal seal of approval that confirms whether they are mistaken or correct. If not there will be the appearance of pseudo persons of the Way and the unfortunate situation can spread to themselves, or indeed even to other people, who will be driven out onto private paths. They are to be warned against and should be warned against.

And if so, can anyone receive the seal of approval? The Dharma that the Buddha gave to the Venerable Kāśyapa through the mind-to-mind transmission like a lamplight so that it would not die out, has passed through many teachers and has been inherited up till today. These teachers are called the proper masters of the lineage or true masters of the lineage. Patriarchal Seon and Ganhwa Seon have cherished the tradition that has transmitted the Dharma that has given the seal of approval to the state of enlightenment and the pride in that distinctive enlightenment. By doing so, in a desolate land, the water of truth has flowed and the great land has achieved a green forest and finally a brilliant bloom has blossomed.

PART 3: The world of enlightenment


What is to be done if the hwadu is pure and is enlarged to mystical phenomena?

When study matures, mystical phenomena such as seeing the Buddha and bodhisattvas or hearing mysterious voices can occur. When taking up the hwadu, such phenomena rarely appear and are not desirable states. If the mind is seduced by these things, one cannot see them as correct and vigorous practice. The seeing of these phenomena are representative symptoms of having put aside the hwadu and the irruption by sense realms. In the course of hwadu study, there are the ideal phenomena that appear in the empty gaps of the consciousness that has put down the hwadu. In other words, while advancing purely with the hwadu, should one look away for a moment, these phenomena arise in a trance.

If such phenomena occur, there is no better method than to take up one’s own hwadu again. Seon Master Taego said that if one took up the hwadu intensely and a thought other than that of the hwadu momentarily encroaches, one would be deluded by these “empty things” that one does not experience in the everyday in this hollow consciousness. Let us listen to his words:

    If the hwadu is thoroughly and purely matured and the doubt reaches the formation into one piece, the body and the mind are suddenly empty, and as if frozen it does not move and the mind will have no more places to go. This state is the taking up of the hwadu by the said person of the original share (of enlightenment), and so if that person gives rise to a doubt other than that of the hwadu, he will certainly be deluded by that empty thing. (Taego eorok, fascicle one, Instructions to the Assembly).

In the course of conducting study, various realms arise, and also miraculous phenomena occur. No matter what realms arise, or what miraculous powers or marvellous phenomena are experienced, if the practitioner should not pay any attention at all to them or have any interest in them, to do so he must push on with the hwadu alone, diligently and to the utmost.

No matter how excellent the realm, even though it is the preaching of a marvellous lecture, one must know that they are all demonic realms. And the original cause for these realms spreading is that interruptions have occured in the mind that is doing the hwadu. That is, the roots of false thought remain, and to know that, the mind must be greatly turned around, and one must inquire into it strongly and in detail with study alone. Only then is it a good time to try and test it with wisdom and the courageous mind.

Seon Master Taego said if one wishes to be free from mystical realms that appear during the investigation of hwadu, do not be afraid of those notions that arise, but each time these notions arise, look at the hwadu. If the notions arise, and one is aware that these have arisen, that will immediately get rid of them.

Each time that these delusions, beginning with the mystical phenomena, arise, if one wishes to get rid of them, there is no excellent means other than the policy of resolving them by clearly taking up the hwadu. In Ganhwa Seon, when one meditates, all the malfunctions that are produced are produced when one has put down the hwadu. There is no other measure to be taken but the life-blood of solely taking up the hwadu again. Speaking of methods to deal with the above content and the appearance of the mystical phenomena, they are as follows:

First, if one has achieved the correct samādhi of the alert and tranquil samādhi, there will be no gap for those mystical realms to appear in. When the hwadu study is not distinct and one has lost focus, and the realms have spread, if one solely conducts study only and scrupulously, there is no gap for any realm to appear in.

Second, if there is in the practitioner’s mind something sought after or a false thought, the realms will spread. And so the practitioer must get rid of all thoughts that seek something. One must know that the mind that seeks to be awakened to the Way or hopes to meet the Buddha and patriarchs, or waits for the Way to be manifested before one, is called the demon.

Third, this is because one cannot deeply comprehend that the mind originally had no form or shape. “All dharmas arise in the mind. Even though the One Mind originally had no forms, how in the gate of the Way can realms appear?” One must know this principle well.

And so one must know that while on the path of study the appearnce of realms is due to a lack of correct understanding of study and that there are blind spots in the mental attitude of the practitioner. The spreading of realms and the study going into side-tracks means that to be enlightened one must proceed in detail and return the mind to the sole investigation of the hwadu alone. If one does so, even if one does not try to get rid of the various realms, they will thoroughly disappear and one will proceed to even deeper study. Knowing that one must proceed is the most critical thing in this study.

Why should one be careful about the calm realm?

If one tries to practice, and just as the body disappears, there are times when one is entirely at ease just like sitting on a cloud. If one thus forgets the body and mind and is simply at ease, it is none other than the malfunction of no thought at all.

If one resides in the condition of just being at ease and not being devoted to the hwadu, this is a realm in which the practitioner has fallen wherein they are surrounded by that which should not be. If one tries to reside in such a place even in the slightest, all the things held in the mind will be lost, and one will be like a person who has produced cleverness that says the Way is keeping the calm condition that is empty and vacant.

Seon Master Jin-gak Hyesim of the Goryeo indicated this condition when he said, “Waiting to be enlightened while sitting in meditation in the demon cave beneath the pitch-black mountains calmly and emptying the mind and shutting one’s eyes and only overing them with the eyelids” is “this realm of being surrounded.” He warned against this by quoting the words of earlier people.

The words “Be careful of the realms of being at ease and calm” means that one must continuously doubt it. Even if suddenly the body and mind become calm, and the fore and after realms are cut off, the mind must not be seduced by that calm condition. Even in that calm condition, one definitely must not stop taking up the hwadu.

Seon Master Jingak Hyesim instructed as follows:

    Do not dislike the condition in which there is no path to seek out and no taste at all. Just do not put down the hwadu. Alertly take it up. Even though the body and mind suddenly become calm, and the realms of before and after are cut off, one must not dwell in that calm condition and one must not stop the work of looking at the hwadu even here. (Jingak Guksa Beobeo)

There is a point here that one must be careful of. The words said above, “One does not know even that there is a body,” when one is studying hwadu, that is different from the state in which one enters the hwadu-samādhi and forgets the body. If one is immersed in the hwadu-samādhi one cannot feel the movement of the body and one should continuously doubt the hwadu. Therefore Seon Master Taego said if one takes up the hwadu-samādhi one cannot be conscious of walking or sitting, and even when eating, one does not know whether the taste is salty or spicy hot, and one does not even feel the movement of the spoon at all.

Therefore when one says “it seems like the body is lost,” if that is not the state of samādhi in which one is immersed in hwadu, that condition is one in which one has fallen into the neutrality of no thought at all, and one falls into a realm of mind where one dwells in a calm place where the mind and body are at ease. According to the words of Seon Master Hyesim, if one dwells in that condition, that is like being in the pitch-black cave of the demons. One becomes a person like wood and stone that cannot be aware and there will be no progress in study. At such times, one should take up the hwadu again and use an earnest strength.

Can sentient beings of superior ability conquer the hwadu at the end of a word?

Seon is the transmission of mind there and then. Those whose abilities are ripened with the awakening of a moment can enter then and there. The clarification of one’s original face does not need any superficiality. The Buddha picked up and showed a flower and Kāśyapa immediately smiled and that’s all. Therefore Seon Master Dahui just said, “At just a word or a paragraph, it is important not to go round in circles and to be directly enlightened.”

If one shows one word in this way, then one must conquer the hwadu momentarily then and there. The Sixth Patriarch, Hui-neng, hearing a line from the Diamond Sutra was greatly enlightened at that word. Seon Master Huineng said,

    Teachers, when I was with Master Hongren I was enlightened greatly at one word and was immediately enlightened to the basic nature of True Thusness. Therefore, in order to circulate this teaching to later generations, and to awaken practitioners immediately that they are bodhi, I have tried to get them to see their own minds and awaken to their own original nature. (The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch).

Therefore Seon Master Mazu said, “If one is a sentient being of superior ability, one suddenly receives the teacher’s instructions and becomes aware at the end of a word, and without going through stages or ranks again, one is immediately enlightened to their basic nature.” (Mazu yulu)

The disciple, listening to the master’s words is awakened at the end of the word. This is called “enlightenment at a word.” In the case of this enlightenment at a word, it immediately transcends the stages of movement and calm in one thusness, dream and awakening in one thusness, and waking and sleep in one thusness. If one divides it into stages, one recognizes the passage of time. But the awakening of an instant is enlightenment at one instant, and in the enlightened instant it transcends time and space. This instant, seeing the timeless instant, is an eternity that transcends time. The hwadu is thus conquered in that one instant. And so the instant awakening makes possible the great enlightenment at a word.

And so how must one understand the circumstances of that great enlightenment at a word that is the awakening of an instant? How is it possible for such great enlightenment at a word even though one is of the ability of the highest vehicle? That is because “our minds are originally Buddha.” Therefore, at the end of a word or by observing a certain phenomena one can be directly enlightened. Anybody who thoroughly believes the fact that “I am originally Buddha,” if they open their eyes to that will be suddenly enlightened.

Those who are awakened then and there as soon as they receive the hwadu are people of truly superior ability. Even though it is not enlightenment at an instant, if one investigates the hwadu thoroughly, one can attain enlightenment in a brief instant.

The awakening in a fast time, although possible, if the practitioners of Ganhwa Seon give rise to the desire that I must be rapidly enlightened, they will definitely be unable to be enlightened. It is more important to have the mental attitude that says I must make the mind resolute earnestly and clarify the mind than to have the mind of rapid result that says I must be rapidly enlightened. If one looks at it in this way, those of superior ability can also have instantaneous awakening or awakening in a rapid time frame.

What are the Three Stages of Movement and Calm in One Thusness, Dream and Awakening in One Thusness, and Waking and Sleeping in One Thusness?

As soon as one is continuously devoted to the hwadu without interruptions, the hwadu-samādhi is achieved, and if one conquers the hwadu through this samādhi, one will be enlightened. The hwadu-samādhi, according to the extent of thoroughness, can be divided into the three stages of movement and calm in one thusness, dream and awakening in one thusness, and waking and sleeping in one thusness. That is, according to how closely the hwadu has been continued with, one can divide it into stages. Here, even though we express it as stages, this definitely does not mean there are stages in enlightenment. The hwadu meditation is to be suddenly awakened then and therebecause it is the core (of that awakening).

Ganhwa Seon is not conquering and entering into the hwadu little by little. The hwadu is a totally tasteless cake made of iron. That cake is chewed and swallowed at a gulp. It totally does not recognize any stage or order. However, although the awakeing is momentary, the practice of the study necessarily needs a long period of time in progress. Of these three stages, if one enters into the stage of waking and sleeping in one thusness, one has come close to enlightenment. “One thusness” means “always like it is, consistent” or “maintaining a condition that is never interrupted.” If one is to talk of it in relation to the taking up of the hwadu, it “is the consistently continual devotion to it.” Movement and calm in one thusness means “to continually be devoted to the hwadu, whether the hwadu is moving or whether it is quiet.” Dream and awakening in one thusness means, “one consistently is devoted to the hwadu whether one is awake or dreaming.” And waking and sleeping in one thusness is “to be equally devoted to the hwadu whether one is awake or whether one is sleeping deeply.” When one investigates the hwadu, one is only awakened when one is solely devoted to the hwadu no matter whether in movement or calm, or in deep sleep, or even sleeping or awake.

Seon Master Taego Bou made this principle clear as follows:

    If one can know it once in one day without interruption, and one persistently prepares the spirit even more and examines it moment by moment, then one must (do this) day by day without interruption. If for three days one can, according to the Dharma, be without interruptions or gaps, even when moving or sitting peacefully one is consistent (movement and calm in one thusness), even when speaking or is silent one is consistent, the hwadu is always present in front of one, this is like moonlight in fast-moving rapids, which even though it is dashed against (that water) is not scattered and dispersed, and even though it is bent it does not disappear. (So) if whether asleep or wake one is consistent (waking and sleep in one thusness), the time when one is greatly awakened has come close. (Taego Hwasang eorok).
Very deep sleep is a sleep that is like death. However, even at the moment of this death the mind unconsciusly moves deep within us. In Vijñānavāda this is called the ālayavijñāna. The moving mind makes people be reborn. The words, “As soon as one enters sleep, (the mind) disappears, so how can it oppose birth and death!” mean just that.

Heavy sleep is deep sleep without dream. Only when one is devoted to the hwadu, is the hwadu not interrupted even in the deep sleep and one can consistently succumb to it. Only when one is perfectly devoted to the hwadu even in deep sleep, will one definitely not retreat from the hwadu, and a time will arrive that is good and imminent. Just as Seon Master Dahui said, because the way of the waking and sleep in one thusness cannot be shown to others, it has no other (way) than to be experienced personally.

What is the samādhi spoken of in Ganhwa Seon?

The samādhi spoken of in Ganhwa Seon

Sammae is a word that comes from the Sanskrit samādhi, and indicates the condition of mind and body in one thusness or the extinction of self and everything. This means the state in which I and objects become one, pure and calm, without being disturbed. It is a condition that clearly shows a clear realization of reality as it is when the signs of thought disappear and things are only as they are. Such a condition is also called the dhyāna in which one is calm, absorbed in meditation and concentrating the mind on one object.

In Ganhwa Seon hwadu-samadhi is emphasized. I and the hwadu are one and there is the hwadu solely alone. This means that it is not the completion and objectification of the hwadu, but one must know clearly the fact that I and the hwadu are one. Only when one is immersed in the hwadu, and only when the hwadu and I become one mass, and as long as one can put it down it cannot be put down and as soon as one tries to discard it it cannot be discarded, and as soon as one enters the state of the silver mountains and iron walls, only then can it be called a complete hwadu-samādhi. If in this condition one can conquer the hwadu, immediately wisdom appears. This is the same as the principle of when the clouds clear immediately the sun appears. If one is suddenly enlightened by conquering the hwadu in this way, this is the samādhi of the form of oneness that Seon Master Huineng spoke of.

The realm of ultimate samādhi emphasized in Seon

The samādhi valued in the Seon School are the samādhi of the form of oneness (ilsang sammae) and the samadhi of the single practice (ilhaeng sammae). Samādhi is the unification with usually done things. For example, this means the samādhi of book-reading and the samādhi of movies. Such samādhis, although they are caught up in objects, because they are thinking samādhis, and although they are intent on each single object and become one with it, are definitely not the samādhi spoken of in the Seon School that cuts off the paths of thought and language.

The samādhi spoken of in Seon, even in the realm of sound is not contaminated by sound, and in the material realms are not stained by that. Such samādhis are the samādhi of the form of oneness and the samādhi of the single practice spoken of by Seon Master Huineng. The samādhi of single practice is in the daily affairs of going, remaining, sitting down and lying down, to always act with a direct mind. The samādhi of the form of oneness means that no matter where one is located, not to dwell in form, and even if one has grasped form, that one must not produce a mind of dislike or like (towards that form).

Such a samādhi is a life that uses the direct mind or jiksim. Therefore, together with all things one always clearly knows, is tranquil and alert and is not caught up anywhere. Seon Master Linji’s, “Be the master wherever one goes, wherever one stands is totally the state of truth” points to the condition of ultimate samādhi.